WSR 09-17-136

PROPOSED RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed August 19, 2009, 11:17 a.m. ]

Original Notice.

Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 09-05-054.

Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Amendment of chapter 51-11 WAC, Washington State Energy Code (WSEC).

Hearing Location(s): Holiday Inn Select Renton, One Grady Way South, Renton, WA, on September 29, 2009, at 10:00 a.m.; and at the Spokane City Council Chambers, West 808 Spokane Falls Boulevard, Spokane, WA, on October 5, 2009, at 9:00 a.m.

Date of Intended Adoption: November 12, 2009.

Submit Written Comments to: Peter DeVries, Council Chair, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525, e-mail sbcc@commerce.wa.gov, fax (360) 586-9383, by October 5, 2009.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Sue Mathers by September 15, 2009, TTY (360) 586-0772 or (360) 725-2966.

Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The proposed rules amend the WSEC. The WSEC has been extensively revised and reformatted. The council received a request from Governor Gregoire to increase stringency over the 2006 Energy Code by 30%, in keeping with the recommendations from the climate action team. The council is also working on transitioning to the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), and some initial reformatting changes have been incorporated to assist in that effort. In addition, the Energy Policy Act and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act require that states meet minimum standards for energy codes, the IECC for residential buildings and ASHRAE 90.1 for commercial buildings. Modifications were made to the WSEC to bring stringency values up to the most recent edition of these national model codes. The following is a list of the major changes to the WSEC. General changes to update referenced standards, terminology, or providing editorial changes are not noted below.

Chapter 1: The scope of the residential portion (Chapters 1-6) of the WSEC is changed to cover only buildings constructed under the International Residential Code (IRC), now referred to as "Single-Family Residential." All other residential construction would need to comply with Chapters 11 through 15 (throughout).

References are added for the new Chapter 9 requirements (Section 101.2).

When existing HVAC equipment is updated, the ducts associated with those systems must be tested (Section 101.3.2.6).

A list of insulation R-values and glazing U-factors and SHGCs is required to be posted near electrical panel (Section 101.5).

Chapter 2: Definitions have been added and modified to conform to proposed changes.

Chapter 3: Outdoor design temperatures have been added to the code to eliminate the need to go to an additional reference document (Section 302).

The VIAQ is proposed to be integrated into the IRC, so the references are updated to reflect that proposal (Section 303).

Chapter 4: Provisions for space cooling and domestic hot water are added to the systems analysis requirements (Section 402).

See also Chapter 9.

Chapter 5: References to new Chapter 9 requirements are added (throughout).

Insulation details are updated to reflect best practices (Section 502/1311.2).

Unvented attic provisions went through public hearing last year and were approved by the council in January, but must sit through a legislative session prior to becoming effective (Sections 502.1.6.3/1313.2).

Requirements for air leakage control are added (Section 502.4.5).

Requirements for variable speed motors on air handling equipment are added (Section 503.4.1).

Requirements for controls have been expanded and revised (Section 503.8).

Duct leakage testing protocols have been modified (Section 503.10.2).

Water heaters must meet minimum efficiency requirements (Sections 504.2.1, 1440).

Swimming pool and spa provisions have been revised (Section 504.5).

Half of installed luminaires are required to have high efficacy lamps (Section 505.1).

Table 5-1 has been revised. Some requirements are more stringent, and the format is closer to that found in the IECC.

Tables 5-12/14-6 have been updated for consistency with national standards.

Chapter 6: Both climate zones share the same prescriptive table. References to Table 6-2 have been removed. Table 6-1 has been reduced to three paths.

See also Chapter 9.

Chapter 7: Reference standards have been updated. Two additional standards have been added for duct testing and commissioning.

Chapter 8: Systems analysis software listing has been updated.

Chapter 9: New Chapter 9 requires that single-family residences achieve additional energy savings through compliance with one or more of the listed options.

Chapter 10: Default tables have been expanded and updated for ease of use. Some values have been changed for consistency with national standards. The small business window default table was updated to provide paths for compliance with the proposed code. Duct sealing, testing required for both residential and nonresidential systems.

Chapter 11: All residential construction other than single-family and townhouses would need to comply with Chapters 11 through 15, along with all nonresidential construction.

Controls are required to integrate economizer operation on replaced space cooling equipment (1132.2).

The threshold for lighting alterations to comply with Chapter 15 has been lowered to 20% (Section 1132.3).

A threshold trigger has been added for building commissioning (Section 1135).

Chapter 12: A new chapter has been added to require specific building meters for certain building types.

Chapter 13: New requirements for cold and refrigerated storage have been added (Sections 1310, 1416, 1437, 1460-1465).

Requirements and testing for air leakage control and air barriers are added, including a requirement for vestibules (Section 1314).

Clarification added that area-weighted averaging of R-values is not allowed (Section 1322).

Requirement for low-e coating added for glazing assemblies (Section 1323).

New allowance for projection factor for window shading, allowing a reduced SHGC (Section 1323.3).

New restriction in use of Seattle EnvStd for showing compliance (Section 1331).

Tables 13-1 and 13-2 have been reformatted to look more like those found in the IECC and to incorporate Group R requirements. Stringency is also increased for some components. Glazing area reduced to 40% of wall area.

Chapter 14: New requirement for documentation of mechanical equipment efficiency ratings have been added (Section 1411).

New limitations placed on air-cooled chillers (Section 1411).

Method provided for rating nonstandard water-chilled systems (Section 141.2.1).

New requirements added for heating unenclosed spaces (Section 1411.5).

New lighting and HVAC control requirements added for hotel/motel guest rooms (Sections 1412.4, 1513.7).

New requirements for motorized dampers, damper controls (Section 1412.4.1).

Proposed lower threshold for optimum start controls, DCV systems (Section 1412.4.2, 1412.8).

New requirements for parking garage ventilation controls (Section 1412.9).

New requirements for duct testing proposed (Section 1414).

Requirements for building commissioning have been rewritten, and a new checklist provided (Section 1416).

Modification of qualifications for simple systems (Section 1421).

Modifications to economizer requirements, exceptions (Sections 1413, 1423, 1433).

New requirements for system sizing (Section 1421.1 and 1431.1).

New requirements for temperature reset controls (Section 1432.2).

New requirements for hydronic systems to reduce pump energy (Sections 1432.3, 1432.4).

Modifications to complex system controls (Sections 1432.5, 1435).

Expansion of requirements for heat recovery (Sections 1436, 1445, 1455).

Revised flow systems and extend variable speed drive requirements to motors 5 hp and above (Section 1438).

Revised requirements for exhaust systems (Section 1439).

Requirement for individual hot water meters in multi-family residential buildings (Section 1446).

Equipment efficiency tables updated (Tables 14-1A-G).

Revised tables for electric motor efficiency (Tables 14-4A, 14-4B).

Chapter 15: The lists of exempt spaces and exempt lighting equipment have been modified (Section 1512).

Daylighting, and the controls for daylight zones, have been modified to include primary and secondary zones (Section 1513.3 and the Definition of Daylight Zone).

New lighting and HVAC control requirements added for hotel/motel guest rooms (Sections 1412.4, 1513.7).

New requirements for controls of egress lighting (Section 1515).

Additional lighting power allowance table added for space-by-space calculations (Table 15-1B).

Lighting power allowance is decreased in most occupancy uses (Table 15-1A).

Table 15-2 revised for consistency with ASHRAE 90.1; divided into four exterior lighting zones (Tables 15-2A and 15-2B).

New section provided for regulation of, and controls for, moving walkways and escalators (Section 1550).

RS-29: RS-29 has been replaced with an amended version of ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G to make it more user-friendly and compatible with the LEED process.

Reasons Supporting Proposal: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Agency Comments or Recommendations, if any, as to Statutory Language, Implementation, Enforcement, and Fiscal Matters: The council is seeking comments on the issues proposed in the rules shown below.

Name of Proponent: Washington state building code council, governmental.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting and Implementation: Krista Braaksma, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525, (360) 725-2964; and Enforcement: Local jurisdictions.

A small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW.

Small Business Economic Impact Statement

Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to comply with the requirements of chapter 19.85 RCW, Regulatory Fairness Act, to examine whether proposed rules will have a disproportionate impact on small businesses.

Introduction: The state building code council is proposing to adopt the 2009 version of the Washington State Energy Code (chapter 51-11 WAC). The following sections were identified by the council's economic and regulatory assessment committee (ERAC) as having a potential disproportionate cost impact to small business:

Tables 5-1 and 6-1 Envelope requirements (IRC buildings).
Section 502.4.5 Air leakage testing (IRC buildings).
Chapter 9 "Additional requirements" (IRC buildings).
Table 13, Envelope requirements, commercial buildings (all buildings except IRC buildings).
Section 1314.7 Air barrier (all buildings except IRC buildings).
A small business is defined as any business that has fifty or fewer employees, RCW 19.85.020.

The IRC is the International Residential Code and covers one and two family dwellings and townhouses.

The council appointed a technical advisory group (TAG) to do a comprehensive review and analysis of proposed changes to the Washington State Energy Code, submitted to the council by March 1, 2009. The TAG held weekly meetings over a four month period. All proposed state amendments were examined. The TAG identified items with more than a minor first cost impact and referred these items to be reviewed by ERAC.

The council members and participants are [a] representative sample of individuals involved in the building construction industry. The participants included: Architects, home builders, building officials, contractors, fire officials, energy professionals, manufacturers, engineers, plumbers, state and local officials, inspectors, industry associations and organizations, companies and business, electricians, and the general public. See directory of TAG and council members.

Brief Description of Compliance Requirements:

Tables 5-1 and 6-1 Envelope requirements, (IRC buildings): The proposed rule amends the WSEC tables 5-1 and 6-1, building envelope requirements for IRC buildings, to increase energy efficiency by reducing heat loss and heat gain. The proposed rule increases insulation for floors, walls and roofs; decreases U value (thermal transmittance) for fenestration (windows and skylights); decreases U value for doors.

Reporting and record-keeping requirements: The proposed rule would not impact the reporting and/or record keeping required to comply. Reporting and record keeping would remain the same as the current rule.

Associated costs: Reports submitted to the TAG showed a cost of between $1 per square foot and $1.25 per square foot depending on the size of the house.

Associated costs of equipment, supplies, labor, professional services and administrative costs are included in the cost of compliance.

The TAG identified a disproportionate impact on small business window manufacturers to meet proposed vertical fenestration U values (thermal transmittance value). The cost of testing sample production units to meet National Fenestration Rating Council standards would be disproportionate due to the production process. A comparison per one hundred dollars of sales shows a disproportionate cost for small manufacturers to test and label product. Large window manufacturers, due to volume of production, have a cost per unit for testing and labeling disproportionately less compared to small business window manufacturers; the cost per testing and labeling custom window due to limited production lines has an impact at least ten times greater than large manufacturers and in fact makes production cost prohibitive and compliance with the rule impractical.

Lost sales or revenue: The proposal [proposed] rule is intended to decrease operating cost and create a market for energy efficient materials. The TAG identified a potential loss of sales and revenue for small business window manufacturers. Other measures apply equally to large and small business and would not create a disproportionate impact on revenue.

Section 502.4.5 Air leakage testing (IRC buildings): The proposed rule amends air leakage control provisions to require pressure testing the building.

Reporting and record-keeping requirements: The proposed rule adds a reporting and/or record-keeping element required to comply. Reporting and record keeping would include documentation of compliance with the rule. Cost of record keeping would apply equally to both large and small businesses.

Associated costs: Reports submitted to the TAG showed a cost for an average size home a minor cost of less than 1/4 of 1% of total construction cost to conduct the pressure test.

The TAG identified a possible disproportionate impact on small business window manufacturers to comply with the rule.

Associated costs of equipment, supplies, labor, professional services and administrative costs are included in the cost of compliance.

Lost sales or revenue: The proposed rule applies equally to both large and small businesses. The proposal [proposed] rule is intended to increase value and create sales and revenue for HVAC system testing. No disproportionate loss of sales or revenue for small businesses is expected.

Chapter 9 "Additional requirements" (IRC buildings): The proposed rule adds a new chapter to the WSEC for IRC buildings, requiring credits as a method to reduce energy use in residential construction. A set of options for credits provide a selection of building envelope, equipment, or renewable energy improvements.

Reporting and record-keeping requirements: The proposed rule adds a reporting and/or record-keeping element required to comply. Reporting and record keeping would include documentation of credit options used to comply with the rule. Cost of record keeping would be minimal.

Associated costs: Reports submitted to the TAG showed a cost for an average size home between 1% and 3% of construction cost. The economic analysis submitted with the proposal estimates the home buyer will experience a positive cash flow in the second year of ownership, based on energy savings.

Associated costs of equipment, supplies, labor, professional services and administrative costs are included in the cost of compliance.

Lost sales or revenue: The proposed rule applies equally to both large and small businesses. The proposal [proposed] rule is intended to increase value and create a market for high efficiency and renewable energy equipment. No disproportionate loss of sales or revenue for small businesses is expected.

Table 13 Envelope requirements, (non-IRC buildings): The proposed changes to chapter 13 tables of the WSEC, building envelope requirements for non-IRC buildings, are intended to increase energy efficiency by reducing heat loss and heat gain. The proposed rule increases insulation for floors, walls and roofs; decreases U value (thermal transmittance) for fenestration (windows and skylights); decreases U value for doors.

Reporting and record-keeping requirements: The proposed rule would not impact the reporting and/or record keeping required to comply. Reporting and record keeping would remain the same as the current rule.

Associated costs: Associated costs of equipment, supplies, labor, professional services and administrative costs are included in the cost of compliance.

The TAG determined based on modifications to this item the first cost would be up to 1% of total construction cost.

The TAG identified a disproportionate impact on small business manufacturers to meet proposed vertical fenestration U values (thermal transmittance value). The cost of testing sample production units to meet National Fenestration Rating Council standards would be disproportionate due to the production process. A comparison per one hundred dollars of sales shows a disproportionate cost for small manufacturers to test and label product. Large window manufacturers, due to volume of production, have a cost per unit for testing and labeling disproportionately less compared to small business window manufacturers; the cost per testing and labeling custom window due to limited production lines has an impact at least ten times greater than large manufacturers and in fact makes production cost prohibitive and compliance with the rule impractical.

The Concrete Masonry Association testified that the proposed change to mass wall U value would be a major cost impact to small business suppliers and installers. In a study on a typical large retail occupancy constructed of concrete masonry block, the cost exceeded 1% of construction cost, and the benefit in energy savings did not recover the cost.

Lost sales or revenue: The proposed rule applies equally to both large and small businesses. The proposal [proposed] rule is based on nationally recognized standards which are in current practice in this industry. No disproportionate loss of sales or revenue for small businesses is expected.

Section 1314.7 Continuous Air barrier (non-IRC buildings): For buildings over five stories, the proposed rule requires the building envelope be designed and constructed with a continuous air barrier to control air leakage into, or out of, the conditioned space.

Reporting and record-keeping requirements: The proposed rule adds a reporting and/or record-keeping element required to comply. Reporting and record keeping would include documentation of compliance with the rule. Cost of record keeping would apply equally to both large and small businesses.

Associated costs: Reports submitted to the TAG showed a cost of up to 1% of total construction cost to conduct the pressure test.

The TAG identified a possible disproportionate impact on small business window manufacturers to comply with the rule.

Associated costs of equipment, supplies, labor, professional services and administrative costs are included in the cost of compliance.

Lost sales or revenue: The proposed rule applies equally to both large and small businesses. The proposal [proposed] rule is intended to increase value and create a market for high efficiency and renewable energy equipment.

Steps taken to reduce costs: The council and the affected industries have considered and mitigated costs associated with the proposed rules through negotiated rule making to modify the proposed rules. The council modified substantive regulatory requirements on small businesses. The proposed rule allows an energy efficiency rating by product description to avoid cost and disproportionate economic impact associated with testing and labeling window and door products manufactured by small businesses in Washington state. The proposed rule provides an alternate method for pressure testing when window products manufactured by small business are installed in the building envelope. The council solicited feedback from industry to develop methods to mitigate the costs and provide a method to avoid additional costs of compliance.

Involvement of small businesses: The council has included small businesses in the development of the proposed rules.

Small businesses were included in mailings and electronic notices.
Small businesses were notified of meetings, agenda topics and proposals.
Council members, technical group members and staff responded to inquiries from small businesses.
The technical advisory group convened a special meeting to address small business concerns.

List of industries required to comply: A sample of the industries required to comply with the proposed rules are listed below:


NAICS # DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF FIRMS
23611 Residential construction Total >50 employees
236115 Single-family housing construction 3235 47
236116 Multifamily housing construction 65 0
236118 Residential Remodel 2879 7
2362 Nonresidential construction
23621 Industrial buildings and warehouses 94 8
23622 Commercial and Institutional Buildings 1460 45
238 Specialty Trades
238130 Framing Contractors 2997 25
238140 Masonry Contractors 607 11
238220 Plumbing, heating, air-conditioning 2122 65
238310 Drywall and Insulation Contractors 1038 22
321 Manufacturing
321911 Wood window and door manufacturing 52 5
332321 Metal window and door manufacturing 14 3
327211 Flat Glass Manufacturing 10 2
321918 Other Millwork 49 6
444190 Other Building Materials Dealers 644 36
327331 Concrete Block and Brick Manufacturing 14 0

The North American Industry Classification System data from 2007 (the most recent) were analyzed to determine the number of small and large businesses in Washington state, and the number of employees per business. Data from department of labor and industries report "Experience factor and firm size by NAICS."

