WSR 10-03-115

PERMANENT RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed January 20, 2010, 12:00 p.m. , effective July 1, 2010 ]


Effective Date of Rule: July 1, 2010.

Purpose: Amendment of chapter 51-11 WAC, the Washington State Energy Code.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 51-11-0101, 51-11-0105, 51-11-0201, 51-11-0302, 51-11-0303, 51-11-0401, 51-11-0402, 51-11-0501, 51-11-0502, 51-11-0503, 51-11-0504, 51-11-0505, 51-11-0525, 51-11-0527, 51-11-0530, 51-11-0540, 51-11-0541, 51-11-0601, 51-11-0602, 51-11-0603, 51-11-0604, 51-11-0625, 51-11-0701, 51-11-0800, 51-11-0900, 51-11-1001, 51-11-1004, 51-11-1005, 51-11-1006, 51-11-1007, 51-11-1008, 51-11-1009, 51-11-1120, 51-11-1131, 51-11-1132, 51-11-1133, 51-11-1141, 51-11-1310, 51-11-1311, 51-11-1312, 51-11-1313, 51-11-1314, 51-11-1322, 51-11-1323, 51-11-1331, 51-11-1332, 51-11-1334, 51-11-1402, 51-11-1410, 51-11-1411, 51-11-1412, 51-11-1413, 51-11-1414, 51-11-1416, 51-11-1421, 51-11-1423, 51-11-1431, 51-11-1432, 51-11-1433, 51-11-1435, 51-11-1436, 51-11-1437, 51-11-1438, 51-11-1439, 51-11-1440, 51-11-1454, 51-11-1510, 51-11-1512, 51-11-1513, 51-11-1521, 51-11-1530, 51-11-1531, 51-11-1532, 51-11-99901, 51-11-99902 and 51-11-99903; and new sections WAC 51-11-1135, 51-11-1200, 51-11-1444, 51-11-1445, 51-11-1446, and 51-11-1460.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 09-17-136 on August 19, 2009.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version:

The requirement in Section 503.4.1 for variable speed motors was not adopted.

The lighting requirements in Section 505.1 were changed to require fifty percent high efficacy luminaires rather than fifty percent high efficiency lamps.

Table 6-2 was added back to the code for Climate Zone 2 and envelope requirements were adjusted in stringency for that climate zone.

Chapter 9 was retained, requiring single family buildings to achieve additional savings above and beyond the requirements in Chapters 4 through 6, but the number of credits required for approval was lowered from 2 to 1.

The requirement in Section 1132.3 that would lower the threshold for replacing all lighting in commercial tenant improvements from sixty percent to twenty percent was not adopted.

Section 1201 was modified to eliminate the exceptions and require all buildings to have a totalizing meter for each energy source.

The requirement in Section 1314.6 for mandatory vestibules was not adopted.

The new exception 2 to Section 1322 allowing for a decrease in perimeter insulation was not adopted.

The increase in U-factors to mass walls in Tables 13-1 and 13-2 were not adopted, and the revisions to default Table 10-5(B) 1 were not adopted.

Equations 13-1 and 13-2 were modified to reflect the additional component assemblies added to Tables 13-1 and 13-2.

The requirement for stepped control of egress lighting in Section 1515 was not adopted.

The added Table 15-1B was not adopted; and modifications were made to Table 15-1A, which goes back to being Table 15-1. Most modifications were to levels between the existing code and the proposed code.

The requirement for automatic control of walkways and escalators in Sections 1550-1552 were not adopted.

A final cost-benefit analysis is available by contacting Tim Nogler, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525, phone (360) 725-2969, fax (360) 586-9383, e-mail sbcc@commerce.wa.gov.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 7, Amended 13, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 7, Amended 13, Repealed 0.

Date Adopted: November 20, 2009.

Peter D. DeVries

Council Chair

OTS-2584.5


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0101   Section 101 -- Scope and general requirements.  


101.1 Title: Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code shall be known as the "Washington State Single-Family Residential Energy Code" and may be cited as such; and will be referred to herein as "this Code."


101.2 Purpose and Intent: The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards for new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy.


The purpose of this Code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefitted by the terms of this Code.


It is intended that these provisions provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy. These provisions are structured to permit compliance with the intent of this Code by any one of the following three paths of design:


1. A systems analysis approach for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources, Chapters 4 and 9.


2. A component performance approach for various building elements and mechanical systems and components, Chapters 5 and 9.


3. A prescriptive requirements approach, Chapters 6 and 9.


Compliance with any one of these approaches meets the intent of this Code. This Code is not intended to abridge any safety or health requirements required under any other applicable codes or ordinances.


The provisions of this Code do not consider the efficiency of various energy forms as they are delivered to the building envelope. A determination of delivered energy efficiencies in conjunction with this Code will provide the most efficient use of available energy in new building construction.


101.3 Scope: This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new buildings and structures that provide facilities or shelter for residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their ((HVAC)) mechanical systems, ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems, electrical distribution and illuminating systems, and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.


Buildings shall be designed to comply with the requirements of either Chapter 4, 5, or 6 of this Code and the additional energy efficiency requirements included in Chapter 9 of this Code.


((For the purposes of this Code:


Detached one- and two-family dwellings built under the International Residential Code shall be considered R-3 Occupancies.


Attached multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) built under the International Residential Code shall be considered R-2 Occupancies.
)) Spaces within the scope of Section R101.2 of the International Residential Code shall comply with Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code. All other spaces, including other Group R Occupancies, shall comply with Chapters 11 through 20 of this Code. Chapter 2 (Definitions), Chapter 7 (Standards), and Chapter 10 (default heat loss coefficients), are applicable to all building types.


101.3.1 Exempt Buildings: Buildings and structures or portions thereof meeting any of the following criteria shall be exempt from the building envelope requirements of Sections 502 and 602, but shall comply with all other requirements for ((building)) mechanical systems((,)) and ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems.


101.3.1.1: Buildings and structures or portions thereof whose peak design rate of energy usage is less than three and four tenths (3.4) Btu/h per square foot or one point zero (1.0) watt per square foot of floor area for space conditioning requirements.


101.3.1.2: Buildings and structures or portions thereof which are neither heated according to the definition of heated space in Chapter 2, nor cooled by a nonrenewable energy source, provided that the nonrenewable energy use for space conditioning complies with requirements of Section 101.3.1.1.


101.3.1.3: Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.


101.3.1.4: The provisions of this code do not apply to the construction, alteration, or repair of temporary worker housing except as provided by rule adopted under chapter 70.114A RCW or chapter 37, Laws of 1998 (SB 6168). "Temporary worker housing" means a place, area, or piece of land where sleeping places or housing sites are provided by an employer for his or her employees or by another person, including a temporary worker housing operator, who is providing such accommodations for employees, for temporary, seasonal occupancy, and includes "labor camps" under RCW 70.54.110.


101.3.2 Application to Existing Buildings: Additions, historic buildings, changes of occupancy or use, and alterations or repairs shall comply with the requirements in the subsections below.

EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of this Code where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and:

1. The alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building; or
2. The alteration or repair is energy efficient and is necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of the general public.
In no case, shall building envelope requirements or mechanical system requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.


101.3.2.1 Additions to Existing Buildings: Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.


EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet shall be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing occupancy to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis or component performance calculations. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing occupancy shall have an energy budget or Target UA which is less than or equal to the unimproved existing building (minus any elements which are no longer part of the building envelope once the addition is added), with the addition designed to comply with this Code.

101.3.2.2 Historic Buildings: The building official may modify the specific requirements of this Code for historic buildings and require in lieu thereof alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings which have been specifically designated as historically significant by the state or local governing body, or listed in The National Register of Historic Places or which have been determined to be eligible for listing.


101.3.2.3 Change of Occupancy or Use:


Any ((Other than Group R Occupancy)) space not within the scope of Section 101.3 which is converted to ((Group R Occupancy)) space that is within the scope of Section 101.3 shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.


101.3.2.4 Alterations and Repairs: All alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without exception. For all other existing buildings, initial tenant alterations shall comply with the new construction requirements of this Code. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the ((following)) requirements of Sections 101.3.2.5 through 101.3.2.8 are met((:)).


101.3.2.5 Building Envelope: The result of the alterations or repairs both:


1. Improves the energy efficiency of the building, and


2. Complies with the overall average thermal transmittance values of the elements of the exterior building envelope in Table 5-1 of Chapter 5 or the nominal R-values and glazing requirements of the reference case in Tables 6-1 and 6-2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Untested storm windows may be installed over existing glazing for an assumed U-factor of 0.90, however, where glass and sash are being replaced ((in Group R Occupancy)), glazing shall comply with the appropriate reference case in Tables 6-1 and 6-2.
2. Where the structural elements of the altered portions of roof/ceiling, wall or floor are not being replaced, these elements shall be deemed to comply with this Code if all existing framing cavities which are exposed during construction are filled to the full depth with batt insulation or insulation having an equivalent nominal R-value ((while, for roof/ceilings, maintaining)) . 2x4 framed walls shall be insulated to a minimum of R-15 and 2x6 framed walls shall be insulated to a minimum of R-21. Roof/ceiling assemblies shall maintain the required space for ventilation. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities need not be insulated. Existing roofs shall be insulated to the requirements of this Code if
a. The roof is uninsulated or insulation is removed to the level of the sheathing, or
b. All insulation in the roof/ceiling was previously installed exterior to the sheathing or nonexistent.

101.3.2.6 ((Building)) Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 503 of this Code. When a space-conditioning system is altered by the installation or replacement of space-conditioning equipment (including replacement of the air handler, outdoor condensing unit of a split system air conditioner or heat pump, cooling or heating coil, or the furnace heat exchanger), the duct system that is connected to the new or replacement space-conditioning equipment shall be sealed, as confirmed through field verification and diagnostic testing in accordance with procedures for duct sealing of existing duct systems as specified in RS-33. The test results shall confirm at least one of the following performance requirements:


1. The measured total duct leakage shall be less than or equal to 8 percent of the conditioned floor area, measured in CFM @ 25 Pascals; or


2. The measured duct leakage to outside shall be less than 6 percent of the conditioned floor area, measured in CFM @ 25 Pascals; or


3. The measured duct leakage shall be reduced by more than 50 percent relative to the measured leakage prior to the installation or replacement of the space conditioning equipment and a visual inspection including a smoke test shall demonstrate that all accessible leaks have been sealed; or


4. If it is not possible to meet the duct requirements of 1, 2 or 3, all accessible leaks shall be sealed and verified through a visual inspection and through a smoke test by a certified third party.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Duct systems that are documented to have been previously sealed as confirmed through field verification and diagnostic testing in accordance with procedures in RS-33.
2. Ducts with less than 40 linear feet in unconditioned spaces.
3. Existing duct systems constructed, insulated or sealed with asbestos.

101.3.2.7 ((Service)) Domestic Water ((Heating)) Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 504.


101.3.2.8 Lighting: Alterations shall comply with Sections 505 and 1132.3.


((EXCEPTION: Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.))

101.3.3 Mixed Occupancy: When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein. Where approved by the building official, where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than ten percent of the area of any floor of a building, the major use may be considered the building occupancy.


101.4 Amendments by Local Government: Except as provided in RCW 19.27A.020(7), this Code shall be the maximum and minimum energy code for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential in each town, city and county((, no later than July 1, 1991)).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0101, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0101, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 98-24-078, 51-11-0101, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0101, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0101, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-0105   Inspections and enforcement.  


105.1 General: All construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and all such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved by the building official.


105.2 Approvals Required: No work shall be done on any part of the building or structure beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official.


105.2.1 Required Inspections: The building official, upon notification, shall make the following inspection in addition to those inspections required in section 109.3 of the International Building Code:


1. Wall insulation inspection: To be made after all wall insulation and air vapor retarder sheet or film materials are in place, but before any wall covering is placed.


105.3 Reinspection: The building official may require a structure to be reinspected.


105.4 Certificate: A permanent certificate shall be posted within three feet of the electrical distribution panel. The certificate shall be completed by the builder or registered design professional. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement wall, crawlspace wall and/or floor), and ducts outside the conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration; and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall list the type and efficiency of heating, cooling, and service water heating equipment, duct leakage rates including test conditions as specified in Section 503.10.2, and air leakage results if a blower door test was conducted.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0105, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0105, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0105, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0201   Scope.   The following definitions shall apply to chapters 1 through 20.


201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.

Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 1007.2 of this Code.)

Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

Air barrier: Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

((ARI:)) Air-impermeable insulation: An insulation having an air permeance equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m2 at 75 Pa pressure differential tested in accordance with ASTM E2178 or ASTM E283.

AHRI: Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute.

Approved: Approval by the Code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles, or tests by nationally recognized organizations.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

Below grade walls: ((Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.)) (See Walls.)

Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

Building entrance: Any doorway, set of doors, turnstile, vestibule, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access to the building by its users and occupants.

Building envelope: For ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential spaces, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1. For other ((than Group R Occupancy)) spaces, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.

Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.

Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

Cold storage space: Spaces that are mechanically cooled and designed to be maintained at a temperature below 45F (7C) and at or above 28F (-2.2C).

Commissioning: A systematic process of verification and documentation that ensures that the selected building systems have been designed, installed and function properly, efficiently, and can be maintained in accordance with the contract documents in order to satisfy the building owner's design intent and operational requirements.

Conditioned floor area: (See Gross conditioned floor area.)

Conditioned space: A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated) or indirectly conditioned space, excluding cold storage spaces and frozen storage spaces.

Continuous insulation (c.i.): Insulation that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.

Cooled space: An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity

a. Exceeds 5 Btu/(hft2), or

b. Is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90F or less at design cooling conditions.

COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

Daylighted zone:

a. Under overhead glazing: The area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either 70 percent of the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

b. At vertical glazing: The area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the ((daylighting)) primary daylighted zone depth ((is assumed to)) extends into the space a distance ((of 15 feet)) equal to the window head height and the secondary daylighted zone extends from the edge of the primary zone to a distance equal to two times the window head height, or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

Daylight sensing control (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.

Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

Demand control ventilation (DCV): A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

Design cooling conditions: ((The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5% column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE.")) The temperatures specified in Section 302.

Design heating conditions: ((The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6% column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE.")) The temperatures specified in Section 302.

Domestic water system: Supply of hot water and cold water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating and cooling.

Door: All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.

Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.

Economizer, air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.

Economizer, water: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.

EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)

Energy recovery ventilation system: System that employs air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)

F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in Btu/hrftF.

F-Value: (See F-Factor.)

Facade area: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.

Fenestration: All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light, including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. (See building envelope and door.)

a. Skylight: A fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 degrees from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on the roof of a building, is considered vertical fenestration.

b. Vertical fenestration: All fenestration other than skylights. Trombe wall assemblies, where glazing is installed within 12 inches of a mass wall, are considered walls, not fenestration. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the vertical fenestration classifications are defined as follows:

i. Metal framing: Products with metal framing with or without thermal break.

ii. Metal framing, entrance door: Any doorway, set of doors, turnstile, vestibule, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access by its users and occupants to the building or to individual tenant spaces accessed from the exterior. (See also building entrance.)

iii. Metal framing, fixed: All vertical fenestration, other than entrance door and operable, including, but not limited to, curtain walls, window walls, fixed windows, picture windows, glass block walls, nonopenable clerestory windows, and nonopenable sidelites and transoms.

iv. Metal framing, operable: All vertical fenestration that opens, except entrance doors, including, but not limited to, casement windows, projecting windows, pivoting windows, horizontal sliding windows, vertical sliding windows, openable clerestory windows, openable sidelites and transoms, sliding glass doors, and doors that are not entrance doors.

v. Nonmetal framing: All products with framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.

Floor, envelope: That lower portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that has conditioned or semiheated space above and is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal but excluding slab-on-grade floors. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Mass floor: A floor with a heat capacity that exceeds 7 Btu/ft2F or 5 Btu/ft2F provided that the floor has a material unit mass not greater than 120 lb/ft3.

b. Steel-joist floor: A floor that is not a mass floor and has steel joist members supported by structural members.

c. Wood-framed and other floors: All other floor types, including wood joist floors. (See also building envelope, fenestration, opaque area and slab-on-grade floor.)

Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

Frozen storage space: Spaces that are mechanically cooled and designed to be maintained at a temperature below 28F (-2.2C).

Garden window: A multisided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.

Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.

Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls.

Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the daylight opening area is less than 50% of the door area, the glazing area is the daylight opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.

Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, vertical glazing areas and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. The area of the wall is measured from the top of the floor insulation to the bottom of the roof insulation. (See Below grade wall.)

Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

Gross roof/ceiling area: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.

Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

Heated space (Fully heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is

a. Capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45F or greater at design heating conditions; or

b. 8 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 12 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2.

Heated space (Semi-heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system

a. Whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(hft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2; and

b. Is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).

c. Is not a cold storage space or frozen storage space.

High efficacy lamps: Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

a. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;

b. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and

c. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

High efficacy luminaire: A lighting fixture that does not contain a medium screw base socket (E24/E26) and whose lamps or other light source have a minimum efficiency of:

a. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;

b. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts;

c. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in Standard RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

Indirectly conditioned space: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

Insulation position:

a. Exterior Insulation Position: A wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.

b. Integral Insulation Position: A wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.

c. Interior Insulation Position: A wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.

International Building Code (IBC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

International Mechanical Code (IMC): (See Washington State Building Code.)

IPLV -- Integrated part-load value: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (((ARI))) (AHRI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.

Labeled: Devices, equipment, or materials to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items that attests to compliance with a specific standard.

Liner system (Ls): A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Listed: Equipment, appliances, assemblies, or materials included in a list published by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment, appliances, assemblies, or material, and whose listing states either that the equipment, appliances, assemblies, or material meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.

Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)

Mechanical system: Equipment and components that provide heating, cooling, and ventilation for any purpose other than domestic water systems.

Microcell: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.

Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

Net heat removal: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)

Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation alone as determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460) in units of hft2F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75F. Nominal R-value refers to the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities or insulated sheathing only and does not include the thermal resistance of other building materials or air films.

Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, ((liquified)) liquefied petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

Nonresidential: All ((buildings and)) spaces ((in the International Building Code (IBC) occupancies)) as defined in this Code other than ((Group R)) residential.

Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.

Occupancy sensor: A device that detects occupants within an area, causing any combination of lighting, equipment or appliances to be turned on or shut off.

On-site renewable energy power system: Photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, and wind systems used to generate electrical power and located on the building site.

Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for doors, glazing and building service systems.

Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

Outdoor air (outside air): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through a building.

Overhead glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than 60 from the horizontal plane.

Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-5.)

Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hour ft2 inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-00 or other approved dry cup method as specified in RS-1.

Personal wireless service facility: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

Process energy: Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than the maintenance of building comfort or amenities for building occupants.

Radiant slab floor: A slab floor assembly on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a floor or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the structure.

Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e., not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

Refrigerated warehouse: A building that contains cold storage spaces or frozen storage spaces that have a total area exceeding 3,000 square feet.

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) Incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

Residential: The following two categories comprise all residential spaces for the purposes of this Code:

a. Single-family: All spaces within the scope of Section R101.2 of the International Residential Code.

b. Multifamily:

i. All Group R Occupancy not falling under the scope of Section 101.2 of the International Residential Code including, but not limited to, dwelling units, hotel/motel guest rooms, dormitories, fraternity/sorority houses, hostels, prisons, and fire stations;

ii. All sleeping areas in Group I Occupancy including, but not limited to, assisted living facilities, nursing homes, patient rooms in hospitals, prisons, and fire stations; and

iii. All sleeping areas in other occupancies including, but not limited to, fire stations.

