LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards -- Longshore, stevedore and related
waterfront operations, the occupational safety and health
administration (OSHA) revised the marine terminals standard
and related sections of the longshoring standard to adopt new
requirements related to the practice of lifting two intermodal
containers together, one on top of the other, connected by
semiautomatic twistlocks (SATLs). This practice is known as a
vertical tandem lift (VTL). The final standard permits VTLs
of no more than two empty containers provided certain
safeguards are followed. Washington is a state plan state;
therefore, the department is required to adopt this language
approximately within six months of the publication date.
THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED UNDER AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS USE OF THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Joshua Swanson, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44001, Olympia, WA 98504-4001 , AND RECEIVED BY June 1, 2009.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: Equipment used to transport vertically connected containers must be either specifically designed for this application or evaluated by a qualified engineer and determined to be capable of operating safely in this mode of operation.
The employer must develop, implement and maintain a written plan for transporting vertically connected containers in a terminal. The written plan must establish safe operational parameters, such as optimal operating and turning speeds; as well as address any other conditions in the terminal that could affect the safety of the movement of vertically coupled containers.
This rule making will also correct housekeeping errors throughout chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards for longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: Chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards -- Longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations.
|•||Change the title of this chapter to "Safety standards -- Longshore, stevedore and waterfront related operations."|
|•||Subsections (3)(e), (f), (g), (l) and (m), update the reference.|
|•||Subsection (2), correct a typographical error. Change the word "on" to "or."|
|•||Subsection (4), correct a typographical error. Change the spelling of the word "hausers" to "hawsers."|
|•||Subsection (1), update the reference.|
|•||Subsection (7)(l)(vii), delete this language, it is redundant of the language in subsection (7)(l)(iii).|
|•||Renumber subsection (7)(l)(viii) to (vii).|
|•||Subsection (9), add this subsection relating to vertical tandem lifts.|
|•||Subsection (10), add this subsection relating to transporting vertically coupled containers.|
|•||Subsection (11), add this subsection relating to safe work zones.|
|•||Subsection (2)(b)(iii), delete the words "Ski belt or inflatable type personal flotation devices are specifically prohibited." These are now allowed.|
|•||Subsection (1), add language more similar to what OSHA has for clarity.|
|•||Subsections (2), (6)(b) and (7)(c), update a reference.|
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is necessary because of federal law, 12/10/2008 Federal Register 73:75245 - 75290.
Name of Proponent: Department of labor and industries, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Steve Cant, Tumwater, (360) 902-9166.
March 31, 2009
SAFETY STANDARDS -- LONGSHORE, STEVEDORE AND ((
WATERFRONT RELATED OPERATIONS
(2) These minimum requirements are promulgated in order to augment the general safety and health standards, and any other safety and health standards promulgated by the department of labor and industries which are applicable to all places of employment under the jurisdiction of the department of labor and industries. The rules of this chapter, and the rules of chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-800 WAC are applicable to all longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations: Provided, That such rules shall not be applicable to those operations under the exclusive safety jurisdiction of the federal government.
(3) The provisions of this chapter shall prevail in the event of a conflict with, or duplication of, provisions contained in chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-800 WAC. Specific standards which are applicable include, but are not limited to:
(a) Electrical -- Chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, and WAC 296-800-280.
(b) Toxic and hazardous substances are regulated by chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC. Where references to this chapter are given they are for informational purposes only. Where specific requirements of this chapter conflict with the provisions of chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC, this chapter prevails. Chapter 296-62 WAC does not apply when a substance or cargo is contained within a manufacturer's original, sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with the department of transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements.
(c) Hearing loss prevention (noise) -- Chapter 296-817 WAC.
(d) Standards for commercial diving operations -- Chapter 296-37 WAC.
(e) Safety requirements for scaffolding -- Chapter
296-24)) 296-874 WAC (( Part J-2)).
(f) Safe practices of abrasive blasting
operations -- Chapter ((
296-24)) 296-818 WAC (( Part H-2)).
(g) Access to employee exposure and medical
records -- Chapter ((
296-62)) 296-802 WAC (( Part B)).
(h) Respiratory protection -- Chapter 296-842 WAC.
(i) Safety standards for grain handling facilities -- Chapter 296-99 WAC.
(j) Chemical hazard communication program -- WAC 296-800-170.
(k) Asbestos -- Chapters 296-62 Part I-1 and 296-65 WAC.
(l) Permit - required confined spaces and confined
space -- Chapter ((
296-62)) 296-809 WAC (( Part M)).
(m) Servicing multipiece and single-piece rim
wheels -- Chapter ((
296-24)) 296-864 WAC (( Part D)).
(n) First-aid requirements -- WAC 296-800-150.
(o) Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans -- Chapter 296-24 WAC Part G-1.
(4) The provisions of this chapter do not apply to the following:
(a) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.
(b) Facilities subject to the regulations of the office of pipeline safety regulation of the materials transportation bureau, department of transportation, to the extent such regulations apply.