Job estimates: The number of jobs created or lost as a result of compliance with the proposed rule is unknown.

The proposed rules would create jobs in some specialty trades such as framing, insulation, window manufacturing, HVAC testing.

CONCLUSION: The council recognizes that the proposed rules may impose an economic impact on businesses in the building construction industry. However, the council also realizes its obligation to ensure the health, safety and welfare of the occupants or users of buildings and structures and the general public through the provisions of the building codes throughout the state, as stated in the council's legislative mandate.

The council has negotiated the proposed rules into their current form in an effort to achieve a minimum standard that meets the need of the building construction industry and the citizens of this state.

The council appointed TAGs to do a comprehensive review and analysis of the proposed changes to the WSEC. All proposed state amendments submitted in 2009 were reviewed. The TAG findings were reviewed by ERAC to determine where the proposed rules would impact small businesses. To mitigate the impacts, the proposed rules were modified to eliminate disproportionate cost impact on the effected small businesses.

A copy of the statement may be obtained by contacting Tim Nogler, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525, phone (360) 725-2969, fax (360) 586-9383, e-mail sbcc@commerce.wa.gov.

A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. The state building code council is not listed in this section as one of the agencies required to comply with this statute.

August 1, 2009

Peter D. DeVries

Council Chair

OTS-2584.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0101   Section 101 -- Scope and general requirements.  


101.1 Title: Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code shall be known as the "Washington State Single-Family Residential Energy Code" and may be cited as such; and will be referred to herein as "this Code."


101.2 Purpose and Intent: The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards for new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy.


The purpose of this Code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefitted by the terms of this Code.


It is intended that these provisions provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy. These provisions are structured to permit compliance with the intent of this Code by any one of the following three paths of design:


1. A systems analysis approach for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources, Chapters 4 and 9.


2. A component performance approach for various building elements and mechanical systems and components, Chapters 5 and 9.


3. A prescriptive requirements approach, Chapters 6 and 9.


Compliance with any one of these approaches meets the intent of this Code. This Code is not intended to abridge any safety or health requirements required under any other applicable codes or ordinances.


The provisions of this Code do not consider the efficiency of various energy forms as they are delivered to the building envelope. A determination of delivered energy efficiencies in conjunction with this Code will provide the most efficient use of available energy in new building construction.


101.3 Scope: This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new buildings and structures that provide facilities or shelter for residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their ((HVAC)) mechanical systems, ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems, electrical distribution and illuminating systems, and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.


Buildings shall be designed to comply with the requirements of either Chapter 4, 5, or 6 of this Code and the additional energy efficiency requirements included in Chapter 9 of this Code.


((For the purposes of this Code:


Detached one- and two-family dwellings built under the International Residential Code shall be considered R-3 Occupancies.


Attached multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) built under the International Residential Code shall be considered R-2 Occupancies.
)) Spaces within the scope of Section R101.2 of the International Residential Code shall comply with Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code. All other spaces, including other Group R Occupancies, shall comply with Chapters 11 through 20 of this Code. Chapter 2 (Definitions), Chapter 7 (Standards), and Chapter 10 (default heat loss coefficients), are applicable to all building types.


101.3.1 Exempt Buildings: Buildings and structures or portions thereof meeting any of the following criteria shall be exempt from the building envelope requirements of Sections 502 and 602, but shall comply with all other requirements for ((building)) mechanical systems((,)) and ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems.


101.3.1.1: Buildings and structures or portions thereof whose peak design rate of energy usage is less than three and four tenths (3.4) Btu/h per square foot or one point zero (1.0) watt per square foot of floor area for space conditioning requirements.


101.3.1.2: Buildings and structures or portions thereof which are neither heated according to the definition of heated space in Chapter 2, nor cooled by a nonrenewable energy source, provided that the nonrenewable energy use for space conditioning complies with requirements of Section 101.3.1.1.


101.3.1.3: Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.


101.3.1.4: The provisions of this code do not apply to the construction, alteration, or repair of temporary worker housing except as provided by rule adopted under chapter 70.114A RCW or chapter 37, Laws of 1998 (SB 6168). "Temporary worker housing" means a place, area, or piece of land where sleeping places or housing sites are provided by an employer for his or her employees or by another person, including a temporary worker housing operator, who is providing such accommodations for employees, for temporary, seasonal occupancy, and includes "labor camps" under RCW 70.54.110.


101.3.2 Application to Existing Buildings: Additions, historic buildings, changes of occupancy or use, and alterations or repairs shall comply with the requirements in the subsections below.


EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of this Code where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and:

1. The alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building; or
2. The alteration or repair is energy efficient and is necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of the general public.
In no case, shall building envelope requirements or mechanical system requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.


101.3.2.1 Additions to Existing Buildings: Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.


EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet shall be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing occupancy to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis or component performance calculations. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing occupancy shall have an energy budget or Target UA which is less than or equal to the unimproved existing building (minus any elements which are no longer part of the building envelope once the addition is added), with the addition designed to comply with this Code.

101.3.2.2 Historic Buildings: The building official may modify the specific requirements of this Code for historic buildings and require in lieu thereof alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings which have been specifically designated as historically significant by the state or local governing body, or listed in The National Register of Historic Places or which have been determined to be eligible for listing.


101.3.2.3 Change of Occupancy or Use:


Any ((Other than Group R Occupancy)) space not within the scope of Section 101.3 which is converted to ((Group R Occupancy)) space that is within the scope of Section 101.3 shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.


101.3.2.4 Alterations and Repairs: All alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without exception. For all other existing buildings, initial tenant alterations shall comply with the new construction requirements of this Code. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the ((following)) requirements of Sections 101.3.2.5 through 101.3.2.8 are met((:)).


101.3.2.5 Building Envelope: The result of the alterations or repairs both:


1. Improves the energy efficiency of the building, and


2. Complies with the overall average thermal transmittance values of the elements of the exterior building envelope in Table 5-1 of Chapter 5 or the nominal R-values and glazing requirements of the reference case in Table((s)) 6-1 ((and 6-2)).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Untested storm windows may be installed over existing glazing for an assumed U-factor of 0.90, however, where glass and sash are being replaced ((in Group R Occupancy)), glazing shall comply with the appropriate reference case in Table 6-1 ((and 6-2)).
2. Where the structural elements of the altered portions of roof/ceiling, wall or floor are not being replaced, these elements shall be deemed to comply with this Code if all existing framing cavities which are exposed during construction are filled to the full depth with batt insulation or insulation having an equivalent nominal R-value ((while, for roof/ceilings, maintaining)) . 2x4 framed walls shall be insulated to a minimum of R-15 and 2x6 framed walls shall be insulated to a minimum of R-21. Roof/ceiling assemblies shall maintain the required space for ventilation. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities need not be insulated. Existing roofs shall be insulated to the requirements of this Code if
a. The roof is uninsulated or insulation is removed to the level of the sheathing, or
b. All insulation in the roof/ceiling was previously installed exterior to the sheathing or nonexistent.

101.3.2.6 ((Building)) Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 503 of this Code. When a space-conditioning system is altered by the installation or replacement of space-conditioning equipment (including replacement of the air handler, outdoor condensing unit of a split system air conditioner or heat pump, cooling or heating coil, or the furnace heat exchanger), the duct system that is connected to the new or replacement space-conditioning equipment shall be sealed, as confirmed through field verification and diagnostic testing in accordance with procedures for duct sealing of existing duct systems as specified in RS-33. The test results shall confirm at least one of the following performance requirements:


1. The measured total duct leakage shall be less than or equal to 8 percent of the conditioned floor area, measured in CFM @ 25 Pascals; or


2. The measured duct leakage to outside shall be less than 6 percent of the conditioned floor area, measured in CFM @ 25 Pascals; or


3. The measured duct leakage shall be reduced by more than 50 percent relative to the measured leakage prior to the installation or replacement of the space conditioning equipment and a visual inspection including a smoke test shall demonstrate that all accessible leaks have been sealed; or


4. If it is not possible to meet the duct requirements of 1, 2 or 3, all accessible leaks shall be sealed and verified through a visual inspection and through a smoke test by a certified third party.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Duct systems that are documented to have been previously sealed as confirmed through field verification and diagnostic testing in accordance with procedures in RS-33.
2. Ducts with less than 40 linear feet in unconditioned spaces.
3. Existing duct systems constructed, insulated or sealed with asbestos.

101.3.2.7 ((Service)) Domestic Water ((Heating)) Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 504.


101.3.2.8 Lighting: Alterations shall comply with Sections 505 and 1132.3.


((EXCEPTION: Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.))

101.3.3 Mixed Occupancy: When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein. Where approved by the building official, where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than ten percent of the area of any floor of a building, the major use may be considered the building occupancy.


101.4 Amendments by Local Government: Except as provided in RCW 19.27A.020(7), this Code shall be the maximum and minimum energy code for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential in each town, city and county((, no later than July 1, 1991)).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0101, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0101, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 98-24-078, 51-11-0101, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0101, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0101, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-0105   Inspections and enforcement.  


105.1 General: All construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and all such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved by the building official.


105.2 Approvals Required: No work shall be done on any part of the building or structure beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official.


105.2.1 Required Inspections: The building official, upon notification, shall make the following inspection in addition to those inspections required in section 109.3 of the International Building Code:


1. Wall insulation inspection: To be made after all wall insulation and air vapor retarder sheet or film materials are in place, but before any wall covering is placed.


105.3 Reinspection: The building official may require a structure to be reinspected.


105.4 Certificate: A permanent certificate shall be posted within three feet of the electrical distribution panel. The certificate shall be completed by the building or registered design professional. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement wall, crawlspace wall and/or floor), and ducts outside the conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration; and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall list the type and efficiency of heating, cooling, and service water heating equipment, duct leakage rates including test conditions as specified in Section 503.10.2, and air leakage results if a blower door test was conducted.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0105, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0105, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0105, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0201   Scope.   The following definitions shall apply to chapters 1 through 20.


201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.

Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 1007.2 of this Code.)

Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

Air barrier: Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

((ARI:)) Air-impermeable insulation: An insulation having an air permeance equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m2 at 75 Pa pressure differential tested in accordance with ASTM E2178 or ASTM E283.

AHRI: Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute.

Approved: Approval by the Code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles, or tests by nationally recognized organizations.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

Below grade walls: ((Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.)) (See Walls.)

Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

Building entrance: Any doorway, set of doors, turnstile, vestibule, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access to the building by its users and occupants.

Building envelope: For ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential spaces, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1. For other ((than Group R Occupancy)) spaces, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.

Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.

Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

Cold storage space: Spaces that are mechanically cooled and designed to be maintained at a temperature below 45F (7C) and at or above 28F (-2.2C).

Commissioning: A systematic process of verification and documentation that ensures that the selected building systems have been designed, installed and function properly, efficiently, and can be maintained in accordance with the contract documents in order to satisfy the building owner's design intent and operational requirements.

Conditioned floor area: (See Gross conditioned floor area.)

Conditioned space: A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated) or indirectly conditioned space, excluding cold storage spaces and frozen storage spaces.

Continuous insulation (c.i.): Insulation that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.

Cooled space: An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity

a. Exceeds 5 Btu/(hft2), or

b. Is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90F or less at design cooling conditions.

COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

Daylighted zone:

a. Under overhead glazing: The area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either 70 percent of the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

b. At vertical glazing: The area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the ((daylighting)) primary daylighted zone depth ((is assumed to)) extends into the space a distance ((of 15 feet)) equal to the window head height and the secondary daylighted zone extends from the edge of the primary zone to a distance equal to two times the window head height, or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

Daylight sensing control (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.

Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

Demand control ventilation (DCV): A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

Design cooling conditions: The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5% column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Design heating conditions: The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6% column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Domestic water system: Supply of hot water and cold water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating and cooling.

Door: All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.

Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.

Economizer, air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.

Economizer, water: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.

EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)

Energy recovery ventilation system: System that employs air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)

F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in Btu/hrftF.

F-Value: (See F-Factor.)

Facade area: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.

Fenestration: All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light, including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. (See building envelope and door.)

a. Skylight: A fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 degrees from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on the roof of a building, is considered vertical fenestration.

b. Vertical fenestration: All fenestration other than skylights. Trombe wall assemblies, where glazing is installed within 12 inches of a mass wall, are considered walls, not fenestration. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the vertical fenestration classifications are defined as follows:

i. Metal framing: Products with metal framing with or without thermal break.

ii. Metal framing, entrance door: Any doorway, set of doors, turnstile, vestibule, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access by its users and occupants to the building or to individual tenant spaces accessed from the exterior. (See also building entrance.)

iii. Metal framing, fixed: All vertical fenestration, other than entrance door and operable, including, but not limited to, curtain walls, window walls, fixed windows, picture windows, glass block walls, nonopenable clerestory windows, and nonopenable sidelites and transoms.

iv. Metal framing, operable: All vertical fenestration that opens, except entrance doors, including, but not limited to, casement windows, projecting windows, pivoting windows, horizontal sliding windows, vertical sliding windows, openable clerestory windows, openable sidelites and transoms, sliding glass doors, and doors that are not entrance doors.

v. Nonmetal framing: All products with framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.

Floor, envelope: That lower portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that has conditioned or semiheated space above and is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal but excluding slab-on-grade floors. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Mass floor: A floor with a heat capacity that exceeds 7 Btu/ft2F or 5 Btu/ft2F provided that the floor has a material unit mass not greater than 120 lb/ft3.

b. Steel-joist floor: A floor that is not a mass floor and has steel joist members supported by structural members.

c. Wood-framed and other floors: All other floor types, including wood joist floors. (See also building envelope, fenestration, opaque area and slab-on-grade floor.)

Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

Frozen storage space: Spaces that are mechanically cooled and designed to be maintained at a temperature below 28F (-2.2C).

Garden window: A multisided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.

Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.

Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls.

Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the daylight opening area is less than 50% of the door area, the glazing area is the daylight opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.

Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, vertical glazing areas and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. The area of the wall is measured from the top of the floor insulation to the bottom of the roof insulation. (See Below grade wall.)

Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

Gross roof/ceiling area: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.

Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

Heated space (Fully heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is

a. Capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45F or greater at design heating conditions; or

b. 8 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 12 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2.

Heated space (Semi-heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system

a. Whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2; and

b. Is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).

c. Is not a cold storage space or frozen storage space.

High efficacy lamps: Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

a. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;

b. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and

c. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

High efficacy luminaire: A lighting fixture that does not contain a medium screw base socket (E24/E26) and whose lamps or other light source have a minimum efficiency of:

a. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;

b. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts;

c. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in Standard RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

Indirectly conditioned space: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

Insulation position:

a. Exterior Insulation Position: A wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.

b. Integral Insulation Position: A wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.

c. Interior Insulation Position: A wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.

International Building Code (IBC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

International Mechanical Code (IMC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

IPLV -- Integrated part-load value: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.

Labeled: Devices, equipment, or materials to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items that attests to compliance with a specific standard.

Liner system (Ls): A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Listed: Equipment, appliances, assemblies, or materials included in a list published by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment, appliances, assemblies, or material, and whose listing states either that the equipment, appliances, assemblies, or material meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.

Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)

Mechanical system: Equipment and components that provide heating, cooling, and ventilation for any purpose other than domestic water systems.

Microcell: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.

Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

Net heat removal: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)

Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation alone as determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460) in units of hft2F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75F. Nominal R-value refers to the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities or insulated sheathing only and does not include the thermal resistance of other building materials or air films.

Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, ((liquified)) liquefied petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

Nonresidential: All ((buildings and)) spaces ((in the International Building Code (IBC) occupancies)) as defined in this Code other than ((Group R)) residential.

Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.

Occupancy sensor: A device that detects occupants within an area, causing any combination of lighting, equipment or appliances to be turned on or shut off.

On-site renewable energy power system: Photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, and wind systems used to generate electrical power and located on the building site.

Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for doors, glazing and building service systems.

Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

Outdoor air (outside air): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through a building.

Overhead glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than 60 from the horizontal plane.

Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-5.)

Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hour ft2 inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-00 or other approved dry cup method as specified in RS-1.

Personal wireless service facility: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

Process energy: Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than the maintenance of building comfort or amenities for building occupants.

Radiant slab floor: A slab floor assembly on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a floor or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the structure.

Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e., not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

Refrigerated warehouse: A building that contains cold storage spaces or frozen storage spaces that have a total area exceeding 3,000 square feet.

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) Incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

Residential: The following two categories comprise all residential spaces for the purposes of this Code:

a. Single-family: All spaces within the scope of Section R101.2 of the International Residential Code.

b. Multifamily:

i. All Group R Occupancy not falling under the scope of Section 101.2 of the International Residential Code including, but not limited to, dwelling units, hotel/motel guest rooms, dormitories, fraternity/sorority houses, hostels, prisons, and fire stations;

ii. All sleeping areas in Group I Occupancy including, but not limited to, assisted living facilities, nursing homes, patient rooms in hospitals, prisons, and fire stations; and

iii. All sleeping areas in other occupancies including, but not limited to, fire stations.

Roof: The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Attic and other roofs: All other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs.

b. Metal building roof: A roof that is:

i. Constructed with a metal, structural, weathering surface;

ii. Has no ventilated cavity; and

iii. Has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations:

A. Metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members;

B. Insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members;

C. Insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in 1 or 2.

Roof with insulation entirely above deck: A roof with all insulation installed above (outside of) the roof structure and continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members).