Roof: The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Attic and other roofs: All other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs.

b. Metal building roof: A roof that is:

i. Constructed with a metal, structural, weathering surface;

ii. Has no ventilated cavity; and

iii. Has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations:

A. Metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members;

B. Insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members;

C. Insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in 1 or 2.

Roof with insulation entirely above deck: A roof with all insulation installed above (outside of) the roof structure and continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members).

Roof/ceiling assembly: (See Gross roof/ceiling area.)

SEER - Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.

Semi-heated space: Sub-category of Heated Space. (See Heated Space.)

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

Shading coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through nonopaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8 inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.


Note: Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter ((30)) 15 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7 of this Code.

Shall: Denotes a mandatory code requirement.

Single family: ((One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.)) (See Residential.)

Skylight: (See ((Overhead glazing)) Fenestration.)

Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.

Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

Split system: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.

Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hr ft2F).

Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hrft2F/Btu).

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hrft2F).

Thermal transmittance, overall (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hrft2F). The Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

Transverse joint: The primary connection between air distribution system fittings.

U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)

U-Value: (See U-factor.)

Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC): (See Washington State Plumbing Code.)

Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also meets this definition.

Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

Vertical glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of 60 or greater from the horizontal plane.

Wall: That portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that is vertical or tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal or greater. This includes above- and below-grade walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, and foundation walls. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows:

a. Above-grade wall: A wall that is not a below-grade wall.

b. Below-grade wall: That portion of a wall in the building envelope that is entirely below the finish grade and in contact with the ground.

c. Mass wall: A wall with a heat capacity exceeding 7 Btu/ft2F or 5 Btu/ft2F, provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 120 lb/ft3.

d. Metal building wall: A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).

e. Steel-framed wall: A wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by steel framing members (i.e., typical steel stud walls and curtain wall systems).

f. Wood-framed and other walls: All other wall types, including wood stud walls.

Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

Washington State Building Code: The Washington State Building Code is comprised of the International Building Code; the International Residential Code; the International Mechanical Code; the International Fire Code; the Uniform Plumbing Code; the state regulations for barrier-free facilities, as designated in RCW 19.27.031; the State Energy Code; and any other codes so designated by the Washington state legislature as adopted and amended by the State Building Code Council.

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0201, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0201, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0201, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0201, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0302   Thermal design parameters.  



302.1 Exterior Design Conditions: The heating or cooling outdoor design temperatures shall be selected from ((0.6 percent column for winter and 0.5 percent column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE." (See also Washington State Energy Code Manual.))) Table 3-1.


302.2 Interior Design Conditions:


302.2.1 Indoor Design Temperature: Indoor design temperature shall be seventy degrees F for heating and seventy-eight degrees F for cooling.


EXCEPTION: Other design temperatures may be used for equipment selection if it results in a lower energy usage.

302.2.2 Humidification: If humidification is provided during heating, it shall be designed for a maximum relative humidity of thirty percent. When comfort air conditioning is provided, the actual design relative humidity within the comfort envelope as defined in Standard RS-4, listed in Chapter 7, shall be selected for minimum total HVAC system energy use.


302.3 Climate Zones: All buildings shall comply with the requirements of the appropriate climate zone as defined herein.


ZONE 1: Climate Zone 1 shall include all counties not included in Climate Zone 2.


ZONE 2: Climate Zone 2 shall include: Adams, Chelan, Douglas, Ferry, Grant, Kittitas, Lincoln, Okanogan, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman counties.

TABLE 3-1
OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES

Outdoor Design Temp. (in F) Outdoor Design Temp. (in F)
Location (heating) (cooling)
Aberdeen 20 NNE 25.0 83
Anacortes 24.0 72
Anatone -4.0 89
Auburn 25.0 84
Battleground 19.0 91
Bellevue 24.0 83
Bellingham 2 N 19.0 78
Blaine 17.0 73
Bremerton 29.0 83
Burlington 19.0 77
Chehalis 21.0 87
Chelan 10.0 89
Cheney 4.0 94
Chesaw -11.0 81
Clarkston 10.0 94
Cle Elum 1.0 91
Colfax 1 NW 2.0 94
Colville AP -2.0 92
Concrete 19.0 83
Connell 4 NNW 6.0 100
Cougar 5 E 25.0 93
Dallesport AP 14.0 99
Darrington RS 13.0 85
Davenport 5.0 92
Edmonds 24.0 82
Ellensburg AP 2.0 90
Elma 24.0 88
Ephrata AP 7.0 97
Everett Paine AFB 21.0 79
Forks 1 E 23.0 81
Glacier RS 13.0 82
Glenoma (Kosmos) 18.0 89
Goldendale 7.0 94
Grays River Hatchery 24.0 86
Greenwater 1.4 84
Grotto 21.0 84
Hoquiam AP 26.0 79
Inchelium 2 NW 0.0 92
John Day Dam 19.0 100
Kent 21.0 85
Kirkland 17.0 83
La Grande 23.0 88
Leavenworth -3.0 93
Little Goose Dam 22.0 101
Long Beach 3 NNE 25.0 77
Longview 24.0 87
Lower Granite Dam 14.0 98
Lower Monument Dam 18.0 103
Marysville 23.0 79
Metaline Falls -1.0 89
Methow 2 W 1.0 89
Nespelem 2 S -4.0 93
Newhalem 19.0 89
Newport -5.0 92
Northport 2.0 92
Oak Harbor 16.0 74
Odessa 7.0 100
Olga 2 SE 24.0 71
Olympia, AP 17.0 85
Omak 2 NW 3.0 90
Oroville 5.0 93
Othello 9.0 98
Packwood 16.0 90
Plain -3.0 89
Pleasant View 16.0 98
Pomeroy 3.0 95
Port Angeles 28.0 75
Port Townsend 25.0 76
Prosser 12.0 97
Puyallup 19.0 86
Quilcene 2 SW 23.0 83
Quinault RS 25.0 84
Rainier, Longmire 15.0 85
Paradise RS 8.0 71
Raymond 28.0 81
Redmond 17.0 83
Republic -9.0 87
Richland 11.0 101
Ritzville 6.0 99
Satus Pass 10.0 90
Seattle: Sea-Tac AP 24.0 83
Sedro Woolley 1 E 19.0 78
Sequim 23.0 78
Shelton 23.0 85
Smyrna 8.0 102
Snohomish 21.0 81
Snoqualmie Pass 6.0 80
Spokane AP 4.0 92
Spokane CO 10.0 96
Stampede Pass 7.0 76
Stehekin 3 NW 12.0 85
Stevens Pass 6.0 77
Tacoma CO 29.0 82
Tatoosh Island 31.0 63
Toledo AP 17.0 84
Vancouver 22.0 88
Vashon Island 28.0 78
Walla Walla AP 6.0 96
Waterville 1.0 88
Wellpinit 1.0 93
Wenatchee CO 10.0 92
Whidbey Island 11.0 71
Willapa Harbor 26.0 81
Wilson Creek 3.0 96
Winthrop 1 WSW -12.0 91
Yakima AP 11.0 94

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0302, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0303   Mechanical ventilation.   ((For all Occupancies,)) The minimum requirements for ventilation shall comply with Section M1508 of the Washington State ((Ventilation Code and Indoor Air Quality)) Residential Code. (WAC ((51-13)) 51-51.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0303, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0401   Scope.  


401.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of total energy use by a building, including all of its systems. Analysis of design for all ((Group R Occupancy)) single-family residential shall comply with Sections 402.1 to 402.6. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0401, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0401, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0402   Systems analysis.  


402.1 Special Requirements for ((All Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential:


402.1.1 Energy Budgets: Proposed buildings designed in accordance with this section shall be designed to use no more energy from nonrenewable sources for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating than a standard building whose enclosure elements and energy consuming systems are designed in accordance with section 502.2 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone, and heating system type and cooling system and whose mechanical system type is the same as the proposed building and which complies with Section 503 of this Code. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption attributed to the alternative building.


402.1.2 Calculation of Energy Consumption: The application for a building permit shall include documentation which demonstrates, using a calculation procedure as listed in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate, that the proposed building's annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use of a standard building conforming to Chapter 5 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone. The total calculated annual energy consumption shall be shown in units of kWh/ft2-yr or Btu/ft2-yr of conditioned area.


402.1.3 Input Values: The following standardized input values shall be used in calculating annual space heating budgets:


PARAMETER VALUE
Thermostat set point, heating

Thermostat set point, cooling

Thermostat night set back

Thermostat night set back period

65 F

78 F

65 F

0 hours

Internal gain 3000 Btu/h
((R-3 and R-4 units

R-1 and R-2 units

3000 Btu/hr

1500 Btu/hr))

Domestic Hot Water Heater

Setpoint

120 F

Domestic Hot Water Consumption
20 gallons/person/day.
Minimum heat storage Calculated using standard engineering practice for the actual building or as approved.

Site weather data

Typical meteorological year (TMY) or ersatz TMY data for the closest appropriate TMY site or other sites as approved.
Heating and cooling equipment

efficiency

Equipment shall comply with Section 1411.

The standard building shall be modeled with glazing area distributed equally among the four cardinal directions. Parameter values that may be varied by the building designer to model energy saving options include, but are not limited to, the following:


1. Overall thermal transmittance, Uo, of building envelope or individual building components;


2. Heat storage capacity of building;


3. Glazing orientation; area; and solar heat coefficients; (where Chapter 5 does not contain SHGC requirements, the standard design shall be modeled with glazing SHGC as determined by Tables 13-1 and 13-2. SHGC values shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.2.)


4. Heating system efficiency.


Parameter values that may not be varied:


Domestic hot water consumption.


402.1.4 Solar Shading and Access: Building designs using passive solar features with eight percent or more south facing equivalent glazing to qualify shall provide to the building official a sun chart or other approved documentation depicting actual site shading for use in calculating compliance under this section. The building shall contain at least forty-five Btu/F for each square foot of south facing glass.


402.1.5 Infiltration: Infiltration levels used shall be set at 0.35 air changes per hour for thermal calculation purposes only.


402.1.6 Heat Pumps: The heating season performance factor (HSPF) for heat pumps shall be calculated using procedures consistent with section 5.2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, including heat pumps published in the December 27, 1979 Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 24.10 CFR 430. Climate data as specified above, the proposed buildings overall thermal performance value (Btu/F) and the standardized input assumptions specified above shall be used to model the heat pumps HSPF.


402.2 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this chapter will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.

EXCEPTIONS: Chapters 5, and 6 of this Code establish criteria for different energy-consuming and enclosure elements of the building which, will eliminate the requirement for an annual systems energy analysis while meeting the intent of this Code.
A building designed in accordance with this chapter will be deemed as complying with this Code if the calculated annual energy consumption is ((not greater than)) 16 percent less than a similar building (defined as a "standard design") whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems are designed in accordance with Chapter 5.
For an alternate building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule.

402.3 Design: The standard design, conforming to the criteria of Chapter 5 and the proposed alternative design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:


The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu or kWh input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site.


402.4 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed alternative building and system design shall meet the following criteria:


a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in section 402.5.


b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics, and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours of operation of the building and its service systems.


402.5 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:


a. Design requirements -- Environmental requirements as required in Chapter 3.


b. Climatic data -- Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.


c. Building data -- Orientation, size, shape, mass, air, moisture and heat transfer characteristics.


d. Operational characteristics -- Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.


e. Mechanical equipment -- Design capacity, part load profile.


f. Building loads -- Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment, number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.

EXCEPTION: ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential shall comply with calculation procedures in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate.

402.6 Documentation: Proposed alternative designs, submitted as requests for exception to the standard design criteria, shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Chapter 4 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0402, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0402, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0402, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0501   Scope.  


501.1 General: Buildings that are heated or mechanically cooled shall be constructed so as to provide the required thermal performance of the various components. A building that is designed to be both heated and cooled shall meet the more stringent of the heating or cooling requirements as provided in this Code when requirements of the exterior envelope differ. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0501, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-06-024, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10)

WAC 51-11-0502   Building envelope requirements.  


502.1 General:


502.1.1: The stated U- or F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors specified in this section.


The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((23-30)) 16 through 18 and 25 through 27 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.


For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.


2. Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.


3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


4. Results of parallel path correction factors effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Table 10-5A - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY for metal stud walls and roof/ceilings.


502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.


502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and


b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.


502.1.4 Insulation:


502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections 2603 and/or 719 of the International Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.


((Alternatively,)) The thickness of roof/ceiling ((and wall)) insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling ((and/or wall)) space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness ((and minimum settled thickness)) with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. ((In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.))


502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84-01.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section 2603 of the International Building Code.
2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section 719 of the International Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.


502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Where two or more layers of rigid board insulation are used in a roof assembly, the vertical joints between each layer shall be staggered. Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the International Building Code section 1203.2 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire framed cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.


EXCEPTION: Framed cavity can be empty or partially filled provided:
1. The wall assembly calculations are performed along with a completed performance calculation for the whole building; and
2. Insulation installed in partially filled cavities is not included in the performance calculation.

502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.
2. Substantial contact with the surface being insulated is not required in enclosed floor/ceiling assemblies containing ducts where full depth insulation is installed between the duct and the exterior surface.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation((, installed)) shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall((,)). The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally ((beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the frostline)) to the interior or exterior for the total distance of 24 inches. Above grade insulation shall be protected. A 2-inch by 2-inch (maximum) nailer may be placed at the finished floor elevation for attachment of interior finish materials.

((EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.))

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer. R-10 radiant slab insulation is required for all compliance paths.


502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.


502.1.5 Glazing and Door U-factors: Glazing and door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default U-factor. The labeled U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.


((EXCEPTIONS: 1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:
a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e = 0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options except the unlimited glazing area options (Options IV and V in Table 6-1 and Options V, VI and VII in Table 6-2):
a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e =0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 or 6-2 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 or 6-2 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."))

502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing U-factors: U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
2. Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door U-factors: All doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.
2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.
3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in the U-factor calculation requirements, however glazing area shall be included in glazing area calculations.

502.1.6 Moisture Control:


502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil (([0.004 inch thick])) (0.004 inch thick) polyethylene or kraft faced material).


502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.


EXCEPTION: Unvented attic assemblies (spaces between the ceiling joists of the top story and the roof rafters) shall be permitted if all the following conditions are met:
1. The unvented attic space is completely contained within the building thermal envelope.
2. No interior vapor retarders are installed on the ceiling side (attic floor) of the unvented attic assembly.
3. Where wood shingles or shakes are used, a minimum 1/4 inch (6 mm) vented air space separates the shingles or shakes and the roofing underlayment above the structural sheathing.
4. Any air-impermeable insulation shall be a vapor retarder, or shall have a vapor retarder coating or covering in direct contact with the underside of the insulation.
5. Either items a, b or c shall be met, depending on the air permeability of the insulation directly under the structural roof sheathing.
a. Air-impermeable insulation only. Insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing.
b. Air-permeable insulation only. In addition to the air-permeable insulation installed directly below the structural sheathing, rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
c. Air-impermeable and air-permeable insulation. The air-impermeable insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control. The air-permeable insulation shall be installed directly under the air-impermeable insulation.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.

502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.


502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.


502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.

EXCEPTION: For climate zone 1, wood framed walls with a minimum of nominal R-5 continuous insulated sheathing installed outside of the framing and structural sheathing. For climate zone 2, wood framed walls with a minimum of nominal R-7.5 continuous insulated sheathing installed outside of the framing and structural sheathing. The interior cavity insulation for this exception shall be a maximum of nominal R-21.

502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential:


502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using values in Table 5-1. The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA. When showing compliance with Table 9-1 using options 3a, 3b or 3c, the proposed design shall be less than the target UA by the fraction noted in the table.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:


1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)


502.3 Reserved.


502.4 Air Leakage:


502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.


502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.


502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:


a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope ((for all occupancies)) and all other openings in between units ((in R-1 and R-2 Occupancy)) shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.


b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.


c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.


d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.


502.4.4 Recessed ((Lighting Fixtures)) Luminaires: When installed in contact with the building envelope, recessed ((lighting fixtures)) luminaires shall be Type IC rated and certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The ((lighting fixture)) luminaire shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance with this test method. Recessed ((lighting fixtures)) luminaires shall be installed with a gasket or caulk between the fixture and ceiling to prevent air leakage.


502.4.5 Building Air Leakage Testing: Building envelope air leakage control shall be considered acceptable when tested to have an air leakage is less than 0.00030 Specific Leakage Area (SLA) when tested with a blower door at a pressure of 50 Pascals (0.2 inch w.g.). Testing shall occur any time after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances and sealing thereof. When required by the building official, the test shall be conducted in the presence of department staff. The blower door test results shall be recorded on the certificate required in Section 105.4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Additions less than 750 square feet.
2. Once a visual inspection has confirmed the presence of a gasket (see Section 502.4), operable windows and doors manufactured by a small business shall be permitted to be sealed off at the frame prior to the test.

Specific Leakage Area (SLA) shall be calculated as follows:


SLA = (CFM50 x 0.055) / (CFA x 144)

Where:


CFM50 = Blower door fan flow at 50 Pascal pressure difference
CFA = Conditioned Floor Area of the housing unit

During testing:

1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;

2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed; including exhaust, intake, makeup air, back draft, and flue dampers;

3. Interior doors connecting conditioned spaces shall be open; access hatches to conditioned crawl spaces and conditioned attics shall be open; doors connecting to unconditioned spaces closed but not sealed;

4. Exterior openings for continuous operation ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;

5. Heating and cooling system(s) shall be turned off;

6. HVAC ducts supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 09-06-024, 51-11-0502, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-0502, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0502, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0502, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0502, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 09-06-024, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10)

WAC 51-11-0503   ((Building)) Mechanical systems.  

503.1 General: This section covers the determination of design requirements, system and component performance, control requirements, insulating systems and duct sealing. For all other duct construction requirements, refer to the State Mechanical Code (chapter ((51-42)) 51-52 WAC).


503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.


503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.


503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: ((Building)) Mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized ((no greater than one hundred fifty percent (150%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above)) as required in IRC Section M1401.3.


EXCEPTIONS: The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed; however, in all cases heating and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.
1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance need only be demonstrated for ((either)) the larger of the space heating or space cooling load for the selected system size.
2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one dwelling unit is 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit.
((a. 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit,
b. Larger than 40,000 Btu/h may exceed the one hundred fifty (150%) percent sizing limit but not exceed 250 percent provided that the installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of ninety (90%) percent or greater.))
3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.
4. Electric resistance heaters under 2 kW.

503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.


503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements: All heating equipment shall meet the requirements of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and be so labeled. Equipment shall also comply with Section 1411.


503.5 Reserved.


503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.


503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or 1433.


503.8 Controls:


503.8.1 Temperature Control: The primary space conditioning system within each dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one programmable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable schedule (weekdays/weekends) and be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day.

Each additional system provided within a dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable scheduled (weekdays/weekends).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems controlled by an occupant sensor that is capable of shutting the system off when no occupant is sensed for a period of up to thirty minutes.
2. Systems controlled solely by a manually operated timer capable of operating the system for no more than two hours.

Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:


503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.


503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.


503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.


503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.


EXCEPTION: Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building official.

503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:


503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.


503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.


503.8.3.3 Control Setback and Shutoff:


One- and Two-Family and Individual Multifamily dwelling units -- The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of nonuse or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.


