Effective Date of Rule: October 29, 2007.
Purpose: To continue a statewide moratorium on decertifying status 1, 2, and 3 northern spotted owl site centers until February 25, 2008.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 222-16-010.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 76.09.040.
Under RCW 34.05.350 the agency for good cause finds that immediate adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule is necessary for the preservation of the public health, safety, or general welfare, and that observing the time requirements of notice and opportunity to comment upon adoption of a permanent rule would be contrary to the public interest.
Reasons for this Finding: The forest practices board finds this immediate rule change is necessary for the preservation of the public general welfare because:
1. The amount of suitable habitat within northern spotted owl special emphasis areas, outside areas that are being managed under the aegis of a habitat conservation plan or other agreement, has declined by an average of 16% since forest practices rules for habitat protection were adopted;
2. Habitats recently occupied by spotted owls are potentially important to spotted owl recovery and should be maintained until the board has had the opportunity to consider ramifications of decertifying additional sites in light of federal recovery strategies and goals;
3. Fewer plans to conserve spotted owl habitat at a landscape level have been developed than was anticipated when rules for habitat protection were adopted; and
4. With few landscape-level plans, the forest practices rules continue to rely heavily upon the regulation of timber harvest at individual spotted owl sites to provide habitat conservation.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 1, Repealed 0.
Date Adopted: October 11, 2007.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-20-044, filed 9/26/07, effective 10/27/07)
WAC 222-16-010 *General definitions. Unless otherwise required by context, as used in these rules:
"Act" means the Forest Practices Act, chapter 76.09 RCW.
"Affected Indian tribe" means any federally recognized Indian tribe that requests in writing from the department information on forest practices applications and notification filed on specified areas.
"Alluvial fan" see "sensitive sites" definition.
"Appeals board" means the forest practices appeals board established in the act.
"Aquatic resources" means water quality, fish, the Columbia torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton kezeri), the Cascade torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton cascadae), the Olympic torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton olympian), the Dunn's salamander (Plethodon dunni), the Van Dyke's salamander (Plethodon vandyke), the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) and their respective habitats.
"Area of resource sensitivity" means areas identified in accordance with WAC 222-22-050 (2)(d) or 222-22-060(2).
"Bankfull depth" means the average vertical distance between the channel bed and the estimated water surface elevation required to completely fill the channel to a point above which water would enter the flood plain or intersect a terrace or hillslope. In cases where multiple channels exist, the bankfull depth is the average depth of all channels along the cross-section. (See board manual section 2.)
"Bankfull width" means:
(a) For streams - the measurement of the lateral extent of the water surface elevation perpendicular to the channel at bankfull depth. In cases where multiple channels exist, bankfull width is the sum of the individual channel widths along the cross-section (see board manual section 2).
(b) For lakes, ponds, and impoundments - line of mean high water.
(c) For tidal water - line of mean high tide.
(d) For periodically inundated areas of associated wetlands - line of periodic inundation, which will be found by examining the edge of inundation to ascertain where the presence and action of waters are so common and usual, and so long continued in all ordinary years, as to mark upon the soil a character distinct from that of the abutting upland.
"Basal area" means the area in square feet of the cross section of a tree bole measured at 4 1/2 feet above the ground.
"Bedrock hollows" (colluvium-filled bedrock hollows, or hollows; also referred to as zero-order basins, swales, or bedrock depressions) means landforms that are commonly spoon-shaped areas of convergent topography within unchannelled valleys on hillslopes. (See board manual section 16 for identification criteria.)
"Board" means the forest practices board established by the act.
"Bog" means wetlands which have the following characteristics: Hydric organic soils (peat and/or muck) typically 16 inches or more in depth (except over bedrock or hardpan); and vegetation such as sphagnum moss, Labrador tea, bog laurel, bog rosemary, sundews, and sedges; bogs may have an overstory of spruce, western hemlock, lodgepole pine, western red cedar, western white pine, Oregon crabapple, or quaking aspen, and may be associated with open water. This includes nutrient-poor fens. (See board manual section 8.)
"Borrow pit" means an excavation site outside the limits of construction to provide material necessary to that construction, such as fill material for the embankments.
"Bull trout habitat overlay" means those portions of Eastern Washington streams containing bull trout habitat as identified on the department of fish and wildlife's bull trout map. Prior to the development of a bull trout field protocol and the habitat-based predictive model, the "bull trout habitat overlay" map may be modified to allow for locally-based corrections using current data, field knowledge, and best professional judgment. A landowner may meet with the departments of natural resources, fish and wildlife and, in consultation with affected tribes and federal biologists, determine whether certain stream reaches have habitat conditions that are unsuitable for supporting bull trout. If such a determination is mutually agreed upon, documentation submitted to the department will result in the applicable stream reaches no longer being included within the definition of bull trout habitat overlay. Conversely, if suitable bull trout habitat is discovered outside the current mapped range, those waters will be included within the definition of "bull trout habitat overlay" by a similar process.
"Chemicals" means substances applied to forest lands or timber including pesticides, fertilizers, and other forest chemicals.
"Clearcut" means a harvest method in which the entire stand of trees is removed in one timber harvesting operation. Except as provided in WAC 222-30-110, an area remains clearcut until:
It meets the minimum stocking requirements under WAC 222-34-010(2) or 222-34-020(2); and
The largest trees qualifying for the minimum stocking levels have survived on the area for five growing seasons or, if not, they have reached an average height of four feet.
"Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area or CRGNSA" means the area established pursuant to the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act, 16 U.S.C. § 544b(a).
"CRGNSA special management area" means the areas designated in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act, 16 U.S.C. § 544b(b) or revised pursuant to 16 U.S.C. § 544b(c). For purposes of this rule, the special management area shall not include any parcels excluded by 16 U.S.C. § 544f(o).
"CRGNSA special management area guidelines" means the guidelines and land use designations for forest practices developed pursuant to 16 U.S.C. § 544f contained in the CRGNSA management plan developed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. § 544d.
"Commercial tree species" means any species which is capable of producing a merchantable stand of timber on the particular site, or which is being grown as part of a Christmas tree or ornamental tree-growing operation.
"Completion of harvest" means the latest of:
Completion of removal of timber from the portions of forest lands harvested in the smallest logical unit that will not be disturbed by continued logging or an approved slash disposal plan for adjacent areas; or
Scheduled completion of any slash disposal operations where the department and the applicant agree within 6 months of completion of yarding that slash disposal is necessary or desirable to facilitate reforestation and agree to a time schedule for such slash disposal; or
Scheduled completion of any site preparation or rehabilitation of adjoining lands approved at the time of approval of the application or receipt of a notification: Provided, That delay of reforestation under this paragraph is permitted only to the extent reforestation would prevent or unreasonably hinder such site preparation or rehabilitation of adjoining lands.
"Constructed wetlands" means those wetlands voluntarily developed by the landowner. Constructed wetlands do not include wetlands created, restored, or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure or wetlands inadvertently created as a result of current or past practices including, but not limited to: Road construction, landing construction, railroad construction, or surface mining.
"Contamination" means introducing into the atmosphere, soil, or water, sufficient quantities of substances as may be injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agriculture or recreational uses, or to livestock, wildlife, fish or other aquatic life.
"Convergent headwalls" (or headwalls) means teardrop-shaped landforms, broad at the ridgetop and terminating where headwaters converge into a single channel; they are broadly concave both longitudinally and across the slope, but may contain sharp ridges separating the headwater channels. (See board manual section 16 for identification criteria.)
"Conversion option harvest plan" means a voluntary plan developed by the landowner and approved by the local governmental entity indicating the limits of harvest areas, road locations, and open space.
"Conversion to a use other than commercial timber operation" means a bona fide conversion to an active use which is incompatible with timber growing.
"Cooperative habitat enhancement agreement (CHEA)" see WAC 222-16-105.
"Critical habitat (federal)" means the habitat of any threatened or endangered species designated as critical habitat by the United States Secretary of the Interior or Commerce under Sections 3 (5)(A) and 4 (a)(3) of the Federal Endangered Species Act.
"Critical nesting season" means for marbled murrelets - April 1 to August 31.
"Critical habitat (state)" means those habitats designated by the board in accordance with WAC 222-16-080.
"Cultural resources" means archaeological and historic sites and artifacts, and traditional religious, ceremonial and social uses and activities of affected Indian tribes.
"Cumulative effects" means the changes to the environment caused by the interaction of natural ecosystem processes with the effects of two or more forest practices.
"Daily peak activity" means for marbled murrelets - one hour before official sunrise to two hours after official sunrise and one hour before official sunset to one hour after official sunset.
"Debris" means woody vegetative residue less than 3 cubic feet in size resulting from forest practices activities which would reasonably be expected to cause significant damage to a public resource.
"Deep-seated landslides" means landslides in which most of the area of the slide plane or zone lies below the maximum rooting depth of forest trees, to depths of tens to hundreds of feet. (See board manual section 16 for identification criteria.)
"Demographic support" means providing sufficient suitable spotted owl habitat within the SOSEA to maintain the viability of northern spotted owl sites identified as necessary to meet the SOSEA goals.
"Department" means the department of natural resources.
"Desired future condition (DFC)" is a reference point on a pathway and not an endpoint for stands. DFC means the stand conditions of a mature riparian forest at 140 years of age, the midpoint between 80 and 200 years. Where basal area is the only stand attribute used to describe 140-year old stands, these are referred to as the "Target Basal Area."
"Diameter at breast height (dbh)" means the diameter of a tree at 4 1/2 feet above the ground measured from the uphill side.
"Dispersal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(2).
"Dispersal support" means providing sufficient dispersal habitat for the interchange of northern spotted owls within or across the SOSEA, as necessary to meet SOSEA goals. Dispersal support is provided by a landscape consisting of stands of dispersal habitat interspersed with areas of higher quality habitat, such as suitable spotted owl habitat found within RMZs, WMZs or other required and voluntary leave areas.
"Drainage structure" means a construction technique or feature that is built to relieve surface runoff and/or intercepted ground water from roadside ditches to prevent excessive buildup in water volume and velocity. A drainage structure is not intended to carry any typed water. Drainage structures include structures such as: Cross drains, relief culverts, ditch diversions, water bars, or other such structures demonstrated to be equally effective.