Roof/ceiling assembly: (See Gross roof/ceiling area.)

SEER - Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.

Semi-heated space: Sub-category of Heated Space. (See Heated Space.)

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

Shading coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through nonopaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8 inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.


Note: Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter ((30)) 15 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7 of this Code.

Shall: Denotes a mandatory code requirement.

Single family: ((One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.)) (See Residential.)

Skylight: (See ((Overhead glazing)) Fenestration.)

Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.

Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

Split system: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.

Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hr ft2F).

Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hr ft2F/Btu).

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hr ft2 F).

Thermal transmittance, overall (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hr ft2 F). The Uo-Tfactor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

Transverse joint: The primary connection between air distribution system fittings.

U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)

U-Value: (See U-factor.)

Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC): (See Washington State Plumbing Code.)

Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also meets this definition.

Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

Vertical glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of 60 or greater from the horizontal plane.

Wall: That portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that is vertical or tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal or greater. This includes above- and below-grade walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, and foundation walls. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Above-grade wall: A wall that is not a below-grade wall.

b. Below-grade wall: That portion of a wall in the building envelope that is entirely below the finish grade and in contact with the ground.

c. Mass wall: A wall with a heat capacity exceeding 7 Btu/ft2F or 5 Btu/ft2F, provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 120 lb/ft3.

d. Metal building wall: A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).

e. Steel-framed wall: A wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by steel framing members (i.e., typical steel stud walls and curtain wall systems).

f. Wood-framed and other walls: All other wall types, including wood stud walls.

Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

Washington State Building Code: The Washington State Building Code is comprised of the International Building Code; the International Residential Code; the International Mechanical Code; the International Fire Code; the Uniform Plumbing Code; the state regulations for barrier-free facilities, as designated in RCW 19.27.031; the State Energy Code; and any other codes so designated by the Washington state legislature as adopted and amended by the State Building Code Council.

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0201, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0201, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0201, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0201, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0302   Thermal design parameters.  


302.1 Exterior Design Conditions: The heating or cooling outdoor design temperatures shall be selected from ((0.6 percent column for winter and 0.5 percent column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE." (See also Washington State Energy Code Manual.))) Table 3-1.


302.2 Interior Design Conditions:


302.2.1 Indoor Design Temperature: Indoor design temperature shall be seventy degrees F for heating and seventy-eight degrees F for cooling.


EXCEPTION: Other design temperatures may be used for equipment selection if it results in a lower energy usage.

302.2.2 Humidification: If humidification is provided during heating, it shall be designed for a maximum relative humidity of thirty percent. When comfort air conditioning is provided, the actual design relative humidity within the comfort envelope as defined in Standard RS-4, listed in Chapter 7, shall be selected for minimum total HVAC system energy use.


302.3 Climate Zones: All buildings shall comply with the requirements of the appropriate climate zone as defined herein.


ZONE 1: Climate Zone 1 shall include all counties not included in Climate Zone 2.


ZONE 2: Climate Zone 2 shall include: Adams, Chelan, Douglas, Ferry, Grant, Kittitas, Lincoln, Okanogan, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman counties.

TABLE 3-1
OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES

Outdoor Design Temp. (in F) Outdoor Design Temp. (in F)
Location (heating) (cooling)
Aberdeen 20 NNE 25.0 83
Anacortes 24.0 72
Anatone -4.0 89
Auburn 25.0 84
Battleground 19.0 91
Bellevue 24.0 83
Bellingham 2 N 19.0 78
Blaine 17.0 73
Bremerton 29.0 83
Burlington 19.0 77
Chehalis 21.0 87
Chelan 10.0 89
Cheney 4.0 94
Chesaw -11.0 81
Clarkston 10.0 94
Cle Elum 1.0 91
Colfax 1 NW 2.0 94
Colville AP -2.0 92
Concrete 19.0 83
Connell 4 NNW 6.0 100
Cougar 5 E 25.0 93
Dallesport AP 14.0 99
Darrington RS 13.0 85
Davenport 5.0 92
Edmonds 24.0 82
Ellensburg AP 2.0 90
Elma 24.0 88
Ephrata AP 7.0 97
Everett Paine AFB 21.0 79
Forks 1 E 23.0 81
Glacier RS 13.0 82
Glenoma (Kosmos) 18.0 89
Goldendale 7.0 94
Grays River Hatchery 24.0 86
Greenwater 1.4 84
Grotto 21.0 84
Hoquiam AP 26.0 79
Inchelium 2 NW 0.0 92
John Day Dam 19.0 100
Kent 21.0 85
Kirkland 17.0 83
La Grande 23.0 88
Leavenworth -3.0 93
Little Goose Dam 22.0 101
Long Beach 3 NNE 25.0 77
Longview 24.0 87
Lower Granite Dam 14.0 98
Lower Monument Dam 18.0 103
Marysville 23.0 79
Metaline Falls -1.0 89
Methow 2 W 1.0 89
Nespelem 2 S -4.0 93
Newhalem 19.0 89
Newport -5.0 92
Northport 2.0 92
Oak Harbor 16.0 74
Odessa 7.0 100
Olga 2 SE 24.0 71
Olympia, AP 17.0 85
Omak 2 NW 3.0 90
Oroville 5.0 93
Othello 9.0 98
Packwood 16.0 90
Plain -3.0 89
Pleasant View 16.0 98
Pomeroy 3.0 95
Port Angeles 28.0 75
Port Townsend 25.0 76
Prosser 12.0 97
Puyallup 19.0 86
Quilcene 2 SW 23.0 83
Quinault RS 25.0 84
Rainier, Longmire 15.0 85
Paradise RS 8.0 71
Raymond 28.0 81
Redmond 17.0 83
Republic -9.0 87
Richland 11.0 101
Ritzville 6.0 99
Satus Pass 10.0 90
Seattle: Sea-Tac AP 24.0 83
Sedro Woolley 1 E 19.0 78
Sequim 23.0 78
Shelton 23.0 85
Smyrna 8.0 102
Snohomish 21.0 81
Snoqualmie Pass 6.0 80
Spokane AP 4.0 92
Spokane CO 10.0 96
Stampede Pass 7.0 76
Stehekin 3 NW 12.0 85
Stevens Pass 6.0 77
Tacoma CO 29.0 82
Tatoosh Island 31.0 63
Toledo AP 17.0 84
Vancouver 22.0 88
Vashon Island 28.0 78
Walla Walla AP 6.0 96
Waterville 1.0 88
Wellpinit 1.0 93
Wenatchee CO 10.0 92
Whidbey Island 11.0 71
Willapa Harbor 26.0 81
Wilson Creek 3.0 96
Winthrop 1 WSW -12.0 91
Yakima AP 11.0 94

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0302, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0303   Mechanical ventilation.   ((For all Occupancies,)) The minimum requirements for ventilation shall comply with Section M1508 of the Washington State ((Ventilation Code and Indoor Air Quality)) Residential Code. (WAC ((51-13)) 51-51.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0303, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0401   Scope.  


401.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of total energy use by a building, including all of its systems. Analysis of design for all ((Group R Occupancy)) single-family residential shall comply with Sections 402.1 to 402.6. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0401, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0401, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0402   Systems analysis.  


402.1 Special Requirements for ((All Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential:


402.1.1 Energy Budgets: Proposed buildings designed in accordance with this section shall be designed to use no more energy from nonrenewable sources for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating than a standard building whose enclosure elements and energy consuming systems are designed in accordance with section 502.2 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone, and heating system type and cooling system and whose mechanical system type is the same as the proposed building and which complies with Section 503 of this Code. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption attributed to the alternative building.


402.1.2 Calculation of Energy Consumption: The application for a building permit shall include documentation which demonstrates, using a calculation procedure as listed in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate, that the proposed building's annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use of a standard building conforming to Chapter 5 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone. The total calculated annual energy consumption shall be shown in units of kWh/ft2-yr or Btu/ft2-yr of conditioned area.


402.1.3 Input Values: The following standardized input values shall be used in calculating annual space heating budgets:


PARAMETER VALUE
Thermostat set point, heating

Thermostat set point, cooling

Thermostat night set back

Thermostat night set back period

65 F

78 F

65 F

0 hours

Internal gain 3000 Btu/h
((R-3 and R-4 units

R-1 and R-2 units

3000 Btu/hr

1500 Btu/hr))

Domestic Hot Water Heater

Setpoint

120 F

Domestic Hot Water Consumption
20 gallons/person/day.
Minimum heat storage Calculated using standard engineering practice for the actual building or as approved.

Site weather data

Typical meteorological year (TMY) or ersatz TMY data for the closest appropriate TMY site or other sites as approved.
Heating and cooling equipment

efficiency

Equipment shall comply with Section 1411.

The standard building shall be modeled with glazing area distributed equally among the four cardinal directions. Parameter values that may be varied by the building designer to model energy saving options include, but are not limited to, the following:


1. Overall thermal transmittance, Uo, of building envelope or individual building components;


2. Heat storage capacity of building;


3. Glazing orientation; area; and solar heat coefficients; (where Chapter 5 does not contain SHGC requirements, the standard design shall be modeled with glazing SHGC as determined by Tables 13-1 and 13-2. SHGC values shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.2.)


4. Heating system efficiency.


Parameter values that may not be varied:


Domestic hot water consumption.


402.1.4 Solar Shading and Access: Building designs using passive solar features with eight percent or more south facing equivalent glazing to qualify shall provide to the building official a sun chart or other approved documentation depicting actual site shading for use in calculating compliance under this section. The building shall contain at least forty-five Btu/F for each square foot of south facing glass.


402.1.5 Infiltration: Infiltration levels used shall be set at 0.35 air changes per hour for thermal calculation purposes only.


402.1.6 Heat Pumps: The heating season performance factor (HSPF) for heat pumps shall be calculated using procedures consistent with section 5.2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, including heat pumps published in the December 27, 1979 Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 24.10 CFR 430. Climate data as specified above, the proposed buildings overall thermal performance value (Btu/F) and the standardized input assumptions specified above shall be used to model the heat pumps HSPF.


402.2 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this chapter will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.

EXCEPTIONS: Chapters 5, and 6 of this Code establish criteria for different energy-consuming and enclosure elements of the building which, will eliminate the requirement for an annual systems energy analysis while meeting the intent of this Code.
A building designed in accordance with this chapter will be deemed as complying with this Code if the calculated annual energy consumption is ((not greater than)) 16 percent less than a similar building (defined as a "standard design") whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems are designed in accordance with Chapter 5.
For an alternate building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule.

402.3 Design: The standard design, conforming to the criteria of Chapter 5 and the proposed alternative design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:


The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu or kWh input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site.


402.4 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed alternative building and system design shall meet the following criteria:


a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in section 402.5.


b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics, and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours of operation of the building and its service systems.


402.5 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:


a. Design requirements -- Environmental requirements as required in Chapter 3.


b. Climatic data -- Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.


c. Building data -- Orientation, size, shape, mass, air, moisture and heat transfer characteristics.


d. Operational characteristics -- Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.


e. Mechanical equipment -- Design capacity, part load profile.


f. Building loads -- Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment, number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.

EXCEPTION: ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential shall comply with calculation procedures in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate.

402.6 Documentation: Proposed alternative designs, submitted as requests for exception to the standard design criteria, shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Chapter 4 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0402, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0402, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0402, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0501   Scope.  


501.1 General: Buildings that are heated or mechanically cooled shall be constructed so as to provide the required thermal performance of the various components. A building that is designed to be both heated and cooled shall meet the more stringent of the heating or cooling requirements as provided in this Code when requirements of the exterior envelope differ. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0501, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-06-024, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10)

WAC 51-11-0502   Building envelope requirements.  


502.1 General:


502.1.1: The stated U- or F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors specified in this section.


The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((23-30)) 16 through 18 and 25 through 27 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.


For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.


2. Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.


3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


4. Results of parallel path correction factors effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Table 10-5A - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY for metal stud walls and roof/ceilings.


502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.


502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and


b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.


502.1.4 Insulation:


502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections 2603 and/or 719 of the International Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.


((Alternatively,)) The thickness of roof/ceiling ((and wall)) insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling ((and/or wall)) space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness ((and minimum settled thickness)) with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. ((In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.))


502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84-01.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section 2603 of the International Building Code.
2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section 719 of the International Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.


502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Where two or more layers of rigid board insulation are used in a roof assembly, the vertical joints between each layer shall be staggered. Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the International Building Code section 1203.2 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire framed cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.


EXCEPTION: Framed cavity can be empty or partially filled provided:
1. The wall assembly calculations are performed along with a completed performance calculation for the whole building; and
2. Insulation installed in partially filled cavities is not included in the performance calculation.

502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.
2. Substantial contact with the surface being insulated is not required in enclosed floor/ceiling assemblies containing ducts where full depth insulation is installed between the duct and the exterior surface.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation((, installed)) shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall((,)). The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally ((beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the frostline)) to the interior or exterior for the total distance of 24 inches. Above grade insulation shall be protected. A 2-inch by 2-inch (maximum) nailer may be placed at the finished floor elevation for attachment of interior finish materials.

((EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.))

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer. R-10 radiant slab insulation is required for all compliance paths.


502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.


502.1.5 Glazing and Door U-factors: Glazing and door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default U-factor. The labeled U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.


((EXCEPTIONS: 1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:
a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e = 0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options except the unlimited glazing area options (Options IV and V in Table 6-1 and Options V, VI and VII in Table 6-2):
a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e =0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."))

502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing U-factors: U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
2. Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door U-factors: All doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.
2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.
3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in the U-factor calculation requirements, however glazing area shall be included in glazing area calculations.

502.1.6 Moisture Control:


502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil (([0.004 inch thick])) (0.004 inch thick) polyethylene or kraft faced material).


502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.


EXCEPTION: Unvented attic assemblies (spaces between the ceiling joists of the top story and the roof rafters) shall be permitted if all the following conditions are met:
1. The unvented attic space is completely contained within the building thermal envelope.
2. No interior vapor retarders are installed on the ceiling side (attic floor) of the unvented attic assembly.
3. Where wood shingles or shakes are used, a minimum 1/4 inch (6 mm) vented air space separates the shingles or shakes and the roofing underlayment above the structural sheathing.
4. Any air-impermeable insulation shall be a vapor retarder, or shall have a vapor retarder coating or covering in direct contact with the underside of the insulation.
5. Either items a, b or c shall be met, depending on the air permeability of the insulation directly under the structural roof sheathing.
a. Air-impermeable insulation only. Insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing.
b. Air-permeable insulation only. In addition to the air-permeable insulation installed directly below the structural sheathing, rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
c. Air-impermeable and air-permeable insulation. The air-impermeable insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control. The air-permeable insulation shall be installed directly under the air-impermeable insulation.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.

502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.


502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.


502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.

EXCEPTION: For climate zone 1, wood framed walls with a minimum of nominal R-5 continuous insulated sheathing installed outside of the framing and structural sheathing. For climate zone 2, wood framed walls with a minimum of nominal R-7.5 continuous insulated sheathing installed outside of the framing and structural sheathing. The interior cavity insulation for this exception shall be a maximum of nominal R-21.

502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential:


502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using values in Table 5-1. The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA. When showing compliance with Table 9-1 using options 3a, 3b or 3c, the proposed design shall be less than the target UA by the fraction noted in the table.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:


1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)


502.3 Reserved.


502.4 Air Leakage:


502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.


502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.


502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:


a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope ((for all occupancies)) and all other openings in between units ((in R-1 and R-2 Occupancy)) shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.


b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.


c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.


d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.


502.4.4 Recessed ((Lighting Fixtures)) Luminaires: When installed in contact with the building envelope, recessed ((lighting fixtures)) luminaires shall be Type IC rated and certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The ((lighting fixture)) luminaire shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance with this test method. Recessed ((lighting fixtures)) luminaires shall be installed with a gasket or caulk between the fixture and ceiling to prevent air leakage.


502.4.5 Building Air Leakage Testing: Building envelope air leakage control shall be considered acceptable when tested to have an air leakage is less than 0.00030 Specific Leakage Area (SLA) when tested with a blower door at a pressure of 50 Pascals (0.2 inch w.g.). Testing shall occur any time after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances and sealing thereof. When required by the building official, the test shall be conducted in the presence of department staff. The blower door test results shall be recorded on the certificate required in Section 105.4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Additions less than 750 square feet.
2. Once a visual inspection has confirmed the presence of a gasket (see Section 502.4), operable windows and doors manufactured by a small business shall be permitted to be sealed off at the frame prior to the test.

Specific Leakage Area (SLA) shall be calculated as follows:


SLA = (CFM50 x 0.055) / (CFA x 144)

Where:


CFM50 = Blower door fan flow at 50 Pascal pressure difference
CFA = Conditioned Floor Area of the housing unit

During testing:

1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;

2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed; including exhaust, intake, makeup air, back draft, and flue dampers;

3. Interior doors connecting conditioned spaces shall be open; access hatches to conditioned crawl spaces and conditioned attics shall be open; doors connecting to unconditioned spaces closed but not sealed;

4. Exterior openings for continuous operation ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;

5. Heating and cooling system(s) shall be turned off;

6. HVAC ducts supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 09-06-024, 51-11-0502, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-0502, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0502, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0502, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0502, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-06-024, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10)

WAC 51-11-0503   ((Building)) Mechanical systems.  