(5) WAC 296-62-074 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by chapter 296-56 WAC in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-56-60001, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 03-11-060, § 296-56-60001, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-56-60001, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60001, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60001, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-56-60001, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60001, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-56-60001, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-56-60001, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-56-60001, filed 7/6/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60001, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60001, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60001, filed 12/11/84.]
(2) When stringpiece or apron width is insufficient for
safe footing, grab lines ((
on)) or rails shall be installed on
the sides of permanent structures. ("Stringpiece" means a
narrow walkway between the water edge of a berth and a shed or
(3) Areas around bitts or cleats where workers perform their duties as line handlers shall be lighted as required by this chapter. There shall be a nonslip surface around each bitt or cleat.
(4) Walkways on which mooring ((
hausers)) hawsers must be
moved may have the handrail omitted on the line handling side
provided a six inch by six inch toeboard is installed.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60017, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60017, filed 12/11/84.]
(a) Modifications, such as adding counterweights, that might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety shall not be performed without either the manufacturer's prior written approval or the written approval of a professional engineer experienced with the equipment who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals shall be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.
(b) Unauthorized personnel shall not ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided when riding is authorized.
(c) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load-engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized and brakes set. Unless the truck is in view and within twenty-five feet (7.62 m) of the operator, power shall be shut off. Wheels shall be blocked or curbed if the truck is on an incline.
(d) Powered industrial trucks shall not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational safety.
(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be marked with their rated capacities, which shall be visible to the operator.
(f) Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.
(g) Drivers shall ascend and descend grades slowly.
(h) Drivers shall slow down and sound the horn at crossaisles and other locations where visibility is obstructed.
(i) If the load obstructs the forward view drivers shall travel with the load trailing.
(j) Steering knobs shall not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.
(k) When powered industrial trucks use cargo lifting devices that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means shall be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been engaged.
(l) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means shall be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.
(a) Only designated persons shall perform maintenance and repair.
(b) Batteries on all powered trucks shall be disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy shall be safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
(c) Replacement parts whose function might affect operational safety shall be equivalent in strength and performance capability to the original parts which they replace.
(d) Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking shall be operable and in safe condition.
(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices shall not be removed or made inoperative except as otherwise provided in this section. Trucks with a fuel system leak or any other safety defect shall not be operated.
(f) Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such repairs.
(4) Approved trucks.
(a) "Approved power-operated industrial truck" means one listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(b) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, shall bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
(c) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous and the provisions of United States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used.
(5) Duties of operator.
(a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are:
(i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner.
(ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work.
(iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle.
(iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when traveling with a load on the fork lift jitney.
(b) Unobstructed view. When traveling, power-propelled vehicles shall at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator shall be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so.
(c) Employee riding safety. Operators and authorized passengers shall not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor shall they be permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position.
(d) Moving vehicles. Vehicles shall be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles where view is obstructed. Vehicles shall not be pushed with blades of a forklift.
(e) Moving highway trailers. In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers, trailers shall be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution shall be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers shall be loaded in a manner which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer shall be evenly distributed so as not to cause the trailer to tip to one side.
(f) Prohibited forms of riding. Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited.
(g) Regular seats for riders. No one except the operator shall ride on power-driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers.
(h) Jumping on or off moving vehicles. Employees shall not jump on or off moving vehicles.
(i) Reporting defects. If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator shall report same immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle shall not be used for production work until it has been made safe.
(6) Vehicle equipment and maintenance.
(a) Horns and lights. All power-propelled vehicles shall be provided with horns or other warning devices.
(b) Power-propelled vehicles used for night work, when required to travel away from an illuminated work area shall be equipped with a light or lights directed in the direction of travel in order to safely travel about the area.
(c) Guards on operator's platform. Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position shall be equipped with a substantial guard securely attached to the platform or frame of the vehicle in such a manner as to protect the operator from falling objects and so designed that the operator can easily mount or dismount from the operating station.
(d) Seat cushions. All vehicles having a driver's seat shall be provided with resilient seat cushions fixed in place.
(e) Securing of counterbalances. Counterbalances of all power-driven vehicles shall be positively secured to prevent accidental dislodging, but may be a removable type which may be removed, if desired, prior to hoisting the vehicle.
(f) Exhaust pipes and mufflers. Exhaust pipes and mufflers of internal combustion engines, where workers are exposed to contact shall be isolated or insulated. Exhaust pipes shall be constructed to discharge not less than seventy-two inches above the floor on jitneys and eighty-four inches on forklifts or less than twenty inches from the floor.
(g) Ventilation where internal combustion vehicles are used. Internal combustion engines may be used only in areas where adequate ventilation is provided.
(h) Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations shall not exceed the levels specified in WAC 296-56-60055.
(i) When disputes arise concerning degree of concentration, methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions should be referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.
(j) Cargo truck couplings. Couplings installed on cargo trucks (four-wheelers) shall be of a type which will prevent accidental disengaging.
(k) Operating levers. Operating levers on power-driven vehicles shall be so placed as not to project toward the operator's body.
(l) Front axle assembly. The front axle assembly on all trailers shall be securely fastened to the truck bed.