"Eastern Washington" means the geographic area in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Mountains from the international border to the top of Mt. Adams, then east of the ridge line dividing the White Salmon River drainage from the Lewis River drainage and east of the ridge line dividing the Little White Salmon River drainage from the Wind River drainage to the Washington-Oregon state line.
|Timber Habitat Types||Elevation Ranges|
|ponderosa pine||0 - 2500 feet|
|mixed conifer||2501 - 5000 feet|
|high elevation||above 5000 feet|
"End hauling" means the removal and transportation of excavated material, pit or quarry overburden, or landing or road cut material from the excavation site to a deposit site not adjacent to the point of removal.
"Equipment limitation zone" means a 30-foot wide zone measured horizontally from the outer edge of the bankfull width of a Type Np or Ns Water. It applies to all perennial and seasonal nonfish bearing streams.
"Erodible soils" means those soils that, when exposed or displaced by a forest practices operation, would be readily moved by water.
"Even-aged harvest methods" means the following harvest methods:
Seed tree harvests in which twenty or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest;
Shelterwood regeneration harvests in which twenty or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest;
Group or strip shelterwood harvests creating openings wider than two tree heights, based on dominant trees;
Shelterwood removal harvests which leave fewer than one hundred fifty trees per acre which are at least five years old or four feet in average height;
Partial cutting in which fewer than fifty trees per acre remain after harvest;
Overstory removal when more than five thousand board feet per acre is removed and fewer than fifty trees per acre at least ten feet in height remain after harvest; and
Other harvesting methods designed to manage for multiple age classes in which six or fewer trees per acre remain after harvest.
Except as provided above for shelterwood removal harvests and overstory removal, trees counted as remaining after harvest shall be at least ten inches in diameter at breast height and have at least the top one-third of the stem supporting green, live crowns. Except as provided in WAC 222-30-110, an area remains harvested by even-aged methods until it meets the minimum stocking requirements under WAC 222-34-010(2) or 222-34-020(2) and the largest trees qualifying for the minimum stocking levels have survived on the area for five growing seasons or, if not, they have reached an average height of four feet.
"Fen" means wetlands which have the following characteristics: Peat soils 16 inches or more in depth (except over bedrock); and vegetation such as certain sedges, hardstem bulrush and cattails; fens may have an overstory of spruce and may be associated with open water.
"Fertilizers" means any substance or any combination or mixture of substances used principally as a source of plant food or soil amendment.
"Fill" means the placement of earth material or aggregate for road or landing construction or other similar activities.
"Fish" means for purposes of these rules, species of the vertebrate taxonomic groups of Cephalospidomorphi and Osteichthyes.
"Fish habitat" means habitat, which is used by fish at any life stage at any time of the year including potential habitat likely to be used by fish, which could be recovered by restoration or management and includes off-channel habitat.
"Fish passage barrier" means any artificial in-stream structure that impedes the free passage of fish.
"Flood level - 100 year" means a calculated flood event flow based on an engineering computation of flood magnitude that has a 1 percent chance of occurring in any given year. For purposes of field interpretation, landowners may use the following methods:
Flow information from gauging stations;
Field estimate of water level based on guidance for "Determining the 100-Year Flood Level" in the forest practices board manual section 2.
The 100-year flood level shall not include those lands that can reasonably be expected to be protected from flood waters by flood control devices maintained by or under license from the federal government, the state, or a political subdivision of the state.
"Forest land" means all land which is capable of supporting a merchantable stand of timber and is not being actively used for a use which is incompatible with timber growing. Forest land does not include agricultural land that is or was enrolled in the conservation reserve enhancement program by contract if such agricultural land was historically used for agricultural purposes and the landowner intends to continue to use the land for agricultural purposes in the future. For small forest landowner road maintenance and abandonment planning only, the term "forest land" excludes the following:
(a) Residential home sites. A residential home site may be up to five acres in size, and must have an existing structure in use as a residence;
(b) Cropfields, orchards, vineyards, pastures, feedlots, fish pens, and the land on which appurtenances necessary to the production, preparation, or sale of crops, fruit, dairy products, fish, and livestock exist.
"Forest landowner" means any person in actual control of forest land, whether such control is based either on legal or equitable title, or on any other interest entitling the holder to sell or otherwise dispose of any or all of the timber on such land in any manner. However, any lessee or other person in possession of forest land without legal or equitable title to such land shall be excluded from the definition of "forest landowner" unless such lessee or other person has the right to sell or otherwise dispose of any or all of the timber located on such forest land. The following definitions apply only to road maintenance and abandonment planning:
(1) "Large forest landowner" is a forest landowner who is not a small forest landowner.
(2) "Small forest landowner" is a forest landowner who at the time of submitting a forest practices application or notification meets all of the following conditions:
• Has an average annual timber harvest level of two million board feet or less from their own forest lands in Washington state;
• Did not exceed this annual average harvest level in the three year period before submitting a forest practices application or notification;
• Certifies to the department that they will not exceed this annual harvest level in the ten years after submitting the forest practices application or notification.
However, the department will agree that an applicant is a small forest landowner if the landowner can demonstrate that the harvest levels were exceeded in order to raise funds to pay estate taxes or to meet equally compelling and unexpected obligations such as court-ordered judgments and extraordinary medical expenses.
"Forest practice" means any activity conducted on or directly pertaining to forest land and relating to growing, harvesting, or processing timber, including but not limited to:
Road and trail construction;
Harvesting, final and intermediate;
Prevention and suppression of diseases and insects;
Salvage of trees; and
"Forest practice" shall not include: Forest species seed orchard operations and intensive forest nursery operations; or preparatory work such as tree marking, surveying and road flagging; or removal or harvest of incidental vegetation from forest lands such as berries, ferns, greenery, mistletoe, herbs, mushrooms, and other products which cannot normally be expected to result in damage to forest soils, timber or public resources.