503.1 General: This section covers the determination of design requirements, system and component performance, control requirements, insulating systems and duct sealing. For all other duct construction requirements, refer to the State Mechanical Code (chapter ((51-42)) 51-52 WAC).


503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.


503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.


503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: ((Building)) Mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized ((no greater than one hundred fifty percent (150%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above)) as required in IRC Section M1401.3.


EXCEPTIONS: The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed; however, in all cases heating and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.
1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance need only be demonstrated for ((either)) the larger of the space heating or space cooling load for the selected system size.
2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one dwelling unit is 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit.
((a. 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit,
b. Larger than 40,000 Btu/h may exceed the one hundred fifty (150%) percent sizing limit but not exceed 250 percent provided that the installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of ninety (90%) percent or greater.))
3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.
4. Electric resistance heaters under 2 kW.

503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.


503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements: All heating equipment shall meet the requirements of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and be so labeled. Equipment shall also comply with Section 1411.


503.4.1 Fan Power: Furnace and space conditioning air handling equipment covered under this section shall have direct induction fans (variable speed DC motors) with the capability of having reduced speed of at least 75 percent of the main rating power. The use of these fans for ventilation or circulation separate from space conditioning shall be restricted to a maximum of 50 percent of the rated fan power.


503.5 Reserved.


503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.


503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or 1433.


503.8 Controls:


503.8.1 Temperature Control: The primary space conditioning system within each dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one programmable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable schedule (weekdays/weekends) and be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day.

Each additional system provided within a dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable scheduled (weekdays/weekends).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems controlled by an occupant sensor that is capable of shutting the system off when no occupant is sensed for a period of up to thirty minutes.
2. Systems controlled solely by a manually operated timer capable of operating the system for no more than two hours.

Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:


503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.


503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.


503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.


503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.


EXCEPTION: Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building official.

503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:


503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.


503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.


503.8.3.3 Control Setback and Shutoff:


One- and Two-Family and Individual Multifamily dwelling units -- The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of nonuse or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.


503.8.3.4 Systems Serving Multiple Dwelling Units, Guest Rooms, and Common Areas: Systems that serve more than two dwelling units, guest rooms, and common areas shall comply with the control requirements in Sections 1412 and 1432, with the exceptions of Sections 1412.4.2 and 1432.1.


503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: ((Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.)) Heat pumps with supplementary electric resistance heaters shall have controls complying with Section 503.8.1. In addition, controls shall meet the following requirements:


1. Prevent supplementary heater operation when the heating load can be met by the heat pump alone; and


2. The cut-on temperature for compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for supplementary heating, and the cut-off temperature for compressing heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for supplementary heating.


All heat pumps installed under this section shall include the capability to lock out the supplementary heat based on outdoor temperature. This control shall have a maximum setting of 40F. At final inspection, the lock out control shall be set to 32F or less.


EXCEPTION: The controls may allow supplementary heater operation during defrost.

503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.


EXCEPTIONS: Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following cases:
1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements of the building.
2. Within the HVAC equipment.
3. Exhaust air ducts.
4. Supply or return air ducts installed in ((unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls,)) basements((,)) or cellars in one- and two-family dwellings.
5. The insulation required on supply air ducts may be reduced to R-4 when installed in buffer spaces not intended for human occupancy such as insulation crawl spaces and enclosed attic spaces. The buffer space must be air sealed and insulated to the full value of conditioned spaces.

503.10 Ducts.


503.10.1 Installation of ducts in exterior walls, floors or ceilings shall not displace required envelope insulation. Building cavities may not be used as ducts.


503.10.2
Leakage Testing: ((High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the 1985 Edition of the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified in that standard.)) Ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with RS-33, using the maximum duct leakage rates specified in Section 503.10.3.


((503.10.2)) 503.10.3 Sealing: All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes, and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section M1601.3 of the International Residential Code or Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code. Duct tightness testing shall be conducted to verify that the ducts are sealed. A signed affidavit documenting the test results shall be provided to the jurisdiction having authority by the testing agent. When required by the building official, the test shall be conducted in the presence of department staff. Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:


1. Postconstruction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area or a total leakage less than or equal to 8 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.


2. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the roughed-in system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. If the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Duct tightness test is not required if the air handler and all ducts are located within conditioned space.
2. Duct tightness test is not required if the furnace is a nondirect vent type combustion appliance installed in an unconditioned space. A maximum of six feet of connected ductwork in the unconditioned space is allowed. All additional supply and return ducts shall be within the conditioned space. Ducts outside the conditioned space shall be sealed with a mastic type duct sealant and insulated on the exterior with R-8 insulation for above grade ducts and R-5 water resistant insulation when within a slab or earth.

((503.10.3)) 503.10.4 Dampers: Requirements for Automatic or manual dampers are found in Chapter 15 of the Washington State ((Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code)) Residential Code (chapter 51-51 WAC).


503.11 Pipe Insulation: All piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12.


EXCEPTION: Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.

Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with the Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter 51-56 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 09-06-024, 51-11-0503, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0503, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0503, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0503, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020. 98-24-075, 51-11-0503, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0503, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0504   ((Service)) Domestic water ((heating)) systems.  


504.1 Scope: The purpose of this section is to provide criteria for design and equipment selection that will produce energy savings when applied to ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems.


504.2 Water Heaters, Storage Tanks and Boilers:


504.2.1 Performance Efficiency: ((All Storage water heaters shall meet the requirements of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and be so labeled.)) Domestic water heating equipment shall comply with the applicable efficiencies in Tables 14-1A through 14-1G. All electric water heaters in unheated spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.


For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor (EF) Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
<50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
>70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

504.2.2 Insulation: Heat loss from unfired hot-water storage tanks shall be limited to a maximum of 9.6 Btu/hr/ft2 of external tank surface area. The design ambient temperature shall be no higher than sixty-five degrees F.


504.2.3 Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers: Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems with service/space heating boilers having a standby loss Btu/h less than:
(13.3 pmd + 400)/n
determined by the fixture count method where:
pmd = probably maximum demand in gallons/hour as determined in accordance with Chapter 49 of Standard RS-11.
n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean temperature exceeds 64.9 F.
The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of twenty-four-hour duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of ninety degrees F above an ambient of sixty degrees F and a five foot stack on appliance.
2. For systems where the use of a single heating unit will lead to energy savings, such unit shall be utilized.

504.3 Automatic Controls: Service water heating systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable of adjustment from the lowest to the highest acceptable temperature settings for the intended use. Temperature setting range shall be set to one hundred twenty degrees F or forty-nine degrees C.


504.4 Shutdown: A separate switch shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to electric service water heating systems. A separate valve shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to the main burner(s) of all other types of service water heater systems.


504.5 Swimming Pools:


504.5.1 Controls: All pool heaters shall be equipped with readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the operation of the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Controls shall be provided to allow the water temperature to be regulated from the maximum design temperature down to sixty-five degrees F.


504.5.2 Residential Pool Pumps:


504.5.2.1 Motor Efficiency: Pool pump motors may not be split-phase or capacitor start-induction run type.


504.5.2.2 Two-Speed Capability:


1. Pump motors: Pool pump motors with a capacity of 1 hp or more shall have the capability of operating at two or more speeds with low speed having a rotation rate that is no more than one-half of the motor's maximum rotation rate.


2. Pump controls: Pool pump motor controls shall have the capability of operating the pool pump with at least two speeds. The default circulation speed shall be the lowest speed, with a high speed override capability being for a temporary period not to exceed one normal cycle.


504.5.2.3 Portable Electric Spas: The standby power of portable electric spas shall not be greater than 5(V2/3) watts where V = the total volume, in gallons.


504.5.3
Pool Covers: Heated swimming pools shall be equipped with a pool cover, approved by the building official.


504.6 Pump Operation: Circulating ((hot)) water systems shall be controlled so that the circulation pump(s) can be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the ((hot)) water system is not in operation.


504.7 Pipe Insulation: Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with section 503.11.


504.8 Conservation of ((Hot)) Water:


504.8.1 Showers and Lavatories: Showers and lavatories used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices or specially manufactured showerheads or aerators to limit the total water flow rate as set forth in chapter 51-56 WAC, as measured with both hot and cold faucets turned on to their maximum flow.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0504, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0504, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0504, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0505   Lighting.  


505.1 Interior Lighting ((Controls)): ((Hotel and motel guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

505.2 Lighting Power: Lighting shall comply with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.
2. Lighting exempted by Section 1512.

505.3 Outdoor)) A minimum of 50 percent of all luminaires shall have a high efficacy lamp.


EXCEPTION: Lighting that complies with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.

505.2 Exterior Lighting: Luminaires providing outdoor lighting and permanently mounted to a residential building or to other buildings on the same lot shall be high efficacy luminaires.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Permanently installed outdoor luminaires that are not high efficacy shall be allowed provided they are controlled by a motion sensor(s) with integral photocontrol photosensor.
2. Permanently installed luminaires in or around swimming pools, water features.

((505.4)) 505.3 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures: Linear fluorescent fixtures must be fitted with T-8 or smaller lamps (but not T-10 or T-12 lamps).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0505, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0505, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0505, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0525   Equation 1 -- ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential.  


align="center"

EQUATION 1 -- ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
TARGET UA

UAT = UWAW + UBGWABGW + UVGAVG + UOGAOG + UFAF + URCARC + UCCACC + UDAD + FSPS
Where:
UAT = the target combined thermal transmittance of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
UW = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque above grade wall area found in Table 5-1.
AW = opaque above grade wall area.
UBGW = the thermal transmittance value of the below grade opaque wall area found in Table 5-1.
ABGW = opaque below grade wall area.
UVG = the thermal transmittance value of the vertical glazing area found in Table 5-1.
AVG = 15% of the total floor area of the conditioned space minus AOG.
UOG = the thermal transmittance value of the overhead glazing area found in Table 5-1 (see Table 5-1 footnote 2).
AOG = overhead glazing area (if the proposed AOG exceeds 15 percent, the target AOG shall be 15 percent of the total floor area of the conditioned space).
UF = the thermal transmittance value of the floor area found in Table 5-1.
AF = floor area over unconditioned space.
URC = the thermal transmittance value of the roof/ceiling area found in Table 5-1.
ARC = roof/ceiling area.
UCC = the thermal transmittance value of the cathedral ceiling area found in Table 5-1.
ACC = cathedral ceiling area.
UD = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area found in Table 5-1.
AD = opaque door area.
FS = concrete slab component F-factor found in Table 5-1.
PS = lineal ft. of concrete slab perimeter.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0525, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0525, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0525, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0525, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0527   Equation 3 -- ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential.  

EQUATION 3 -- ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PROPOSED UA


UA = UWAW+ UBGWABGW+ UVGAVG+ UOGAOG+ UFAF+ URCARC+ UCCACC+ UDAD+ FSPS
Where:
UA = the combined thermal transmittance of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
UW = the thermal transmittance of the opaque wall area.
AW = opaque wall area.
UBGW = the thermal transmittance value of the below grade opaque wall area.
ABGW = opaque below grade wall area.
UVG = the thermal transmittance value of the vertical glazing area.
AVG = vertical glazing area, including windows in exterior doors.
UOG = the thermal transmittance value of the overhead glazing area.
AOG = overhead glazing area.
UF = the thermal transmittance of the floor area.
AF = floor area over unconditioned space.
URC = the thermal transmittance of the roof/ceiling area.
ARC = roof/ceiling area.
UCC = the thermal transmittance of the cathedral ceiling area.
ACC = cathedral ceiling area.
UD = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area.
AD = opaque door area.
FS = concrete slab component F-factor.
PS = lineal ft. of concrete slab perimeter.
NOTE : Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into sub-elements as:
UW1AW1+ UW2AW2+ UW3AW3+ . . . etc.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0527, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0527, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0527, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0530   Table 5-1.  

TABLE 5-1
TARGET COMPONENT VALUES FOR ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

Climate Zone
Component 1 2
Glazing % Floor Area 15% 15%
Vertical Glazing U-Factor U = 0.30 U = 0.30
Vertical Glazing U-Factor

((Group R-1 and R-2

Group R-3 and R-4

U = 0.400

U = 0.350)) U = 0.30

U = 0.400

U = 0.350 U = 0.30

Overhead Glazing U-Factor ((U = 0. 58)) U = 0.50 ((U = 0. 58)) U = 0.50
Doors U = 0.200

(((R-5)))

U = 0.200

(((R-5)))

Ceilings

((Attic

Single Rafter/

Joist Vaulted3))

((U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30))) U = 0.027

((U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30))) U = 0.027

Walls((1,2))

U = ((0.057

(R-21))) 0.056

U = ((0.044

(R-19A +R-5))) 0.056

Floors U = 0.029

(((R-30)))

U = 0.029

(((R-30)))

Slab on Grade

((Slab R-Value))

F = ((0.54

(R-10))) 0.36

F = ((0.54

(R-10))) 0.36

Below Grade ((Interior))
Wall R-Value ((R-19)) R-21 ((R-19)) R-21
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = ((0.043)) 0.042

F = ((0.69)) 0.59

U = ((0.043)) 0.042

F = ((0.69)) 0.59

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

((Below Grade Exterior
Wall R-Value R-10 R-12
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.070

F = 0.60

U = 0.061

F = 0.60

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.064

F = 0.57

U = 0.057

F = 0.57

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.056

F = 0.42

U = 0.050

F = 0.42))


((1.)) Log and Solid Timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" in spaces with space heating by "other fuels" are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

((2. "A" means advanced framing. For more information, see Section 1005.2.

3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0530, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0530, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0530, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0530, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0540   Table 5-11.  

TABLE 5-11

INSULATION OF DUCTS

DUCT LOCATION

CLIMATE ZONE

((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

HEATING OR

COOLING DUCTS


On roof or on

exterior of building


I

II


E and W

D and W

Attic, garage,

crawl space,

in walls1, in

floor/ceiling1

I

II

E

E

Within the conditioned space or in heated basement

None

Required

In cement slab

or in ground

B


Note: Where ducts are used for both heating and cooling, the minimum insulation shall be as required for the most restrictive condition.


1 Insulation may be omitted on that portion of a duct which is located within a wall or floor-ceiling space where both sides of this space are exposed to conditioned air and where this space is not ventilated or otherwise exposed to unconditioned air.
2 Vapor barriers shall be installed on conditioned air supply ducts in geographic areas where the average of the July, August, and September mean dewpoint temperature exceeds 60F.
INSULATION TYPES: Minimum densities and out-of-package thickness.


A. 0.5-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-2.
B. 2-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 1.5-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 1.5-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-5.
C. 3-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 2-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 2-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-7.
D. 4-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 3-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 3-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-10.
E. 3.5 inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket, 2.5 inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiberboard or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-8.
V. Vapor barrier, with perm rating not greater than 0.5 perm, all joints sealed.
W. Approved weatherproof barrier.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0540, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0540, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0540, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0541   Table 5-12.  

TABLE 5-12
MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION ((REQUIREMENTS))
THICKNESS1

Fluid Design

Operating

Temp. Range,

F

Insulation Conductivity Normal Pipe ((Diameter)) or Tube Size (in.)
Conductivity Range

Btuin./(hft2F)

Mean

Rating

Temp. F

((Runouts2 up to 2)) <1

((and

less))

((>)) 1

to ((2)) <1-1/2

((> 2)) 1-1/2

to 4

((>)) 4

to ((6)) <8

> ((6)) 8
Heating systems (Steam, Steam Condensate and Hot water)2 ((Nominal Insulation Thickness))
((Above)) >350

251-350

201-250

141-200

105-140

0.32-0.34

0.29-((0.31)) 0.32

0.27-0.30

0.25-0.29

0.24-0.28

250

200

150

125

100

((1.5))

((1.5))

((1.0))

((0.5))

((0.5))

((2.5)) 3.0

2.0

((1.5))

2.0

1.5

1.0

((2.5))

3.5

((2.5))

3.0

((1.5)) 2.0

1.5

1.0

((3.0))

3.5

((2.5))

3.5

((2.0))

2.5

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

((3.5))

4.5

3.5

((2.0))

2.5

((1.5))

2.0

1.5

((3.5)) 4.5

3.5

((3.5)) 2.5

((1.5)) 2.0

1.5

Domestic and Service Hot Water Systems
105 ((and Greater)) ((0.24)) 0.22-0.28 100 ((0.5)) 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cooling Systems (Chilled Water, Brine and Refrigerant)
40-55

((Below)) <40

((0.23-0.27))

0.22-0.28

((0.23-0.27))

0.22-0.28

((75))

100

((75))

100

((0.5))

((1.0))

((0.5))

1.0

1.0

((0.75))

1.0

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

1.5

((1.0)) 1.5

((1.5)) 2.0


1. ((Alternative Insulation Types. Insulation thicknesses in Table 5-12 are based on insulation with thermal conductivities within the range listed in Table 5-12 for each fluid operating temperature range, rated in accordance with ASTM C 335-84 at the mean temperature listed in the table. For insulation that has a conductivity outside the range shown in Table 5-12 for the applicable fluid operating temperature range at the mean rating temperature shown (when rounded to the nearest 0.01 Btuin./(hft2F)), the minimum thickness shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:)) For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:
T = ((PR[(1+t/PR)K/k - 1])) r{(1 + t/r)K/k - 1}
Where:
T = Minimum insulation thickness ((for material with conductivity K)), inches((.))
((PR)) r = ((Pipe)) Actual outside radius of pipe, inches
t = Insulation thickness from Table 5-12((, inches)) for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size
K = Conductivity of alternate material at the mean rating temperature indicated ((in Table 5-12)) for the applicable fluid temperature ((range)), Btuin((/))(hft2F)
k = The ((lower)) upper value of the conductivity range listed in Table 5-12 for the applicable fluid temperature ((range, Btuin/(hft2F)))

2. ((Runouts to individual terminal units not exceeding 12 ft. in length.)) Piping insulation is not required between the control valve and coil on runouts when the control valve is located within 4 feet of the coil and the pipe size is 1 inch or less.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0541, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0541, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-0601   Scope.  