(m) Air line hook-up. Tractors hauling heavy duty highway trailers shall have an air line brake hook-up.
(n) Floor mats. On power-driven vehicles where the operator stands on a platform, resilient foot mats shall be securely attached.
(o) Cleaning vehicles. All power-propelled vehicles shall be cleaned at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dust and grease that may present a hazard.
(7) Forklift trucks.
(a) Overhead guards.
(i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards shall be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects.
(ii) Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches (15.24 cm) in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard.
(iii) Overhead guards shall be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.
(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.
(v) Overhead guards shall be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.
(b) Supplies to ship's rail. Cargo or supplies shall not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading.
(c) Position of forks. When standing, lift forklift forks shall be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks shall be kept as low as possible.
(d) Forklift use in gangplank moving. Not less than two forklifts shall be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded.
(e) Forklift seat covers. Seats on forklifts shall be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather.
(f) Raised equipment to be blocked. Workers shall not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall be used in conjunction with the jack.
(g) Maximum speed. The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks shall not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit shall be prominently posted on such docks.
(h) Load backrest extensions. Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks shall be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.
(i) Forks. Forks, fork extensions and other attachments shall be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(j) Counterweights. Counterweights shall be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.
(k) Capacities and weights.
(i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, shall not be exceeded. Rated capacities shall be marked on the vehicle and shall be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, shall be similarly marked.
(ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load shall not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.
(l) Lifting of employees. Employees may be elevated by forklift trucks only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform shall meet the following requirements:
(i) The platform shall have a railing complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).
(ii) The platform shall have toeboards complying with WAC 296-56-60123(4), if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.
(iii) When the truck has controls which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(iv) Employees on the platform shall be protected from exposure to moving truck parts.
(v) The platform floor shall be skid resistant.
(vi) A truck operator shall be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage.
When the truck has controls elevated with the
lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the
platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(viii))) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments.
(8) Bulk cargo-moving vehicles.
(a) Where a seated operator may come into contact with projecting overhead members, crawler-type bulk-cargo-moving vehicles that are rider operated shall be equipped with operator guards.
(b) Guards and their attachment points shall be so designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.
(c) After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles shall be equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a rollover or upset.
(9) Straddle trucks.
(a) Accessibility. Straddle trucks shall have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent.
(i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels shall be guarded as follows:
(A) The upper sprocket shall be fully enclosed;
(B) The upper half of the lower sprocket shall be enclosed; and
(C) The drive chain shall be enclosed to a height of eight feet (2.44 m) except for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket.
(ii) Gears shall be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator shall be guarded.
(iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel-deflecting guards shall be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels.
(c) Visibility. Operator visibility shall be provided in all directions of movement.
(10) Trailer-spotting tractors.
(a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) shall be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel.
(b) Rear cab windows shall be of safety glass or equivalent material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-21-103, § 296-56-60077, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01; 00-01-176, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/21/99, effective 3/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60077, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60077, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60077, filed 12/11/84.]
(a) The weight of the container when empty, in pounds;
(b) The maximum cargo weight the container is designed to carry, in pounds; and
(c) The sum of the maximum weight of the container with cargo, in pounds (gross container capacity).
(2) No container shall be hoisted by any crane or derrick unless the following conditions have been met:
(a) The employer shall ascertain from the carrier whether a container to be hoisted is loaded or empty. Empty containers shall be identified before loading or discharge in such a manner as will inform every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of loading or discharging, and every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, that the container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests or markings on the container.
(b) In the case of a loaded container:
(i) The actual gross weight shall be plainly marked so as to be visible to the crane operator, other hoisting equipment operator, signalman, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation; or
(ii) The cargo stowage plan or equivalent permanently recorded display serving the same purpose, containing the actual gross weight and the serial number or other positive identification of that specific container, shall be provided to the crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation.
(c) Every outbound loaded container which is received at a marine terminal ready to load aboard a vessel without further consolidation or loading shall be weighed to obtain the actual gross weight before being hoisted.
(d)(i) When container weighing scales are located at a marine terminal, any outbound container with a load consolidated at that terminal shall be weighed to obtain an actual weight before being hoisted.
(ii) If the terminal has no scales, the actual gross weight may be calculated on the basis of the container's contents and the container's empty weight. The weights used in the calculation shall be posted conspicuously on the container, with the name of the person making the calculation and the date.
(iii) Container weights shall be subject to random sample weight checks at the nearest weighing facility. In cases where such weight checks or experience otherwise indicate consistently inaccurate weights, the weight of containers so calculated at the source from which the inaccurate weights originated shall no longer be recognized as true gross weights. Such containers shall not be hoisted unless actual gross weights have been obtained by weighing.
(e) The following containers are exempted from the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection:
(i) Open type vehicle containers.
(ii) The container is marked on the outside in such a manner that an employee can readily discern that the container is carrying vehicles.
(iii) Containers built specifically for the carriage of compressed gases.
(iv) The container carries only completely assembled vehicles and no other cargo.
(v) The vehicles were loaded into the container at the marine terminal.