503.8.3.4 Systems Serving Multiple Dwelling Units, Guest Rooms, and Common Areas: Systems that serve more than two dwelling units, guest rooms, and common areas shall comply with the control requirements in Sections 1412 and 1432, with the exceptions of Sections 1412.4.2 and 1432.1.


503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: ((Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.)) Heat pumps with supplementary electric resistance heaters shall have controls complying with Section 503.8.1. In addition, controls shall meet the following requirements:


1. Prevent supplementary heater operation when the heating load can be met by the heat pump alone; and


2. The cut-on temperature for compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for supplementary heating, and the cut-off temperature for compressing heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for supplementary heating.


All heat pumps installed under this section shall include the capability to lock out the supplementary heat based on outdoor temperature. This control shall have a maximum setting of 40F. At final inspection, the lock out control shall be set to 32F or less.


EXCEPTION: The controls may allow supplementary heater operation during defrost.

503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.


EXCEPTIONS: Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following cases:
1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements of the building.
2. Within the HVAC equipment.
3. Exhaust air ducts.
4. Supply or return air ducts installed in ((unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls,)) basements((,)) or cellars in one- and two-family dwellings.
5. The insulation required on supply air ducts may be reduced to R-4 when installed in buffer spaces not intended for human occupancy such as insulation crawl spaces and enclosed attic spaces. The buffer space must be air sealed and insulated to the full value of conditioned spaces.

503.10 Ducts.


503.10.1 Installation of ducts in exterior walls, floors or ceilings shall not displace required envelope insulation. Building cavities may not be used as ducts.


503.10.2
Leakage Testing: ((High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the 1985 Edition of the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified in that standard.)) Ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with RS-33, using the maximum duct leakage rates specified in Section 503.10.3.


((503.10.2)) 503.10.3 Sealing: All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes, and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section M1601.3 of the International Residential Code or Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code. Duct tightness testing shall be conducted to verify that the ducts are sealed. A signed affidavit documenting the test results shall be provided to the jurisdiction having authority by the testing agent. When required by the building official, the test shall be conducted in the presence of department staff. Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:


1. Postconstruction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area or a total leakage less than or equal to 8 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.


2. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the roughed-in system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. If the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Duct tightness test is not required if the air handler and all ducts are located within conditioned space.
2. Duct tightness test is not required if the furnace is a nondirect vent type combustion appliance installed in an unconditioned space. A maximum of six feet of connected ductwork in the unconditioned space is allowed. All additional supply and return ducts shall be within the conditioned space. Ducts outside the conditioned space shall be sealed with a mastic type duct sealant and insulated on the exterior with R-8 insulation for above grade ducts and R-5 water resistant insulation when within a slab or earth.

((503.10.3)) 503.10.4 Dampers: Requirements for Automatic or manual dampers are found in Chapter 15 of the Washington State ((Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code)) Residential Code (chapter 51-51 WAC).


503.11 Pipe Insulation: All piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12.


EXCEPTION: Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.

Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with the Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter 51-56 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 09-06-024, 51-11-0503, filed 2/23/09, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0503, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0503, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0503, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020. 98-24-075, 51-11-0503, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0503, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0504   ((Service)) Domestic water ((heating)) systems.  


504.1 Scope: The purpose of this section is to provide criteria for design and equipment selection that will produce energy savings when applied to ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems.


504.2 Water Heaters, Storage Tanks and Boilers:


504.2.1 Performance Efficiency: ((All Storage water heaters shall meet the requirements of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and be so labeled.)) Domestic water heating equipment shall comply with the applicable efficiencies in Tables 14-1A through 14-1G. All electric water heaters in unheated spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.


For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor (EF) Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
<50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
>70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

504.2.2 Insulation: Heat loss from unfired hot-water storage tanks shall be limited to a maximum of 9.6 Btu/hr/ft2 of external tank surface area. The design ambient temperature shall be no higher than sixty-five degrees F.


504.2.3 Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers: Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems with service/space heating boilers having a standby loss Btu/h less than:
(13.3 pmd + 400)/n
determined by the fixture count method where:
pmd = probably maximum demand in gallons/hour as determined in accordance with Chapter 49 of Standard RS-11.
n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean temperature exceeds 64.9 F.
The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of twenty-four-hour duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of ninety degrees F above an ambient of sixty degrees F and a five foot stack on appliance.
2. For systems where the use of a single heating unit will lead to energy savings, such unit shall be utilized.

504.3 Automatic Controls: Service water heating systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable of adjustment from the lowest to the highest acceptable temperature settings for the intended use. Temperature setting range shall be set to one hundred twenty degrees F or forty-nine degrees C.


504.4 Shutdown: A separate switch shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to electric service water heating systems. A separate valve shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to the main burner(s) of all other types of service water heater systems.


504.5 Swimming Pools:


504.5.1 Controls: All pool heaters shall be equipped with readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the operation of the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Controls shall be provided to allow the water temperature to be regulated from the maximum design temperature down to sixty-five degrees F.


504.5.2 Residential Pool Pumps:


504.5.2.1 Motor Efficiency: Pool pump motors may not be split-phase or capacitor start-induction run type.


504.5.2.2 Two-Speed Capability:


1. Pump motors: Pool pump motors with a capacity of 1 hp or more shall have the capability of operating at two or more speeds with low speed having a rotation rate that is no more than one-half of the motor's maximum rotation rate.


2. Pump controls: Pool pump motor controls shall have the capability of operating the pool pump with at least two speeds. The default circulation speed shall be the lowest speed, with a high speed override capability being for a temporary period not to exceed one normal cycle.


504.5.2.3 Portable Electric Spas: The standby power of portable electric spas shall not be greater than 5(V2/3) watts where V = the total volume, in gallons.


504.5.3
Pool Covers: Heated swimming pools shall be equipped with a pool cover, approved by the building official.


504.6 Pump Operation: Circulating ((hot)) water systems shall be controlled so that the circulation pump(s) can be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the ((hot)) water system is not in operation.


504.7 Pipe Insulation: Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with section 503.11.


504.8 Conservation of ((Hot)) Water:


504.8.1 Showers and Lavatories: Showers and lavatories used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices or specially manufactured showerheads or aerators to limit the total water flow rate as set forth in chapter 51-56 WAC, as measured with both hot and cold faucets turned on to their maximum flow.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0504, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0504, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0504, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0505   Lighting.  


505.1 Interior Lighting ((Controls)): ((Hotel and motel guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

505.2 Lighting Power: Lighting shall comply with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy.
2. Lighting exempted by Section 1512.

505.3 Outdoor)) A minimum of 50 percent of all luminaires shall be high efficacy luminaires.


EXCEPTION: Lighting that complies with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.

505.2 Exterior Lighting: Luminaires providing outdoor lighting and permanently mounted to a residential building or to other buildings on the same lot shall be high efficacy luminaires.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Permanently installed outdoor luminaires that are not high efficacy shall be allowed provided they are controlled by a motion sensor(s) with integral photocontrol photosensor.
2. Permanently installed luminaires in or around swimming pools, water features.

((505.4)) 505.3 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures: Linear fluorescent fixtures must be fitted with T-8 or smaller lamps (but not T-10 or T-12 lamps).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0505, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0505, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0505, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0525   Equation 1 -- ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential.  


align="center"

EQUATION 1 -- ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
TARGET UA

UAT = UWAW + UBGWABGW + UVGAVG + UOGAOG + UFAF + URCARC + ((UCCACC +)) UDAD + FSPS
Where:
UAT = the target combined thermal transmittance of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
UW = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque above grade wall area found in Table 5-1.
AW = opaque above grade wall area.
UBGW = the thermal transmittance value of the below grade opaque wall area found in Table 5-1.
ABGW = opaque below grade wall area.
UVG = the thermal transmittance value of the vertical glazing area found in Table 5-1.
AVG = 15% of the total floor area of the conditioned space minus AOG.
UOG = the thermal transmittance value of the overhead glazing area found in Table 5-1 (((see Table 5-1 footnote 2))).
AOG = overhead glazing area (if the proposed AOG exceeds 15 percent, the target AOG shall be 15 percent of the total floor area of the conditioned space).
UF = the thermal transmittance value of the floor area found in Table 5-1.
AF = floor area over unconditioned space.
URC = the thermal transmittance value of the roof/ceiling area found in Table 5-1.
ARC = roof/ceiling area.
((UCC = the thermal transmittance value of the cathedral ceiling area found in Table 5-1.
ACC = cathedral ceiling area.))
UD = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area found in Table 5-1.
AD = opaque door area.
FS = concrete slab component F-factor found in Table 5-1.
PS = lineal ft. of concrete slab perimeter.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0525, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0525, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0525, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0525, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0527   Equation 3 -- ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-family residential.  

EQUATION 3 -- ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PROPOSED UA


UA = UWAW+ UBGWABGW+ UVGAVG+ UOGAOG+ UFAF+ URCARC+ ((UCCACC+)) UDAD+ FSPS
Where:
UA = the combined thermal transmittance of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
UW = the thermal transmittance of the opaque wall area.
AW = opaque wall area.
UBGW = the thermal transmittance value of the below grade opaque wall area.
ABGW = opaque below grade wall area.
UVG = the thermal transmittance value of the vertical glazing area.
AVG = vertical glazing area, including windows in exterior doors.
UOG = the thermal transmittance value of the overhead glazing area.
AOG = overhead glazing area.
UF = the thermal transmittance of the floor area.
AF = floor area over unconditioned space.
URC = the thermal transmittance of the roof/ceiling area.
ARC = roof/ceiling area.
((UCC = the thermal transmittance of the cathedral ceiling area.
ACC = cathedral ceiling area.))
UD = the thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area.
AD = opaque door area.
FS = concrete slab component F-factor.
PS = lineal ft. of concrete slab perimeter.
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into sub-elements as:
UW1AW1+ UW2AW2+ UW3AW3+ . . . etc.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0527, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0527, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0527, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0530   Table 5-1.  

TABLE 5-1
TARGET COMPONENT VALUES FOR ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

Climate Zone
Component 1 2
Glazing % Floor Area 15% 15%
Vertical Glazing U-Factor U = 0.30 U = 0.30
((Vertical Glazing U-Factor

Group R-1 and R-2

Group R-3 and R-4

U = 0.400

U = 0.350

U = 0.400

U = 0.350))

Overhead Glazing U-Factor ((U = 0. 58)) U = 0.50 ((U = 0. 58)) U = 0.50
Doors U = 0.200

(((R-5)))

U = 0.200

(((R-5)))

Ceilings

((Attic

Single Rafter/

Joist Vaulted3))

((U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30))) U = 0.027

((U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30))) U = 0.027

Walls((1,2))

U = ((0.057

(R-21))) 0.056

U = ((0.044

(R-19A +R-5))) 0.056

Floors U = 0.029

(((R-30)))

U = 0.029

(((R-30)))

Slab on Grade

((Slab R-Value))

F = ((0.54

(R-10))) 0.36

F = ((0.54

(R-10))) 0.36

Below Grade ((Interior))
Wall R-Value ((R-19)) R-21 ((R-19)) R-21
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = ((0.043)) 0.042

F = ((0.69)) 0.59

U = ((0.043)) 0.042

F = ((0.69)) 0.59

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

((Below Grade Exterior
Wall R-Value R-10 R-12
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.070

F = 0.60

U = 0.061

F = 0.60

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.064

F = 0.57

U = 0.057

F = 0.57

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.056

F = 0.42

U = 0.050

F = 0.42))


((1.)) Log and Solid Timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" in spaces with space heating by "other fuels" are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

((2. "A" means advanced framing. For more information, see Section 1005.2.

3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0530, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0530, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0530, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0530, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0540   Table 5-11.  

TABLE 5-11
INSULATION OF DUCTS

DUCT LOCATION CLIMATE ZONE ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

HEATING OR

COOLING DUCTS


On roof or on

exterior of building


I

II


E and W

D and W

Attic, garage,

crawl space,

in walls1, in

floor/ceiling1

I

II

E

E

Within the conditioned space or in heated basement

None

Required

In cement slab

or in ground

B


Note: Where ducts are used for both heating and cooling, the minimum insulation shall be as required for the most restrictive condition.
1 Insulation may be omitted on that portion of a duct which is located within a wall or floor-ceiling space where both sides of this space are exposed to conditioned air and where this space is not ventilated or otherwise exposed to unconditioned air.
((2 Vapor barriers shall be installed on conditioned air supply ducts in geographic areas where the average of the July, August, and September mean dewpoint temperature exceeds 60F.))

INSULATION TYPES: Minimum densities and out-of-package thickness.


A. 0.5-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-2.
B. 2-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 1.5-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 1.5-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-5.
C. 3-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 2-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 2-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-7.
D. 4-inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket 3-inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiber blanket. 3-inch 3 to 7 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber board or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-10.
E. 3.5 inch 0.60 lb/cu. ft. mineral or glass fiber blanket, 2.5 inch 1.5 to 2 lb/cu. ft. duct liner, mineral or glass fiberboard or equivalent to provide an installed total thermal resistance of at least R-8.
((V. Vapor barrier, with perm rating not greater than 0.5 perm, all joints sealed.))
W. Approved weatherproof barrier.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0540, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0540, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0540, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0541   Table 5-12.  

TABLE 5-12
MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION ((REQUIREMENTS)) THICKNESS1

Fluid Design

Operating

Temp. Range,

F

Insulation Conductivity Normal Pipe ((Diameter)) or Tube Size (in.)
Conductivity Range

Btuin./(hft2F)

Mean

Rating

Temp. F

((Runouts2 up to 2)) <1

((and

less))

((>)) 1

to ((2)) <1-1/2

((> 2)) 1-1/2

to <4

((>)) 4

to ((6)) <8

> ((6)) 8
Heating systems (Steam, Steam Condensate and Hot water)2 ((Nominal Insulation Thickness))
((Above)) >350

251-350

201-250

141-200

105-140

0.32-0.34

0.29-((0.31)) 0.32

0.27-0.30

0.25-0.29

((0.24)) 0.22-0.28

250

200

150

125

100

((1.5))

((1.5))

((1.0))

((0.5))

((0.5))

((2.5)) 3.0

2.0

((1.5))

2.0

1.5

1.0

((2.5))

3.5

((2.5))

3.0

((1.5)) 2.0

1.5

1.0

((3.0))

3.5

((2.5))

3.5

((2.0))

2.5

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

((3.5))

4.5

3.5

((2.0))

2.5

((1.5))

2.0

1.5

((3.5)) 4.5

3.5

((3.5)) 2.5

((1.5)) 2.0

1.5

Domestic and Service Hot Water Systems
105 ((and Greater)) ((0.24)) 0.22-0.28 100 ((0.5)) 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cooling Systems (Chilled Water, Brine and Refrigerant)
((40-55)) 40-60

((Below)) <40

((0.23-0.27))

0.22-0.28

((0.23-0.27))

0.22-0.28

((75))

100

((75))

100

((0.5))

((1.0))

((0.5))

1.0

1.0

((0.75))

1.0

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

1.5

((1.0))

1.5

1.5

((1.0)) 1.5

((1.5)) 2.0


1. ((Alternative Insulation Types. Insulation thicknesses in Table 5-12 are based on insulation with thermal conductivities within the range listed in Table 5-12 for each fluid operating temperature range, rated in accordance with ASTM C 335-84 at the mean temperature listed in the table. For insulation that has a conductivity outside the range shown in Table 5-12 for the applicable fluid operating temperature range at the mean rating temperature shown (when rounded to the nearest 0.01 Btuin./(hft2F)), the minimum thickness shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:)) For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:
T = ((PR[(1+t/PR)K/k - 1])) r{(1 + t/r)K/k - 1}
Where:
T = Minimum insulation thickness ((for material with conductivity K)), inches((.))
((PR)) r = ((Pipe)) Actual outside radius of pipe, inches
t = Insulation thickness from Table 5-12((, inches)) for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size
K = Conductivity of alternate material at the mean rating temperature indicated ((in Table 5-12)) for the applicable fluid temperature ((range)), Btuin((/))(hft2F)
k = The ((lower)) upper value of the conductivity range listed in Table 5-12 for the applicable fluid temperature ((range, Btuin/(hft2F)))

2. ((Runouts to individual terminal units not exceeding 12 ft. in length.)) Piping insulation is not required between the control valve and coil on runouts when the control valve is located within 4 feet of the coil and the pipe size is 1 inch or less.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0541, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0541, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-0601   Scope.  


601.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of prescribed requirements for building construction.


The provisions of this chapter are applicable to all ((Group R Occupancies)) Single-Family residential dwellings. ((Occupancies)) Spaces shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 5 except for the modifications herein specified. In addition, the design shall comply with the additional energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 9.

For duplexes and townhouses, compliance shall be shown on a dwelling-unit by dwelling-unit basis. Averaging is not allowed.


For wood frame assemblies, the building envelope requirements of this chapter may be met by installing one of the prescriptive packages in Table 6-1 or 6-2. Installed components shall meet the requirements of section 602. Compliance with nominal R-Values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only and shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films, but shall permit interruption by occasional framing members. Other than wood frame assemblies with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing shall also be allowed to comply with nominal R-values.


For metal frame assemblies, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with Chapter 4 or Chapter 5 based on the assemblies in Chapter 10. Compliance with nominal R-values is not allowed, unless the full nominal R-value of the insulation is installed either inside or outside of the framing and is uninterrupted by framing.

((EXCEPTION: Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy buildings may use a maximum area weighted average U-factor for components not exceeding those prescribed in Paths III and V in Table 6-1 or Paths IV and VI in Table 6-2.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0601, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0601, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0601, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0601, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0602   Building envelope requirements for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.  


602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.


602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. The following walls should be considered to meet R-21 without additional documentation:


1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-21 fiberglass batts.


2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts plus R-4.0 foam sheathing.


3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.


4. 2 x 6 framed and insulated to full depth with spray applied or blown insulation having a minimum R-value of 3.6 per inch of thickness.


602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.


602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.


602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Table 6-1 or 6-2.


602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazed doors whose area and U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door U-factor requirements prescribed in Table 6-1 or 6-2.
2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed per unit for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
602.6.1 Exterior Door Area: For half-lite and full-lite doors, the glazing area shall be included in calculating the allowed total glazing area in Section 602.7.1. ((Single glazing used for ornamental, security or architectural purposes shall be calculated using the exception to Section 602.7.2.))


602.6.2 Exterior Door U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Table 6-1 or 6-2.


602.7 Glazing:


602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. This area shall also include any glazing in doors.


602.7.2 Glazing U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average U-factor not to exceed that specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5. These areas and U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.


If the U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.


EXCEPTION: ((Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and)) Double glazed garden windows with a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area tripled and shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Table 6-1 or 6-2. The maximum area (before tripling) allowed for the total of all ((single glazing and)) garden windows is one percent of the floor area or 20 square feet, whichever is less.

602.8 Air Leakage For ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable, including building envelope air leakage testing.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0602, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 98-03-003, 51-11-0602, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-01-112, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02)

WAC 51-11-0603   ((Building)) Mechanical systems for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.  


603.1: ((Group R Occupancies)) Spaces that are ((space)) heated by air-to-air, ground-to-air, or water-to-air heat pumps shall comply with Table 6-1 or 6-2. System sizing shall be determined by an analysis consistent with section 503.2 of this Code((, or, when approved by the building official, Chapter 9)). All mechanical equipment efficiencies ((and service water heating system efficiencies)) shall comply with standard((s)) as stated in Section((s)) 503 ((and 504)) of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0603, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0603, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0603, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-0604   ((Reserved.)) Domestic water systems.   Domestic water systems, including plumbing fixtures and appliances, shall comply with Section 504.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0604, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0604, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0625   Table 6-1.  