601.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of prescribed requirements for building construction.


The provisions of this chapter are applicable to all ((Group R Occupancies)) Single-Family residential. ((Occupancies)) Spaces shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 5 except for the modifications herein specified. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

For duplexes and townhouses, compliance shall be shown on a dwelling-unit by dwelling-unit basis. Averaging is not allowed.


For wood frame assemblies, the building envelope requirements of this chapter may be met by installing one of the prescriptive packages in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)). Installed components shall meet the requirements of section 602. Compliance with nominal R-Values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only and shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films, but shall permit interruption by occasional framing members. Other than wood frame assemblies with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing shall also be allowed to comply with nominal R-values.


For metal frame assemblies, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with Chapter 4 or Chapter 5 based on the assemblies in Chapter 10. Compliance with nominal R-values is not allowed, unless the full nominal R-value of the insulation is installed either inside or outside of the framing and is uninterrupted by framing.

((EXCEPTION: Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy buildings may use a maximum area weighted average U-factor for components not exceeding those prescribed in Paths III and V in Table 6-1 or Paths IV and VI in Table 6-2.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0601, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0601, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0601, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0601, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0602   Building envelope requirements for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.  


602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.


602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)) as applicable. The following walls should be considered to meet R-21 without additional documentation:


1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-21 fiberglass batts.


2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts plus R-4.0 foam sheathing.


3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.


4. 2 x 6 framed and insulated to full depth with spray applied or blown insulation having a minimum R-value of 3.6 per inch of thickness.


602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)) as applicable.


602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)) as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.


602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)).


602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazed doors whose area and U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door U-factor requirements prescribed in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)).
2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed per unit for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
602.6.1 Exterior Door Area: For half-lite and full-lite doors, the glazing area shall be included in calculating the allowed total glazing area in Section 602.7.1. ((Single glazing used for ornamental, security or architectural purposes shall be calculated using the exception to Section 602.7.2.))


602.6.2 Exterior Door U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)).


602.7 Glazing:


602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)). This area shall also include any glazing in doors.


602.7.2 Glazing U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average U-factor not to exceed that specified in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)). U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5. These areas and U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.


If the U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.


EXCEPTION: ((Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and)) Double glazed garden windows with a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area tripled and shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)). The maximum area (before tripling) allowed for the total of all ((single glazing and)) garden windows is one percent of the floor area or 20 square feet, whichever is less.

602.8 Air Leakage For ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable, including building envelope air leakage testing.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0602, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 98-03-003, 51-11-0602, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-0603   ((Building)) Mechanical systems for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.  


603.1: ((Group R Occupancies)) Spaces that are ((space)) heated by air-to-air, ground-to-air, or water-to-air heat pumps shall comply with Table 6-1 ((or 6-2)). System sizing shall be determined by an analysis consistent with section 503.2 of this Code((, or, when approved by the building official, Chapter 9)). All mechanical equipment efficiencies ((and service water heating system efficiencies)) shall comply with standard((s)) as stated in Section((s)) 503 ((and 504)) of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0603, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0603, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0603, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0604   ((Reserved.)) Domestic water systems.   Domestic water systems, including plumbing fixtures and appliances, shall comply with Section 504.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0604, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0604, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0625   Table 6-1.  

TABLE 6-1
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
CLIMATE ZONE 1 AND 2


Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall ext4 Below Grade Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. ((10%))

13%

((0.32))

0.34

((0.58)) 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv ((R-30))

R-38

((R-15))

R-21 int7

((R-15))

R-21 TB

R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
II.* ((15%))

25%

((0.35))

0.32

((0.58))

0.50

0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv ((R-30))

R-38

R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
((III. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21/

U =

0.057

R-15 R-10 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10
IV. Unlimited Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10))
((V)) III. Unlimited ((Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only)) ((0.35))

0.30

((0.58))

0.50

0.20 R-49 or R-38((/

U =

0.031))

adv

((R-30/

U =

0.034))

R-38

R-21((/

U =

0.057))

int

((R-15)) R-21 R-10 R-30((/

U =

0.029))

R-10 2'

* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings ((where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit)).
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of ((R-10)) R-5, continuous or on the interior ((to the same level as walls above grade)) as a framed wall. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4. For slabs inside a foundation wall, the insulation shall be installed to provide a thermal break between the slab edge and the foundation. Monolithic slabs shall include insulation, installed outside the foundation wall, and shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Monolithic slabs shall also include R-10 insulation under the nonload bearing portions of the slab.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. ((This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.)) Reserved.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of ((U = 0.40)) U = 0.35 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

TABLE 6-2
((PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY
CLIMATE ZONE 2
)) RESERVED.

((Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall ext4 Below Grade Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 12% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 Int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
II.* 15% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
III. 17% 0.32 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
IV. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21 int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10/

F =

0.54

V. Unlimited

Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19 +R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI. Unlimited Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancies only 0.30 0.58 0.20 R-49 or R-38 ADV R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VII. Unlimited

Group R-1 Occupancy only

0.32 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21

int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10/

F =

0.54))


((* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.40 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0625, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0625, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0625, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0625, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0701   Scope.   The following standards shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.


REFERENCE

STANDARD

NO.

TITLE AND SOURCE
RS-1 ((2005)) 2009 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.
RS-2 Super Good Cents Technical Reference C Builder's Field Guide.
RS-3 (Reserved).
RS-4 ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
RS-5 2006 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook.
RS-6 ((SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems, 6th Edition, 1988.)) (Reserved.)
RS-7 SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible, ((2nd Edition, 1995)) 2005.
RS-8 ((SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, 1992.)) (Reserved.)
RS-9 ASHRAE/IESNA Standard ((90.1-2004)) 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
RS-10 ((2004)) 2008 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook.
RS-11 ((2003)) 2007 ASHRAE HVAC ((Systems and)) Applications Handbook.
RS-12 through RS-28 (Reserved).
RS-29 Nonresidential Building Design by Systems Analysis.
RS-30 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 430 (March 14, 1988).
RS-31 National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard 100-2004.
RS-32 Seattle EnvStd 2006.
RS-33 Duct Testing Standard for New and Existing Construction, Washington State University Extension Energy Program Publication #WSUEEP 09-008.
RS-34 Optional Acceptance Requirements for Nonresidential Buildings, SBCC 2009.

ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES


ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Phone 212-642-4900 fax 212-398-0023, internet www.ansi.org


((ARI)) AHRI refers to the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute, 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425, Arlington, VA 22203

Phone 703-524-8800 fax 703-528-3816, internet www.ari.org


ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone 404-636-8400 fax 404-321-5478, internet www.ashrae.org


ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone 610-832-9585 fax 610-832-9555, internet www.astm.org


CTI refers to the Cooling Tower Institute, 530 Wells Fargo Drive, Suite 218, Houston, TX 77090

Phone 281-583-4087 fax 281-537-1721, internet www.cti.org


IESNA refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005-4001

Phone 212-248-5000 fax 212-248-5017, internet www.iesna.org


NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Incorporated, 8484 Georgia Avenue, Suite 320, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

Phone 301-589-1776 fax 301-589-3884, internet www.nfrc.org


SBCC refers to the Washington State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525

Phone 360-725-2990 fax 360-586-9383, internet www.sbcc.wa.gov


SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230

Phone 703-803-2980 fax 703-803-3732, internet www.smacna.org


WSU refers to the Washington State University Extension Energy Program, 905 Plum Street S.E., Building #3, P.O. Box 43165, Olympia, WA 98506-3166

Phone 360-956-2000 fax 360-956-2217, internet www.energy.wsu.edu

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0701, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0701, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0701, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0800   Section 0800 -- Suggested software for chapter 4 systems analysis approach ((for Group R Occupancy)).   The simulation program shall be tested according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 and the results shall be furnished by the software provider.

The following is a list of suggested software, but not limited to:


Program Name: Source
((CALPAS 3 BSG Software

40 Lincoln Street

Lexington, MA 02173

(617) 861-0109))

DOE ((2)) 2.1E ((ACROSOFT/CAER Engineers

1204-1/2 Washington Avenue

Golden, CO 80401

(303) 279-8136)) Energy Science Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

P.O. Box 1220

Oakridge, TN 37831-1020

423-576-2606

((F-LOAD F-CHART SOFTWARE

4406 Fox Bluff Rd.

Middleton, WI 53562

(608) 836-8531

MICROPAS ENERCOMP

1721 Arroyo Drive

Auburn, CA 95603

(800) 755-5903

SUNDAY ECOTOPE

2812 East Madison St.

Seattle, WA 98112

(206) 322-3753))

DOE 2.2 (EQuest) James J. Hirsch & Associates

Building Performance Analysis

Software & Consulting

12185 Presilla Road

Camarillo, CA 93012-9243

805-532-1045

EnergyPlus Kathy Ellington

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

Building 90, Room 3147

Berkeley, CA 94720-0001

510-486-5711

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0800, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0800, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0800, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0900   ((Section)) Chapter 0900 -- ((Reserved)) Additional residential energy efficiency requirements.  


901 Additional Residential Energy Efficiency Requirements. Dwelling units permitted under this Code shall comply with all provisions of Chapter 5 of this Code and develop 2 credits from Table 9-1.


EXCEPTION: Buildings complying using Chapter 4 Building Design by Systems Analysis shall meet this provision of this section by demonstrating that the proposed building energy use is 16 percent less than the target building energy use.

TABLE 9-1

ENERGY CREDITS (DEBITS)

OPTION DESCRIPTION CREDIT(S)
1a HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 1:

Gas, propane or oil-fired furnace or boiler with minimum AFUE of 92%,

or

Air-source heat pump with minimum HSPF of 8.5.

1.0
1b HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 2:

Closed-loop ground source heat pump;

with a minimum COP of 3.3.

2.0
1c HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 3:

DUCTLESS SPLIT SYSTEM HEAT PUMPS, ZONAL CONTROL:

In home where the primary space heating system is zonal electric heating, a ductless heat pump system shall be installed and provide heating to at least one zone of the housing unit.

1.0
2 HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:1

All heating and cooling system components installed inside the conditioned space. All combustion equipment shall be direct vent or sealed combustion.

Locating system components in conditioned crawl spaces is not permitted under this option.

Electric resistance heat is not permitted under this option.

Direct combustion heating equipment with AFUE less than 80% is not permitted under this option.

1.0
3a EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 1:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = .28 floor R-38, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5-1 by 5%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

0.5
3b EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 2:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = .25 and wall R-21 plus R-4 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full, and R-21 plus R-5 below grade basement walls.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 15%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

1.0
3c SUPER-EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 3:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = .22 and wall R-21 plus R-12 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full and R-21 plus R-12 below grade basement walls and R-49 advanced ceiling and vault.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 30%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

2.0
4a AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00020 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00020 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

0.5
4b ADDITIONAL AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00015 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00015 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

1.0
5a EFFICIENT WATER HEATING:1

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.62.

or

Electric Water Heater with a minimum EF of .93.

and for both cases

All showerhead and kitchen sink faucets installed in the house shall meet be rated at 1.75 GPM or less. All other lavatory faucets shall be rated at 1.0 GPM or less.2

0.5
5b HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER HEATING:1

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.82.

or

Solar water heating supplementing a minimum standard water heater. Solar water heating will provide a rated minimum savings of 85 therms or 2000 kWh based on the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) Annual Performance of OG-300 Certified Solar Water Heating Systems.

or

Electric heat pump water heater with a minimum EF of 2.0.

1.5
6 SMALL DWELLING UNIT 1:1

Dwelling units less than 1500 square feet in floor area with less than 300 square feet of window + door area. Additions to existing building that are less than 750 square feet of heated floor area.

1.0
7 LARGE DWELLING UNIT 1:1

Dwelling units exceeding 5000 square feet of floor area shall be assessed a deduction for purposes of complying with Section 901 of this Code.

-1.0
8 RENEWABLE ELECTRIC ENERGY:

For each 1200 kWh of electrical generation provided annually by on-site wind or solar equipment a 0.5 credit shall be allowed, up to 3 credits. Generation shall be calculated as follows:

For solar electric systems, the design shall be demonstrated to meet this requirement using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory calculator PVWATTs. Documentation noting solar access shall be included on the plans.


For wind generation projects designs shall document annual power generation based on the following factors:

The wind turbine power curve; average annual wind speed at the site; frequency distribution of the wind speed at the site and height of the tower.

0.5

FOOTNOTES: 1. Interior Duct Placement: Ducts included as Option 2 of Table 9-1 shall be placed wholly within the heated envelope of the housing unit. The placement shall be inspected and certified to receive the credits associated with this option.
EXCEPTION: Ducts complying with this section may have up to 5% of the total linear feet of ducts located in the exterior cavities or buffer spaces of the dwelling. If this exception is used the ducts will be tested to the following standards:
Post-construction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 1 CFM per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
2. Plumbing Fixtures Flow Ratings. Low flow plumbing fixtures (water closets and urinals) and fittings (faucets and showerheads) shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets: Maximum flow rate - 3.8 L/min (1.0 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(b) Residential kitchen faucets: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(c) Residential showerheads: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0900, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0900, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1001   Section 1001 General.  


1001.1 Scope: The following defaults shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. This chapter includes tables of seasonal average heat-loss coefficients for specified nominal insulation. The heat-loss coefficients may also be used for heating system sizing.


1001.2 Description: These coefficients were developed primarily from data and procedures from Standard RS-1, and taken specifically from Standard RS-2, listed in Chapter 7.


Coefficients not contained in this chapter may be computed using the procedures listed in these references if the assumptions in the following sections and Standard RS-2, listed in Chapter 7, are used, along with data from the sources referenced above.


1001.3 Air Films: Default R-values used for air films shall be as follows:


R-Value Condition
0.17 All exterior surfaces
0.61 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up
0.92 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down
0.68 Interior vertical surfaces

1001.4 Compression of Insulation: Insulation which is compressed shall be rated in accordance with Table 10-A or reduction in value may be calculated in accordance with the procedures in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.

TABLE 10-A
R-Value of Fiberglass Batts Compressed within Various Depth Cavities


Insulation R-Value at Standard Thickness
Rated R-Value 82 71 60 49 38 30 22 21 19 15 13 11 ((8)) ((5)) ((3))
Standard Thickness, Inches 26.0 22.5 19.0 15.5 12((" 9-1/2")) 9.5 ((6-3/4")) 6.5 ((5-1/2")) 5.5 ((6-1/4")) 6 ((3-1/2")) 3.5 ((3-5/8")) 3.5 ((3-1/2")) 3.5 ((2-1/2")) ((1-1/2")) ((3/4"))
Nominal Lumber Sizes, Inches Actual Depth of Cavity, Inches Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity
Truss 26.0 82 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 22.5 -- 71 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 19.0 -- -- 60 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 15.5 -- -- -- 49 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 12.0 -- -- -- -- 38 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 12 ((11-1/4)) 11.25 -- -- -- -- 37 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 10 ((9-1/4)) 9.25 -- -- -- -- 32 30 -- -- -- -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 8 ((7-1/4)) 7.25 -- -- -- -- 27 26 -- -- -- -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 6 ((5-1/2)) 5.5 -- -- -- -- -- 21 20 21 18 -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 4 ((3-1/2)) 3.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14 -- 13 15 13 11 ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
((2 x 3)) ((2-1/2)) 2.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9.8 -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
((2 x 2)) ((1-1/2)) 1.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.3 6.0 ((5.7)) ((5.0)) ((--))
((2 x 1 3/4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3.2 3.0))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1001, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1001, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1001, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1004   Section 1004: Floors over unconditioned space.  


1004.1 General: Tables 10-3, 10-4 and 10-4a list heat-loss coefficients for floors over unconditioned spaces in units of Btu/h ft2 F.


They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, assuming an average outdoor temperature of 45F, an average indoor temperature of 65F, and a crawlspace area of 1350 ft2 and 100 ft of perimeter. The crawlspace is assumed to be 2.5 feet high, with 24 inches below grade and 6 inches above grade.


1004.2 Crawlspace Description: Four configurations are considered: ((Vented)) Naturally ventilated crawlspace, ((unvented)) mechanically ventilated crawlspace, heated plenum crawlspace and exposed floor.


((Vented)) Naturally ventilated crawlspaces: Assumed to have 3.0 air-changes per hour, with at least 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated.


Floors over unheated areas, such as garages, may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


((Unvented)) Mechanically ventilated crawlspaces: Assumed to have 1.5 air changes per hour, with less than 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated. Floors over unheated basements may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Heated-plenum crawlspaces: Assumed to have 0.25 air-changes per hour, with no foundation vents. Heated supply air from central furnace is blown into a crawlspace and allowed to enter the living space unducted via holes cut into the floor.