"Forest road" means ways, lanes, roads, or driveways on forest land used since 1974 for forest practices. "Forest road" does not include skid trails, highways, or local government roads except where the local governmental entity is a forest landowner. For road maintenance and abandonment planning purposes only, "forest road" does not include forest roads used exclusively for residential access located on a small forest landowner's forest land.
"Forest trees" does not include hardwood trees cultivated by agricultural methods in growing cycles shorter than 15 years if the trees were planted on land that was not in forest use immediately before the trees were planted and before the land was prepared for planting the trees. "Forest trees" includes Christmas trees but does not include Christmas trees that are cultivated by agricultural methods, as that term is defined in RCW 84.33.035.
"Full bench road" means a road constructed on a side hill without using any of the material removed from the hillside as a part of the road. This construction technique is usually used on steep or unstable slopes.
"Green recruitment trees" means those trees left after harvest for the purpose of becoming future wildlife reserve trees under WAC 222-30-020(11).
"Ground water recharge areas for glacial deep-seated slides" means the area upgradient that can contribute water to the landslide, assuming that there is an impermeable perching layer in or under a deep-seated landslide in glacial deposits. (See board manual section 16 for identification criteria.)
"Headwater spring" means a permanent spring at the head of a perennial channel. Where a headwater spring can be found, it will coincide with the uppermost extent of Type Np Water.
"Herbicide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any tree, bush, weed or algae and other aquatic weeds.
"Historic site" includes:
Sites, areas and structures or other evidence of human activities illustrative of the origins, evolution and development of the nation, state or locality; or
Places associated with a personality important in history; or
Places where significant historical events are known to have occurred even though no physical evidence of the event remains.
"Horizontal distance" means the distance between two points measured at a zero percent slope.
"Hyporheic" means an area adjacent to and below channels where interstitial water is exchanged with channel water and water movement is mainly in the downstream direction.
"Identified watershed processes" means the following components of natural ecological processes that may in some instances be altered by forest practices in a watershed:
Surface and road erosion;
Seasonal flows including hydrologic peak and low flows and annual yields (volume and timing);
Large organic debris;
Stream bank and bed stability.
"Inner gorges" means canyons created by a combination of the downcutting action of a stream and mass movement on the slope walls; they commonly show evidence of recent movement, such as obvious landslides, vertical tracks of disturbance vegetation, or areas that are concave in contour and/or profile. (See board manual section 16 for identification criteria.)
"Insecticide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any insect, other arthropods or mollusk pests.
"Interdisciplinary team" (ID Team) means a group of varying size comprised of individuals having specialized expertise, assembled by the department to respond to technical questions associated with a proposed forest practices activity.
"Islands" means any island surrounded by salt water in Kitsap, Mason, Jefferson, Pierce, King, Snohomish, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, or San Juan counties.
"Limits of construction" means the area occupied by the completed roadway or landing, including the cut bank, fill slope, and the area cleared for the purpose of constructing the roadway or landing.
"Load bearing portion" means that part of the road, landing, etc., which is supportive soil, earth, rock or other material directly below the working surface and only the associated earth structure necessary for support.
"Local governmental entity" means the governments of counties and the governments of cities and towns as defined in chapter 35.01 RCW.
"Low impact harvest" means use of any logging equipment, methods, or systems that minimize compaction or disturbance of soils and vegetation during the yarding process. The department shall determine such equipment, methods or systems in consultation with the department of ecology.
"Marbled murrelet detection area" means an area of land
associated with a visual or audible detection of a marbled
murrelet, made by a qualified surveyor which is documented and
recorded in the department of fish and wildlife data base. The marbled murrelet detection area shall be comprised of the
section of land in which the marbled murrelet detection was
made and the eight sections of land immediately adjacent to
"Median home range circle" means a circle, with a specified radius, centered on a spotted owl site center. The radius for the median home range circle in the Hoh-Clearwater/Coastal Link SOSEA is 2.7 miles; for all other SOSEAs the radius is 1.8 miles.
"Merchantable stand of timber" means a stand of trees that will yield logs and/or fiber:
Suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber, plywood, pulp or other forest products;
Of sufficient value at least to cover all the costs of harvest and transportation to available markets.
"Multiyear permit" means a permit to conduct forest practices which is effective for longer than two years but no longer than five years.
"Northern spotted owl site center" means:
(1) Until ((
June 30, 2007)) February 28, 2008, the
location of northern spotted owls:
(a) Recorded by the department of fish and wildlife as status 1, 2 or 3 as of November 1, 2005; or
(b) Newly discovered, and recorded by the department of fish and wildlife as status 1, 2 or 3 after November 1, 2005.
(2) After ((
June 30, 2007)) February 28, 2008, the
location of status 1, 2 or 3 northern spotted owls based on
the following definitions:
|Status 1:||Pair or reproductive - a male and female heard and/or observed in close proximity to each other on the same visit, a female detected on a nest, or one or both adults observed with young.|
|Status 2:||Two birds, pair status unknown - the presence or response of two birds of opposite sex where pair status cannot be determined and where at least one member meets the resident territorial single requirements.|
|Status 3:||Resident territorial single - the presence or response of a single owl within the same general area on three or more occasions within a breeding season with no response by an owl of the opposite sex after a complete survey; or three or more responses over several years (i.e., two responses in year one and one response in year two, for the same general area).|
"Notice to comply" means a notice issued by the department pursuant to RCW 76.09.090 of the act and may require initiation and/or completion of action necessary to prevent, correct and/or compensate for material damage to public resources which resulted from forest practices.
"Occupied marbled murrelet site" means:
(1) A contiguous area of suitable marbled murrelet habitat where at least one of the following marbled murrelet behaviors or conditions occur:
(a) A nest is located; or
(b) Downy chicks or eggs or egg shells are found; or
(c) Marbled murrelets are detected flying below, through, into or out of the forest canopy; or
(d) Birds calling from a stationary location within the area; or
(e) Birds circling above a timber stand within one tree height of the top of the canopy; or
(2) A contiguous forested area, which does not meet the definition of suitable marbled murrelet habitat, in which any of the behaviors or conditions listed above has been documented by the department of fish and wildlife and which is distinguishable from the adjacent forest based on vegetative characteristics important to nesting marbled murrelets.
(3) For sites defined in (1) and (2) above, the sites will be presumed to be occupied based upon observation of circling described in (1)(e), unless a two-year survey following the 2003 Pacific Seabird Group (PSG) protocol has been completed and an additional third-year of survey following a method listed below is completed and none of the behaviors or conditions listed in (1)(a) through (d) of this definition are observed. The landowner may choose one of the following methods for the third-year survey:
(a) Conduct a third-year survey with a minimum of nine visits conducted in compliance with 2003 PSG protocol. If one or more marbled murrelets are detected during any of these nine visits, three additional visits conducted in compliance with the protocol of the first nine visits shall be added to the third-year survey. Department of fish and wildlife shall be consulted prior to initiating third-year surveys; or
(b) Conduct a third-year survey designed in consultation with the department of fish and wildlife to meet site specific conditions.
(4) For sites defined in (1) above, the outer perimeter of the occupied site shall be presumed to be the closer, measured from the point where the observed behaviors or conditions listed in (1) above occurred, of the following:
(a) 1.5 miles from the point where the observed behaviors or conditions listed in (1) above occurred; or
(b) The beginning of any gap greater than 300 feet wide lacking one or more of the vegetative characteristics listed under "suitable marbled murrelet habitat"; or
(c) The beginning of any narrow area of "suitable marbled murrelet habitat" less than 300 feet in width and more than 300 feet in length.
(5) For sites defined under (2) above, the outer perimeter of the occupied site shall be presumed to be the closer, measured from the point where the observed behaviors or conditions listed in (1) above occurred, of the following:
(a) 1.5 miles from the point where the observed behaviors or conditions listed in (1) above occurred; or
(b) The beginning of any gap greater than 300 feet wide lacking one or more of the distinguishing vegetative characteristics important to murrelets; or
(c) The beginning of any narrow area of suitable marbled murrelet habitat, comparable to the area where the observed behaviors or conditions listed in (1) above occurred, less than 300 feet in width and more than 300 feet in length.
(6) In determining the existence, location and status of occupied marbled murrelet sites, the department shall consult with the department of fish and wildlife and use only those sites documented in substantial compliance with guidelines or protocols and quality control methods established by and available from the department of fish and wildlife.
"Old forest habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(a).
"Operator" means any person engaging in forest practices except an employee with wages as his/her sole compensation.
"Ordinary high-water mark" means the mark on the shores of all waters, which will be found by examining the beds and banks and ascertaining where the presence and action of waters are so common and usual, and so long continued in all ordinary years, as to mark upon the soil a character distinct from that of the abutting upland, in respect to vegetation: Provided, That in any area where the ordinary high-water mark cannot be found, the ordinary high-water mark adjoining saltwater shall be the line of mean high tide and the ordinary high-water mark adjoining freshwater shall be the line of mean high-water.
"Other forest chemicals" means fire retardants when used to control burning (other than water), nontoxic repellents, oil, dust-control agents (other than water), salt, and other chemicals used in forest management, except pesticides and fertilizers, that may present hazards to the environment.
"Park" means any park included on the parks register maintained by the department pursuant to WAC 222-20-100(2). Developed park recreation area means any park area developed for high density outdoor recreation use.
"Partial cutting" means the removal of a portion of the merchantable volume in a stand of timber so as to leave an uneven-aged stand of well-distributed residual, healthy trees that will reasonably utilize the productivity of the soil. Partial cutting does not include seedtree or shelterwood or other types of regeneration cutting.
"Pesticide" means any insecticide, herbicide, fungicide, or rodenticide, but does not include nontoxic repellents or other forest chemicals.
"Plantable area" is an area capable of supporting a commercial stand of timber excluding lands devoted to permanent roads, utility rights of way, that portion of riparian management zones where scarification is not permitted, and any other area devoted to a use incompatible with commercial timber growing.
"Power equipment" means all machinery operated with fuel burning or electrical motors, including heavy machinery, chain saws, portable generators, pumps, and powered backpack devices.
"Preferred tree species" means the following species listed in descending order of priority for each timber habitat type:
|all hardwoods||all hardwoods|
|ponderosa pine||western larch|
|western larch||ponderosa pine|
|Douglas-fir||western red cedar|
|western red cedar||western white pine|
"Qualified surveyor" means an individual who has successfully completed the marbled murrelet field training course offered by the department of fish and wildlife or its equivalent.
"Rehabilitation" means the act of renewing, or making usable and reforesting forest land which was poorly stocked or previously nonstocked with commercial species.
"Resource characteristics" means the following specific measurable characteristics of fish, water, and capital improvements of the state or its political subdivisions:
For fish and water:
Physical fish habitat, including temperature and turbidity;
Turbidity in hatchery water supplies; and
Turbidity and volume for areas of water supply.
For capital improvements of the state or its political subdivisions:
Physical or structural integrity.
If the methodology is developed and added to the manual to analyze the cumulative effects of forest practices on other characteristics of fish, water, and capital improvements of the state or its subdivisions, the board shall amend this list to include these characteristics.
"Riparian function" includes bank stability, the recruitment of woody debris, leaf litter fall, nutrients, sediment filtering, shade, and other riparian features that are important to both riparian forest and aquatic system conditions.
"Riparian management zone (RMZ)" means:
(1) For Western Washington
(a) The area protected on each side of a Type S or F Water measured horizontally from the outer edge of the bankfull width or the outer edge of the CMZ, whichever is greater (see table below); and
|Site Class||Western Washington Total RMZ Width|
(2) For Eastern Washington
(a) The area protected on each side of a Type S or F Water measured horizontally from the outer edge of the bankfull width or the outer edge of the CMZ, whichever is greater (see table below); and
|Site Class||Eastern Washington Total RMZ Width|
|III||90' or 100'*|
|IV||75' or 100'*|
|V||75' or 100'*|
|*||Dependent upon stream size. (See WAC 222-30-022.)|
(3) For exempt 20 acre parcels, a specified area alongside Type S and F Waters where specific measures are taken to protect water quality and fish and wildlife habitat.
"RMZ core zone" means:
(1) For Western Washington, the 50 foot buffer of a Type S or F Water, measured horizontally from the outer edge of the bankfull width or the outer edge of the channel migration zone, whichever is greater. (See WAC 222-30-021.)
(2) For Eastern Washington, the thirty foot buffer of a Type S or F Water, measured horizontally from the outer edge of the bankfull width or the outer edge of the channel migration zone, whichever is greater. (See WAC 222-30-022.)
"RMZ inner zone" means:
(1) For Western Washington, the area measured horizontally from the outer boundary of the core zone of a Type S or F Water to the outer limit of the inner zone. The outer limit of the inner zone is determined based on the width of the affected water, site class and the management option chosen for timber harvest within the inner zone. (See WAC 222-30-021.)
(2) For Eastern Washington, the area measured horizontally from the outer boundary of the core zone 45 feet (for streams less than 15 feet wide) or 70 feet (for streams more than 15 feet wide) from the outer boundary of the core zone. (See WAC 222-30-022.)
"RMZ outer zone" means the area measured horizontally between the outer boundary of the inner zone and the RMZ width as specified in the riparian management zone definition above. RMZ width is measured from the outer edge of the bankfull width or the outer edge of the channel migration zone, whichever is greater. (See WAC 222-30-021 and 222-30-022.)
"Road construction" means either of the following:
(a) Establishing any new forest road;
(b) Road work located outside an existing forest road prism, except for road maintenance.
"Road maintenance" means either of the following:
(a) All road work located within an existing forest road prism;
(b) Road work located outside an existing forest road prism specifically related to maintaining water control, road safety, or visibility, such as:
• Maintaining, replacing, and installing drainage structures;
• Controlling road-side vegetation;
• Abandoning forest roads according to the process outlined in WAC 222-24-052(3).
"Rodenticide" means any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate rodents or any other vertebrate animal which the director of the state department of agriculture may declare by regulation to be a pest.
"Salvage" means the removal of snags, down logs, windthrow, or dead and dying material.
"Scarification" means loosening the topsoil and/or disrupting the forest floor in preparation for regeneration.
"Sensitive sites" are areas near or adjacent to Type Np Water and have one or more of the following:
(1) Headwall seep is a seep located at the toe of a cliff or other steep topographical feature and at the head of a Type Np Water which connects to the stream channel network via overland flow, and is characterized by loose substrate and/or fractured bedrock with perennial water at or near the surface throughout the year.
(2) Side-slope seep is a seep within 100 feet of a Type Np Water located on side-slopes which are greater than 20 percent, connected to the stream channel network via overland flow, and characterized by loose substrate and fractured bedrock, excluding muck with perennial water at or near the surface throughout the year. Water delivery to the Type Np channel is visible by someone standing in or near the stream.
(3) Type Np intersection is the intersection of two or more Type Np Waters.
(4) Headwater spring means a permanent spring at the head of a perennial channel. Where a headwater spring can be found, it will coincide with the uppermost extent of Type Np Water.
(5) Alluvial fan means a depositional land form consisting of cone-shaped deposit of water-borne, often coarse-sized sediments.
(a) The upstream end of the fan (cone apex) is typically characterized by a distinct increase in channel width where a stream emerges from a narrow valley;
(b) The downstream edge of the fan is defined as the sediment confluence with a higher order channel; and
(c) The lateral margins of a fan are characterized by distinct local changes in sediment elevation and often show disturbed vegetation.