TABLE 6-1
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR ((GROUP R OCCUPANCY)) SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
CLIMATE ZONE 1

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall

int4 Below Grade

Wall

ext4 Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. ((10%))

13%

((0.32))

0.34

((0.58)) 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv ((R-30))

R-38

((R-15))

R-21 int7

((R-15))

R-21 TB

R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
II.* ((15%))

25%

((0.35))

0.32

((0.58))

0.50

0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv ((R-30))

R-38

R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
((III. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21/

U =

0.057

R-15 R-10 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10
IV. Unlimited Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10))
((V)) III. Unlimited ((Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only)) ((0.35))

0.30

((0.58))

0.50

0.20 R-49 or R-38((/

U =

0.031))

adv

((R-30/

U =

0.034))

R-38

R-21((/

U =

0.057))

int7

((R-15)) R-21 TB R-10 R-30((/

U =

0.029))

R-10 2'

* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings ((where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit)).
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, continuous or on the interior ((to the same level as walls above grade)) as a framed wall. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4. For slabs inside a foundation wall, the insulation shall be installed to provide a thermal break (TB) between the slab edge and the foundation. Monolithic slabs shall include insulation, installed outside the foundation wall, and shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Monolithic slabs shall also include R-10 insulation under the nonload bearing portions of the slab.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. ((This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.)) Reserved.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of ((U = 0.40)) U = 0.35 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

((TABLE 6-2
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY
CLIMATE ZONE 2

((Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall

int4 Below Grade

Wall

ext4 Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 12% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 Int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
II.* 15% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
III. 17% 0.32 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
IV. 25%

Group R-1 and R-2 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21 int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10/

F =

0.54

V. Unlimited

Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancy only

0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19 +R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI. Unlimited Group R-3 and R-4 Occupancies only 0.30 0.58 0.20 R-49 or R-38 ADV R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VII. Unlimited

Group R-1 Occupancy only

0.32 0.58 0.20 R-38/

U =

0.031

R-30/

U =

0.034

R-21

int7/

U =

0.054

R-15 R-12 R-30/

U =

0.029

R-10/

F =

0.54))


* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings where both (a) the distance between the top of the ceiling and the underside of the roof sheathing is less than 12 inches and (b) there is a minimum 1-inch vented airspace above the insulation. Other single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings shall comply with the "ceiling" requirements. This option is limited to 500 square feet of ceiling area for any one dwelling unit.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.40 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.))

TABLE 6-2
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
CLIMATE ZONE 2

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall

ext4 Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 12% 0.32 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'
II.* 15% 0.32 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-19

+R-58

R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'
III. Unlimited 0.30 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-19

+R-58

R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'

* Reference Case.
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, continuous or on the interior as a framed wall. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4. For slabs inside a foundation wall, the insulation shall be installed to provide a thermal break (TB) between the slab edge and the foundation. Monolithic slabs shall include insulation, installed outside the foundation wall, and shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Monolithic slabs shall also include R-10 insulation under the nonload bearing portions of the slab.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. Reserved.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.35 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0625, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0625, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0625, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0625, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0701   Scope.   The following standards shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.


REFERENCE

STANDARD

NO.

TITLE AND SOURCE
RS-1 ((2005)) 2009 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.
RS-2 Super Good Cents Technical Reference C Builder's Field Guide.
RS-3 (Reserved).
RS-4 ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
RS-5 2006 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook.
RS-6 ((SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems, 6th Edition, 1988.)) (Reserved.)
RS-7 SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible, ((2nd Edition, 1995)) 2005.
RS-8 ((SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, 1992.)) (Reserved.)
RS-9 ASHRAE/IESNA Standard ((90.1-2004)) 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
RS-10 ((2004)) 2008 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook.
RS-11 ((2003)) 2007 ASHRAE HVAC ((Systems and)) Applications Handbook.
RS-12 through RS-28 (Reserved).
RS-29 Nonresidential Building Design by Systems Analysis.
RS-30 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 430 (March 14, 1988).
RS-31 National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard 100-2004.
RS-32 Seattle EnvStd 2006.
RS-33 Duct Testing Standard for New and Existing Construction, Washington State University Extension Energy Program Publication #WSUEEP 09-008.
RS-34 Optional Acceptance Requirements for Nonresidential Buildings, SBCC 2009.

ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES


ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Phone 212-642-4900 fax 212-398-0023, internet www.ansi.org


((ARI)) AHRI refers to the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute, 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425, Arlington, VA 22203

Phone 703-524-8800 fax 703-528-3816, internet www.ari.org


ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone 404-636-8400 fax 404-321-5478, internet www.ashrae.org


ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone 610-832-9585 fax 610-832-9555, internet www.astm.org


CTI refers to the Cooling Tower Institute, 530 Wells Fargo Drive, Suite 218, Houston, TX 77090

Phone 281-583-4087 fax 281-537-1721, internet www.cti.org


IESNA refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005-4001

Phone 212-248-5000 fax 212-248-5017, internet www.iesna.org


NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Incorporated, 8484 Georgia Avenue, Suite 320, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

Phone 301-589-1776 fax 301-589-3884, internet www.nfrc.org


SBCC refers to the Washington State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 42525, Olympia, WA 98504-2525

Phone 360-725-2990 fax 360-586-9383, internet www.sbcc.wa.gov


SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230

Phone 703-803-2980 fax 703-803-3732, internet www.smacna.org


WSU refers to the Washington State University Extension Energy Program, 905 Plum Street S.E., Building #3, P.O. Box 43165, Olympia, WA 98506-3166

Phone 360-956-2000 fax 360-956-2217, internet www.energy.wsu.edu

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0701, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-0701, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0701, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-24-076, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03)

WAC 51-11-0800   Section 0800 -- Suggested software for chapter 4 systems analysis approach ((for Group R Occupancy)).   The simulation program shall be tested according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 and the results shall be furnished by the software provider.

The following is a list of suggested software, but not limited to:


Program Name: Source
((CALPAS 3 BSG Software

40 Lincoln Street

Lexington, MA 02173

(617) 861-0109))

DOE ((2)) 2.1E ((ACROSOFT/CAER Engineers

1204-1/2 Washington Avenue

Golden, CO 80401

(303) 279-8136)) Energy Science Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

P.O. Box 1220

Oakridge, TN 37831-1020

423-576-2606

((F-LOAD F-CHART SOFTWARE

4406 Fox Bluff Rd.

Middleton, WI 53562

(608) 836-8531

MICROPAS ENERCOMP

1721 Arroyo Drive

Auburn, CA 95603

(800) 755-5903

SUNDAY ECOTOPE

2812 East Madison St.

Seattle, WA 98112

(206) 322-3753))

DOE 2.2 (EQuest) James J. Hirsch & Associates

Building Performance Analysis

Software & Consulting

12185 Presilla Road

Camarillo, CA 93012-9243

805-532-1045

EnergyPlus Kathy Ellington

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

Building 90, Room 3147

Berkeley, CA 94720-0001

510-486-5711

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 02-24-076, 51-11-0800, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0800, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0800, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-0900   ((Section)) Chapter 0900 -- ((Reserved)) Additional residential energy efficiency requirements.  


901 Additional Residential Energy Efficiency Requirements. Dwelling units permitted under this Code shall comply with all provisions of Chapter 5 of this Code and develop 1 credit from Table 9-1.


EXCEPTION: Buildings complying using Chapter 4 Building Design by Systems Analysis shall meet this provision of this section by demonstrating that the proposed building energy use is 16 percent less than the target building energy use.

TABLE 9-1
ENERGY CREDITS (DEBITS)

OPTION DESCRIPTION CREDIT(S)
1a HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 1:

Gas, propane or oil-fired furnace or boiler with minimum AFUE of 92%,

or

Air-source heat pump with minimum HSPF of 8.5.

1.0
1b HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 2:

Closed-loop ground source heat pump;

with a minimum COP of 3.3.

2.0
1c HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 3:

DUCTLESS SPLIT SYSTEM HEAT PUMPS, ZONAL CONTROL:

In home where the primary space heating system is zonal electric heating, a ductless heat pump system shall be installed and provide heating to at least one zone of the housing unit.

1.0
2 HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:1

All heating and cooling system components installed inside the conditioned space. All combustion equipment shall be direct vent or sealed combustion.

Locating system components in conditioned crawl spaces is not permitted under this option.

Electric resistance heat is not permitted under this option.

Direct combustion heating equipment with AFUE less than 80% is not permitted under this option.

1.0
3a EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 1:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = 0.28 floor R-38, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5-1 by 5%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

0.5
3b EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 2:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = 0.25 and wall R-21 plus R-4 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full, and R-21 plus R-5 below grade basement walls.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 15%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

1.0
3c SUPER-EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 3:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications:

Window U = 0.22 and wall R-21 plus R-12 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full and R-21 plus R-12 below grade basement walls and R-49 advanced ceiling and vault.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 30%, as determined using EQUATION 1.1

2.0
4a AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00020 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00020 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

0.5
4b ADDITIONAL AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00015 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00015 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

1.0
5a EFFICIENT WATER HEATING:1

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.62.

or

Electric Water Heater with a minimum EF of 0.93.

and for both cases

All showerhead and kitchen sink faucets installed in the house shall meet be rated at 1.75 GPM or less. All other lavatory faucets shall be rated at 1.0 GPM or less.2

0.5
5b HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER HEATING:1

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.82.

or

Solar water heating supplementing a minimum standard water heater. Solar water heating will provide a rated minimum savings of 85 therms or 2000 kWh based on the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) Annual Performance of OG-300 Certified Solar Water Heating Systems.

or

Electric heat pump water heater with a minimum EF of 2.0.

1.5
6 SMALL DWELLING UNIT 1:1

Dwelling units less than 1500 square feet in floor area with less than 300 square feet of window + door area. Additions to existing building that are less than 750 square feet of heated floor area.

1.0
7 LARGE DWELLING UNIT 1:1

Dwelling units exceeding 5000 square feet of floor area shall be assessed a deduction for purposes of complying with Section 901 of this Code.

-1.0
8 RENEWABLE ELECTRIC ENERGY:

For each 1200 kWh of electrical generation provided annually by on-site wind or solar equipment a 0.5 credit shall be allowed, up to 3 credits. Generation shall be calculated as follows:

For solar electric systems, the design shall be demonstrated to meet this requirement using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory calculator PVWATTs. Documentation noting solar access shall be included on the plans.


For wind generation projects designs shall document annual power generation based on the following factors:

The wind turbine power curve; average annual wind speed at the site; frequency distribution of the wind speed at the site and height of the tower.

0.5

Footnotes: 1. Interior Duct Placement: Ducts included as Option 2 of Table 9-1 shall be placed wholly within the heated envelope of the housing unit. The placement shall be inspected and certified to receive the credits associated with this option.
EXCEPTION: Ducts complying with this section may have up to 5% of the total linear feet of ducts located in the exterior cavities or buffer spaces of the dwelling. If this exception is used the ducts will be tested to the following standards:
Post-construction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 1 CFM per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
2. Plumbing Fixtures Flow Ratings. Low flow plumbing fixtures (water closets and urinals) and fittings (faucets and showerheads) shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets: Maximum flow rate - 3.8 L/min (1.0 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(b) Residential kitchen faucets: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(c) Residential showerheads: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0900, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0900, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1001   Section 1001 General.  


1001.1 Scope: The following defaults shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. This chapter includes tables of seasonal average heat-loss coefficients for specified nominal insulation. The heat-loss coefficients may also be used for heating system sizing.


1001.2 Description: These coefficients were developed primarily from data and procedures from Standard RS-1, and taken specifically from Standard RS-2, listed in Chapter 7.


Coefficients not contained in this chapter may be computed using the procedures listed in these references if the assumptions in the following sections and Standard RS-2, listed in Chapter 7, are used, along with data from the sources referenced above.


1001.3 Air Films: Default R-values used for air films shall be as follows:


R-Value Condition
0.17 All exterior surfaces
0.61 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up
0.92 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down
0.68 Interior vertical surfaces

1001.4 Compression of Insulation: Insulation which is compressed shall be rated in accordance with Table 10-A or reduction in value may be calculated in accordance with the procedures in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.

TABLE 10-A
R-Value of Fiberglass Batts Compressed within Various Depth Cavities

Insulation R-Value at Standard Thickness
Rated R-Value 82 71 60 49 38 30 22 21 19 15 13 11 ((8)) ((5)) ((3))
Standard Thickness, Inches 26.0 22.5 19.0 15.5 12

(("))

((9-1/2")) 9.5 ((6-3/4")) 6.5 ((5-1/2")) 5.5 ((6-1/4")) 6 ((3-1/2")) 3.5 ((3-5/8")) 3.5 ((3-1/2")) 3.5 ((2-1/2")) ((1-1/2")) ((3/4"))
Nominal Lumber Sizes, Inches Actual Depth of Cavity, Inches Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity
Truss 26.0 82 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 22.5 -- 71 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 19.0 -- -- 60 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 15.5 -- -- -- 49 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 12.0 -- -- -- -- 38 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 12 ((11-1/4)) 11.25 -- -- -- -- 37 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 10 ((9-1/4)) 9.25 -- -- -- -- 32 30 -- -- -- -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 8 ((7-1/4)) 7.25 -- -- -- -- 27 26 ((--)) 22 ((--)) 21 ((--)) 19 -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 6 ((5-1/2)) 5.5 -- -- -- -- -- 21 20 21 18 -- -- -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
2 x 4 ((3-1/2)) 3.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14 -- 13 15 13 11 ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
((2 x 3)) ((2-1/2)) 2.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9.8 -- ((--)) ((--)) ((--))
((2 x 2)) ((1-1/2)) 1.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.3 6.0 ((5.7)) ((5.0)) ((--))
((2 x 1 3/4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3.2 3.0))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1001, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1001, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1001, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1004   Section 1004: Floors over unconditioned space.  


1004.1 General: Tables 10-3, 10-4 and 10-4a list heat-loss coefficients for floors over unconditioned spaces in units of Btu/hft2F.


They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, assuming an average outdoor temperature of 45F, an average indoor temperature of 65F, and a crawlspace area of 1350 ft2 and 100 ft of perimeter. The crawlspace is assumed to be 2.5 feet high, with 24 inches below grade and 6 inches above grade.


1004.2 Crawlspace Description: Four configurations are considered: ((Vented)) Naturally ventilated crawlspace, ((unvented)) mechanically ventilated crawlspace, heated plenum crawlspace and exposed floor.


((Vented)) Naturally ventilated crawlspaces: Assumed to have 3.0 air-changes per hour, with at least 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated.


Floors over unheated areas, such as garages, may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


((Unvented)) Mechanically ventilated crawlspaces: Assumed to have 1.5 air changes per hour, with less than 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated. Floors over unheated basements may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Heated-plenum crawlspaces: Assumed to have 0.25 air-changes per hour, with no foundation vents. Heated supply air from central furnace is blown into a crawlspace and allowed to enter the living space unducted via holes cut into the floor.


Enclosed floors: Assumes no buffer space, and a covering of one-half inch of T1-11 on the exterior of the cavity exposed to the outside air or rigid insulation below a concrete floor, such as over parking garages.


1004.3 Construction Description: Floors are assumed to be either joisted floors framed on sixteen inch centers, or post and beam on four by eight foot squares. Insulation is assumed to be installed under the subflooring between the joists or beams with no space between the insulation and the subfloor. Insulation is assumed to be uncompressed. Exposed floors also include concrete with continuous rigid insulation assumed.


Perimeter insulation is assumed to extend from the top of the rim joist to the crawlspace floor and then inward along the ground (on top of the ground cover) for at least twenty-four inches.


Floor coverings are assumed to be light carpet with rubber pad.

TABLE 10-3
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER VENTED CRAWLSPACE OR
UNHEATED BASEMENT

Nominal R-value U-factor
Floor Perimeter Post & Beam Joists
0 0

11

19

30

0.112

0.100

0.098

0.093

0.134

0.116

0.114

0.107

11 0

11

0.052

0.048

0.056

0.052

19 0

11

0.038

0.036

0.041

0.038

22 0

11

0.034

0.033

0.037

0.035

25 0

11

0.032

0.031

0.034

0.033

30 0

11

0.028

0.027

0.029

0.028

38 0

11

0.024

0.024

0.025

0.024

TABLE 10-4
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER HEATED PLENUM CRAWLSPACES

Nominal R-value

Perimeter

U-factor
11 0.085
19 0.075
30 0.069

TABLE 10-4A
EXPOSED FLOOR

Nominal

R-value

U-factor
Concrete Wood Joist Metal Joist
R-11 0.077 0.088 0.14
R-15 0.059 0.076 0.12
R-19 0.048 0.062 0.11
R-21 0.043 0.057 0.11
R-25 0.037 0.051 0.10
R-30 0.031 0.040 0.09
R-38 0.025 0.034 0.08

Note: Crawlspaces used as heated plenums have approximately 30% higher heat-loss rate than unvented crawlspaces with the same assumed ACH. Default U-values in Table 10-4 reflect this higher rate of heat loss.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1004, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1004, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1004, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1004, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1005   Section 1005: Above-grade walls.  


Section 1005.1 General: Table 10-5, 10-5A and 10-5B list heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade wood stud frame walls, metal stud frame walls and concrete masonry walls (Btu/hft2F) respectively. They are derived from procedures listed in RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. For intermediate floor slabs which penetrate the insulated wall, use the concrete wall U-factors in Table 10-5B.


Insulation is assumed to uniformly fill the entire cavity and to be installed as per manufacturer's directions. All walls are assumed to be finished on the inside with one-half inch gypsum wallboard, and on the outside with either beveled wood siding over one-half inch plywood sheathing or with five-eighths inch T1-11 siding. Insulated sheathing (either interior or exterior) is assumed to cover the entire opaque wall surface.


Metal building walls have a different construction and are addressed in Table 10-5A(3).


1005.2 Framing Description: For wood stud frame walls, three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:


Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .19
Insulated cavity .77
Headers .04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .18
Insulated cavity .78
Headers .04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .13
Insulated cavity .83
Headers .04

1005.3 Component Description: Default coefficients for ((four)) the following types of walls are listed: Single-stud walls, ((metal stud walls,)) strap walls, ((and)) double-stud walls, log walls, stress-skin panels, metal stud walls, and metal building walls.


Single-Stud Wall, Tables 10-5(1) through 10-5(8): Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.


((Metal Stud Wall: Assumes metal studs spaced on 16 or 24 inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.))

Strap Wall, Table 10-5(9): Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.


Double-Stud Wall, Tables 10-5(10) and 10-5(11): Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, nonstructural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the 2 walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on 24 inch centers for both walls.


Log Wall, Table 10-5(12).


Stress-Skin Panel, Table 10-5(13).


Metal Stud Wall, Overall Assembly U-Factors, Table 10-5A(1): Assumes metal studs spaced on 16- or 24-inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.


Metal Stud Wall, Effective R-Values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only, Table 10-5A(2): These values may be used for the metal-framing/cavity layers in walls with metal studs spaced on 16- or 24-inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities in lieu of using the zone method provided in Chapter 25 of Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7.


Metal Building Wall, Table 10-5A(3): A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning panels supported by steel structural members (does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems). The first nominal R-value is for insulation compressed between metal wall panels and the steel structure. For double-layer installations, the second rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed from the inside, covering the girts. For continuous insulation (e.g., insulation boards) it is assumed that the insulation boards are installed on the inside of the girts and uninterrupted by the framing members. Insulation exposed to the conditioned space or semiheated space shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a continuous air barrier.