Enclosed floors: Assumes no buffer space, and a covering of one-half inch of T1-11 on the exterior of the cavity exposed to the outside air or rigid insulation below a concrete floor, such as over parking garages.


1004.3 Construction Description: Floors are assumed to be either joisted floors framed on sixteen inch centers, or post and beam on four by eight foot squares. Insulation is assumed to be installed under the subflooring between the joists or beams with no space between the insulation and the subfloor. Insulation is assumed to be uncompressed. Exposed floors also include concrete with continuous rigid insulation assumed.


Perimeter insulation is assumed to extend from the top of the rim joist to the crawlspace floor and then inward along the ground (on top of the ground cover) for at least twenty-four inches.


Floor coverings are assumed to be light carpet with rubber pad.

TABLE 10-3
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER VENTED CRAWLSPACE OR
UNHEATED BASEMENT

Nominal R-value U-factor
Floor Perimeter Post & Beam Joists
0 0

11

19

30

0.112

0.100

0.098

0.093

0.134

0.116

0.114

0.107

11 0

11

0.052

0.048

0.056

0.052

19 0

11

0.038

0.036

0.041

0.038

22 0

11

0.034

0.033

0.037

0.035

25 0

11

0.032

0.031

0.034

0.033

30 0

11

0.028

0.027

0.029

0.028

38 0

11

0.024

0.024

0.025

0.024

TABLE 10-4
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER HEATED PLENUM CRAWLSPACES

Nominal R-value

Perimeter

U-factor
11 0.085
19 0.075
30 0.069

TABLE 10-4A
EXPOSED FLOOR


Nominal

R-value

U-factor
Concrete Wood Joist Metal Joist
R-11 0.077 0.088 0.14
R-15 0.059 0.076 0.12
R-19 0.048 0.062 0.11
R-21 0.043 0.057 0.11
R-25 0.037 0.051 0.10
R-30 0.031 0.040 0.09
R-38 0.025 0.034 0.08

Note: Crawlspaces used as heated plenums have approximately 30% higher heat-loss rate than unvented crawlspaces with the same assumed ACH. Default U-values in Table 10-4 reflect this higher rate of heat loss.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1004, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1004, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1004, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1004, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1005   Section 1005: Above-grade walls.  


Section 1005.1 General: Table 10-5, 10-5A and 10-5B list heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade wood stud frame walls, metal stud frame walls and concrete masonry walls (Btu/h ft2 F) respectively. They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. For intermediate floor slabs which penetrate the insulated wall, use the concrete wall U-factors in Table 10-5B.


Insulation is assumed to uniformly fill the entire cavity and to be installed as per manufacturer's directions. All walls are assumed to be finished on the inside with one-half inch gypsum wallboard, and on the outside with either beveled wood siding over one-half inch plywood sheathing or with five-eighths inch T1-11 siding. Insulated sheathing (either interior or exterior) is assumed to cover the entire opaque wall surface.


Metal building walls have a different construction and are addressed in Table 10-5A(3).


1005.2 Framing Description: For wood stud frame walls, three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:


Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .19
Insulated cavity .77
Headers .04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .18
Insulated cavity .78
Headers .04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .13
Insulated cavity .83
Headers .04

1005.3 Component Description: Default coefficients for ((four)) the following types of walls are listed: Single-stud walls, ((metal stud walls,)) strap walls, ((and)) double-stud walls, log walls, stress-skin panels, metal stud walls, and metal building walls.


Single-Stud Wall, Tables 10-5(1) through 10-5(8): Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.


((Metal Stud Wall: Assumes metal studs spaced on 16 or 24 inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.))

Strap Wall, Table 10-5(9): Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.


Double-Stud Wall, Tables 10-5(10) and 10-5(11): Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, nonstructural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the 2 walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on 24 inch centers for both walls.


Log Wall, Table 10-5(12).


Stress-Skin Panel, Table 10-5(13).


Metal Stud Wall, Overall Assembly U-Factors, Table 10-5A(1): Assumes metal studs spaced on 16- or 24-inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.


Metal Stud Wall, Effective R-Values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only, Table 10-5A(2): These values may be used for the metal-framing/cavity layers in walls with metal studs spaced on 16- or 24-inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities in lieu of using the zone method provided in Chapter 25 of Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7.


Metal Building Wall, Table 10-5A(3): A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning panels supported by steel structural members (does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems). The first nominal R-value is for insulation compressed between metal wall panels and the steel structure. For double-layer installations, the second rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed from the inside, covering the girts. For continuous insulation (e.g., insulation boards) it is assumed that the insulation boards are installed on the inside of the girts and uninterrupted by the framing members. Insulation exposed to the conditioned space or semiheated space shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a continuous air barrier.


Concrete and Masonry Walls, Table 10-5B(1).


Peripheral Edges of Intermediate Concrete Floors, Table 10-5B(2).

TABLE 10-5

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR ABOVE-GRADE WALLS

TABLE 10-5(1)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-11 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-11 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-11 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.088 0.084 0.094 0.090
1 0.080 0.077 0.085 0.082
2 0.074 0.071 0.078 0.075
3 0.069 0.066 0.072 0.070
4 0.064 0.062 0.067 0.065
5 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
6 0.056 0.055 0.059 0.057
7 0.053 0.052 0.055 0.054
8 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
9 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.049
10 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
11 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
12 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
TABLE 10-5(2)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-13 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-13 at 3.63 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-12.7 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.082 0.078 0.088 0.083
1 0.075 0.072 0.080 0.076
2 0.069 0.066 0.073 0.070
3 0.065 0.062 0.068 0.065
4 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
5 0.057 0.055 0.059 0.057
6 0.053 0.052 0.056 0.054
7 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
8 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.048
9 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
10 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
11 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
12 0.040 0.039 0.041 0.040
TABLE 10-5(3)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-15 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-15 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-15 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.076 0.071 0.081 0.075
1 0.069 0.065 0.073 0.069
2 0.064 0.061 0.068 0.069
3 0.060 0.057 0.063 0.059
4 0.056 0.053 0.059 0.056
5 0.053 0.051 0.055 0.052
6 0.050 0.048 0.052 0.050
7 0.047 0.046 0.049 0.047
8 0.045 0.044 0.047 0.045
9 0.043 0.042 0.044 0.043
10 0.041 0.040 0.042 0.041
11 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.039
12 0.038 0.037 0.039 0.038
TABLE 10-5(4)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-19 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-19 at 6 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.062 0.058 0.055 0.065 0.061 0.058
1 0.058 0.055 0.052 0.060 0.057 0.055
2 0.054 0.052 0.050 0.056 0.054 0.051
3 0.051 0.049 0.047 0.053 0.051 0.049
4 0.048 0.046 0.045 0.050 0.048 0.046
5 0.046 0.044 0.043 0.048 0.046 0.044
6 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.044 0.042
7 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
8 0.040 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.040 0.039
9 0.038 0.037 0.035 0.039 0.038 0.037
10 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
11 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.035 0.035
12 0.034 0.033 0.033 0.035 0.034 0.033
TABLE 10-5(5)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-21 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-21 at 5.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-21 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.057 0.054 0.051 0.060 0.056 0.053
1 0.054 0.051 0.048 0.056 0.053 0.050
2 0.050 0.048 0.045 0.052 0.050 0.047
3 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.047 0.045
4 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.045 0.043
5 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.042 0.041
6 0.041 0.039 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
7 0.039 0.038 0.036 0.040 0.039 0.037
8 0.038 0.036 0.035 0.039 0.037 0.036
9 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.033
11 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.033 0.032
12 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.033 0.032 0.031
TABLE 10-5(6)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-22 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 6.75 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-20 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.059 0.055 0.052 0.062 0.058 0.054
1 0.055 0.052 0.049 0.057 0.054 0.051
2 0.052 0.049 0.047 0.054 0.051 0.048
3 0.049 0.046 0.044 0.050 0.048 0.046
4 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.048 0.046 0.044
5 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.043 0.042
6 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
7 0.040 0.039 0.037 0.041 0.040 0.038
8 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.037
9 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
11 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
12 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
TABLE 10-5(7)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: Two R-11 Batts
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 7 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18.9 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.060 0.057 0.054 0.063 0.059 0.056
1 0.056 0.053 0.051 0.059 0.056 0.053
2 0.053 0.050 0.048 0.055 0.052 0.050
3 0.050 0.048 0.046 0.052 0.049 0.047
4 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.049 0.047 0.045
5 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.046 0.045 0.043
6 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.043 0.041
7 0.041 0.040 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
8 0.039 0.038 0.037 0.040 0.039 0.038
9 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.036
10 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
11 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
12 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.033
TABLE 10-5(8)
2 x 8 Single Stud: R-25 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-25 at 8 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-23.6 in 7.25 inch cavity

0 0.051 0.047 0.045 0.053 0.049 0.046
1 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.046 0.044
2 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.044 0.042
3 0.043 0.041 0.039 0.044 0.042 0.040
4 0.041 0.039 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.038
5 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.040 0.038 0.037
6 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
7 0.036 0.035 0.033 0.037 0.035 0.034
8 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
9 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
10 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.033 0.032 0.031
11 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.032 0.031 0.030
12 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.030 0.029
TABLE 10-5(9)


2 x 6: Strap Wall
Siding Material/Frame Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 +R-11 Batts 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.036
R-19 +R-8 Batts 0.041 0.039 0.042 0.040

TABLE 10-5(10)

2 x 6 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 ------- R-11 0.040 0.037 0.041 0.038
R-19 ------- R-19 0.034 0.031 0.035 0.032
R-19 R-8 R-11 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.029
R-19 R-11 R-11 0.027 0.026 0.028 0.027
R-19 R-11 R-19 0.024 0.023 0.025 0.023
R-19 R-19 R-19 0.021 0.020 0.021 0.020

TABLE 10-5(11)

2 x 4 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud
Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-11 -------- R-11 0.050 0.046 0.052 0.048
R-19 -------- R-11 0.039 0.037 0.043 0.039
R-11 R-8 R-11 0.037 0.035 0.036 0.036
R-11 R-11 R-11 0.032 0.031 0.033 0.032
R-13 R-13 R-13 0.029 0.028 0.029 0.028
R-11 R-19 R-11 0.026 0.026 0.027 0.026

TABLE 10-5(12)

Log Walls
Average Log

Diameter,

Inches

U-factor

R-value of wood:

R-1.25 per inch thickness

Average wall thickness

90% average log diameter

6 0.148
8 0.111
10 0.089
12 0.074
14 0.063
16 0.056
TABLE 10-5(13)

Stress Skin Panel
Panel

Thickness,

Inches

U-factor
R-value of expanded polystyrene: R-3.85 per inch

Framing: 6%

Spline: 8%

3 1/2 0.071
5 1/2 0.048
7 1/4 0.037
9 1/4 0.030
11 1/4 0.025
No thermal bridging between interior and exterior splines


Metal Stud Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A may be used for purposes of calculating metal stud wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.


TABLE 10-5A
Default U-factors for Overall Assembly Metal Stud Walls, Effective R-values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only, and Default Metal Building U-factors

TABLE 10-5A(1)

OVERALL ASSEMBLY U-FACTORS FOR METAL STUD WALLS


R-Value of
Continuous Cavity Insulation
Metal Foam Board
Framing Insulation R-0 R-11 R-13 R-15 R-19 R-21

16" o.c.

R-0 (none)

U-0.352

U-0.132

U-0.124

U-0.118

U-0.109

U-0.106
R-1 U-0.260 U-0.117 U-0.111 U-0.106 U-0.099 U-0.096
R-2 U-0.207 U-0.105 U-0.100 U-0.096 U-0.090 U-0.087
R-3 U-0.171 U-0.095 U-0.091 U-0.087 U-0.082 U-0.080
R-4 U-0.146 U-0.087 U-0.083 U-0.080 U-0.076 U-0.074
R-5 U-0.128 U-0.080 U-0.077 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069
R-6 U-0.113 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065
R-7 U-0.102 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065 U-0.062 U-0.061
R-8 U-0.092 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.061 U-0.058 U-0.057
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.060 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054
R-10 U-0.078 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.051
R-11 U-0.072 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.051 U-0.050 U-0.049
R-12 U-0.067 U-0.051 U-0.050 U-0.049 U-0.047 U-0.047
R-13 U-0.063 U-0.049 U-0.048 U-0.047 U-0.045 U-0.045
R-14 U-0.059 U-0.046 U-0.045 U-0.045 U-0.043 U-0.043
R-15 U-0.056 U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.043 U-0.041 U-0.041
R-20 U-0.044 U-0.036 U-0.036 U-0.035 U-0.034 U-0.034



24" o.c

R-0 (none)

U-0.338

U-0.116

U-0.108

U-0.102

U-0.094

U-0.090
R-1 U-0.253 U-0.104 U-0.098 U-0.092 U-0.086 U-0.083
R-2 U-0.202 U-0.094 U-0.089 U-0.084 U-0.079 U-0.077
R-3 U-0.168 U-0.086 U-0.082 U-0.078 U-0.073 U-0.071
R-4 U-0.144 U-0.079 U-0.075 U-0.072 U-0.068 U-0.066
R-5 U-0.126 U-0.073 U-0.070 U-0.067 U-0.064 U-0.062
R-6 U-0.112 U-0.068 U-0.066 U-0.063 U-0.060 U-0.059
R-7 U-0.100 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055
R-8 U-0.091 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.056 U-0.054 U-0.052
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.053 U-0.051 U-0.050
R-10 U-0.077 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.050 U-0.048 U-0.048
R-11 U-0.072 U-0.051 U-0.049 U-0.048 U-0.046 U-0.045
R-12 U-0.067 U-0.048 U-0.047 U-0.046 U-0.044 U-0.043
R-13 U-0.063 U-0.046 U-0.045 U-0.044 U-0.042 U-0.042
R-14 U-0.059 U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.042 U-0.041 U-0.040
R-15 U-0.056 U-0.042 U-0.041 U-0.040 U-0.039 U-0.038
R-20 U-0.044 U-0.035 U-0.034 U-0.034 U-0.033 U-0.032

Footnote: Continuous foam board insulation: Continuous insulation assumes no thermal bridging of insulation by framing or z-furring through applied foam board. Zone calculation method as provided in RS-1 must be used for thermally bridged foam board insulation.

TABLE 10-5A(2)
EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY

Cavity Insulation
Nominal

Depth,

Inches

Actual

Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Effective R-Value
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Air Cavity any any R-0.91 (air) 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 5.5 6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 6.0 7.2
Wall 4 3-1/2 R-15 6.4 7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 7.1 8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 7.4 9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 7.8 9.6
Roof Insulation is uncompressed R-11 5.5 6.1
R-19 7.0 9.1
R-30 9.3 11.4

TABLE 10-5A(3)
DEFAULT METAL BUILDING WALL U-FACTORS

((R-10 R-11 R-13 R-19 R-24 R-30
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened to the frame, holding insulation in place. 0.133 0.127 0.114 0.091 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened directly to frame. 0.131 0.123 0.107 0.079 0.065 0.057
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.102 0.096 0.084 0.065 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.099 0.093 0.080 0.059 0.048 0.041))

Insulation System Rated R-Value of Insulation Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Wall Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Wall Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing)
Single Layer of Mineral Fiber R-6.5 R-13 R-19.5 R-26 R-32.5 R-39
None 1.180 0.136 0.072 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025
R-10 0.186 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023
R-11 0.185 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023
R-13 0.162 0.079 0.052 0.039 0.031 0.026 0.022
R-16 0.155 0.077 0.051 0.039 0.031 0.026 0.022
R-19 0.147 0.075 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022

Concrete Masonry Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5B may be used for purposes of calculating concrete masonry wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE isothermal planes calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.