(f) The weight of loaded inbound containers from foreign ports shall be determined by weighing or by the method of calculation described in (d)(ii) of this subsection or by shipping documents.
(g) Any scale used within Washington state to weigh containers for the purpose of the requirements of this section shall meet the accuracy standards of the state or local public authority in which the scale is located.
(3) No container shall be hoisted if its actual gross weight exceeds the weight marked as required in subsection (1)(c) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device intended to be used.
(4)(a) Marked or designated areas shall be set aside within a container or roll-on roll-off terminal for passage of employees to and from active cargo transfer points, except where transportation to and from those points is provided by the employer.
(b) The employer shall direct employees to stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container. Employees shall stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container.
(5) Each employee working in the immediate area of container handling equipment or in the terminal's traffic lanes shall wear a high visibility vest (or equivalent protection).
Note to subsection (5): High visibility vests or equivalent protection means high visibility/retroreflective materials which are intended to provide conspicuity of the user by day through the use of high visibility (fluorescent) material and in the dark by vehicle headlights through the use of retroreflective material. The minimum area of material for a vest or equivalent protection is .5m(2)(760 in.(2)) for fluorescent (background) material and .13m(2)(197 in.(2)) for retroreflective material. Vests or equivalent protection, such as high visibility/retro-reflective coveralls, that are available for industrial use, may also be acceptable.
(6) Containers shall be handled using lifting fittings or other arrangements suitable and intended for the purposes as set forth in (a) and (c) of this subsection, unless when damage to an intermodal container makes special means of handling necessary.
(a) Loaded intermodal containers of twenty feet (6.1 m) or more in length shall be hoisted as follows:
(i) When hoisting by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall be applied vertically from at least four top fittings or by means which will safely lift the container without damage. The lifting fittings provided shall be used.
(A) The container being lifted is an ISO closed box container;
(B) The condition of the box is sound;
(C) The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers are encountered;
(D) The lift angle is at eighty to ninety degrees;
(E) The distance between the lifting beam and the load is at least eight feet and 2.4 inches (2.5m); and
(F) The length of the spreader beam is at least 16.3 feet (5 m) for a twenty-foot container, and at least 36.4 feet (11.1 m) for a forty-foot container.
(ii) If hoisted from bottom fittings, the hoisting connections shall bear on the fittings only, making no other contact with the container. The angles of the four bridle legs shall not be less than thirty degrees to the horizontal in the case of forty foot (12.2 m) containers, thirty-seven degrees in the case of thirty foot (9.1 m) containers, or forty-five degrees in the case of twenty foot (6.1 m) containers.
(iii) Lifting containers by fork lift trucks or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for this type of handling.
(b) Other means of hoisting may be used only if the containers and hoisting means are designed for such use.
(c)(i) When using intermodal container spreaders that employ lanyards for activation of load disengagement, all possible precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental release of the load.
(ii) Intermodal container spreader twistlock systems shall be designed and used so that a suspended load cannot accidentally be released.
(d) Flat bed trucks or container chassis used to move intermodal containers shall be equipped with pins, flanges, or other means to prevent the container from shifting.
(e) Flat bed, low boy trailers (mafis) and other similar equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be overloaded.
(f) Each tractor shall have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and shall have the brakes tested before commencing operations.
(7)(a) Intermodal containers shall be inspected for defects in structural members or fittings before handling.
(b) Any intermodal container found to be unsafe shall be identified as such, promptly removed from service and repaired before being returned to service.
(8) Containers shall not be hoisted unless all engaged chassis twist locks are released.
(9) Vertical tandem lifts. The following requirements apply to operations involving the lifting of two or more intermodal containers by the top container (vertical tandem lifts of VTLs).
(a) Each employee involved in VTL operations shall be trained and competent in the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments.
(b) No more than two intermodal containers may be lifted in a VTL.
(c) Before the lift begins, the employer shall ensure that the two containers lifted as part of a VTL are empty.
|Note:||The lift begins immediately following the end of the prelift required by subsection (9)(c) of this section. Thus, the weight may be determined during the prelift using a load indicating device meeting WAC 296-56-60085 (1)(a) on the crane being used to the lift the VTL.|
(i) Has the precision control necessary to restrain unintended rotation of the containers about any axis;
(ii) Is capable of handling the load volume and wind sail potential of VTLs; and
(iii) Is specifically designed to handle containers.
(e) The employer shall ensure that the crane operator pauses the lift when the vertically coupled containers have just been lifted above the supporting surface to assure that each interbox connector is properly engaged.
(f) Containers below deck may not be handled as a VTL.
(g) VTL operations may not be conducted when the wind speed exceeds the lesser of:
(i) Fifty-five km/h (thirty-four mph or thirty knots); or
(ii) The crane manufacturer's recommendation for maximum wind speed.
(h) The employer shall ensure that each interbox connector used in a VTL operation:
(i) Automatically locks into corner castings on containers but only unlocks manually (manual twistlocks or latchlocks are not permitted);
(ii) Is designed to indicate whether it is locked or unlocked when fitted into a corner casting;
(iii) Locks and releases in an identical direction and manner as all other interbox connectors in the VTL;
(iv) Has been tested and certificated by a competent authority of this chapter (for interbox connectors that are a part of a vessel's gear) or WAC 296-56-60093 (for other interbox connectors):
(A) As having a load-bearing surface area of eight hundred mm\two\ when connected to a corner casting with an opening that is sixty-five mm wide; and
(B) As having a safe working load of ninety-eight kN (ten thousand kg) with a safety factor of five when the load is applied by means of two corner castings with openings that are sixty-five mm wide or equivalent devices;
(v) Has a certificate that is available for inspection and that attests that the interbox connector meets the strength criteria given in subsection (9)(h)(iv) of this section; and
(vi) Is clearly and durably marked with its safe working load for lifting and an identifying number or mark that will enable it to be associated with its test certificate.
(j) The employer shall ensure that each container and interbox connector used in a VTL and each corner casting to which a connector will be coupled is inspected immediately before use in the VTL.
(i) Each employee performing the inspection shall be capable of detecting defects or weaknesses and be able to assess their importance in relation to the safety of VTL operations.
(ii) The inspection of each interbox connector shall include: A visual examination for obvious structural defects, such as cracks, a check of its physical operation to determine that the lock is fully functional with adequate spring tension on each head; and a check for excessive corrosion and deterioration.
(iii) The inspection of each container and each of its corner castings shall include: A visual examination for obvious structural defects, such as cracks, a check for excessive corrosion and deterioration; and a visual examination to ensure that the opening to which an interbox connector will be connected has not been enlarged, that the welds are in good condition, and that it is free from ice, mud, or other debris.
(iv) The employer shall establish a system to ensure that each defective or damaged interbox connector is removed from service.
(v) An interbox connector that has been found to be defective or damaged shall be removed from service and may not be used in VTL operations until repaired.
(vi) A container with a corner casting that exhibits any of the problems listed in subsection (9)(j)(iii) of this section may not be lifted in a VTL.
(k) No platform container may be lifted as part of a VTL unit.
(10) Transporting vertically coupled containers.
(a) Equipment other than cranes used to transport vertically connected containers shall be either specifically designed for this application or evaluated by a qualified engineer and determined to be capable of operating safely in this mode of operation.
(b) The employer shall develop, implement, and maintain a written plan for transporting vertically connected containers. The written plan shall establish procedures to ensure safe operating and turning speeds and shall address all conditions in the terminal that could affect the safety of VTL-related operations, including communication and coordination among all employees involved in these operations.
(11) Safe work zone. The employer shall establish a safe work zone within which employees may not be present when vertically connected containers are in motion.
(a) The safe work zone shall be sufficient to protect employees in the event that a container drops or overturns.
(b) The written transport plan required by subsection (10)(b) of this section shall include the safe work zone and procedures to ensure that employees are not in this zone when a VTL is in motion.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-21-103, § 296-56-60103, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60103, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60103, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-56-60103, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60103, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60103, filed 12/11/84.]
(a) Employees performing work that requires special protective clothing shall be directed by the employer to wear the necessary special protective clothing.
(b) When necessary, protective clothing previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before reissuance.
(2) Personal flotation devices.
(a) The employer shall provide, and shall direct the wearing of personal flotation devices for those employees, such as line handlers, who are engaged in work in which they may be pulled into the water:
(i) When such employees are working in isolation: or
(ii) Where physical limitations of available working space creates a hazard of falling into the water; or
(iii) Where the work area is obstructed by cargo or other obstacles so as to prevent employees from obtaining safe footing for their work.
(b) Employees working on, over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with and shall wear approved personal flotation devices.
(i) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:
(A) Working behind standard height and strength guardrails;
(B) Working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidental falling into the water;
(C) Wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water.
(ii) Prior to and after each use, personal flotation devices shall be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness. Defective personal flotation devices shall not be used.
(iii) To meet the requirement of (b) of this subsection,
a personal flotation device shall be approved by the United
States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD,
or Type V PFD, or equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast
Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23
(Coast Guard Table of Devices Equivalent to Personal Flotation
Ski belt or inflatable type personal flotation
devices are specifically prohibited.))
(c) Life rings.
(i) Along docks, walkways or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with line attached shall be provided. The life rings shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.
(ii) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with line attached shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work.
(iii) Work assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall exceeds fifty feet, is subject to specific procedures approved by the department.
(iv) Lines attached to life rings shall be at least ninety feet (27.43 m) in length, at least one-quarter inch in diameter and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds.
(v) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty inch size (76.2 cm).
(vi) Life rings and attached lines must be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.
(3) Emergency facilities. When employees are exposed to hazardous substances which may require emergency bathing, eye washing or other facilities, the employer shall provide such facilities and maintain them in good working order.
(4) Employers shall instruct employees to report every injury, regardless of severity, to the employer.
(a) There shall be available for each vessel being worked one Stokes basket stretcher, or its equivalent, permanently equipped with bridles for attaching to the hoisting gear.
(b) Stretchers shall be kept close to vessels and shall be positioned to avoid damage to the stretcher.
(c) A blanket or other suitable covering shall be available.
(d) Stretchers shall have at least four sets of effective patient restraints in operable condition.
(e) Lifting bridles shall be of adequate strength, capable of lifting 1,000 pounds (454 kg) with a safety factor of five, and shall be maintained in operable condition. Lifting bridles shall be provided for making vertical patient lifts at container berths. Stretchers for vertical lifts shall have foot plates.
(f) Stretchers shall be maintained in operable condition. Struts and braces shall be inspected for damage. Wire mesh shall be secured and have no burrs. Damaged stretchers shall not be used until repaired.
(g) Stretchers in permanent locations shall be mounted to prevent damage and shall be protected from the elements if located out-of-doors. If concealed from view, closures shall be marked to indicate the location of the life saving equipment.
(6) Telephone or equivalent means of communication shall be readily available.
(7) Employees working on any bridge or structure leading to a detached vessel berthing installation shall wear United States Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices except where protected by railings, nets, or safety belts and lifelines.
(8) Life ladders. On all docks there shall be substantial built-in-place ladders, spaced at intervals not to exceed four hundred feet, to reach the lowest water use. When portable ladders are to be used, ladders may be bolted to the bullrail or dock structure, or ladders can be secured to an embedded eye bolt in a concrete dock surface. The immediate area where such ladders or fastenings are located shall be painted with a bright color or of a color which contrasts with the surrounding area. There shall be a ladder at each end of the dock.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-11-066, § 296-56-60115, filed 5/18/04, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-21-103, § 296-56-60115, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60115, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60115, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60115, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60115, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60115, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Active work areas shall be lighted in such a manner that the general area being worked will be illuminated at a minimum intensity of approximately five foot candles measured thirty inches above the dock floor. Supplemental lighting shall be utilized where more than the minimum intensity is necessary for safe operation.
(a) The lighting intensity shall be measured at the task/working surface in the plane in which the task/working surface is present.
(b) Lights shall, so far as possible, be placed so that they will not shine in the eyes of employees.
(2) A minimum of three foot candles illumination measured in the manner described above shall be maintained at all points along the bull rail.
(3) The quality of light shall be such that it is reasonably free from glare, and has correct direction, diffusion, and distribution.
(4) Lighting shall not be obstructed by any placement of cargo, structures or other objects which might create a shadow in the work area. Portable lighting shall be provided in those areas that do not meet the minimum requirements of this subsection.
(5) Portable illumination.
(a) All walking and working areas shall be illuminated.
(b) Portable lights shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Portable lights shall be equipped with reflectors and guards to prevent flammable and other material from coming in contact with the bulb, except that guards are not required where the construction of the reflector is such that the bulb is recessed.
(ii) Portable lights shall be equipped with heavy duty electric cords. They may be suspended by such cords only when the means of attachment of the cord to the light is such as to prevent the light from being suspended by the electrical connections.
(iii) All connections and insulation shall be maintained.
(iv) Lighting wires and fixtures for portable lights shall be so arranged as to be free from contact with drafts, running gear, or other moving equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60221, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60221, filed 12/11/84.]
(2) Hot work in confined spaces. Hot work shall not be
performed in a confined space until all requirements of
296-62)) 296-809 WAC, (( Part M,)) are met.
(3) Fire protection.
(a) To the extent possible, hot work shall be performed in designated locations that are free of fire hazards.
(b) When hot work must be performed in a location that is not free of fire hazards, all necessary precautions shall be taken to confine heat, sparks, and slag so that they cannot contact flammable or combustible material.
(c) Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for the location shall be immediately available and shall be maintained in readiness for use at all times.
(d) When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire hazard remains. The employer shall instruct all employees involved in hot work operations as to potential fire hazards and the use of fire fighting equipment.
(e) Drums and containers which contain or have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed from the hot work area.
(f) When openings or cracks in flooring cannot be closed, precautions shall be taken to ensure that no employees or flammable or combustible materials are exposed to sparks dropping through the floor. Similar precautions shall be taken regarding cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows.
(g) Hot work shall not be performed:
(i) In flammable or potentially flammable atmospheres;
(ii) On or in equipment or tanks that have contained flammable gas or liquid or combustible liquid or dust-producing material, until a designated person has tested the atmosphere inside the equipment or tanks and determined that it is not hazardous; or
(iii) Near any area in which exposed readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper or cotton are stored. Bulk sulphur is excluded from this prohibition if suitable precautions are followed, the person in charge is knowledgeable and the person performing the work has been instructed in preventing and extinguishing sulphur fires.
(h)(i) Drums, containers or hollow structures that have contained flammable or combustible substances shall either be filled with water or cleaned, and shall then be ventilated. A designated person shall test the atmosphere and determine that it is not hazardous before hot work is performed on or in such structures.
(ii) Before heat is applied to a drum, container or hollow structure, an opening to release built-up pressure during heat application shall be provided.
(4) Gas welding and cutting.
(a) Compressed gas cylinders:
(i) Shall have valve protection caps in place except when in use, hooked up or secured for movement. Oil shall not be used to lubricate caps;
(ii) Shall be hoisted only while secured, as on a cradle or pallet, and shall not be hoisted by magnet, choker sling or cylinder caps;
(iii) Shall be moved only by tilting or rolling on their bottom edges;
(iv) Shall be secured when moved by vehicle;
(v) Shall be secured while in use;
(vi) Shall have valves closed when cylinders are empty, being moved or stored;
(vii) Shall be secured upright except when hoisted or carried;
(viii) Shall not be freed when frozen by prying the valves or caps with bars or by hitting the valve with a tool;
(ix) Shall not be thawed by boiling water;
(x) Shall not be exposed to sparks, hot slag, or flame;
(xi) Shall not be permitted to become part of electrical circuits or have electrodes struck against them to strike arcs;
(xii) Shall not be used as rollers or supports;
(xiii) Shall not have contents used for purposes not authorized by the supplier;
(xiv) Shall not be used if damaged or defective;
(xv) Shall not have gases mixed within, except by gas suppliers;
(xvi) Shall be stored so that oxygen cylinders are separated from fuel gas cylinders and combustible materials by either a minimum distance of twenty feet (6.1 m) or a barrier having a fire-resistance rating of thirty minutes; and
(xvii) Shall not have objects that might either damage the safety device or obstruct the valve placed on top of the cylinder when in use.
(b) Use of fuel gas. Fuel gas shall be used only as follows:
(i) Before regulators are connected to cylinder valves, the valves shall be opened slightly (cracked) and closed immediately to clear away dust or dirt. Valves shall not be cracked if gas could reach possible sources of ignition;
(ii) Cylinder valves shall be opened slowly to prevent regulator damage and shall not be opened more than one and one-half turns. Any special wrench required for emergency closing shall be positioned on the valve stem during cylinder use. For manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one wrench shall be immediately available. Nothing shall be placed on top of a cylinder or associated parts when the cylinder is in use;
(iii) Pressure-reducing regulators shall be attached to cylinder valves when cylinders are supplying torches or devices equipped with shut-off valves;
(iv) Cylinder valves shall be closed and gas released from the regulator or manifold before regulators are removed;
(v) Leaking fuel gas cylinder valves shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If the leak continues, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous. If a regulator attached to a valve stops a leak, the cylinder need not be removed from the workplace but shall be tagged and may not be used again before it is repaired; and
(vi) If a plug or safety device leaks, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.
(i) Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be easily distinguishable from each other by color or sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel hoses shall not be interchangeable. Hoses having more than one gas passage shall not be used.
(ii) When oxygen and fuel gas hoses are taped together, not more than four of each twelve inches (10.16 cm of each 30.48 cm) shall be taped.
(iii) Hose shall be inspected before use. Hose subjected to flashback or showing evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal working pressure but not less than two hundred p.s.i. (1378.96 kPa) before reuse. Defective hose shall not be used.
(iv) Hose couplings shall not unlock or disconnect without rotary motion.
(v) Hose connections shall be clamped or securely fastened to withstand twice the normal working pressure but not less than three hundred p.s.i. (2068.44 kPa) without leaking.
(vi) Gas hose storage boxes shall be ventilated.
(i) Torch tip openings shall only be cleaned with devices designed for that purpose.
(ii) Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches with such defects shall not be used.
(iii) Torches shall not be lighted from matches, cigarette lighters, other flames or hot work.
(e) Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators, including associated gauges, shall be maintained in safe working order.
(f) Operational precaution. Gas welding equipment shall be maintained free of oil and grease.
(5) Arc welding and cutting.
(a) Manual electrode holders.
(i) The employer shall ensure that only manual electrode holders intended for arc welding and cutting and capable of handling the maximum current required for such welding or cutting shall be used.
(ii) Current-carrying parts passing through those portions of the holder gripped by the user and through the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be insulated against the maximum voltage to ground.
(b) Welding cables and connectors.
(i) Arc welding and cutting cables shall be insulated, flexible and capable of handling the maximum current required by the operation, taking into account the duty cycles.
(ii) Only cable free from repair or splice for ten feet (3 m) from the electrode holder shall be used unless insulated connectors or splices with insulating quality equal to that of the cable are provided.
(iii) When a cable other than the lead mentioned in (b)(ii) of this subsection wears and exposes bare conductors, the portion exposed shall not be used until it is protected by insulation equivalent in performance capacity to the original.
(iv) Insulated connectors of equivalent capacity shall be used for connecting or splicing cable. Cable lugs, where used as connectors, shall provide electrical contact. Exposed metal parts shall be insulated.
(c) Ground returns and machine grounding.
(i) Ground return cables shall have current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(ii) Structures or pipelines, other than those containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used in the ground return circuit if their current-carrying capacity equals or exceeds the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(iii) Structures or pipelines forming a temporary ground return circuit shall have electrical contact at all joints. Arcs, sparks or heat at any point in the circuit shall cause rejection as a ground circuit.
(iv) Structures or pipelines acting continuously as ground return circuits shall have joints bonded and maintained to ensure that no electrolysis or fire hazard exists.
(v) Arc welding and cutting machine frames shall be grounded, either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire at the source of the current. Grounding circuits shall have resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(vi) Ground connections shall be mechanically and electrically adequate to carry the current.
(d) When electrode holders are left unattended, electrodes shall be removed and holders placed to prevent employee injury.
(e) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water.
(f) The employer shall ensure that when arc welders or cutters leave or stop work or when machines are moved, the power supply switch is kept in the off position.
(g) Arc welding or cutting equipment having a functional defect shall not be used.
(h)(i) Arc welding and cutting operations shall be separated from other operations by shields, screens, or curtains to protect employees in the vicinity from the direct rays and sparks of the arc.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, they shall wear filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(i) The control apparatus of arc welding machines shall be enclosed, except for operating wheels, levers, and handles.
(j) Input power terminals, top change devices and live metal parts connected to input circuits shall be enclosed and accessible only by means of insulated tools.
(k) When arc welding is performed in wet or high-humidity conditions, employees shall use additional protection, such as rubber pads or boots, against electric shock.
(6) Ventilation and employee protection in welding, cutting and heating.
(a) Mechanical ventilation requirements. The employer shall ensure that general mechanical ventilation or local exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:
(i) General mechanical ventilation shall maintain vapors, fumes and smoke below a hazardous level;
(ii) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of movable hoods positioned close to the work and shall be of such capacity and arrangement as to keep breathing zone concentrations below hazardous levels;
(iii) Exhausts from working spaces shall be discharged into the open air, clear of intake air sources;
(iv) Replacement air shall be clean and respirable; and
(v) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation, cooling or cleaning clothing or work areas.
(b) Hot work in confined spaces. Except as specified in
(c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection, when hot work is
performed in a confined space the employer shall, in addition
to the requirements of chapter ((
296-62)) 296-809 WAC, (( Part
M,)) ensure that:
(i) General mechanical or local exhaust ventilations shall be provided; or
(ii) Employees in the space shall wear respirators in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC.
(c) Welding, cutting or heating of toxic metals.
(i) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation that ensures that employees are not exposed to hazardous levels of fumes:
(A) Lead base metals;
(B) Cadmium-bearing filler materials; and
(C) Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
(ii) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of this subsection or by employees wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC;
(A) Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials;
(B) Metals containing lead other than as an impurity, or coated with lead-bearing materials;
(C) Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; and
(D) Metals coated with mercury-bearing materials.
(iii) Employees performing hot work in confined or enclosed spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by local exhaust ventilation and wear supplied air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees performing hot work in the open air that involves any of the metals listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC and those working on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by supplied air respirators, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(v) Any employee exposed to the same atmosphere as the welder or burner shall be protected by the same type of respiratory and other protective equipment as that worn by the welder or burner.
(d) Inert-gas metal-arc welding. Employees shall not engage in and shall not be exposed to the inert-gas metal-arc welding process unless the following precautions are taken:
(i) Chlorinated solvents shall not be used within two hundred feet (61 m) of the exposed arc. Surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is performed on them.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section shall be worn to protect against flashes and radiant energy.
(iii) Employees exposed to radiation shall have their skin covered completely to prevent ultraviolet burns and damage. Helmets and hand shields shall not have leaks, openings or highly reflective surfaces.
(iv) Inert-gas metal-arc welding on stainless steel shall not be performed unless exposed employees are protected either by local exhaust ventilation or by wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC.
(7) Welding, cutting and heating on preservative coatings.
(a) Before hot work is commenced on surfaces covered by a preservative coating of unknown flammability, a test shall be made by a designated person to determine the coating's flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
(b) Appropriate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. Highly flammable coatings shall be stripped from the area to be heated. An uncoiled fire hose with fog nozzle, under pressure, shall be immediately available in the hot work area.
(c) Surfaces covered with preservative coatings shall be
stripped for at least four inches (10.16 cm) from the area of
heat application or employees shall be protected by supplied
air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter
296-62)) 296-842 WAC.
(8) Protection against radiant energy.
(a) Employees shall be protected from radiant energy eye hazards by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields or face shields with filter lenses complying with the requirements of this subsection.
(b) Filter lenses shall have an appropriate shade number, as indicated in Table G-1, for the work performed. Variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.
(c) If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under the helmet, the shade numbers of both lenses equals the value shown in Table G-1 for the operation.
|Table G-1. -- Filter Lenses for Protection
Against Radiant Energy
|Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . .||2|
|Torch Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . .||3 or 4|
|Light cutting, up to 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||3 or 4|
|Medium cutting, 1-6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . .||4 or 5|
|Heavy cutting, over 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . .||5 or 6|
|Light gas welding, up to 1/8 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||4 or 5|
|Medium gas welding, 1/8-1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||5 or 6|
|Heavy gas welding, over 1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||6 or 8|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1/16 to
5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .
|Inert gas Metal-Arc Welding (nonferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .||11|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding:|
|3/16 to 1/4-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .||12|
| 5/16 and 3/8-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-56-60235, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-21-103, § 296-56-60235, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, § 296-56-60235, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60235, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60235, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60235, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60235, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60235, filed 12/11/84.]