Concrete and Masonry Walls, Table 10-5B(1).


Peripheral Edges of Intermediate Concrete Floors, Table 10-5B(2).

TABLE 10-5
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR ABOVE-GRADE WALLS

TABLE 10-5(1)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-11 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-11 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-11 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.088 0.084 0.094 0.090
1 0.080 0.077 0.085 0.082
2 0.074 0.071 0.078 0.075
3 0.069 0.066 0.072 0.070
4 0.064 0.062 0.067 0.065
5 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
6 0.056 0.055 0.059 0.057
7 0.053 0.052 0.055 0.054
8 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
9 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.049
10 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
11 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
12 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
TABLE 10-5(2)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-13 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-13 at 3.63 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-12.7 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.082 0.078 0.088 0.083
1 0.075 0.072 0.080 0.076
2 0.069 0.066 0.073 0.070
3 0.065 0.062 0.068 0.065
4 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
5 0.057 0.055 0.059 0.057
6 0.053 0.052 0.056 0.054
7 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
8 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.048
9 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
10 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
11 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
12 0.040 0.039 0.041 0.040
TABLE 10-5(3)
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-15 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-15 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-15 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.076 0.071 0.081 0.075
1 0.069 0.065 0.073 0.069
2 0.064 0.061 0.068 0.069
3 0.060 0.057 0.063 0.059
4 0.056 0.053 0.059 0.056
5 0.053 0.051 0.055 0.052
6 0.050 0.048 0.052 0.050
7 0.047 0.046 0.049 0.047
8 0.045 0.044 0.047 0.045
9 0.043 0.042 0.044 0.043
10 0.041 0.040 0.042 0.041
11 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.039
12 0.038 0.037 0.039 0.038
TABLE 10-5(4)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-19 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-19 at 6 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.062 0.058 0.055 0.065 0.061 0.058
1 0.058 0.055 0.052 0.060 0.057 0.055
2 0.054 0.052 0.050 0.056 0.054 0.051
3 0.051 0.049 0.047 0.053 0.051 0.049
4 0.048 0.046 0.045 0.050 0.048 0.046
5 0.046 0.044 0.043 0.048 0.046 0.044
6 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.044 0.042
7 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
8 0.040 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.040 0.039
9 0.038 0.037 0.035 0.039 0.038 0.037
10 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
11 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.035 0.035
12 0.034 0.033 0.033 0.035 0.034 0.033
TABLE 10-5(5)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-21 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-21 at 5.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-21 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.057 0.054 0.051 0.060 0.056 0.053
1 0.054 0.051 0.048 0.056 0.053 0.050
2 0.050 0.048 0.045 0.052 0.050 0.047
3 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.047 0.045
4 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.045 0.043
5 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.042 0.041
6 0.041 0.039 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
7 0.039 0.038 0.036 0.040 0.039 0.037
8 0.038 0.036 0.035 0.039 0.037 0.036
9 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.033
11 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.033 0.032
12 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.033 0.032 0.031
TABLE 10-5(6)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-22 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 6.75 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-20 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.059 0.055 0.052 0.062 0.058 0.054
1 0.055 0.052 0.049 0.057 0.054 0.051
2 0.052 0.049 0.047 0.054 0.051 0.048
3 0.049 0.046 0.044 0.050 0.048 0.046
4 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.048 0.046 0.044
5 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.043 0.042
6 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
7 0.040 0.039 0.037 0.041 0.040 0.038
8 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.037
9 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
11 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
12 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
TABLE 10-5(7)
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: Two R-11 Batts
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 7 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18.9 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.060 0.057 0.054 0.063 0.059 0.056
1 0.056 0.053 0.051 0.059 0.056 0.053
2 0.053 0.050 0.048 0.055 0.052 0.050
3 0.050 0.048 0.046 0.052 0.049 0.047
4 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.049 0.047 0.045
5 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.046 0.045 0.043
6 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.043 0.041
7 0.041 0.040 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
8 0.039 0.038 0.037 0.040 0.039 0.038
9 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.036
10 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
11 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
12 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.033
TABLE 10-5(8)
2 x 8 Single Stud: R-25 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-25 at 8 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-23.6 in 7.25 inch cavity

0 0.051 0.047 0.045 0.053 0.049 0.046
1 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.046 0.044
2 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.044 0.042
3 0.043 0.041 0.039 0.044 0.042 0.040
4 0.041 0.039 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.038
5 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.040 0.038 0.037
6 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
7 0.036 0.035 0.033 0.037 0.035 0.034
8 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
9 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
10 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.033 0.032 0.031
11 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.032 0.031 0.030
12 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.030 0.029
TABLE 10-5(9)


2 x 6: Strap Wall
Siding Material/Frame Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 +R-11 Batts 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.036
R-19 +R-8 Batts 0.041 0.039 0.042 0.040

TABLE 10-5(10)

2 x 6 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 ------ R-11 0.040 0.037 0.041 0.038
R-19 ------ R-19 0.034 0.031 0.035 0.032
R-19 R-8 R-11 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.029
R-19 R-11 R-11 0.027 0.026 0.028 0.027
R-19 R-11 R-19 0.024 0.023 0.025 0.023
R-19 R-19 R-19 0.021 0.020 0.021 0.020

TABLE 10-5(11)

2 x 4 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud
Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-11 -------- R-11 0.050 0.046 0.052 0.048
R-19 -------- R-11 0.039 0.037 0.043 0.039
R-11 R-8 R-11 0.037 0.035 0.036 0.036
R-11 R-11 R-11 0.032 0.031 0.033 0.032
R-13 R-13 R-13 0.029 0.028 0.029 0.028
R-11 R-19 R-11 0.026 0.026 0.027 0.026

TABLE 10-5(12)

Log Walls
Average Log

Diameter,

Inches

U-factor

R-value of wood:

R-1.25 per inch thickness

Average wall thickness

90% average log diameter

6 0.148
8 0.111
10 0.089
12 0.074
14 0.063
16 0.056
TABLE 10-5(13)

Stress Skin Panel
Panel

Thickness,

Inches

U-factor
R-value of expanded polystyrene: R-3.85 per inch

Framing: 6%

Spline: 8%

3 1/2 0.071
5 1/2 0.048
7 1/4 0.037
9 1/4 0.030
11 1/4 0.025
No thermal bridging between interior and exterior splines


Metal Stud Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A may be used for purposes of calculating metal stud wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.


TABLE 10-5A
Default U-factors for Overall Assembly Metal Stud Walls, Effective R-values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only, and Default Metal Building U-factors

TABLE 10-5A(1)
OVERALL ASSEMBLY U-FACTORS FOR METAL STUD WALLS

R-Value of
Metal Continuous Cavity Insulation
Framing Foam Board
Insulation R-0 R-11 R-13 R-15 R-19 R-21

16" o.c.

R-0 (none)

U-0.352

U-0.132

U-0.124

U-0.118

U-0.109

U-0.106
R-1 U-0.260 U-0.117 U-0.111 U-0.106 U-0.099 U-0.096
R-2 U-0.207 U-0.105 U-0.100 U-0.096 U-0.090 U-0.087
R-3 U-0.171 U-0.095 U-0.091 U-0.087 U-0.082 U-0.080
R-4 U-0.146 U-0.087 U-0.083 U-0.080 U-0.076 U-0.074
R-5 U-0.128 U-0.080 U-0.077 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069
R-6 U-0.113 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065
R-7 U-0.102 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.065 U-0.062 U-0.061
R-8 U-0.092 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.061 U-0.058 U-0.057
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.060 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054
R-10 U-0.078 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.051
R-11 U-0.072 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.051 U-0.050 U-0.049
R-12 U-0.067 U-0.051 U-0.050 U-0.049 U-0.047 U-0.047
R-13 U-0.063 U-0.049 U-0.048 U-0.047 U-0.045 U-0.045
R-14 U-0.059 U-0.046 U-0.045 U-0.045 U-0.043 U-0.043
R-15 U-0.056 U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.043 U-0.041 U-0.041
R-20 U-0.044 U-0.036 U-0.036 U-0.035 U-0.034 U-0.034



24" o.c

R-0 (none)

U-0.338

U-0.116

U-0.108

U-0.102

U-0.094

U-0.090
R-1 U-0.253 U-0.104 U-0.098 U-0.092 U-0.086 U-0.083
R-2 U-0.202 U-0.094 U-0.089 U-0.084 U-0.079 U-0.077
R-3 U-0.168 U-0.086 U-0.082 U-0.078 U-0.073 U-0.071
R-4 U-0.144 U-0.079 U-0.075 U-0.072 U-0.068 U-0.066
R-5 U-0.126 U-0.073 U-0.070 U-0.067 U-0.064 U-0.062
R-6 U-0.112 U-0.068 U-0.066 U-0.063 U-0.060 U-0.059
R-7 U-0.100 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055
R-8 U-0.091 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.056 U-0.054 U-0.052
R-9 U-0.084 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.053 U-0.051 U-0.050
R-10 U-0.077 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.050 U-0.048 U-0.048
R-11 U-0.072 U-0.051 U-0.049 U-0.048 U-0.046 U-0.045
R-12 U-0.067 U-0.048 U-0.047 U-0.046 U-0.044 U-0.043
R-13 U-0.063 U-0.046 U-0.045 U-0.044 U-0.042 U-0.042
R-14 U-0.059 U-0.044 U-0.043 U-0.042 U-0.041 U-0.040
R-15 U-0.056 U-0.042 U-0.041 U-0.040 U-0.039 U-0.038
R-20 U-0.044 U-0.035 U-0.034 U-0.034 U-0.033 U-0.032

Footnote: Continuous foam board insulation: Continuous insulation assumes no thermal bridging of insulation by framing or z-furring through applied foam board. Zone calculation method as provided in RS-1 must be used for thermally bridged foam board insulation.

TABLE 10-5A(2)
EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY

Cavity Insulation
Nominal

Depth,

Inches

Actual

Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Effective R-Value
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Air

Cavity

any any R-0.91 (air) 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 5.5 6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 6.0 7.2
Wall 4 3-1/2 R-15 6.4 7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 7.1 8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 7.4 9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 7.8 9.6
Roof Insulation is uncompressed R-11 5.5 6.1
R-19 7.0 9.1
R-30 9.3 11.4

TABLE 10-5A(3)
DEFAULT METAL BUILDING WALL U-FACTORS

((R-10 R-11 R-13 R-19 R-24 R-30
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened to the frame, holding insulation in place. 0.133 0.127 0.114 0.091 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened directly to frame. 0.131 0.123 0.107 0.079 0.065 0.057
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.102 0.096 0.084 0.065 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.099 0.093 0.080 0.059 0.048 0.041))

Insulation System Rated R-Value of

Insulation

Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Wall Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Wall Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing)
Single Layer of Mineral Fiber R-6.5 R-13 R-19.5 R-26 R-32.5 R-39
None 1.180 0.136 0.072 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025
R-10 0.186 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023
R-11 0.185 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023
R-13 0.162 0.079 0.052 0.039 0.031 0.026 0.022
R-16 0.155 0.077 0.051 0.039 0.031 0.026 0.022
R-19 0.147 0.075 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022

Concrete Masonry Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5B may be used for purposes of calculating concrete masonry wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE isothermal planes calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.

TABLE 10-5B(1)
Default U-Factors for Concrete and Masonry Walls

8" CONCRETE MASONRY
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.40 0.23 0.24 0.43
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.15
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.14
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.12

12" CONCRETE MASONRY
CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.35 0.17 0.18 0.33
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.13
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.10
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.12

8" CLAY BRICK
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.50 0.31 0.32 0.56
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09

6" CONCRETE POURED OR PRECAST
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Concrete, Both Sides NA NA NA 0.61
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips NA NA NA 0.12
R-6 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.09

Notes for Default Table 10-5B(1)


1. Grouted cores at 40" x 48" on center vertically and horizontally in partial grouted walls.
2. Interior insulation values include 1/2" gypsum board on the inner surface.
3. Furring and stud spacing is 16" on center. Insulation is assumed to fill furring space and is not compressed.
4. Intermediate values may be interpolated using this table. Values not contained in this table may be computed using the procedures listed in Standard RS-1.

TABLE 10-5B(2)
Default U-Factors for
Peripheral Edges of Intermediate Concrete Floors

AVERAGE THICKNESS OF WALL ABOVE AND BELOW
SLAB EDGE TREATMENT 6 inches 8 inches 10 inches 12 inches
Exposed Concrete 0.816 0.741 0.678 0.625
R-5 Exterior Insulation 0.161 0.157 0.154 0.152
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.138 0.136 0.134 0.132
R-7 Exterior Insulation 0.122 0.120 0.118 0.116
R-8 Exterior Insulation 0.108 0.107 0.106 0.104
R-9 Exterior Insulation 0.098 0.097 0.095 0.094
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.089 0.088 0.087 0.086
R-11 Exterior Insulation 0.082 0.081 0.080 0.079
R-12 Exterior Insulation 0.076 0.075 0.074 0.074
R-13 Exterior Insulation 0.070 0.070 0.069 0.068
R-14 Exterior Insulation 0.066 0.065 0.065 0.064
R-15 Exterior Insulation 0.062 0.061 0.061 0.060

((Notes for Default Table 10-5B

1. Grouted cores at 40" x 48" on center vertically and horizontally in partial grouted walls.
2. Interior insulation values include 1/2" gypsum board on the inner surface.
3. Furring and stud spacing is 16" on center. Insulation is assumed to fill furring space and is not compressed.
4. Intermediate values may be interpolated using this table. Values not contained in this table may be computed using the procedures listed in Standard RS-1.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1005, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1005, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1005, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1006   Section 1006 Default U-factors for glazing and doors.  


1006.1 Glazing and Doors without NFRC Certification: Glazing and doors that do not have NFRC certification shall be assigned the following U-factors:

TABLE 10-6
Other than ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family Residential: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING, OVERHEAD GLAZING AND OPAQUE DOORS

Vertical Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood/

Fiberglass

Frame

Single 1.45 1.45 1.45
Double 0.90 0.85 0.75
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed/Operable 0.75/0.90 0.70/0.84 0.60/0.72
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.40), Fixed/Operable

((0.60))

0.70/0.84

((0.55))

0.60/0.72

0.50/0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable ((0.55))

0.65/0.78

((0.50))

0.55/0.66

0.45/0.54
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable

((0.50))

0.60/0.72

((0.45))

0.50/0.60

0.40/0.48
Triple 0.75 0.55 0.50
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed/Operable 0.55/0.66 0.50/0.60 0.45/0.54
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.20), Fixed/Operable 0.50/0.60 0.45/0.54 0.40/0.48
1/2 Inch Air, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable 0.45/0.54 0.35/0.42 0.30/0.36
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed/Operable

0.40/0.48 0.30/0.36 0.25/0.30

The category for aluminum frame with a thermal break is as defined in footnote 7 to Table 10-6A.

Overhead Glazing: Sloped Glazing (Including Frame)
U-Factor
Any Frame Aluminum W/Thermal Break Vinyl/Wood/

Fiberglass

Frame

Single 1.74 1.74 1.74
Double 1.08 1.02 0.90
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.90 0.84 0.72
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.40), Fixed ((0.72)) 0.84 ((0.66))

0.72

0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e(0.10), Fixed ((0.66)) 0.78 ((0.60))

0.66

0.54
1/2 Inch Argon, Low-e(0.10), Fixed ((0.60))

0.72

((0.54))

0.60

0.48
Triple 0.90 0.66 0.60
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.66 0.60 0.54
1/2 Inch Air, Low-e (0.20), Fixed 0.60 0.54 0.48
1/2 Inch Air, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed 0.54 0.42 0.36
1/2 Inch Argon, 2 Low-e(0.10), Fixed 0.48 0.36 0.30

This default table is applicable to sloped glazing only. (Sloped glazing is a multiple-lite glazed system (similar to a curtain wall) that is mounted at a slope greater than 15 from the vertical plane.) Other overhead glazing shall use the defaults in Table 10-6E.


Opaque Doors
U-Factor
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal (Including Fire Door and Smoke Vent) 0.60
Wood 0.50
Other Doors See Table 10-6C

Notes:


Where a gap width is listed (i.e.: 1/2 inch), that is the minimum allowed.

Where a low-emissivity emittance is listed (i.e.: 0.40, 0.20, 0.10), that is the maximum allowed.

Where a gas other than air is listed (i.e.: Argon), the gas fill shall be a minimum of 90%.

Where an operator type is listed (i.e.: Fixed), the default is only allowed for that operator type. Where a frame type is listed (i.e.: Wood/vinyl), the default is only allowed for that frame type. Wood/vinyl frame includes reinforced vinyl and aluminum-clad wood.


TABLE 10-6A
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

Description1,2,3,4 Frame Type5,6
Aluminum Aluminum

Thermal Break7

Wood/Vinyl
Windows Single 1.20 1.20 1.20
Double, < 1/2" Clear 0.92 0.75 0.63
Clear + Argon 0.87 0.71 0.60
Low-e 0.85 0.69 0.58
Low-e +Argon 0.79 0.62 0.53
Double, > 1/2" Clear 0.86 0.69 0.58
Clear + Argon 0.83 0.67 0.55
Low-e 0.78 0.61 0.51
Low-e +Argon 0.75 0.58 0.48
Triple, Clear 0.70 0.53 0.43
Clear + Argon 0.69 0.52 0.41
Low-e 0.67 0.49 0.40
Low-e +Argon 0.63 0.47 0.37
Garden Single 2.60 n.a. 2.31
Windows Double Clear 1.81 n.a. 1.61
Clear + Argon 1.76 n.a. 1.56
Low-e 1.73 n.a. 1.54
Low-e +Argon 1.64 n.a. 1.47

1 < 1/2" = a minimum dead air space of less than 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.
> 1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches or greater between the panes of glass.
Where no gap width is listed, the minimum gap width is 1/4".
2 Any low-e (emissivity) coating (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4).
3 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, C02, SF6, argon/SF6 mixtures and Krypton.
4 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
5 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
6 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for wood/vinyl windows.
7 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produces a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

TABLE 10-6B((1))
((Group R Occupancy)) All Occupancies: SMALL BUSINESS COMPLIANCE TABLE DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

((FRAME TYPE7,8
DESCRIPTION2,3,4,6 ALUMINUM ALUM.

THERMAL

BREAK9

WOOD/VINYL ALUM. CLAD

WOOD/REINFORCED

VINYL10

Double, Clear 1/4" 0.82 0.66 0.56 0.59
Double, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.56
Double, Low-e4 1/4" 0.76 0.61 0.52 0.54
Double, Low-e2 1/4" 0.73 0.58 0.49 0.51
Double, Low-e1 1/4" 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.66 0.52 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e1 1/4" + argon 0.64 0.50 0.41 0.43
Double, Clear 3/8" 0.78 0.63 0.54 0.57
Double, Clear 3/8" + argon 0.75 0.60 0.51 0.54
Double, Low-e4 3/8" 0.72 0.57 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e2 3/8" 0.69 0.54 0.45 0.48
Double, Low-e1 3/8" 0.66 0.51 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e4 3/8" + argon 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 3/8" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.41 0.44
Double, Low-e1 3/8" + argon 0.61 0.47 0.35 0.41
Double, Clear 1/2" 0.75 0.60 0.50 0.54
Double, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.72 0.58 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e4 1/2" 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 1/2" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.44
Double, Low-e1 1/2" 0.61 0.47 0.355 0.42
Double, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.65 0.50 0.42 0.44
Double, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.40
Double, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.38
Triple, Clear 1/4" 0.66 0.52 0.42 0.44
Triple, Clear 1/4" + argon 0.63 0.49 0.39 0.42
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.40
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" 0.62 0.48 0.39 0.41
Triple, Low-e1 1/4" 0.61 0.47 0.38 0.40
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" + argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.39
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" + argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.37
Triple, Low-el 1/4" + argon 0.57 0.42 0.34 0.36
Triple, Clear 1/2" 0.61 0.46 0.37 0.40
Triple, Clear 1/2" + argon 0.59 0.45 0.36 0.38
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.37
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" 0.54 0.39 0.31 0.33
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" + argon 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" + argon 0.52 0.38 0.30 0.32
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" + argon 0.51 0.37 0.29 0.31))

Vertical Glazing

Description

Frame Type
Any Frame Aluminum Thermal Break2 Wood/Vinyl Fiberglass
Panes Low-e1 Spacer Fill
A Any Argon 0.48 0.41 0.32
B Any Argon 0.46 0.39 0.30
Double3 C Any Argon 0.44 0.37 0.28
C High Performance Argon 0.42 0.35 Deemed to comply5
A Any Air 0.50 0.44 0.26
B Any Air 0.45 0.39 0.22
Triple4 C Any Air 0.41 0.34 0.20
Any, double low-e Any Air 0.35 0.32 0.18

Footnotes to Table 10-6B


((1 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default U-factor for nonaluminum spacer. Acceptable spacer materials may include but is not limited to fiberglass, wood and butyl or other material with an equivalent thermal performance.
2 1/4" = a minimum dead air space of 0.25 inches between the panes of glass.
3/8" = a minimum dead air space of 0.375 inches between the panes of glass.
1/2" = a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.
Product with air spaces different than those listed above shall use the value for the next smaller air space; i.e. 3/4 inch = 1/2 inch U-factors, 7/16 inch = 3/8 inch U-factors, 5/16 inch = 1/4 inch U-factors.
3 Low-e4 (emissivity) shall be 0.4 or less.
Low-e2 (emissivity) shall be 0.2 or less.
Low-e1 (emissivity) shall be 0.1 or less.
4 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, CO2, SF6, and argon/SF6 mixtures. The following conversion factor shall apply to Krypton gas-filled units: 1/4" or greater with krypton is equivalent to 1/2" argon.
5 For this assembly only, products shall be deemed to comply if they have an emissivity of 0.16 or less.
6 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
7 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
8 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default values for solariums.
9 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.
10 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl windows. Vinyl clad wood window shall use the U-factors listed for Wood/Vinyl windows. Any vinyl frame window with metal reinforcement in more than one rail shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl window.))
1. Low-eA (emissivity) shall be 0.24 to 0.16.
Low-eB (emissivity) shall be 0.15 to 0.08.
Low-eC (emissivity) shall be 0.07 or less.
2. Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/ F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.
3. A minimum air space of 0.375 inches between panes of glass is required for double glazing.
4. A minimum air space of 0.25 inches between panes of glass is required for triple glazing.
5. Deemed to comply glazing shall not be used for performance compliance.

TABLE 10-6C
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR DOORS


Door Type No

Glazing

Single

Glazing

Double

Glazing

with 1/4 in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with 1/2

in.

Airspace

Double

Glazing

with

e = 0.10,

1/2 in.

Argon

SWINGING DOORS (Rough opening - 38 in. x 82 in.)
Slab Doors
Wood slab in wood framea 0.46
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.44
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.58 0.48 0.46 0.42
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.69 0.49 0.46 0.39
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Insulated steel slab with wood edge in wood framea 0.16
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.18
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.39 0.28 0.26 0.23
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.58 0.38 0.35 0.26
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Foam insulated steel slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.37
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.39
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.55 0.50 0.48 0.44
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.71 0.59 0.56 0.48
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Cardboard honeycomb slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.61
Style and Rail Doors
Sliding glass doors/French doors Use Table 10-6A
Site-Assembled Style and Rail Doors
Aluminum in aluminum frame - 1.32 0.99 0.93 0.79
Aluminum in aluminum frame with thermal break - 1.13 0.80 0.74 0.63
((REVOLVING DOORS (Rough opening - 82 in. x 84 in.)
Aluminum in aluminum frame
Open - 1.32 - - -
Closed - 0.65 - - -
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS (Nominal - 10 ft x 10 ft)
Uninsulated steel (nominal U = 1.15)c 1.15 - - - -
Insulated steel (nominal U = 0.11)c 0.24 - - - -
Insulated steel with thermal break (nominal U = 0.08)c 0.13 - - - -))

a. Thermally broken sill (add 0.03 for nonthermally broken sill)
b. Nonthermally broken sill
c. Nominal U-factors are through the center of the insulated panel before consideration of thermal bridges around the edges of the door sections and due to the frame.

REVOLVING DOORS
Size (W x H) U-Factor
3-wing

8 ft. x 7 ft.

10 ft. x 8 ft.

0.79

0.80

4-wing

7 ft. x 6.5 ft.

7 ft. x 7.5 ft.

0.63

0.64

Open

82 in. x 84 in.

1.32

DOUBLE-SKIN STEEL EMERGENCY EXIT DOORS
Core Insulation 3 ft. x 6 ft. 8 in. 6 ft. x 6 ft. 8 in.
1-3/8 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.57

0.44

0.34

0.52

0.36

0.28

1-3/4 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.57

0.41

0.31

0.54

0.33

0.26

1-3/8 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.60

0.47

0.37

0.55

0.39

0.31

1-3/4 in. thickness

Honeycomb kraft paper

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Polyurethane foam

0.60

0.44

0.34

0.57

0.37

0.30

DOUBLE-SKIN STEEL GARAGE AND AIRCRAFT HANGAR DOORS
One-piece tilt-upa Sectional tilt-upb Aircraft hangar
Insulatione 8 ft. x 7 ft. 16 ft. x 7 ft. 9 ft. x 7 ft. 72 ft. x 12 ft.c 240 ft. x 50 ft.d
1-3/8 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.36

0.33

0.33

0.31

0.34-0.39

0.31-0.36

2 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.31

0.29

0.28

0.26

0.29-0.33

0.27-0.31

3 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.26

0.24

0.23

0.21

0.25-0.28

0.24-0.27

4 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.23

0.21

0.20

0.19

0.23-0.25

0.21-0.24

6 in. thickness

EPS, steel ribs

XPS, steel ribs

0.20

0.19

0.16

0.15

0.20-0.21

0.19-0.21

4 in. thickness

Non-insulated

Expanded polystyrene

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Extruded polystyrene

1.10

0.25

0.25

0.23

1.23

0.16

0.16

0.15

6 in. thickness

Non-insulated

Expanded polystyrene

Mineral wool, steel ribs

Extruded polystyrene

1.10

0.21

0.23

0.20

1.23

0.13

0.13

0.12

Uninsulated

All products

1.15


a. Values are for thermally broken or thermally unbroken doors.
b. Lower values are for thermally broken doors; upper values are for doors with no thermal break.
c. Typical size for a small private airplane (single-engine or twin).
d. Typical hangar door for a midsize commercial jet airliner.
e. EPS is extruded polystyrene, XPS is expanded polystyrene.

TABLE 10-6D
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR GLAZED DOORS
See Table 10-6C


TABLE 10-6E
Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR OVERHEAD GLAZING

Frame Type
Aluminum Aluminum Reinforced Wood or Vinyl-
without with Vinyl/ Clad Wood/
Thermal Thermal Aluminum-Clad Vinyl without
Glazing Type Break Break Wood or Vinyl Reinforcing
Single Glazing
glass U-1.58 U-1.51 U-1.40 U-1.18
acrylic/polycarb U-1.52 U-1.45 U-1.34 U-1.11
Double Glazing
air U-1.05 U-0.89 U-0.84 U-0.67
argon U-1.02 U-0.86 U-0.80 U-0.64
Double Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.96 U-0.80 U-0.75 U-0.59
argon U-0.91 U-0.75 U-0.70 U-0.54
Double Glazing, e = 0.10
air U-0.94 U-0.79 U-0.74 U-0.58
argon U-0.89 U-0.73 U-0.68 U-0.52
Double Glazing, e = 0.05
air U-0.93 U-0.78 U-0.73 U-0.56
argon U-0.87 U-0.71 U-0.66 U-0.50
Triple Glazing
air U-0.90 U-0.70 U-0.67 U-0.51
argon U-0.87 U-0.69 U-0.64 U-0.48
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.86 U-0.68 U-0.63 U-0.47
argon U-0.82 U-0.63 U-0.59 U-0.43
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.82 U-0.64 U-0.60 U-0.44
argon U-0.79 U-0.60 U-0.56 U-0.40
Triple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.81 U-0.62 U-0.58 U-0.42
argon U-0.77 U-0.58 U-0.54 U-0.38
Quadruple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2x

surfaces

air U-0.78 U-0.59 U-0.55 U-0.39
argon U-0.74 U-0.56 U-0.52 U-0.36
krypton U-0.70 U-0.52 U-0.48 U-0.32

1. U-factors are applicable to both glass and plastic, flat and domed units, all spacers and gaps.
2. Emissivities shall be less than or equal to the value specified.
3. Gap fill shall be assumed to be air unless there is a minimum of 90% argon or krypton.
4. Aluminum frame with thermal break is as defined in footnote ((9)) 2 to Table 10-6B.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1006, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-1006, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1006, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-1006, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1007   Section 1007 Ceilings.  

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45F.

Metal Framed Ceilings: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A(2) - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY may be used for purposes of calculating metal framed ceiling section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1.

Metal building roofs have a different construction and are addressed in Table 10-7(F).


1007.2 Component Description: The four types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrft2F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:


U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38
4/12 .036 .031
5/12 .035 .030
6/12 .034 .029
7/12 .034 .029
8/12 .034 .028
9/12 .034 .028
10/12 .033 .028
11/12 .033 .027
12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of 3.0 air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.


EXCEPTION: Where spray polyurethane foam meets the requirements of Section 502.1.6.3 or 1313.2, the cavity shall be filled to the depth to achieve R-value requirements.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling, Table 10-7A.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-3 Sheathing, Table 10-7B.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-5 Sheathing, Table 10-7C.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-10 Sheathing, Table 10-7D.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-15 Sheathing, Table 10-7E.


Metal Building Roof, Table 10-7F: The base assembly is a roof where the insulation is compressed when installed beneath metal roof panels attached to the steel structure (purlins). Additional assemblies include continuous insulation, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

Single Layer. The rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Double Layer. The first rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer and parallel to the purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Continuous Insulation. For continuous insulation (e.g., insulation boards or blankets), it is assumed that the insulation is installed below the purlins and is uninterrupted by framing members. Insulation exposed to the conditioned space or semiheated space shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a continuous air barrier.

Liner System (Ls). A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Filled Cavity. The first rated R-value of insulation is for faced insulation installed parallel to the purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer, parallel to and between the purlins and compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. The facer of the first layer of insulation is of sufficient width to be continuously sealed to the top flange of the purlins and to accommodate the full thickness of the second layer of insulation. A supporting structure retains the bottom of the first layer at the prescribed depth required for the full thickness of the second layer of insulation being installed above it. A minimum R-5 (R-0.9) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

U-factors for Metal Building Roofs. U-factors for metal building roofs shall be taken from Table 10-7F, provided the average purlin spacing is at least 52 in. and the R-value of the thermal spacer block is greater than or equal to the thermal spacer block R-value indicated in Table 10-7F for the assembly. It is not acceptable to use the U-factors in Table 10-7F if additional insulated sheathing is not continuous.


Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck (uninterrupted by framing), Table 10-7G: The base assembly is continuous insulation over a structural deck. Added insulation is continuous and uninterrupted by framing. For the insulation, the first column lists the R-value for continuous insulation with a uniform thickness; the second column lists the comparable area-weighted average R-value for continuous insulation provided that the insulation thickness is never less than R-5 (except at roof drains) and that the slope is no greater than 1/4 inch per foot.


TABLE 10-7
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR CEILINGS

Ceilings Below Vented Attics

Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Flat Ceiling Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck
4x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5 2" Rigid insulation 0.064
R-21.9 3.5" Rigid insulation 0.040
R-37.5 6" Rigid insulation 0.025
R-50 8" Rigid insulation 0.019

Table 10-7A

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.1075 0.0991 0.0928 0.0878 0.0839 0.0807 0.0780 0.0757 0.0737 0.0720 0.0706 0.0693 0.0681
30 0.0907 0.0823 0.0760 0.0710 0.0671 0.0638 0.0612 0.0589 0.0569 0.0552 0.0538 0.0525 0.0513
38 0.0844 0.0759 0.0696 0.0647 0.0607 0.0575 0.0548 0.0525 0.0506 0.0489 0.0474 0.0461 0.0449
49 0.0789 0.0704 0.0641 0.0592 0.0552 0.0520 0.0493 0.0470 0.0451 0.0434 0.0419 0.0406 0.0395

Table 10-7B

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-3 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0809 0.0763 0.0728 0.0701 0.0679 0.0661 0.0647 0.0634 0.0623 0.0614 0.0606 0.0599 0.0592
30 0.0641 0.0595 0.0560 0.0533 0.0511 0.0493 0.0478 0.0466 0.0455 0.0446 0.0438 0.0431 0.0424
38 0.0577 0.0531 0.0496 0.0469 0.0447 0.0430 0.0415 0.0402 0.0392 0.0382 0.0374 0.0367 0.0361
49 0.0523 0.0476 0.0441 0.0414 0.0393 0.0375 0.0360 0.0348 0.0337 0.0328 0.0319 0.0312 0.0306

Table 10-7C

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-5 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0732 0.0697 0.0670 0.0649 0.0633 0.0619 0.0608 0.0598 0.0590 0.0583 0.0577 0.0571 0.0567
30 0.0564 0.0529 0.0502 0.0481 0.0465 0.0451 0.0440 0.0430 0.0422 0.0415 0.0409 0.0403 0.0399
38 0.0501 0.0465 0.0438 0.0418 0.0401 0.0388 0.0376 0.0367 0.0359 0.0351 0.0345 0.0340 0.0335
49 0.0446 0.0410 0.0384 0.0363 0.0346 0.0333 0.0322 0.0312 0.0304 0.0297 0.0291 0.0285 0.0280

Table 10-7D

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-10 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0626 0.0606 0.0590 0.0578 0.0569 0.0561 0.0555 0.0549 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0534 0.0531
30 0.0458 0.0437 0.0422 0.0410 0.0401 0.0393 0.0387 0.0381 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0363
38 0.0394 0.0374 0.0359 0.0347 0.0337 0.0330 0.0323 0.0318 0.0313 0.0309 0.0305 0.0302 0.0299
49 0.0339 0.0319 0.0304 0.0292 0.0283 0.0275 0.0268 0.0263 0.0258 0.0254 0.0251 0.0247 0.0245


Table 10-7E

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-15 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0561 0.0550 0.0541 0.0535 0.0530 0.0526 0.0522 0.0519 0.0517 0.0515 0.0513 0.0511 0.0509
30 0.0393 0.0382 0.0373 0.0367 0.0362 0.0358 0.0354 0.0351 0.0349 0.0347 0.0345 0.0343 0.0341
38 0.0329 0.0318 0.0310 0.0303 0.0298 0.0294 0.0291 0.0288 0.0285 0.0283 0.0281 0.0279 0.0278
49 0.0274 0.0263 0.0255 0.0249 0.0244 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0.0230 0.0228 0.0226 0.0225 0.0223

1 - Assembly values based on 24 inch on center truss spacing; 11 Truss member connections penetrating insulation (4 at the eaves, 7 in the interior space); 1/2 inch drywall ceiling; all truss members are 2x4 "C" channels with a solid web.
2 - Ceiling sheathing installed between bottom chord and drywall.

TABLE 10-7F
Default U-Factors for Metal Building Roofs


Insulation System Rated R-Value of Insulation Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Roof Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation (uninterrupted by framing) Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation
R-6.5 R-13 R-19.5 R-26 R-32.5 R-39
Standing Seam Roofs with Thermal Spacer Blocksa,b
None 1.280 0.137 0.073 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025
R-10 0.115 0.066 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021
Single R-11 0.107 0.063 0.045 0.035 0.028 0.024 0.021
Layer R-13 0.101 0.061 0.044 0.034 0.028 0.024 0.020
R-16 0.096 0.059 0.043 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-19 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.031 0.026 0.022 0.020
R-10 + R-10 0.088 0.056 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-11 0.086 0.055 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-11 + R-11 0.085 0.055 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-13 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
Double R-11 + R-13 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.022 0.020
Layer R-13 + R-13 0.075 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R10 + R-19 0.074 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-11 + R-19 0.072 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-13 + R-19 0.068 0.047 0.036 0.029 0.025 0.021 0.019
R-16 + R-19 0.065 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021 0.018
R-19 + R-19 0.060 0.043 0.034 0.028 0.023 0.020 0.018
R-19 + R-11 0.035
Liner R-25 + R-11 0.031
System R-30 + R-11 0.029
R-25 + R-11 + R-11 0.026
Filled Cavity with Thermal Spacer Blocksc
R-10 + R-19 0.057 0.042 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020 0.018
Standing Seam Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
Liner

System

R-19 + R-11 0.040
Thru-Fastened Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
R-10 0.184
R-11 0.182
R-13 0.174
R-16 0.157
Liner R-19 0.151
System R-19 + R-11 0.044
(Multiple R-values are listed in order from inside to outside)

a. A standing seam roof clip that provides a minimum 1.5 in. distance between the top of the purlins and the underside of the metal roof panels is required.
b. A minimum R-3 thermal spacer block is required.
c. A minimum R-5 thermal spacer block is required.

TABLE 10-7G
Assembly U-Factors for Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck
(uninterrupted by framing)


Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Minimum Throughout, Unsloped Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Average (R-5 minimum), Sloped (1/4 inch per foot maximum) Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly
R-0 Not Allowed U-1.282
R-1 Not Allowed U-0.562
R-2 Not Allowed U-0.360
R-3 Not Allowed U-0.265
R-4 Not Allowed U-0.209
R-5 Not Allowed U-0.173
R-6 R-7 U-0.147
R-7 R-8 U-0.129
R-8 R-9 U-0.114
R-9 R-10 U-0.102
R-10 R-12 U-0.093
R-11 R-13 U-0.085
R-12 R-15 U-0.078
R-13 R-16 U-0.073
R-14 R-18 U-0.068
R-15 R-20 U-0.063
R-16 R-22 U-0.060
R-17 R-23 U-0.056
R-18 R-25 U-0.053
R-19 R-27 U-0.051
R-20 R-29 U-0.048
R-21 R-31 U-0.046
R-22 R-33 U-0.044
R-23 R-35 U-0.042
R-24 R-37 U-0.040
R-25 R-39 U-0.039
R-26 R-41 U-0.037
R-27 R-43 U-0.036
R-28 R-46 U-0.035
R-29 R-48 U-0.034
R-30 R-50 U-0.032
R-35 R-61 U-0.028
R-40 R-73 U-0.025
R-45 R-86 U-0.022
R-50 R-99 U-0.020
R-55 R-112 U-0.018
R-60 R-126 U-0.016

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1007, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1007, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1007, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1008   Section 1008 Air infiltration.  

1008.1 General: Tables 10-8 and 10-8A list effective air change rates and heat capacities for heat loss due to infiltration for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential.