TABLE 10-5B(1)
Default U-Factors for Concrete and Masonry Walls

((8" CONCRETE MASONRY
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.40 0.23 0.24 0.43
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.15
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.14
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.12))

((12" CONCRETE MASONRY
CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.35 0.17 0.18 0.33
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.13
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.10
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.12))

((8" CLAY BRICK
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.50 0.31 0.32 0.56
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09))

((6" CONCRETE POURED OR PRECAST
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Concrete, Both Sides NA NA NA 0.61
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips NA NA NA 0.12
R-6 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.09))

Framing Type and Depth Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Normal Weight 145 lb/ft3 Solid Concrete Walls Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft3 Concrete Block Walls: Solid Grouted Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft3 Concrete Block Walls: Partially Grouted (cores uninsulated except where specified)
R-0 U-0.740 U-0.580 U-0.480
No Framing Ungrouted Cores Filled with Loose-Fill Insulation NA NA U-0.350
Continuous metal framing at 24 in. on center horizontally
1.0 in R-0 U-0.414 U-0.359 U-0.318
1.0 in R-3.8 U-0.325 U-0.290 U-0.263
1.0 in R-5 U-0.314 U-0.281 U-0.255
1.0 in R-6.5 U-0.305 U-0.274 U-0.249
1.5 in R-11 U-0.267 U-0.243 U-0.223
2.0 in R-7.6 U-0.230 U-0.212 U-0.197
2.0 in R-10 U-0.219 U-0.202 U-0.188
2.0 in R-13 U-0.210 U-0.195 U-0.182
3.0 in R-11.4 U-0.178 U-0.167 U-0.157
3.0 in R-15 U-0.168 U-0.158 U-0.149
3.0 in R-19.5 U-0.160 U-0.151 U-0.143
3.5 in R-11.0 U-0.168 U-0.158 U-0.149
3.5 in R-13.0 U-0.161 U-0.152 U-0.144
3.5 in R-15.0 U-0.155 U-0.147 U-0.140
4.5 in R-17.1 U-0.133 U-0.126 U-0.121
4.5 in R-22.5 U-0.124 U-0.119 U-0.114
4.5 in R-25.2 U-0.122 U-0.116 U-0.112
5.0 in R-19.0 U-0.122 U-0.117 U-0.112
5.0 in R-25.0 U-0.115 U-0.110 U-0.106
5.0 in R-28.0 U-0.112 U-0.107 U-0.103
5.0 in R-32.5 U-0.109 U-0.104 U-0.101
5.5 in R-19.0 U-0.118 U-0.113 U-0.109
5.5 in R-20.9 U-0.114 U-0.109 U-0.105
5.5 in R-21.0 U-0.113 U-0.109 U-0.150
5.5 in R-27.5 U-0.106 U-0.102 U-0.099
5.5 in R-30.8 U-0.104 U-0.100 U-0.096
6.0 in R-22.8 U-0.106 U-0.102 U-0.098
6.0 in R-30.0 U-0.099 U-0.095 U-0.092
6.0 in R-33.6 U-0.096 U-0.093 U-0.090
6.5 in R-24.7 U-0.099 U-0.096 U-0.092
7.0 in R-26.6 U-0.093 U-0.090 U-0.087
7.5 in R-28.5 U-0.088 U-0.085 U-0.083
8.0 in R-30.4 U-0.083 U-0.081 U-0.079
Continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing
No Framing R-1.0 U-0.425 U-0.367 U-0.324
No Framing R-2.0 U-0.298 U-0.269 U-0.245
No Framing R-3.0 U-0.230 U-0.212 U-0.197
No Framing R-4.0 U-0.187 U-0.175 U-0.164
No Framing R-5.0 U-0.157 U-0.149 U-0.141
No Framing R-6.0 U-0.136 U-0.129 U-0.124
No Framing R-7.0 U-0.120 U-0.115 U-0.110
No Framing R-8.0 U-0.107 U-0.103 U-0.099
No Framing R-9.0 U-0.097 U-0.093 U-0.090
No Framing R-10.0 U-0.088 U-0.085 U-0.083
No Framing R-11.0 U-0.081 U-0.079 U-0.076
No Framing R-12.0 U-0.075 U-0.073 U-0.071
No Framing R-13.0 U-0.070 U-0.068 U-0.066
No Framing R-14.0 U-0.065 U-0.064 U-0.062
No Framing R-15.0 U-0.061 U-0.060 U-0.059
No Framing R-16.0 U-0.058 U-0.056 U-0.055
No Framing R-17.0 U-0.054 U-0.053 U-0.052
No Framing R-18.0 U-0.052 U-0.051 U-0.050
No Framing R-19.0 U-0.049 U-0.048 U-0.047
No Framing R-20.0 U-0.047 U-0.046 U-0.045
No Framing R-21.0 U-0.045 U-0.044 U-0.043
No Framing R-22.0 U-0.043 U-0.042 U-0.042
No Framing R-23.0 U-0.041 U-0.040 U-0.040
No Framing R-24.0 U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.038
No Framing R-25.0 U-0.038 U-0.037 U-0.037
No Framing R-30.0 U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.031
No Framing R-35.0 U-0.028 U-0.027 U-0.027
No Framing R-40.0 U-0.024 U-0.024 U-0.024
No Framing R-45.0 U-0.022 U-0.021 U-0.021
No Framing R-50.0 U-0.019 U-0.019 U-0.019
No Framing R-55.0 U-0.018 U-0.018 U-0.018
No Framing R-60.0 U-0.016 U-0.016 U-0.016
Brick cavity wall with continuous insulation
No Framing R-0 U-0.337 U-0.299 U-0.270
No Framing R-3.8 U-0.148 U-0.140 U-0.133
No Framing R-5.0 U-0.125 U-0.120 U-0.115
No Framing R-6.5 U-0.106 U-0.102 U-0.098
No Framing R-7.6 U-0.095 U-0.091 U-0.088
No Framing R-10 U-0.077 U-0.075 U-0.073
No Framing R-10.5 U-0.079 U-0.077 U-0.075
No Framing R-11.4 U-0.070 U-0.068 U-0.066
No Framing R-15 U-0.056 U-0.055 U-0.053
No Framing R-16.5 U-0.054 U-0.053 U-0.052
No Framing R-19.5 U-0.045 U-0.044 U-0.043
No Framing R-22.5 U-0.041 U-0.040 U-0.039
No Framing R-28.5 U-0.033 U-0.032 U-0.032
Continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing with stucco and continuous metal framing at 24 in. on center horizontally
1.0 in R-0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.045 U-0.045 U-0.044
1.0 in R-3.8 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.043
1.0 in R-5 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.043
1.0 in R-6.5 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.042
1.5 in R-11 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.043 U-0.042 U-0.042
2.0 in R-7.6 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.042 U-0.041 U-0.041
2.0 in R-10 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.041 U-0.041 U-0.040
2.0 in R-13 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.041 U-0.040 U-0.040
3.0 in R-11.4 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.040 U-0.039 U-0.039
3.0 in R-15 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.038
3.0 in R-19.5 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.039 U-0.038 U-0.038
3.5 in R-11.0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.038
3.5 in R-13.0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.039 U-0.038 U-0.038
5.0 in R-19.0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.036 U-0.036 U-0.035
5.0 in R-25 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.034
5.0 in R-32.5 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.035 U-0.034 U-0.034
5.5 in R-19.0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.036 U-0.035 U-0.035
5.5 in R-21.0 + R-19.5 c.i. U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.034

Notes for Default Table 10-5B(1)
1. It is acceptable to use the U-factors in Table 10-5B(1) for all concrete and masonry walls, provided that the grouting is equal to or less than that specified.
For ungrouted walls, use the partially grouted column.
For metal studs and z-furring, use the continuous metal framing category.
For insulation that is attached without any framing members (e.g., glued), use the continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing member category. Continuous insulation may be installed on the interior or exterior of masonry walls, or between stand-alone walls in multilayer masonry walls, or on the interior or exterior of the concrete.
2. For Table 10-5B(1), the U-factor includes R-0.17 for exterior air film and R-0.68 for interior air film-vertical surfaces. For insulated walls, the U-factor also includes R-0.45 for 0.5 inch gypsum board.
U-factors are provided for the following configurations:
a. Concrete wall: 8-inch normal weight concrete wall with a density of 145 lb/ft3.
b. Solid grouted concrete block wall: 8-inch medium weight ASTM C90 concrete block with a density of 115 lb/ft3 and solid grouted cores.
c. Partially grouted concrete block wall: 8-inch medium weight ASTM C90 concrete block with a density of 115 lb/ft3 having reinforcing steel every 32 inches vertically and every 48 inches horizontally, with cores grouted in those areas only. Other cores are filled with insulating material only if there is no other insulation.
3. For walls with insulation contained in a framing layer, the U-factors in Table 10-5B(1) assume contact (and thermal bridging) between the mass wall and other framing. For wall assemblies with multiple layers where the wood or metal framing layer does not contact the concrete or masonry layer (i.e., walls with an airspace between the stud wall and the mass wall layer), it is acceptable to use the appropriate wood or metal frame wall default U-factors in Tables 10-5 or 10-5A.
Note: It is acceptable to use this approach where the insulation extends beyond the framing and is in contact with the mass wall layer (e.g., a nominal 4-inch metal stud containing insulation that is nominally 6 inches thick and therefore extends 2 inches beyond the back of the metal stud).
4. Except for wall assemblies qualifying for Note 3, if not taken from Table 10-5B(1), mass wall U-factors shall be determined in accordance with ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix A, Section A3.1 and Tables A3.1A to A3.1D, or Section A9.4. If not taken from Table 10-9, heat capacity for mass walls shall be taken from ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix A, Table A3.1B or A3.1C.

TABLE 10-5B(2)
Default U-Factors for
Peripheral Edges of Intermediate Concrete Floors

AVERAGE THICKNESS OF WALL ABOVE AND BELOW
SLAB EDGE TREATMENT 6 inches 8 inches 10 inches 12 inches
Exposed Concrete 0.816 0.741 0.678 0.625
R-5 Exterior Insulation 0.161 0.157 0.154 0.152
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.138 0.136 0.134 0.132
R-7 Exterior Insulation 0.122 0.120 0.118 0.116
R-8 Exterior Insulation 0.108 0.107 0.106 0.104
R-9 Exterior Insulation 0.098 0.097 0.095 0.094
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.089 0.088 0.087 0.086
R-11 Exterior Insulation 0.082 0.081 0.080 0.079
R-12 Exterior Insulation 0.076 0.075 0.074 0.074
R-13 Exterior Insulation 0.070 0.070 0.069 0.068
R-14 Exterior Insulation 0.066 0.065 0.065 0.064
R-15 Exterior Insulation 0.062 0.061 0.061 0.060

((Notes for Default Table 10-5B
1. Grouted cores at 40" x 48" on center vertically and horizontally in partial grouted walls.
2. Interior insulation values include 1/2" gypsum board on the inner surface.
3. Furring and stud spacing is 16" on center. Insulation is assumed to fill furring space and is not compressed.
4. Intermediate values may be interpolated using this table. Values not contained in this table may be computed using the procedures listed in Standard RS-1.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1005, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1005, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1005, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1006   Section 1006 Default U-factors for glazing and doors.  


1006.1 Glazing and Doors without NFRC Certification: Glazing and doors that do not have NFRC certification shall be assigned the following U-factors:

TABLE 10-6
Other than ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING, OVERHEAD GLAZING AND OPAQUE DOORS

Vertical Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood/

Fiberglass

Frame

Single 1.45 1.45 1.45
Double 0.90 0.85 0.75
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed/Operable 0.75/0.90 0.70/0.84 0.60/0.72
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.40), Fixed/Operable

((0.60))

0.70/0.84

((0.55))

0.60/0.72

0.50/0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable ((0.55))

0.65/0.78

((0.50))

0.55/0.66

0.45/0.54
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable

((0.50))

0.60/0.72

((0.45))

0.50/0.60

0.40/0.48
Triple 0.75 0.55 0.50
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed/Operable 0.55/0.66 0.50/0.60 0.45/0.54
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.20), Fixed/Operable 0.50/0.60 0.45/0.54 0.40/0.48
1/2 Inch Air, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable 0.45/0.54 0.35/0.42 0.30/0.36
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable

0.40/0.48 0.30/0.36 0.25/0.30

The category for aluminum frame with a thermal break is as defined in footnote 7 to Table 10-6A.

Overhead Glazing: Sloped Glazing (Including Frame)
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood/

Fiberglass

Frame

Single 1.74 1.74 1.74
Double 1.08 1.02 0.90
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.90 0.84 0.72
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.40), Fixed ((0.72)) 0.84 ((0.66))

0.72

0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.10), Fixed ((0.66)) 0.78 ((0.60))

0.66

0.54
1/2 Inch Argon, Low-e(0.10), Fixed ((0.60))

0.72

((0.54))

0.60

0.48
Triple 0.90 0.66 0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.66 0.60 0.54
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e (0.20), Fixed 0.60 0.54 0.48
1/2 Inch Air, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed 0.54 0.42 0.36
1/2 Inch Argon, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed 0.48 0.36 0.30

This default table is applicable to sloped glazing only. (Sloped glazing is a multiple-lite glazed system (similar to a curtain wall) that is mounted at a slope greater than 15 from the vertical plane.) Other overhead glazing shall use the defaults in Table 10-6E.


Opaque Doors
U-Factor
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal (Including Fire Door and Smoke Vent) 0.60
Wood 0.50
Other Doors See Table 10-6C

Notes:


Where a gap width is listed (i.e.: 1/2 inch), that is the minimum allowed.

Where a low-emissivity emittance is listed (i.e.: 0.40, 0.20, 0.10), that is the maximum allowed.

Where a gas other than air is listed (i.e.: Argon), the gas fill shall be a minimum of 90%.

Where an operator type is listed (i.e.: Fixed), the default is only allowed for that operator type. Where a frame type is listed (i.e.: Wood/vinyl), the default is only allowed for that frame type. Wood/vinyl frame includes reinforced vinyl and aluminum-clad wood.


TABLE 10-6A
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

Description1,2,3,4 Frame Type5,6
Aluminum Aluminum

Thermal Break7

Wood/Vinyl
Windows Single 1.20 1.20 1.20
Double, < 1/2" Clear 0.92 0.75 0.63
Clear + Argon 0.87 0.71 0.60
Low-e 0.85 0.69 0.58
Low-e + Argon 0.79 0.62 0.53
Double, > 1/2" Clear 0.86 0.69 0.58
Clear + Argon 0.83 0.67 0.55
Low-e 0.78 0.61 0.51
Low-e + Argon 0.75 0.58 0.48
Triple, Clear 0.70 0.53 0.43
Clear + Argon 0.69 0.52 0.41
Low-e 0.67 0.49 0.40
Low-e + Argon 0.63 0.47 0.37
Garden Single 2.60 n.a. 2.31
Windows Double Clear 1.81 n.a. 1.61
Clear + Argon 1.76 n.a. 1.56
Low-e 1.73 n.a. 1.54
Low-e + Argon 1.64 n.a. 1.47

1 < 1/2" = a minimum dead air space of less than 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.
> 1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches or greater between the panes of glass.
Where no gap width is listed, the minimum gap width is 1/4".
2 Any low-e (emissivity) coating (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4).
3 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, C02, SF6, argon/SF6 mixtures and Krypton.
4 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
5 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
6 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for wood/vinyl windows.
7 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produces a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

TABLE 10-6B((1))
((Group R Occupancy)) All Occupancies: SMALL BUSINESS COMPLIANCE TABLE DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

((FRAME TYPE7,8
DESCRIPTION2,3,4,6 ALUMINUM ALUM.

THERMAL

BREAK9

WOOD/VINYL ALUM. CLAD

WOOD/REINFORCED

VINYL10

Double, Clear 1/4" 0.82 0.66 0.56 0.59
Double, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.56
Double, Low-e4 1/4" 0.76 0.61 0.52 0.54
Double, Low-e2 1/4" 0.73 0.58 0.49 0.51
Double, Low-e1 1/4" 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.66 0.52 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e1 1/4" + argon 0.64 0.50 0.41 0.43
Double, Clear 3/8" 0.78 0.63 0.54 0.57
Double, Clear 3/8" + argon 0.75 0.60 0.51 0.54
Double, Low-e4 3/8" 0.72 0.57 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e2 3/8" 0.69 0.54 0.45 0.48
Double, Low-e1 3/8" 0.66 0.51 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e4 3/8" + argon 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 3/8" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.41 0.44
Double, Low-e1 3/8" + argon 0.61 0.47 0.35 0.41
Double, Clear 1/2" 0.75 0.60 0.50 0.54
Double, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.72 0.58 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e4 1/2" 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 1/2" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.44
Double, Low-e1 1/2" 0.61 0.47 0.355 0.42
Double, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.65 0.50 0.42 0.44
Double, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.40
Double, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.38
Triple, Clear 1/4" 0.66 0.52 0.42 0.44
Triple, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.39 0.42
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.40
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" 0.62 0.48 0.39 0.41
Triple, Low-e1 1/4" 0.61 0.47 0.38 0.40
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.39
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.37
Triple, Low-el 1/4" + argon 0.57 0.42 0.34 0.36
Triple, Clear 1/2" 0.61 0.46 0.37 0.40
Triple, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.59 0.45 0.36 0.38
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.37
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" 0.54 0.39 0.31 0.33
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.52 0.38 0.30 0.32
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.51 0.37 0.29 0.31))

Vertical Glazing

Description

Frame Type
Any Frame Aluminum Thermal Break2 Wood/Vinyl Fiberglass
Panes Low-e1 Spacer Fill
A Any Argon 0.48 0.41 0.32
B Any Argon 0.46 0.39 0.30
Double3 C Any Argon 0.44 0.37 0.28
C High Performance Argon 0.42 0.35 Deemed to comply5
A Any Air 0.50 0.44 0.26
B Any Air 0.45 0.39 0.22
Triple4 C Any Air 0.41 0.34 0.20
Any, double low-e Any Air 0.35 0.32 0.18

Footnotes to Table 10-6B

((1 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default U-factor for nonaluminum spacer. Acceptable spacer materials may include but is not limited to fiberglass, wood and butyl or other material with an equivalent thermal performance.
2 1/4" = a minimum dead air space of 0.25 inches between the panes of glass.

3/8" = a minimum dead air space of 0.375 inches between the panes of glass.

1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.

Product with air spaces different than those listed above shall use the value for the next smaller air space; i.e. 3/4 inch = 1/2 inch U-factors, 7/16 inch = 3/8 inch U-factors, 5/16 inch = 1/4 inch U-factors.

3 Low-e4 (emissivity) shall be 0.4 or less.

Low-e2 (emissivity) shall be 0.2 or less.

Low-e1 (emissivity) shall be 0.1 or less.