Alluvial fan does not include features that were formed under climatic or geologic conditions which are not currently present or that are no longer dynamic.
"Shorelines of the state" shall have the same meaning as in RCW 90.58.030 (Shoreline Management Act).
"Side casting" means the act of moving excavated material to the side and depositing such material within the limits of construction or dumping over the side and outside the limits of construction.
"Site class" means a grouping of site indices that are used to determine the 50-year or 100-year site class. In order to determine site class, the landowner will obtain the site class index from the state soil survey, place it in the correct index range shown in the two tables provided in this definition, and select the corresponding site class. The site class will then drive the RMZ width. (See WAC 222-30-021 and 222-30-022.)
(1) For Western Washington
|Site class||50-year site index range
(state soil survey)
|Site class||100-year site
(state soil survey)
|50-year site index range (state soil survey)|
(a) If the site index in the soil survey is for red alder, and the whole RMZ width is within that site index, then use site class V. If the red alder site index is only for a portion of the RMZ width, or there is on-site evidence that the site has historically supported conifer, then use the site class for conifer in the most physiographically similar adjacent soil polygon.
(b) In Western Washington, if no site index is reported in the soil survey, use the site class for conifer in the most physiographically similar adjacent soil polygon.
(c) In Eastern Washington, if no site index is reported in the soil survey, assume site class III, unless site specific information indicates otherwise.
(d) If the site index is noncommercial or marginally commercial, then use site class V.
See also section 7 of the board manual.
"Site preparation" means those activities associated with the removal of slash in preparing a site for planting and shall include scarification and/or slash burning.
"Skid trail" means a route used by tracked or wheeled skidders to move logs to a landing or road.
"Slash" means pieces of woody material containing more than 3 cubic feet resulting from forest practices activities.
"Small forest landowner long-term application" means a proposal from a small forest landowner to conduct forest practices activities for terms of three to fifteen years. Small forest landowners as defined in WAC 222-21-010(13) are eligible to submit long-term applications.
"SOSEA goals" means the goals specified for a spotted owl special emphasis area as identified on the SOSEA maps (see WAC 222-16-086). SOSEA goals provide for demographic and/or dispersal support as necessary to complement the northern spotted owl protection strategies on federal land within or adjacent to the SOSEA.
"Spoil" means excess material removed as overburden or generated during road or landing construction which is not used within limits of construction.
"Spotted owl dispersal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(2).
"Spotted owl special emphasis areas (SOSEA)" means the geographic areas as mapped in WAC 222-16-086. Detailed maps of the SOSEAs indicating the boundaries and goals are available from the department at its regional offices.
"Stop work order" means the "stop work order" defined in RCW 76.09.080 of the act and may be issued by the department to stop violations of the forest practices chapter or to prevent damage and/or to correct and/or compensate for damages to public resources resulting from forest practices.
"Stream-adjacent parallel roads" means roads (including associated right of way clearing) in a riparian management zone on a property that have an alignment that is parallel to the general alignment of the stream, including roads used by others under easements or cooperative road agreements. Also included are stream crossings where the alignment of the road continues to parallel the stream for more than 250 feet on either side of the stream. Not included are federal, state, county or municipal roads that are not subject to forest practices rules, or roads of another adjacent landowner.
"Sub-mature habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(b).
"Suitable marbled murrelet habitat" means a contiguous forested area containing trees capable of providing nesting opportunities:
(1) With all of the following indicators unless the department, in consultation with the department of fish and wildlife, has determined that the habitat is not likely to be occupied by marbled murrelets:
(a) Within 50 miles of marine waters;
(b) At least forty percent of the dominant and codominant trees are Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western red cedar or sitka spruce;
(c) Two or more nesting platforms per acre;
(d) At least 7 acres in size, including the contiguous forested area within 300 feet of nesting platforms, with similar forest stand characteristics (age, species composition, forest structure) to the forested area in which the nesting platforms occur.
"Suitable spotted owl habitat" see WAC 222-16-085(1).
"Temporary road" means a forest road that is constructed and intended for use during the life of an approved forest practices application/notification. All temporary roads must be abandoned in accordance to WAC 222-24-052(3).
"Threaten public safety" means to increase the risk to the public at large from snow avalanches, identified in consultation with the department of transportation or a local government, or landslides or debris torrents caused or triggered by forest practices.
"Threatened or endangered species" means all species of wildlife listed as "threatened" or "endangered" by the United States Secretary of the Interior or Commerce, and all species of wildlife designated as "threatened" or "endangered" by the Washington fish and wildlife commission.
"Timber" means forest trees, standing or down, of a commercial species, including Christmas trees. However, timber does not include Christmas trees that are cultivated by agricultural methods, as that term is defined in RCW 84.33.035.
"Unconfined avulsing stream" means generally fifth order or larger waters that experience abrupt shifts in channel location, creating a complex flood plain characterized by extensive gravel bars, disturbance species of vegetation of variable age, numerous side channels, wall-based channels, oxbow lakes, and wetland complexes. Many of these streams have dikes and levees that may temporarily or permanently restrict channel movement.
"Validation," as used in WAC 222-20-016, means the department's agreement that a small forest landowner has correctly identified and classified resources, and satisfactorily completed a roads assessment for the geographic area described in Step 1 of a long-term application.
"Water bar" means a diversion ditch and/or hump in a trail or road for the purpose of carrying surface water runoff into the vegetation duff, ditch, or other dispersion area so that it does not gain the volume and velocity which causes soil movement and erosion.
"Watershed administrative unit (WAU)" means an area shown on the map specified in WAC 222-22-020(1).
"Watershed analysis" means, for a given WAU, the assessment completed under WAC 222-22-050 or 222-22-060 together with the prescriptions selected under WAC 222-22-070 and shall include assessments completed under WAC 222-22-050 where there are no areas of resource sensitivity.
"Weed" is any plant which tends to overgrow or choke out more desirable vegetation.
"Western Washington" means the geographic area of Washington west of the Cascade crest and the drainages defined in Eastern Washington.
"Wetland" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions, such as swamps, bogs, fens, and similar areas. This includes wetlands created, restored, or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure. This does not include constructed wetlands or the following surface waters of the state intentionally constructed from wetland sites: Irrigation and drainage ditches, grass lined swales, canals, agricultural detention facilities, farm ponds, and landscape amenities.
"Wetland functions" include the protection of water quality and quantity, providing fish and wildlife habitat, and the production of timber.
"Wetland management zone" means a specified area adjacent to Type A and B Wetlands where specific measures are taken to protect the wetland functions.
"Wildlife" means all species of the animal kingdom whose members exist in Washington in a wild state. The term "wildlife" includes, but is not limited to, any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, or invertebrate, at any stage of development. The term "wildlife" does not include feral domestic mammals or the family Muridae of the order Rodentia (old world rats and mice).
"Wildlife reserve trees" means those defective, dead, damaged, or dying trees which provide or have the potential to provide habitat for those wildlife species dependent on standing trees. Wildlife reserve trees are categorized as follows:
Type 1 wildlife reserve trees are defective or deformed live trees that have observably sound tops, limbs, trunks, and roots. They may have part of the top broken out or have evidence of other severe defects that include: "Cat face," animal chewing, old logging wounds, weather injury, insect attack, or lightning strike. Unless approved by the landowner, only green trees with visible cavities, nests, or obvious severe defects capable of supporting cavity dependent species shall be considered as Type 1 wildlife reserve trees. These trees must be stable and pose the least hazard for workers.
Type 2 wildlife reserve trees are dead Type 1 trees with sound tops, limbs, trunks, and roots.
Type 3 wildlife reserve trees are live or dead trees with unstable tops or upper portions. Unless approved by the landowner, only green trees with visible cavities, nests, or obvious severe defects capable of supporting cavity dependent species shall be considered as Type 3 wildlife reserve trees. Although the roots and main portion of the trunk are sound, these reserve trees pose high hazard because of the defect in live or dead wood higher up in the tree.
Type 4 wildlife reserve trees are live or dead trees with unstable trunks or roots, with or without bark. This includes "soft snags" as well as live trees with unstable roots caused by root rot or fire. These trees are unstable and pose a high hazard to workers.
"Windthrow" means a natural process by which trees are uprooted or sustain severe trunk damage by the wind.
"Yarding corridor" means a narrow, linear path through a riparian management zone to allow suspended cables necessary to support cable logging methods or suspended or partially suspended logs to be transported through these areas by cable logging methods.
"Young forest marginal habitat" see WAC 222-16-085 (1)(b).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.010 (2)(d). 07-20-044, § 222-16-010, filed 9/26/07, effective 10/27/07. Statutory Authority: [RCW 76.09.040]. 06-17-128, § 222-16-010, filed 8/21/06, effective 9/21/06; 06-11-112, § 222-16-010, filed 5/18/06, effective 6/18/06; 05-12-119, § 222-16-010, filed 5/31/05, effective 7/1/05; 04-05-087, § 222-16-010, filed 2/17/04, effective 3/19/04. Statutory Authority: Chapter 34.05 RCW, RCW 76.09.040, [76.09.]050, [76.09.]370, 76.13.120(9). 01-12-042, § 222-16-010, filed 5/30/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 98-07-047, § 222-16-010, filed 3/13/98, effective 5/1/98; 97-24-091, § 222-16-010, filed 12/3/97, effective 1/3/98; 97-15-105, § 222-16-010, filed 7/21/97, effective 8/21/97. Statutory Authority: Chapters 76.09 and 34.05 RCW. 96-12-038, § 222-16-010, filed 5/31/96, effective 7/1/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 94-17-033, § 222-16-010, filed 8/10/94, effective 8/13/94; 93-12-001, § 222-16-010, filed 5/19/93, effective 6/19/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.050 and chapter 34.05 RCW. 92-15-011, § 222-16-010, filed 7/2/92, effective 8/2/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040, 76.09.050 and 34.05.350. 92-03-028, § 222-16-010, filed 1/8/92, effective 2/8/92; 91-23-052, § 222-16-010, filed 11/15/91, effective 12/16/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040. 88-19-112 (Order 551, Resolution No. 88-1), § 222-16-010, filed 9/21/88, effective 11/1/88; 87-23-036 (Order 535), § 222-16-010, filed 11/16/87, effective 1/1/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040 and 76.09.050. 82-16-077 (Resolution No. 82-1), § 222-16-010, filed 8/3/82, effective 10/1/82; Order 263, § 222-16-010, filed 6/16/76.]