Estimated seasonal average infiltration rate in air changes per hour (ACH) is given for standard air-leakage control (see section 502.4 of this code for air leakage requirements for ((Group R Occupancy)) Single-Family residential). The effective air-change rate shall be used in calculations for compliance under either the Component Performance or Systems Analysis approaches.

Heat loss due to infiltration shall be computed using the following equation:


Qinfil = ACHeff* HCP
where: Qinfil = Heat loss due to air infiltration
ACHeff = the effective air infiltration rate in Table 10-8
HCP = the Heat Capacity Density Product for the appropriate elevation or climate zone as given below.


TABLE 10-8
ASSUMED EFFECTIVE AIR CHANGES
PER HOUR

Air-Leakage Air Changes per Hour
Control Package Natural Effective
Standard 0.35 0.35

TABLE 10-8A
DEFAULT HEAT CAPACITY/DENSITY PRODUCT FOR AIR

Zone Average Elevation Heat Capacity/Density
1 Mean Sea Level 0.0180 Btu/hF
2 2000 0.0168 Btu/hF
3 3000 0.0162 Btu/hF

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1008, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1008, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1008, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1009   Section 1009 Mass.  


1009.1 General: Tables 10-9 and 10-10 list default mass values for concrete masonry construction. Calculations are based on standard ASHRAE values for heat-storage capacity as listed in Standard RS-1, Chapter ((25)) 26.


Thermal capacity of furniture is ignored, as is heat storage beyond the first four inches of mass thickness. All mass is assumed to be in direct contact with the conditioned space. Concrete separated from the heated volume by other materials must multiply the listed concrete mass value by the result of the following formula:


Ln(R-value) x (-.221) + 0.5

Where:

Ln = Natural log

R-value = R-value of material covering concrete


Note: All default values for covered concrete slabs have been adjusted according to this procedure.

1009.2 Mass Description: Mass is divided into two types: Structural and additional.

Structural Mass: Includes heat-storage capacity of all standard building components of a typical residential structure, including floors, ceilings, and interior and exterior walls in Btu/ft2F of floor area. It also assumes exterior wall, interior wall and ceiling surface area approximately equals three times the floor area.


Additional Mass: Includes any additional building material not part of the normal structure, which is added specifically to increase the building's thermal-storage capability. This category includes masonry fireplaces, water or trombe walls, and extra layers of sheetrock. Coefficients are in Btu/ft2F of surface area of material exposed to conditioned space. The coefficient for water is Btu/Fgallon.


1009.3 Component Description: Light frame assumes one inch thick wood flooring with five-eighths inch sheetrock on ceilings and interior walls, and walls consisting of either five-eighths inch sheetrock or solid logs. Slab assumes a four-inch concrete slab on or below grade, with five-eighths inch sheetrock on exterior and interior walls and ceiling, and with separate values for interior or exterior wall insulation. Adjustments for slab covering is based on R-value of material. Additional mass values are based on the density multiplied by the specific heat of the material adjusted for listed thickness.

TABLE 10-9
HEAT CAPACITY

Partial Grout Solid Grout
8" CMU 9.65 15.0
12" CMU 14.5 23.6
8" Brick 10.9 16.4
6" Concrete NA 14.4

TABLE 10-10
DEFAULT MASS VALUES

Structural Mass M-value Btu/ft2F floor area
Light Frame:
Joisted/post & beam floor, sheetrock
walls and ceilings 3.0
Joisted/post & beam floor, log walls,
sheetrock ceilings 4.0
Slab With Interior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 10.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 5.0
Slab With Exterior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 12.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 9.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Additional Mass M-Value: Btu/ft2F surface area
Gypsum wallboard, 1/2 inch thickness 0.54
Gypsum wallboard, 5/8 inch thickness 0.68
Hardwood floor 1.40
Concrete/Brick, 4 inch-thickness 10.30
Concrete/Brick, 6 inch-thickness 15.40
Btu/Fgallon
Water, 1 gallon 8.0

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1009, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1009, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1009, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1009, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1120   Scope.   This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design and commissioning of new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof that provide facilities or shelter for public assembly, educational, business, mercantile, institutional, storage, factory, ((and)) industrial, and multifamily residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their ((HVAC)) mechanical systems, ((service)) domestic water ((heating)) systems, electrical distribution and illuminating systems and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.


EXCEPTION: The provisions of this code do not apply to temporary growing structures used solely for the commercial production of horticultural plants including ornamental plants, flowers, vegetables, and fruits. "Temporary growing structure" means a structure that has the sides and roof covered with polyethylene, polyvinyl, or similar flexible synthetic material and is used to provide plants with either frost protection or increased heat retention. A temporary growing structure is not considered a building for purposes of this code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1120, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1120, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1131   Additions to existing buildings.   Additions to existing buildings or structures may be constructed without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.


EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet may be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing building to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis per Section 1141.4 or component performance calculations per Sections 1330 through 1334. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing building shall have an energy budget or target UA and SHGC that are less than or equal to the unimproved existing building, with the addition designed to comply with this Code. These additions are also exempt from Section 1314.6.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1131, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1132   Alterations and repairs.   Alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without the use of the exception in Section 1130. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:


1132.1 Building Envelope: Alterations or repairs shall comply with nominal R-values and glazing requirements in Table 13-1 or 13-2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Storm windows installed over existing glazing.
2. Glass replaced in existing sash and frame provided that glazing is of equal or lower U-factor.
3. For solar heat gain coefficient compliance, glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient equal to or lower than that of the other existing glazing.
4. Existing roof/ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0 per inch installed per Sections 1311 and 1313.
5. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities, provided that any new cavities added to existing walls and floors comply with Exception 4.
6. Existing roofs where the roof membrane is being replaced and
a. The roof sheathing or roof insulation is not exposed; or
b. If there is existing roof insulation below the deck.
In no case shall the energy efficiency of the building be decreased.

1132.2 ((Building)) Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Chapter 14 of this Code. Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing mechanical system that will cause the existing mechanical system to become out of compliance.

All new systems in existing buildings, including packaged unitary equipment and packaged split systems, shall comply with Chapter 14.

Where mechanical cooling is added to a space that was not previously cooled, the mechanical cooling system shall comply with Sections 1413 and either 1423 or 1433.


EXCEPTIONS: These exceptions only apply to situations where mechanical cooling is added to a space that was not previously cooled.
1. Water-cooled refrigeration equipment provided with a water economizer meeting the requirements of Section 1413 need not comply with 1423 or 1433. This exception shall not be used for RS-29 analysis.
2. Alternate designs that are not in full compliance with this Code may be approved when the building official determines that existing building or occupancy constraints make full compliance impractical or where full compliance would be economically impractical.

Alterations to existing mechanical cooling systems shall not decrease economizer capacity unless the system complies with Sections 1413 and either 1423 or 1433. In addition, for existing mechanical cooling systems that do not comply with Sections 1413 and either 1423 or 1433, including both the individual unit size limits and the total building capacity limits on units without economizer, other alterations shall comply with Table 11-1.

When space cooling equipment is replaced, controls shall be installed to provide for integrated operation with economizer in accordance with Section 1413.3.

Existing equipment currently in use may be relocated within the same floor or same tenant space if removed and reinstalled within the same permit.


TABLE 11-1: ECONOMIZER COMPLIANCE OPTIONS FOR MECHANICAL ALTERATIONS

Option A Option B

(alternate to A)

Option C

(alternate to A)

Option D

(alternate to A)

Unit Type Any alteration with new or replacement equipment Replacement unit of the same type with the same or smaller output capacity Replacement unit of the same type with a larger output capacity New equipment added to existing system or replacement unit of a different type
1. Packaged Units Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,3

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,3

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

2. Split Systems Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capability

Only for new units < 54,000 Btu/h replacing unit installed prior to 1991 (one of two):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Economizer: 50%6

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

For units > 54,000 Btu/h or any units installed after 1991: Option A
3. Water Source Heat Pump Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

(two of three):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Flow control valve7

Economizer: 50%6

(three of three):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Flow control valve7 Economizer: 50%6 (except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

(except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

4. Hydronic Economizer using Air-Cooled Heat Rejection Equipment (Dry Cooler) Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Option A Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

5. Air-Handling Unit (including fan coil units) where the system has an air-cooled chiller Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity Option A

(except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

Option A

(except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

6. Air-Handling Unit (including fan coil units) and Water-cooled Process Equipment, where the system has a water-cooled chiller10 Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity Option A

(except for certain pre-1991 systems8 and certain 1991-2004 systems9)

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4 (except for certain pre-1991 systems8 and certain 1991-2004 systems9)

7. Cooling Tower Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

No requirements Option A Option A
8. Air-Cooled Chiller Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: + 5%11

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency (two of two): (1) + 10%12 and (2) multistage

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

9. Water-Cooled Chiller Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency (one of two): (1) + 10%13 or (2) plate frame heat exchanger15

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency (two of two): (1) + 15%14 and (2) plate frame heat exchanger15

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4

10. Boiler Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: + 8%16

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: + 8%16

Economizer: shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332,4


1. Minimum equipment efficiency shall comply with Section 1411.1 and Tables 14-1A through M.
2. System and building shall comply with Section 1433 (including both the individual unit size limits and the total building capacity limits on units without economizer). It is acceptable to comply using one of the exceptions to Section 1433.
3. All equipment replaced in an existing building shall have air economizer complying with Sections 1413 and 1433 unless both the individual unit size and the total capacity of units without air economizer in the building is less than that allowed in Exception 1 to Section 1433.
4. All separate new equipment added to an existing building shall have air economizer complying with Sections 1413 and 1433 unless both the individual unit size and the total capacity of units without air economizer in the building is less than that allowed in Exception 1 to Section 1433.
5. Equipment shall have a capacity-weighted average cooling system efficiency:
a. For units with a cooling capacity below 54,000 Btu/h, a minimum of 10% greater than the requirements in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B (1.10 x values in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B).
b. For units with a cooling capacity of 54,000 Btu/h and greater, a minimum of 5% greater than the requirements in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B (1.05 x values in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B).
6. Minimum of 50% air economizer that is ducted in a fully enclosed path directly to every heat pump unit in each zone, except that ducts may terminate within 12 inches of the intake to an HVAC unit provided that they are physically fastened so that the outside air duct is directed into the unit intake. If this is an increase in the amount of outside air supplied to this unit, the outside air supply system shall be capable of providing this additional outside air and equipped with economizer control.
7. Have flow control valve to eliminate flow through the heat pumps that are not in operation with variable speed pumping control complying with Section 1432.2.2 for that heat pump.
When total capacity of units with flow control valves exceeds 15% of total system capacity, a variable frequency drive shall be installed on the main loop pump.
As an alternate to this requirement, have a capacity-weighted average cooling system efficiency that is 5% greater than the requirements in note 5 (i.e., a minimum of 15%/10% greater than the requirements in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B (1.15/1.10 x values in Tables 14-1A and 14-1B).)
8. Systems installed prior to 1991 without fully utilized capacity are allowed to comply with Option B, provided that the individual unit cooling capacity does not exceed 90,000 Btu/h.
9. Economizer not required for systems installed with water economizer plate and frame heat exchanger complying with previous codes between 1991 and June 2004, provided that the total fan coil load does not exceed the existing or added capacity of the heat exchangers.
10. For water-cooled process equipment where the manufacturer's specifications require colder temperatures than available with waterside economizer, that portion of the load is exempt from the economizer requirements.
11. The air-cooled chiller shall have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 5% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table 14-1C (1.05 x IPLV values in Table 14-1C).
12. The air-cooled chiller shall:
a. Have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 10% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table 14-1C (1.10 x IPLV values in Table 14-1C), and
b. Be multistage with a minimum of two compressors.
13. The water-cooled chiller shall have an NPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 10% greater than the NPLV requirements in Table 14-1K, Table 14-1L, or Table 14-1M (1.10 x NPLV values in Table 14-1K, Table 14-1L, or Table 14-1M).
14. The water-cooled chiller shall have an NPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 15% greater than the NPLV requirements in Table 14-1K, Table 14-1L, or Table 14-1M (1.15 x NPLV values in Table 14-1K, Table 14-1L, or Table 14-1M).
15. Economizer cooling shall be provided by adding a plate-frame heat exchanger on the waterside with a capacity that is a minimum of 20% of the chiller capacity at standard ((ARI)) AHRI rating conditions.
16. The replacement boiler shall have an efficiency that is a minimum of 8% higher than the value in Table 14-1F (1.08 x value in Table 14-1F), except for electric boilers.

1132.3 Lighting and Motors: Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table 15-1 to another use in Table 15-1, the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section 1521 or 1531.

Other tenant improvements, alterations or repairs where 60 percent or more of the fixtures in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions are new shall comply with Sections 1531 and 1532. (Where this threshold is triggered, the areas of the affected spaces may be combined for lighting code compliance calculations.) Where less than 60 percent of the fixtures in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions are new, the installed lighting wattage shall be maintained or reduced. Where 60 percent or more of the lighting fixtures in a suspended ceiling are new, and the existing insulation is on the suspended ceiling, the roof/ceiling assembly shall be insulated according to the provisions of Chapter 13 Section 1311.2.


Where new wiring is being installed to serve added fixtures and/or fixtures are being relocated to a new circuit, controls shall comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.5 and, as applicable, ((1513.7)) 1513.8. In addition, office areas less than 300 ft2 enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, and all meeting and conference rooms, and all school classrooms, shall be equipped with occupancy sensors that comply with Sections 1513.6 and ((1513.7)) 1513.8. Where a new lighting panel (or a moved lighting panel) with all new raceway and conductor wiring from the panel to the fixtures is being installed, controls shall also comply with the other requirements in Sections 1513.6 ((and 1513.7)) through 1513.8.


Where new walls or ceiling-height partitions are added to an existing space and create a new enclosed space, but the lighting fixtures are not being changed, other than being relocated, the new enclosed space shall have controls that comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.2, 1513.4, and 1513.6 through ((1513.7)) 1513.8.


Those motors which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 1511.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1132, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1132, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1132, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1132, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1132, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1133   Change of occupancy or use.   Changes of occupancy or use shall comply with the following requirements:

a. Any unconditioned space that is altered to become semi-heated, cooled, or fully heated, or any semi-heated space that is altered to become cooled or fully heated space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this Code.

b. Any ((Group R Occupancy)) nonresidential space which is converted to multifamily residential space shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.

c. Any multifamily residential space which is converted to ((other than a Group R Occupancy)) nonresidential space shall be required to comply with all of the provisions of Sections 1130 through 1132 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1133, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1133, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-1135   Commissioning.   Commissioning in compliance with Sections 1416 and 1513.8 shall be required for new systems or modified portions of systems, with a heating capacity of 600,000 Btu/h or a cooling capacity of 40 tons or more.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1141   Plans and specifications.  


1141.1 General: If required by the building official, plans and specifications shall be submitted in support of an application for a building permit. If required by the building official, plans and specifications shall be stamped and authenticated by a registered design professional currently licensed in the state of Washington. All plans and specifications, together with supporting data, shall be submitted to the building official prior to issuance of a building permit.


1141.2 Details: The plans and specifications shall show in sufficient detail all pertinent data and features of the building and the equipment and systems as herein governed including, but not limited to: Design criteria; exterior envelope component materials, U-factors of the envelope systems, R-values of insulating materials; U-factors and shading coefficients of glazing; area weighted U-factor calculations; efficiency, economizer, size and type of apparatus and equipment; fan system horsepower; equipment and systems controls; lighting fixture schedule with wattages and controls narrative; commissioning requirements for HVAC equipment, HVAC controls, and lighting controls, and other pertinent data to indicate compliance with the requirements of this Code.


1141.3 Alternate Materials and Method of Construction: The provisions of this Code are not intended to prevent the use of any material, method of construction, design or insulating system not specifically prescribed herein, provided that such construction, design or insulating system has been approved by the building official as meeting the intent of this Code. The building official may approve any such alternate provided the proposed alternate meets or exceeds the provisions of this Code and that the material, method, design or work offered is for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this Code, in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire-resistance, durability, safety, and energy efficiency. The building official may require that sufficient evidence of proof be submitted to substantiate any claims that may be made regarding performance capabilities.


1141.4 Systems Analysis Approach for the Entire Building: In lieu of using Chapters 12 through 20, compliance may be demonstrated using the systems analysis option in RS-29. When using systems analysis, the proposed building shall provide equal or better conservation of energy than the standard design as defined in RS-29. If required by the building official, all energy comparison calculations submitted under the provisions of RS-29 shall be stamped and authenticated by an engineer or architect licensed to practice by the state of Washington.


1141.5 Commissioning Details/Specifications: When required by the building official, the plans submitted in support of a building permit shall include a list of the functional tests required to comply with commissioning in accordance with Sections 1416 and 1513.8 as well as the name of the commissioning agent for buildings over 50,000 square feet.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1141, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

CHAPTER 12

((DEFINITIONS)) ENERGY METERING

((Note: For nonresidential definitions, see chapter 2.))
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-1200   Section 1201 -- General.   All buildings shall comply with Chapter 12. Whole building energy supply sources shall be metered to supply energy consumption data to the building owner to effectively manage energy. The building shall have a totalizing meter for each energy source.


1202 Whole Building Energy Supply Metering. Meters with remote metering capability or automatic meter reading (AMR) capability shall be provided to collect energy use data for each energy supply source to the building including gas, electricity and district stream, that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 12-1. Utility company service entrance/interval meters are allowed to be used provided that they are configured for automatic meter reading (AMR) capability.

TABLE 12-1
Energy Source Meter Thresholds

Energy Source Main Metering Threshold
Electrical service > 500 kVA
On-site renewable electric power > 10 kVA (peak)
Gas and steam service > 300 kW (1,000,000 Btu/h)
Geothermal > 300 kW (1,000,000 Btu/h) heating
On-site renewable thermal energy > 10 kW (30,000 Btu/h)

Master submetering with remote metering capability (including current sensors or flow meters) shall be provided for the systems that exceed the thresholds in Table 12-1 to collect overall totalized energy use data for each subsystem in accordance with Table 12-2.


TABLE 12-2
Component Energy Master Submetering Thresholds

Component Submetering Threshold
Chillers/heat pump systems > 70 kW (240,000 Btu/h) cooling capacity
Packaged AC unit systems > 70 kW (240,000 Btu/h) cooling capacity
HVAC fan systems > 15 kW (20 hp)
Exhaust fan systems > 15 kW (20 hp)
Make-up air fan systems > 15 kW (20 hp)
Pump systems > 15 kW (20 hp)
Cooling towers systems > 15 kW (20 hp)
Boilers, furnaces and other heating equipment systems > 300 kW (1,000,000 Btu/h) heating capacity
General lighting circuits > 15 kVA
Miscellaneous electric loads > 15 kVA

Metering shall be digital-type meters for the main meter. Current sensors or flow meters are allowed for submetering. For subsystems with multiple similar units, such as multicell cooling towers, only one meter is required for the subsystem. Existing buildings are allowed to reuse installed existing analog-type utility company service/interval meters.


1203 Metering: Where new or replacement systems or equipment is installed that exceeds the threshold in Table 12-1 or Table 12-2, metering shall be installed for that system or equipment in accordance with Section 1201.

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AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1310   General requirements.   The building envelope shall comply with Sections 1311 through 1314.


1310.1 Conditioned Spaces: The building envelope for conditioned spaces shall also comply with one of the following paths:


a. Prescriptive Building Envelope Option Sections 1320 through 1323.

b. Component Performance Building Envelope Option Sections 1330 through 1334.

c. Systems Analysis. See Section 1141.4.


1310.2 Semi-Heated Spaces: All spaces shall be considered conditioned spaces, and shall comply with the requirements in Section 1310.1 unless they meet the following criteria for semi-heated spaces. The installed heating equipment output, in Climate Zone 1, shall be 3 Btu/(hft2) or greater but not greater than 8 Btu/(hft2) and in Climate Zone 2, shall be 5 Btu/(hft2) or greater but not greater than 12 Btu/(hft2).

For semi-heated spaces, the building envelope shall comply with the same requirements as that for conditioned spaces in Section 1310.1; however, semi-heated spaces shall be calculated separately from other conditioned spaces for compliance purposes.


EXCEPTION: For semi-heated spaces heated by other fuels only, wall insulation is not required for those walls that separate semi-heated spaces (see definition in Section 201.1) from the exterior provided that the space is heated solely by a heating system controlled by a thermostat with a maximum set point capacity of 45F, mounted no lower than the heating unit.

1310.3 Cold Storage and Refrigerated Spaces: Exterior and interior surfaces of frozen storage spaces or cold storage spaces in refrigerated warehouses may comply with either the prescriptive or component performance approach using insulation values in Table 13-3. The remainder of refrigerated warehouse area containing conditioned or semi-conditioned spaces shall comply by using either the prescriptive or component performance approach using Tables 13-1 and 13-2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Areas within refrigerated warehouses that are designed solely for the purpose of quick chilling or freezing of products with design cooling capacities of greater than 240 Btu/hr-ft2 (2 tons per 100 ft2).
2. Controlled atmosphere storage exterior floor and partition wall insulation.

Table 13-3
Refrigerated Warehouse Insulation

SPACE SURFACE MINIMUM R-VALUE

(F-hr-ft2/Btu)

Frozen Storage Spaces Exterior Roof/Ceiling R-36
(28F or below) Exterior Wall R-36
Exterior Floor R-36
Interior Partition1 R-28
Cold Storage Spaces Exterior Roof/Ceiling R-28
(28-45F) Exterior Wall R-28
Interior Partition1 R-19

1Interior partitions include any wall, floor, or ceiling that divides frozen storage spaces or cold storage spaces from each other, conditioned spaces, unconditioned spaces, or semi-conditioned spaces.

Figure 13A
Building Envelope Compliance Options

Section

Number

Subject

Prescriptive

Option

Component

Performance

Option

Systems

Analysis

Option

1310

1311

1312

1313

1314

General Requirements

Insulation

Glazing and Doors

Moisture Control

Air Leakage

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1320

1321

1322

1323

Prescriptive Building

Envelope Option

General

Opaque Envelope

Glazing

X

X

X

X

1330

1331

1332

1333

1334

Component

Performance Building

Envelope Option

General

Component U-Factors

UA Calculations

Solar Heat Gain

Coefficient

X

X

X

X

X

RS-29 Systems Analysis X

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1310, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1310, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1311   Insulation.  


1311.1 Installation Requirements: All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities, maintain clearances, and maintain uniform R-values. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.


1311.2 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Where two or more layers of rigid board insulation are used in a roof assembly, the vertical joints between each layer shall be staggered. Open-blown or poured loose-fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than three feet in twelve and there is at least thirty inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation.


Where lighting fixtures are recessed into a suspended or exposed grid ceiling, the roof/ceiling assembly shall be insulated in a location other than directly on the suspended ceiling.


EXCEPTION: Type IC rated recessed lighting fixtures.

Where installed in wood framing, faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.


1311.3 Wall Insulation: Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. When installed in wood framing, faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.


Above grade exterior insulation shall be protected.


1311.4 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is not more than twenty-four inches on center. Installed insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents.


1311.5 Slab-On-Grade Floor: Slab-on-grade insulation installed inside the foundation wall shall extend downward from the top of the slab a minimum distance of twenty-four inches or to the top of the footing, whichever is less. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward a minimum of twenty-four inches or to the frostline, whichever is greater. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.

1311.6 Radiant Floors (on or below grade): Slab-on-grade insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab a minimum distance of thirty-six inches or downward to the top of the footing and horizontal for an aggregate of not less than thirty-six inches.


If required by the building official where soil conditions warrant such insulation, the entire area of a radiant floor shall be thermally isolated from the soil. Where a soil gas control system is provided below the radiant floor, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant floor, the radiant floor shall be thermally isolated from the sub-floor gravel layer.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1311, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1312   Glazing and doors.  


1312.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing and Door U-Factors: U-Factors for glazing and doors shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with Standard RS-31 by a certified independent agency licensed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). Compliance shall be based on the Residential or the Nonresidential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Unlabeled glazing and doors shall be assigned the default U-factor in Table 10-6.


1312.2 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient and Shading Coefficient: Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), shall be determined, certified and ((labelled)) labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard by a certified, independent agency, licensed by the NFRC.


EXCEPTION: Shading coefficients (SC) shall be an acceptable alternate for compliance with solar heat gain coefficient requirements. Shading coefficients for glazing shall be taken from Chapter ((31)) 15 of RS-1 or from the manufacturer's test data.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1312, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1312, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1312, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1312, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1313   Moisture control.  


1313.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as required by this section.


EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

1313.2 Roof/Ceiling Assemblies: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of twelve inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. (For enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces see Section 1203.2 of the International Building Code.) Roof/ceiling assemblies without a vented airspace, allowed only where neither the roof deck nor the roof structure are made of wood, shall provide a continuous vapor retarder with taped seams.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vapor retarders need not be provided where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.
2. Unvented attic assemblies (spaces between the ceiling joists of the top story and the roof rafters) shall be permitted if all the following conditions are met:
2.1. The unvented attic space is completely contained within the building thermal envelope.
2.2. No interior vapor retarders are installed on the ceiling side (attic floor) of the unvented attic assembly.
2.3. Where wood shingles or shakes are used, a minimum 1/4 inch (6 mm) vented air space separates the shingles or shakes and the roofing underlayment above the structural sheathing.
2.4. Any air-impermeable insulation shall be a vapor retarder, or shall have a vapor retarder coating or covering in direct contact with the underside of the insulation.
2.5. Either Items a, b or c shall be met, depending on the air permeability of the insulation directly under the structural roof sheathing.
a. Air-impermeable insulation only. Insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing.
b. Air-permeable insulation only. In addition to the air-permeable insulation installed directly below the structural sheathing, rigid board or sheet insulation shall be installed directly above the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
c. Air-impermeable and air-permeable insulation. The air-impermeable insulation shall be applied in direct contact to the underside of the structural roof sheathing as specified per WA Climate Zone for condensation control. The air-permeable insulation shall be installed directly under the air-impermeable insulation.
i. Climate Zone #1 R-10 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.
ii. Climate Zone #2 R-25 minimum rigid board or air-impermeable insulation R-value.

1313.3 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.4 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.5 Crawl Spaces: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped twelve inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.


EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of three and one-half inches.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1313, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1313, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1313, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1314   Air leakage.  


1314.1 Building Envelope Sealing: ((The requirements of this section shall apply to building elements separating conditioned from unconditioned spaces. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors, and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed, or weatherstripped to limit air leakage.)) The following areas of the building envelope shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed, or weather-stripped to minimize air leakage:

a. Joints around fenestration and door frames;

b. Junctions between walls and foundations, between walls at building corners, between walls and structural floors or roofs, and between walls and roof or roof panels;

c. Openings at penetrations of utility services through the roofs, walls, and floors;

d. Site-built fenestration and doors;

e. Building assemblies used as ducts or plenums;

f. Joints, seams, and penetrations of vapor retarders;

g. All other openings in the building envelope.


1314.2 Glazing and Doors: ((Doors and operable glazing separating conditioned from unconditioned space shall be weatherstripped. Fixed windows shall be tight fitting with glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around.)) Air leakage for fenestration and doors shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or ASTM E283 as specified below. Air leakage shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council, and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Air leakage shall not exceed:

a. 1.0 cfm/ft2 for glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with NFRC 400, AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, or ASTM E283.

b. 0.04 cfm/ft2 for curtain wall and storefront glazing, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with NFRC 400, AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, or ASTM E283.

c. 0.2 cfm/ft2 for all other products when tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, or 0.3 cfm/ft2 when tested at a pressure of at least 6.24 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S/A440.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Openings that are required to be fire resistant.
2. Field-fabricated fenestration and doors that are weather-stripped or sealed in accordance with Section 1314.1.
3. For garage doors, air leakage determined by test at standard test conditions in accordance with ANSI/DASMA 105 shall be an acceptable alternate for compliance with air leakage requirements.
4. Units without air leakage ratings produced by small business that are weatherstripped or sealed in accordance with Section 1314.1.

1314.3 Building Assemblies Used as Ducts or Plenums: Building assemblies used as ducts or plenums shall be sealed, caulked, and gasketed to limit air leakage.


1314.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting fixtures shall be Type IC rated, and certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance with this test method. Recessed lighting fixtures shall be installed with a gasket or caulk between the fixture and ceiling to prevent air leakage.


1314.5 Loading Dock Weatherseals: Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.


1314.6 Continuous Air Barrier: For buildings over five stories, the building envelope shall be designed and constructed with a continuous air barrier to control air leakage into, or out of, the conditioned space. All air barrier components of each envelope assembly shall be clearly identified on construction documents and the joints, interconnections and penetrations of the air barrier components shall be detailed.


1314.6.1 Characteristics: The continuous air barrier shall have the following characteristics:

a. The air barrier component of each assembly shall be joined and sealed in a flexible manner to the air barrier component of adjacent assemblies, allowing for the relative movement of these assemblies and components. This requirement shall not be construed to restrict the materials or methods by which the air barrier is achieved.

b. It shall be capable of withstanding positive and negative combined design wind, fan and stack pressures on the air barrier without damage or displacement, and shall transfer the load to the structure. It shall not displace adjacent materials under full load.

c. It shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and in such a manner as to achieve the performance requirements.


1314.6.2 Compliance: Compliance of the continuous air barrier for the opaque building envelope shall be demonstrated by testing the completed building and demonstrating that the air leakage rate of the building envelope does not exceed 0.40 cfm/ft2 at a pressure differential of 0.3 inch w.g. (1.57 psf) as specified below.

a. Whole building testing shall be accomplished in accordance with ASTM E 779 or approved similar test. Tests shall be accomplished using either pressurization or depressurization or both. The building shall not be tested unless it is verified that the continuous air barrier is in place and installed without failures in accordance with installation instructions so that repairs to the continuous air barrier, if needed to comply with the required air leakage rate, can be done in a timely manner. Following are comments referring to ASTM E 779:

b. Under ASTM E 779 it is permissible to test using the building's HVAC system. In buildings with multistory HVAC systems and shafts it is permissible to test using the building's mechanical system using CAN/CGSB-149.15-96 Determination of the Overall Envelope Airtightness of Buildings by the Fan Pressurization Method Using the Building's Air Handling Systems, Canadian General Standards Board, Ottawa.

c. In lieu of the fan pressurization method described in ASTM E 779, a tracer gas test of the building air change rate in accordance with ASTM E 741 is also allowed. The tracer gas test shall be run with building HVAC fans off.

d. Section 8.1 - For purposes of this test, a multizone building shall be configured as a single zone by opening all interior doors, and otherwise connecting the interior spaces as much as possible. It is also allowed to test a smaller section of the building, provided the test area can be isolated from neighboring conditioned zones by balancing the pressure in adjacent conditioned zones to that in the zone being tested. This can be very difficult to do in buildings with multistory shafts and HVAC systems. If a smaller section of the building is tested, provide a drawing showing the zone(s) tested, the pressure boundaries and a diagram of the testing equipment configuration.

e. Section 8.2 - Seal all intentional functional openings such as exhaust and relief louvers, grilles and dryer vents that are not used in the test to introduce air, using plastic sheeting and duct tape or similar materials. All plumbing traps shall be filled with water.

f. Section 8.10 - The test pressure range shall be from 10 Pa to 80 Pa. If approved by the building official, lower test pressures are acceptable, but the upper limit shall not be less than 50 Pa.

g. Section 9.4 - If both pressurization and depressurization are not tested, plot the air leakage against the corrected &Dgr;P for either pressurization or depressurization.

h. Section 9.6.4 - If the pressure exponent n is less than 0.5 or greater than 1, corrective work shall be performed to the continuous air barrier and the test shall be rerun.

i. Section 10.4 - Report the air leakage rate normalized in cfm/ft2 at 0.3 inch w.g. (1.57 psf) over the total area of the building envelope air pressure boundary including the lowest floor, any below-grade walls, above-grade walls, and roof (or ceiling) (including windows and skylights) separating the interior conditioned space from the unconditioned environment.


1314.6.3 Certificate of Occupancy: A final certificate of occupancy shall not be issued for the building, or portion thereof, until such time that the building official determines the building, or portion thereof, has been field tested in accordance with Section 1314.6.2.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1314, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1314, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-01-013, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05)

WAC 51-11-1322   Opaque envelope.   Roof/ceilings, opaque exterior walls, opaque doors, floors over unconditioned space, below grade walls, slab on grade floors, and radiant floors enclosing conditioned spaces shall be insulated according to Section 1311 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. Compliance with nominal R-values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only. Nominal R-values shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films.


For metal frame assemblies used in spaces with electric resistance space heat, compliance shall be demonstrated with the component U-factor for the overall assembly based on the assemblies in Chapter 10.


Area-weighted averaging of the R-value is not allowed. When showing compliance with R-values, the minimum insulation R-value for all areas of the component shall comply with Table 13-1 or 13-2. When calculating compliance using U-factors, area-weighted averaging is allowed. Where insulation is tapered (e.g., roofs), separate assembly U-factors shall be calculated for each four-foot section of tapered insulation.


EXCEPTION((S)): ((1.)) Opaque smoke vents are not required to meet insulation requirements.
((2. For prescriptive compliance only.
a. For glazing areas that are 30% and less of the gross wall area, the insulation of the perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be reduced to R-5 provided the glazing U-factor is reduced by U-0.05 below that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.
b. For glazing areas that exceed 30% of the gross wall area, the perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be left uninsulated provided that the glazing U-factor is reduced by U-0.10 below that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1322, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1322, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1322, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-03-010, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01)

WAC 51-11-1323   Glazing.   Glazing shall comply with Section 1312 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. All glazing shall be, at a minimum, double glazing. In addition, all glazing assemblies shall have at least one low-emissivity coating unless the glazing assembly has an overall U-factor that complies with the values in Table 13-1 or 13-2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical glazing located on the display side of the street level story of a retail occupancy provided the glazing:
a.(i) Is double-glazed with a minimum 1/2 inch airspace and with a low-e coating having a maximum emittance of ((e-0.40)) e-0.10 in a nonmetal frame or a metal frame having a thermal break (as defined in footnote 2 to Table 10-6B); or
(ii) Has an area weighted U-factor of ((0.60)) 0.50 or less. (U-factor calculations shall use overall assembly U-factors. When this exception is used, there are no SHGC requirements); and((,))
b. Does not exceed 75 percent of the gross exterior wall area of the display side of the street level story, measured from the top of the finished floor at street level. However, if the display side of the street level story exceeds 20 feet in height, then this exception may only be used for the first 20 feet of that story.
When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. The 75 percent area may be exceeded on the street level, if the additional glass area is provided from allowances from other areas of the building.
2. Single glazing for ((ornamental,)) security((, or architectural)) purposes and vestibules and revolving doors shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area, U-factor calculation and SHGC as allowed in the Tables 13-1 or 13-2. The maximum area allowed for the total of all single glazing is one percent of the gross exterior wall ((floor)) area.

1323.1 Area: The percentage of total glazing (vertical and overhead) area relative to the gross exterior wall area shall not be greater than the appropriate value from Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical glazing U-factor, overhead glazing U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient selected.


1323.2 U-Factor: The area-weighted average U-factor of vertical glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. The area-weighted average U-factor of overhead glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.


1323.3 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient: The area-weighted average solar heat gain coefficient of all glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and U-factor.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Glazing separating conditioned space from semi-heated space or unconditioned space.
2. Vertical glazing which is oriented within 45 degrees of north shall be allowed to have a maximum solar heat gain coefficient SHGC-0.05 above that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2. When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes.
3. For demonstrating compliance for vertical glazing for the first SHGC option in Tables 13-1 and 13-2 only, the SHGC in the proposed building shall be allowed to be reduced by using the multipliers in the table below for each glazing product shaded by permanent projections that will last as long as the building itself.

Projection Factor SHGC Multiplier (All Orientations Except North-Oriented) SHGC Multiplier (North-Oriented)
0 - 0.10 1.00 1.00
<0.10 - 0.20 0.91 0.95
<0.20 - 0.30 0.82 0.91
<0.30 - 0.40 0.74 0.87
<0.40 - 0.50 0.67 0.84
<0.50 - 0.60 0.61 0.81
<0.60 - 0.70 0.56 0.78
<0.70 - 0.80 0.51 0.76
<0.80 - 0.90 0.47 0.75
<0.90 - 1.00 0.44 0.73

Projection factor (PF) is the ratio of the horizontal depth of the external shading projection (A) divided by the sum of the height of the fenestration and the distance from the top of the fenestration to the bottom of the farthest point of the external shading projection (B), in consistent units. (See Figure 13B.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1323, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1323, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1323, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1331   General.   Buildings or structures whose design heat loss rate (UAp) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*Ap) are less than or equal to the target heat loss rate (UAt) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*At) shall be considered in compliance with this section. The stated U-factor, F-factor or allowable area of any component assembly, listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall, opaque door, glazing, floor over conditioned space, slab on grade floor, radiant floor or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor or F-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors, F-factors or allowable areas specified in this section.


EXCEPTION: Compliance is also allowed to be shown using RS-32 for Climate Zone 1 except for buildings containing attic roofs, wood framed walls or vertical fenestration with nonmetal frames, or for Group R occupancies.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1331, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1331, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1331, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1331, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1331, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 04-01-106, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04)

WAC 51-11-1332   Component U-factors.   The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters ((23)) 16 through ((30)) 18 and 25 through 27 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10. For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory measurements according to acceptable methods of test.
2. Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.
3. The zone method as provided in Chapter ((25)) 27 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.
4. Effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Table 10-5A.

When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and
b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1332, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1332, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-01-089, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07)

WAC 51-11-1334   Solar heat gain coefficient rate calculations.   Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Section 1323.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equation 13-3 and 13-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

align="center"

Equation 13-1:
Target UA(([t])) t

UAt = UradtAradt + ((UogratAograt +)) UmrtAmrt + UrstArst + UortAort + UogcortAogcort + UogortAogort + UmwtAmwt + UmbwtAmbwt + UsfwtAsfwt + UwtAwt + UvgtAvgt + UvgmtAvgmt + UvgdtAvgdt + UdtAdt + UfmtAfmt + UfstAfst + UftAft + FstPst + ((UbgwtAbgwt)) FrstPrst
UAt = The target combined specific heat transfer of the gross roof/ceiling assembly, exterior wall and floor area.
Where:
Uradt = The thermal transmittance value for roofs ((over attics)) with the insulation entirely above deck found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
((Uograt = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.))
Umrt = The thermal transmittance value for metal building roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Urst = The thermal transmittance value for single rafter roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uort = The thermal transmittance value for attic and other roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uogcort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing with curb found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uogort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing without curb found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Umwt =