4 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, CO2, SF6, and argon/SF6 mixtures. The following conversion factor shall apply to Krypton gas-filled units: 1/4" or greater with krypton is equivalent to 1/2" argon.
5 For this assembly only, products shall be deemed to comply if they have an emissivity of 0.16 or less.
6 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
7 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
8 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default values for solariums.
9 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a

thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

10 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl windows. Vinyl clad wood window shall use the U-factors listed for Wood/Vinyl windows. Any vinyl frame window with metal reinforcement in more than one rail shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl window.))

1. Low-eA (emissivity) shall be 0.24 to 0.16.
Low-eB (emissivity) shall be 0.15 to 0.08.
Low-eC (emissivity) shall be 0.07 or less.
2. Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/ F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.
3. A minimum air space of 0.375 inches between panes of glass is required for double glazing.
4. A minimum air space of 0.25 inches between panes of glass is required for triple glazing.
5. Deemed to comply glazing shall not be used for performance compliance.


TABLE 10-6C
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR DOORS


Door Type No

Glazing

Single

Glazing

Double

Glazing

with 1/4 in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with 1/2

in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with

e = 0.10,

1/2 in.

Argon

SWINGING DOORS (Rough opening - 38 in. x 82 in.)
Slab Doors
Wood slab in wood framea 0.46
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.44
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.58 0.48 0.46 0.42
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.69 0.49 0.46 0.39
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Insulated steel slab with wood edge in wood framea 0.16
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.18
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.39 0.28 0.26 0.23
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.58 0.38 0.35 0.26
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Foam insulated steel slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.37
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.39
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.55 0.50 0.48 0.44
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.71 0.59 0.56 0.48
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Cardboard honeycomb slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.61
Style and Rail Doors
Sliding glass doors/French doors Use Table 10-6A
Site-Assembled Style and Rail Doors
Aluminum in aluminum frame - 1.32 0.99 0.93 0.79
Aluminum in aluminum frame with thermal break - 1.13 0.80 0.74 0.63
((REVOLVING DOORS (Rough opening - 82 in. x 84 in.)
Aluminum in aluminum frame
Open - 1.32 - - -
Closed - 0.65 - - -
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS (Nominal - 10 ft x 10 ft)
Uninsulated steel (nominal U = 1.15)c 1.15 - - - -
Insulated steel (nominal U = 0.11)c 0.24 - - - -
Insulated steel with thermal break (nominal U = 0.08)c 0.13 - - - -))

a. Thermally broken sill (add 0.03 for nonthermally broken sill)
b. Nonthermally broken sill
c. Nominal U-factors are through the center of the insulated panel before consideration of thermal bridges around the edges of the door sections and due to the frame.

REVOLVING DOORS
Size (W x H) U-Factor
3-wing

8 ft. x 7 ft.

10 ft. x 8 ft.

0.79

0.80

4-wing

7 ft. x 6.5 ft.

7 ft. x 7.5 ft.

0.63

0.64

Open

82 in. x 84 in.

1.32

DOUBLE-SKIN STEEL EMERGENCY EXIT DOORS
Core Insulation 3 ft. x 6 ft. 8 in. 6 ft. x 6 ft. 8 in.
1-3/8 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.57

0.44

0.34

0.52

0.36

0.28

1-3/4 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.57

0.41

0.31

0.54

0.33

0.26

1-3/8 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.60

0.47

0.37

0.55

0.39

0.31

1-3/4 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.60

0.44

0.34

0.57

0.37

0.30

DOUBLE-SKIN STEEL GARAGE AND AIRCRAFT HANGAR DOORS
One-piece tilt-upa Sectional tilt-upb Aircraft hangar
Insulatione 8 ft. x 7 ft. 16 ft. x 7 ft. 9 ft. x 7 ft. 72 ft. x 12 ft.c 240 ft. x 50 ft.d
1-3/8 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.36

0.33

0.33

0.31

0.34-0.39

0.31-0.36

2 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.31

0.29

0.28

0.26

0.29-0.33

0.27-0.31

3 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.26

0.24

0.23

0.21

0.25-0.28

0.24-0.27

4 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.23

0.21

0.20

0.19

0.23-0.25

0.21-0.24

6 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.20

0.19

0.16

0.15

0.20-0.21

0.19-0.21

4 in. thickness

Non-insulated

Expanded polystyrene

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Extruded polystyrene

1.10

0.25

0.25

0.23

1.23

0.16

0.16

0.15

6 in. thickness

Non-insulated

Expanded polystyrene

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Extruded polystyrene

1.10

0.21

0.23

0.20

1.23

0.13

0.13

0.12

Uninsulated

All products

1.15


a. Values are for thermally broken or thermally unbroken doors.
b. Lower values are for thermally broken doors; upper values are for doors with no thermal break.
c. Typical size for a small private airplane (single-engine or twin).
d. Typical hangar door for a midsize commercial jet airliner.
e. EPS is extruded polystyrene, XPS is expanded polystyrene.


TABLE 10-6D

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR GLAZED DOORS

See Table 10-6C


TABLE 10-6E
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR OVERHEAD GLAZING

Frame Type
Aluminum Aluminum Reinforced Wood or Vinyl-
without with Vinyl/ Clad Wood/
Thermal Thermal Aluminum-Clad Vinyl without
Glazing Type Break Break Wood or Vinyl Reinforcing
Single Glazing
glass U-1.58 U-1.51 U-1.40 U-1.18
acrylic/polycarb U-1.52 U-1.45 U-1.34 U-1.11
Double Glazing
air U-1.05 U-0.89 U-0.84 U-0.67
argon U-1.02 U-0.86 U-0.80 U-0.64
Double Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.96 U-0.80 U-0.75 U-0.59
argon U-0.91 U-0.75 U-0.70 U-0.54
Double Glazing, e = 0.10
air U-0.94 U-0.79 U-0.74 U-0.58
argon U-0.89 U-0.73 U-0.68 U-0.52
Double Glazing, e = 0.05
air U-0.93 U-0.78 U-0.73 U-0.56
argon U-0.87 U-0.71 U-0.66 U-0.50
Triple Glazing
air U-0.90 U-0.70 U-0.67 U-0.51
argon U-0.87 U-0.69 U-0.64 U-0.48
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.86 U-0.68 U-0.63 U-0.47
argon U-0.82 U-0.63 U-0.59 U-0.43
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.82 U-0.64 U-0.60 U-0.44
argon U-0.79 U-0.60 U-0.56 U-0.40
Triple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.81 U-0.62 U-0.58 U-0.42
argon U-0.77 U-0.58 U-0.54 U-0.38
Quadruple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2x

surfaces

air U-0.78 U-0.59 U-0.55 U-0.39
argon U-0.74 U-0.56 U-0.52 U-0.36
krypton U-0.70 U-0.52 U-0.48 U-0.32

1. U-factors are applicable to both glass and plastic, flat and domed units, all spacers and gaps.
2. Emissivities shall be less than or equal to the value specified.
3. Gap fill shall be assumed to be air unless there is a minimum of 90% argon or krypton.
4. Aluminum frame with thermal break is as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1006, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1006, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1006, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-1006, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1007   Section 1007 Ceilings.  

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45F.

Metal Framed Ceilings: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A(2) - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY may be used for purposes of calculating metal framed ceiling section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.

Metal building roofs have a different construction and are addressed in Table 10-7(F).


1007.2 Component Description: The four types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hr ft2 F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:


U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38
4/12 .036 .031
5/12 .035 .030
6/12 .034 .029
7/12 .034 .029
8/12 .034 .028
9/12 .034 .028
10/12 .033 .028
11/12 .033 .027
12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of 3.0 air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.


EXCEPTION: Where spray polyurethane foam meets the requirements of Section 502.1.6.3 or 1313.2, the cavity shall be filled to the depth to achieve R-value requirements.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling, Table 10-7A.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-3 Sheathing, Table 10-7B.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-5 Sheathing, Table 10-7C.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-10 Sheathing, Table 10-7D.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-15 Sheathing, Table 10-7E.


Metal Building Roof, Table 10-7F: The base assembly is a roof where the insulation is compressed when installed beneath metal roof panels attached to the steel structure (purlins). Additional assemblies include continuous insulation, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

Single Layer. The rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Double Layer. The first rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer and parallel to the purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Continuous Insulation. For continuous insulation (e.g., insulation boards or blankets), it is assumed that the insulation is installed below the purlins and is uninterrupted by framing members. Insulation exposed to the conditioned space or semiheated space shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a continuous air barrier.

Liner System (Ls). A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Filled Cavity. The first rated R-value of insulation is for faced insulation installed parallel to the purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer, parallel to and between the purlins and compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. The facer of the first layer of insulation is of sufficient width to be continuously sealed to the top flange of the purlins and to accommodate the full thickness of the second layer of insulation. A supporting structure retains the bottom of the first layer at the prescribed depth required for the full thickness of the second layer of insulation being installed above it. A minimum R-5 (R-0.9) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

U-factors for Metal Building Roofs. U-factors for metal building roofs shall be taken from Table 10-7F, provided the average purlin spacing is at least 52 in. and the R-value of the thermal spacer block is greater than or equal to the thermal spacer block R-value indicated in Table 10-7F for the assembly. It is not acceptable to use the U-factors in Table 10-7F if additional insulated sheathing is not continuous.


Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck (uninterrupted by framing), Table 10-7G: The base assembly is continuous insulation over a structural deck. Added insulation is continuous and uninterrupted by framing. For the insulation, the first column lists the R-value for continuous insulation with a uniform thickness; the second column lists the comparable area-weighted average R-value for continuous insulation provided that the insulation thickness is never less than R-5 (except at roof drains) and that the slope is no greater than 1/4 inch per foot.


TABLE 10-7
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR CEILINGS

Ceilings Below Vented Attics

Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Flat Ceiling Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck
4x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5 2" Rigid insulation 0.064
R-21.9 3.5" Rigid insulation 0.040
R-37.5 6" Rigid insulation 0.025
R-50 8" Rigid insulation 0.019

Table 10-7A

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.1075 0.0991 0.0928 0.0878 0.0839 0.0807 0.0780 0.0757 0.0737 0.0720 0.0706 0.0693 0.0681
30 0.0907 0.0823 0.0760 0.0710 0.0671 0.0638 0.0612 0.0589 0.0569 0.0552 0.0538 0.0525 0.0513
38 0.0844 0.0759 0.0696 0.0647 0.0607 0.0575 0.0548 0.0525 0.0506 0.0489 0.0474 0.0461 0.0449
49 0.0789 0.0704 0.0641 0.0592 0.0552 0.0520 0.0493 0.0470 0.0451 0.0434 0.0419 0.0406 0.0395

Table 10-7B

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-3 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0809 0.0763 0.0728 0.0701 0.0679 0.0661 0.0647 0.0634 0.0623 0.0614 0.0606 0.0599 0.0592
30 0.0641 0.0595 0.0560 0.0533 0.0511 0.0493 0.0478 0.0466 0.0455 0.0446 0.0438 0.0431 0.0424
38 0.0577 0.0531 0.0496 0.0469 0.0447 0.0430 0.0415 0.0402 0.0392 0.0382 0.0374 0.0367 0.0361
49 0.0523 0.0476 0.0441 0.0414 0.0393 0.0375 0.0360 0.0348 0.0337 0.0328 0.0319 0.0312 0.0306

Table 10-7C

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-5 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0732 0.0697 0.0670 0.0649 0.0633 0.0619 0.0608 0.0598 0.0590 0.0583 0.0577 0.0571 0.0567
30 0.0564 0.0529 0.0502 0.0481 0.0465 0.0451 0.0440 0.0430 0.0422 0.0415 0.0409 0.0403 0.0399
38 0.0501 0.0465 0.0438 0.0418 0.0401 0.0388 0.0376 0.0367 0.0359 0.0351 0.0345 0.0340 0.0335
49 0.0446 0.0410 0.0384 0.0363 0.0346 0.0333 0.0322 0.0312 0.0304 0.0297 0.0291 0.0285 0.0280

Table 10-7D

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-10 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0626 0.0606 0.0590 0.0578 0.0569 0.0561 0.0555 0.0549 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0534 0.0531
30 0.0458 0.0437 0.0422 0.0410 0.0401 0.0393 0.0387 0.0381 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0363
38 0.0394 0.0374 0.0359 0.0347 0.0337 0.0330 0.0323 0.0318 0.0313 0.0309 0.0305 0.0302 0.0299
49 0.0339 0.0319 0.0304 0.0292 0.0283 0.0275 0.0268 0.0263 0.0258 0.0254 0.0251 0.0247 0.0245


Table 10-7E

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-15 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0561 0.0550 0.0541 0.0535 0.0530 0.0526 0.0522 0.0519 0.0517 0.0515 0.0513 0.0511 0.0509
30 0.0393 0.0382 0.0373 0.0367 0.0362 0.0358 0.0354 0.0351 0.0349 0.0347 0.0345 0.0343 0.0341
38 0.0329 0.0318 0.0310 0.0303 0.0298 0.0294 0.0291 0.0288 0.0285 0.0283 0.0281 0.0279 0.0278
49 0.0274 0.0263 0.0255 0.0249 0.0244 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0.0230 0.0228 0.0226 0.0225 0.0223

1 - Assembly values based on 24 inch on center truss spacing; 11 Truss member connections penetrating insulation (4 at the eaves, 7 in the interior space); 1/2 inch drywall ceiling; all truss members are 2x4 "C" channels with a solid web.
2 - Ceiling sheathing installed between bottom chord and drywall.

TABLE 10-7F
Default U-Factors for Metal Building Roofs


Insulation System Rated R-Value of Insulation Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Roof Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation (uninterrupted by framing) Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation
R-6.5 R-13 R-19.5 R-26 R-32.5 R-39
Standing Seam Roofs with Thermal Spacer Blocksa,b
None 1.280 0.137 0.073 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025
R-10 0.115 0.066 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021
Single R-11 0.107 0.063 0.045 0.035 0.028 0.024 0.021
Layer R-13 0.101 0.061 0.044 0.034 0.028 0.024 0.020
R-16 0.096 0.059 0.043 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-19 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.031 0.026 0.022 0.020
R-10 + R-10 0.088 0.056 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-11 0.086 0.055 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-11 + R-11 0.085 0.055 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-13 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
Double R-11 + R-13 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.022 0.020
Layer R-13 + R-13 0.075 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R10 + R-19 0.074 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-11 + R-19 0.072 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-13 + R-19 0.068 0.047 0.036 0.029 0.025 0.021 0.019
R-16 + R-19 0.065 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021 0.018
R-19 + R-19 0.060 0.043 0.034 0.028 0.023 0.020 0.018
R-19 + R-11 0.035
Liner R-25 + R-11 0.031
System R-30 + R-11 0.029
R-25 + R-11 + R-11 0.026
Filled Cavity with Thermal Spacer Blocksc
R-10 + R-19 0.057 0.042 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020 0.018
Standing Seam Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
Liner System R-19 + R-11 0.040
Thru-Fastened Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
R-10 0.184
R-11 0.182
R-13 0.174
R-16 0.157
Liner R-19 0.151
System R-19 + R-11 0.044
(Multiple R-values are listed in order from inside to outside)

a. A standing seam roof clip that provides a minimum 1.5 in. distance between the top of the purlins and the underside of the metal roof panels is required.
b. A minimum R-3 thermal spacer block is required.
c. A minimum R-5 thermal spacer block is required.

TABLE 10-7G
Assembly U-Factors for Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck
(uninterrupted by framing)


Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Minimum Throughout, Unsloped Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Average (R-5 minimum), Sloped (1/4 inch per foot maximum) Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly
R-0 Not Allowed U-1.282
R-1 Not Allowed U-0.562
R-2 Not Allowed U-0.360
R-3 Not Allowed U-0.265
R-4 Not Allowed U-0.209
R-5 Not Allowed U-0.173
R-6 R-7 U-0.147
R-7 R-8 U-0.129
R-8 R-9 U-0.114
R-9 R-10 U-0.102
R-10 R-12 U-0.093
R-11 R-13 U-0.085
R-12 R-15 U-0.078
R-13 R-16 U-0.073
R-14 R-18 U-0.068
R-15 R-20 U-0.063
R-16 R-22 U-0.060
R-17 R-23 U-0.056
R-18 R-25 U-0.053
R-19 R-27 U-0.051
R-20 R-29 U-0.048
R-21 R-31 U-0.046
R-22 R-33 U-0.044
R-23 R-35 U-0.042
R-24 R-37 U-0.040
R-25 R-39 U-0.039
R-26 R-41 U-0.037
R-27 R-43 U-0.036
R-28 R-46 U-0.035
R-29 R-48 U-0.034
R-30 R-50 U-0.032
R-35 R-61 U-0.028
R-40 R-73 U-0.025
R-45 R-86 U-0.022
R-50 R-99 U-0.020
R-55 R-112 U-0.018
R-60 R-126 U-0.016

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1007, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1007, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1007, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1008   Section 1008 Air infiltration.  

1008.1 General: Tables 10-8 and 10-8A list effective air change rates and heat capacities for heat loss due to infiltration for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.

Estimated seasonal average infiltration rate in air changes per hour (ACH) is given for standard air-leakage control (see section 502.4 of this code for air leakage requirements for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential). The effective air-change rate shall be used in calculations for compliance under either the Component Performance or Systems Analysis approaches.

Heat loss due to infiltration shall be computed using the following equation:


Qinfil = ACHeff* HCP
where: