WSR 10-20-103

EMERGENCY RULES

DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE


[ Filed October 1, 2010, 10:10 a.m. , effective October 1, 2010, 10:10 a.m. ]


Effective Date of Rule: Immediately.

Purpose: WAC 458-20-194 (Rule 194) explains the apportionment requirements of persons entitled to apportion income under RCW 82.04.460(1). It also describes Washington nexus standards for business activities subject to apportionment under RCW 82.04.460(1). Rule 194 applies to persons subject to the service and other activities, international investment income, licensed boarding home, and low-level radioactive waste disposal business and occupation (B&O) tax classifications, and who are not required to apportion their income under another statute or rule.

WAC 458-20-14601 (Rule 14601) provides tax reporting instructions for financial institutions doing business both inside and outside the state of Washington.

Chapter 23, Laws of 2010 1st sp. sess. (2ESSB 6143) changed the apportionment and nexus provisions addressed in these rules, effective June 1, 2010. The department is amending these rules to recognize that the guidance provided in the rules does not apply after May 31, 2010.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 458-20-194 Doing business inside and outside the state and 458-20-14601 Financial institutions -- Income apportionment.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).

Under RCW 34.05.350 the agency for good cause finds that immediate adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule is necessary for the preservation of the public health, safety, or general welfare, and that observing the time requirements of notice and opportunity to comment upon adoption of a permanent rule would be contrary to the public interest.

Reasons for this Finding: An emergency adoption is necessary because permanent rules cannot be adopted at this time. This is the second emergency adoption of these rules. These drafts are the same as the previously adopted emergency rules, except that typographical errors noted by the code reviser have been corrected.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Date Adopted: October 1, 2010.

Alan R. Lynn

Rules Coordinator


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-11-033, filed 5/15/97, effective 7/1/97)

WAC 458-20-14601   Financial institutions -- Income apportionment.   (1) Introduction.

(a) This section provides tax reporting instructions for financial institutions doing business both inside and outside the state of Washington, and applies to tax liability incurred through May 31, 2010. Chapter 23, 2010 Laws 1st Special Session (2ESSB 6143) changed the apportionment reporting requirements for financial institutions effective June 1, 2010. Refer to WAC 458-20-19404 (Financial institutions - Income apportionment) for tax liability incurred on and after June 1, 2010. Financial businesses that do not meet the definition of "financial institution" in subsection (3)(j) of this section and other businesses taxable under RCW 82.04.290 should refer to WAC 458-20-194 (Doing business inside and outside the state) for tax liability incurred on or before May 31, 2010.

(b) Financial institutions engaged in making interstate sales of tangible personal property should also refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property).

(2) Apportionment and allocation.

(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, a financial institution taxable under RCW 82.04.290 and taxable in another state shall allocate and apportion its apportionable income as provided in this section. All gross income that is not includable in apportionable income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of chapter 82.04 RCW. A financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a territory or possession of the United States, except such institutions that are exempt under RCW 82.04.315, whose effectively connected income (as defined under the Federal Internal Revenue Code) is taxable both in this state and another state, other than the state in which it is organized, shall allocate and apportion its gross income as provided in this section.

(b) The apportionment percentage is determined by adding the taxpayer's receipts factor (as described in subsection (4) of this section), property factor (as described in subsection (5) of this section), and payroll factor (as described in subsection (6) of this section) together and dividing the sum by three. If one of the factors is missing, the two remaining factors are added together and the sum is divided by two. If two of the factors are missing, the remaining factor is the apportionment percentage. A factor is missing if both its numerator and denominator are zero, but it is not missing merely because its numerator is zero.

(c) Each factor shall be computed according to the method of accounting (cash or accrual basis) used by the taxpayer for Washington state tax purposes for the taxable period. Persons should refer to WAC 458-20-197 (When tax liability arises) and WAC 458-20-199 (Accounting methods) for further guidance on the requirements of each accounting method. Generally, financial institutions are required to file returns on a monthly basis. To enable financial institutions to more easily comply with the provisions of this section, financial institutions will file returns using factors calculated based on the most recent calendar year for which information is available. A reconciliation shall be filed for each year within thirty days of the time that the taxpayer files its federal income tax returns for that year, but not later than October 30th of the following year. For example, for returns filed for taxable activities occurring during calendar year 1998, a taxpayer would use factors calculated based on its 1996 information. A reconciliation would be filed for 1998 using factors based on 1998 information as soon as the information was available to the taxpayer, but not later than thirty days after the time federal income tax returns were due for 1998, or October 30, 1999. In the case of consolidations, mergers, or divestitures, a taxpayer shall make the appropriate adjustments to the factors to reflect its changed operations.

(d) If the allocation and apportionment provisions of this section do not fairly represent the extent of its business activity in this state, the taxpayer may petition for, or the department may require, in respect to all or any part of the taxpayer's business activity:

(i) Separate accounting;

(ii) A calculation of tax liability utilizing the cost of doing business method outlined in RCW 82.04.460(1);

(iii) The exclusion of any one or more of the factors;

(iv) The inclusion of one or more additional factors which will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in this state; or

(v) The employment of any other method to effectuate an equitable allocation and apportionment of the taxpayer's receipts.

(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply throughout this section:

(a) "Apportionable income" means the gross income of the business taxable under RCW 82.04.290, including income received from activities outside this state if the income would be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if received from activities in this state, less the exemptions and deductions allowable under chapter 82.04 RCW.

(b) "Billing address" means the location indicated in the books and records of the taxpayer on the first day of the taxable period (or on such later date in the taxable period when the customer relationship began) as the address where any notice, statement and/or bill relating to a customer's account is mailed.

(c) "Borrower or credit card holder located in this state" means:

(i) A borrower, other than a credit card holder, that is engaged in a trade or business which maintains its commercial domicile in this state; or

(ii) A borrower that is not engaged in a trade or business or a credit card holder, whose billing address is in this state.

(d) "Commercial domicile" means:

(i) The headquarters of the trade or business, that is, the place from which the trade or business is principally managed and directed; or

(ii) If a taxpayer is organized under the laws of a foreign country, or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States, such taxpayer's commercial domicile is deemed for the purposes of this section to be the state of the United States or the District of Columbia from which such taxpayer's trade or business in the United States is principally managed and directed. It is presumed, subject to rebuttal by a preponderance of the evidence, that the location from which the taxpayer's trade or business is principally managed and directed is the state of the United States or the District of Columbia to which the greatest number of employees are regularly connected or out of which they are working, irrespective of where the services of such employees are performed, as of the last day of the taxable period.

(e) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services that are included in such employee's gross income under the Federal Internal Revenue Code. In the case of employees not subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code, e.g., those employed in foreign countries, the determination of whether such payments would constitute gross income to such employees under the Federal Internal Revenue Code shall be made as though such employees were subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code.

(f) "Credit card" means credit, travel or entertainment card.

(g) "Credit card issuer's reimbursement fee" means the fee a taxpayer receives from a merchant's bank because one of the persons to whom the taxpayer has issued a credit card has charged merchandise or services to the credit card.

(h) "Department" means the department of revenue.

(i) "Employee" means, with respect to a particular taxpayer, any individual who, under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee of that taxpayer.

(j) "Financial institution" means:

(i) Any corporation or other business entity chartered under Titles 30, 31, 32, 33 RCW, or registered under the Federal Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or registered as a savings and loan holding company under the Federal National Housing Act, as amended;

(ii) A national bank organized and existing as a national bank association pursuant to the provisions of the National Bank Act, 12 U.S.C. 21 et seq.;

(iii) A savings association or federal savings bank as defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1813 (b)(1);

(iv) Any bank or thrift institution incorporated or organized under the laws of any state;

(v) Any corporation organized under the provisions of 12 U.S.C. 611 to 631;

(vi) Any agency or branch of a foreign depository as defined in 12 U.S.C. 3101 that is not exempt under RCW 82.04.315;

(vii) Any credit union, other than a state or federal credit union exempt under state or federal law;

(viii) A production credit association organized under the Federal Farm Credit Act of 1933, all of whose stock held by the Federal Production Credit Corporation has been retired;

(ix) Any corporation or other business entity who receives gross income taxable under RCW 82.04.290, and whose voting interests are more than fifty percent owned, directly or indirectly, by any person or business entity described in (j)(i) through (viii) of this subsection other than an insurance company liable for the insurance premiums tax under RCW 48.14.020 or any other company taxable under chapter 48.14 RCW;

(x) A corporation or other business entity that derives more than fifty percent of its total gross income for federal income tax purposes from finance leases. For purposes of this subsection, a "finance lease" means a lease which meets two requirements:

(A) It is the type of lease permitted to be made by national banks (see 12 U.S.C. 24(7), 12 U.S.C. 24(10), Comptroller of the Currency-Regulations, Part 23-Leasing (added by 56 Fed. Reg. 28314, June 20, 1991, effective July 22, 1991), and Regulation Y of the Federal Reserve System 12 CFR 225.25, as amended); and

(B) It is the economic equivalent of an extension of credit, i.e., the lease is treated by the lessor as a loan for federal income tax purposes. In no event does a lease qualify as an extension of credit where the lessor takes depreciation on such property for federal income tax purposes.

For this classification to apply, the average of the gross income in the current tax year and immediately preceding two tax years must satisfy the more than fifty percent requirement;

(xi) Any other person or business entity, other than an insurance general agent taxable under RCW 82.04.280(5), an insurance business exempt from the business and occupation tax under RCW 82.04.320, a real estate broker taxable under RCW 82.04.255, a securities dealer or international investment management company taxable under RCW 82.04.290(2), that derives more than fifty percent of its gross receipts from activities that a person described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection is authorized to transact. For purposes of this subparagraph, the computation of apportionable income shall not include income from nonrecurring, extraordinary items;

(xii) The department is authorized to exclude any person from the application of (j)(xi) of this subsection upon such person proving, by clear and convincing evidence, that the activity producing the receipts of such person is not in substantial competition with those persons described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection.

(k) "Gross income of the business," "gross income," or "income" has the same meaning as in RCW 82.04.080 and means the value proceeding or accruing by reason of the transaction of the business engaged in and includes gross proceeds of sales, compensation for the rendition of services, gains realized from trading in stocks, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness, interest, discount, rents, royalties, fees, commissions, dividends, and other emoluments however designated, all without any deduction on account of the cost of tangible property sold, the cost of materials used, labor costs, interest, discount, delivery costs, taxes, or any other expense whatsoever paid or accrued and without any deduction on account of losses.

(l) "Gross rents" means the actual sum of money or other consideration payable for the use or possession of real property. "Gross rents" includes, but is not limited to:

(i) Any amount payable for the use or possession of real property whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of receipts, profits or otherwise;

(ii) Any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rent, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other amount required to be paid by the terms of a lease or other arrangement; and

(iii) A proportionate part of the cost of any improvement to real property made by or on behalf of the taxpayer which reverts to the owner or grantor upon termination of a lease or other arrangement. The amount to be included in gross rents is the amount of amortization or depreciation allowed in computing the taxable income base for the taxable period. However, where a building is erected on leased land by or on behalf of the taxpayer, the value of the land is determined by multiplying the gross rent by eight and the value of the building is determined in the same manner as if owned by the taxpayer.

(iv) The following are not included in the term "gross rents":

(A) Reasonable amounts payable as separate charges for water and electric service furnished by the lessor;

(B) Reasonable amounts payable as service charges for janitorial services furnished by the lessor;

(C) Reasonable amounts payable for storage, provided such amounts are payable for space not designated and not under the control of the taxpayer; and

(D) That portion of any rental payment which is applicable to the space subleased from the taxpayer and not used by it.

(m) "Loan" means any extension of credit resulting from direct negotiations between the taxpayer and its customer, and/or the purchase, in whole or in part, of such extension of credit from another. "Loan" includes participations, syndications, and leases treated as loans for federal income tax purposes. "Loan" does not include: Properties treated as loans under Section 595 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code; futures or forward contracts; options; notional principal contracts such as swaps; credit card receivables, including purchased credit card relationships; noninterest bearing balances due from depository institutions; cash items in the process of collection; federal funds sold; securities purchased under agreements to resell; assets held in a trading account; securities; interests in a REMIC, or other mortgage-backed or asset-backed security; and other similar items.

(n) "Loan secured by real property" means that fifty percent or more of the aggregate value of the collateral used to secure a loan or other obligation was real property, when valued at fair market value as of the time the original loan or obligation was incurred.

(o) "Merchant discount" means the fee (or negotiated discount) charged to a merchant by the taxpayer for the privilege of participating in a program whereby a credit card is accepted in payment for merchandise or services sold to the card holder.

(p) "Participation" means an extension of credit in which an undivided ownership interest is held on a pro rata basis in a single loan or pool of loans and related collateral. In a loan participation, the credit originator initially makes the loan and then subsequently resells all or a portion of it to other lenders. The participation may or may not be known to the borrower.

(q) "Person" has the meaning given in RCW 82.04.030.

(r) "Principal base of operations" with respect to transportation property means the place of more or less permanent nature from which said property is regularly directed or controlled. With respect to an employee, the "principal base of operations" means the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee regularly:

(i) Starts his or her work and to which he or she customarily returns in order to receive instructions from his or her employer; or

(ii) Communicates with his or her customers or other persons; or

(iii) Performs any other functions necessary to the exercise of his or her trade or profession at some other point or points.

(s) "Real property owned" and "tangible personal property owned" mean real and tangible personal property, respectively:

(i) On which the taxpayer may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes; or

(ii) Property to which the taxpayer holds legal title and on which no other person may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes (or could claim depreciation if subject to federal income tax).

Real and tangible personal property do not include coin, currency, or property acquired in lieu of or pursuant to a foreclosure.

(t) "Regular place of business" means an office at which the taxpayer carries on its business in a regular and systematic manner and which is continuously maintained, occupied and used by employees of the taxpayer.

(u) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States or any foreign country.

(v) "Syndication" means an extension of credit in which two or more persons fund and each person is at risk only up to a specified percentage of the total extension of credit or up to a specified dollar amount.

(w) "Taxable in another state" means either:

(i) That a taxpayer is subject in another state to a gross receipts or franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, a franchise tax measured by net income, a corporate stock tax (including a bank shares tax), a single business tax, or an earned surplus tax, or any other tax which is imposed upon or measured by gross or net income; or

(ii) That another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to any of such taxes regardless of whether, in fact, the state does or does not.

(x) "Taxable period" means the calendar year during which tax liability is incurred.

(y) "Transportation property" means vehicles and vessels capable of moving under their own power, such as aircraft, trains, water vessels and motor vehicles, as well as any equipment or containers attached to such property, such as rolling stock, barges, trailers or the like.

(4) Receipts factor.

(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the receipts factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer in this state during the taxable period and the denominator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The method of calculating receipts for purposes of the denominator is the same as the method used in determining receipts for purposes of the numerator.

(b) Receipts from the lease of real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of real property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state or income from the sublease of real property if the property is located within this state.

(c) Receipts from the lease of tangible personal property.

(i) Except as described in (c)(ii) of this subsection, the numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state when it is first placed in service by the lessee.

(ii) Income from the lease or rental of transportation property owned by the taxpayer is included in the numerator of the receipts factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft is used in this state and the amount of income that is to be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor is determined by multiplying all the income from the lease or rental of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered.

(d) Interest from loans secured by real property.

(i) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property if the property is located within this state. If the property is located both within this state and one or more other states, the income described in this subparagraph is included in the numerator of the receipts factor if more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is located within this state. If more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is not located within any one state, then the income described in this subparagraph shall be included in the numerator of the receipts factor if the borrower is located in this state.

(ii) The determination of whether the real property securing a loan is located within this state shall be made as of the time the original agreement was made and any and all subsequent substitutions of collateral shall be disregarded.

(e) Interest from loans not secured by real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property if the borrower is located in this state.

(f) Net gains from the sale of loans. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains from the sale of loans. Net gains from the sale of loans includes income recorded under the coupon stripping rules of Section 1286 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code.

(i) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to subsection (4)(d) and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.

(ii) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans not secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.

(g) Receipts from credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and income from fees charged to card holders, such as annual fees, if the billing address of the card holder is in this state.

(h) Net gains from the sale of credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of credit card receivables multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.

(i) Credit card issuer's reimbursement fees. The numerator of the receipts factor includes all credit card issuer's reimbursement fees multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.

(j) Receipts from merchant discount. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from merchant discount if the commercial domicile of the merchant is in this state. Such receipts shall be computed net of any cardholder charge backs, but shall not be reduced by any interchange transaction fees or by any issuer's reimbursement fees paid to another for charges made by its card holders.

(k) Loan servicing fees.

(i)(A) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (d) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.

(B) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans not secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.

(ii) If the taxpayer receives loan servicing fees for servicing either the secured or the unsecured loans of another, the numerator of the receipts factor includes such fees if the borrower is located in this state.

(l) Receipts from services. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this subsection if the service is performed in this state. If the service is performed both inside and outside this state, the numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this section, if a greater proportion of the activity producing the receipts is performed in this state based on cost of performance.

(m) Receipts from investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities.

(i) Interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities are included in the receipts factor. Investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities include but are not limited to: Investment securities; trading account assets; federal funds; securities purchased and sold under agreements to resell or repurchase; options; futures contracts; forward contracts; notional principal contracts such as swaps; equities; and foreign currency transactions. With respect to the investment and trading assets and activities described in (m)(i)(A) and (B) of this subsection, the receipts factor includes the following:

(A) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest from federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements exceeds interest expense on federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements.

(B) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book, and foreign currency transactions, exceed amounts paid in lieu of interest, amounts paid in lieu of dividends, and losses from such assets and activities.

(ii) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other receipts from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities described in (m)(i) of this subsection that are attributable to this state.

(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.

(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such funds and such securities.

(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other income from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(A) or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such trading assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, average value shall be determined using the rules for determining the average value of tangible personal property set forth in subsection (5) of this section.

(iii) In lieu of using the method set forth in (m)(ii) of this subsection, the taxpayer may elect, or the department may require in order to fairly represent the business activity of the taxpayer in this state, the use of the method set forth in this paragraph.

(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross receipts from such assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.

(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such funds and such securities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such funds and such securities.

(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(A) or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such trading assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.

(iv) If the taxpayer elects or is required by the department to use the method set forth in (m)(iii) of this subsection, it shall use this method on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department to use, or the department requires a different method.

(v) The taxpayer has the burden of proving that an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity was properly assigned to a regular place of business outside of this state by demonstrating that the day-to-day decisions regarding the asset or activity occurred at a regular place of business outside this state. If the day-to-day decisions regarding an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity occur at more than one regular place of business and one such regular place of business is in this state and one such regular place of business is outside this state, such asset or activity is considered to be located at the regular place of business of the taxpayer where the investment or trading policies or guidelines with respect to the asset or activity are established. Such policies and guidelines are presumed, subject to rebuttal by preponderance of the evidence, to be established at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.

(n) Attribution of certain receipts to commercial domicile. All receipts which would be assigned under this section to a state in which the taxpayer is not taxable are included in the numerator of the receipts factor, if the taxpayer's commercial domicile is in this state.

(5) Property factor.

(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, the average value of the real and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, and the average value of the taxpayer's loans and credit card receivables that are located within this state during the taxable period, and the denominator of which is the average value of all such property located or used inside and outside this state during the taxable period.

(b) Value of property owned by the taxpayer.

(i) The value of real property and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer is the original cost or other basis of such property for federal income tax purposes without regard to depletion, depreciation or amortization.

(ii) Loans are valued at their outstanding principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a loan is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the loan charged off is not outstanding. A specifically allocated reserve established under regulatory or financial accounting guidelines which is treated as charged-off for federal income tax purposes shall be treated as charged-off for purposes of this section.

(iii) Credit card receivables are valued at their out-standing principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a credit card receivable is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the receivable charged-off is not outstanding.

(c) Average value of property owned by the taxpayer. The average value of property owned by the taxpayer is computed on an annual basis by adding the value of the property on the first day of the taxable period and the value on the last day of the taxable period and dividing the sum by two. If averaging on this basis does not properly reflect average value, the department may require averaging on a more frequent basis. The taxpayer may elect to average on a more frequent basis. When averaging on a more frequent basis is required by the department or is elected by the taxpayer, the same method of valuation must be used consistently by the taxpayer with respect to property inside and outside this state and on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department or the department requires a different method of determining average value.

(d) Average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer.

(i) The average value of real property and tangible personal property that the taxpayer has rented from another and which is not treated as property owned by the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes, shall be determined annually by multiplying the gross rents payable during the taxable year by eight.

(ii) Where the use of the general method described in this subsection results in inaccurate valuations of rented property, any other method which properly reflects the value may be adopted by the department or by the taxpayer when approved in writing by the department. Once approved, such other method of valuation must be used on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior approval from the department or the department requires a different method of valuation.

(e) Location of real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer.

(i) Except as described in (e)(ii) of this subsection, real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer is considered to be located within this state if it is physically located, situated or used within this state.

(ii) Transportation property is included in the numerator of the property factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft will be deemed to be used in this state and the amount of value that is to be included in the numerator of this state's property factor is determined by multiplying the average value of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft everywhere during the tax reporting period. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered. Thus, a motor vehicle will not be considered as used in Washington if there is no requirement for the vehicle to be licensed or registered in Washington.

(f) Location of loans.

(i)(A) A loan is located within this state if it is properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state.

(B) A loan is properly assigned to the regular place of business with which it has a majority of substantive contacts. A loan assigned by the taxpayer to a regular place of business outside the state shall be presumed to have been properly assigned if:

(I) The taxpayer has assigned, in the regular course of its business, such loan on its records to a regular place of business consistent with federal or state regulatory requirements;

(II) Such assignment on its records is based upon substantive contacts of the loan to such regular place of business; and

(III) The taxpayer uses said records reflecting assignment of loans for the filing of all state and local tax returns for which an assignment of loans to a regular place of business is required.

(ii) The presumption of proper assignment of a loan provided in (f)(i)(A) of this subsection may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence, showing that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur at the regular place of business to which it was assigned on the taxpayer's records. When such presumption has been rebutted, the loan is located within this state if: The taxpayer had a regular place of business within this state at the time the loan was made; and the taxpayer fails to show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur within this state.

(A) If a loan is assigned by the taxpayer to a place outside this state which is not a regular place of business, it is presumed, subject to rebuttal on a preponderance of evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding the loan occurred within this state if, at the time the loan was made the taxpayer's commercial domicile, as defined in subsection (3)(d) of this section, was within this state.

(B) To determine the state in which the majority of substantive contacts relating to a loan have occurred, the facts and circumstances regarding the loan at issue shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis and consideration shall be given to such activities as the solicitation, investigation, negotiation, approval and administration of the loan. The terms "solicitation," "investigation," "negotiation," "approval" and "administration" are defined as follows:

(I) Solicitation. Solicitation is either active or passive. Active solicitation occurs when an employee of the taxpayer initiates the contact with the customer. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employee is regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employee were actually performed. Passive solicitation occurs when the customer initiates the contact with the taxpayer. If the customer's initial contact was not at a regular place of business of the taxpayer, the regular place of business, if any, where the passive solicitation occurred is determined by the facts in each case.

(II) Investigation. Investigation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer determine the credit worthiness of the customer as well as the degree of risk involved in making a particular agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.

(III) Negotiation. Negotiation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer and its customer determine the terms of the agreement (e.g., the amount, duration, interest rate, frequency of repayment, currency denomination and security required). Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.

(IV) Approval. Approval is the procedure whereby employees or the board of directors of the taxpayer make the final determination whether to enter into the agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed. If the board of directors makes the final determination, such activity is located at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.

(V) Administration. Administration is the process of managing the account. This process includes bookkeeping, collecting the payments, corresponding with the customer, reporting to management regarding the status of the agreement and proceeding against the borrower or the security interest if the borrower is in default. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which oversees this activity.

(g) Location of credit card receivables. For purposes of determining the location of credit card receivables, credit card receivables are treated as loans and are subject to the provisions of (f) of this subsection.

(h) Period for which properly assigned loan remains assigned. A loan that has been properly assigned to a state shall remain assigned to that state for the length of the original term of the loan, absent any change in material fact. If the original term of the loan is modified (extended or reduced), the loan may be properly assigned to another state if the loan has a majority of substantive contact to a regular place of business there.

(6) Payroll factor.

(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid in this state during the taxable period by the taxpayer for compensation of employees and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid both inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The payroll factor shall include all compensation paid to employees.

(b) Compensation relating to independent contractors. Payments made to any independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee is excluded from both the numerator and denominator of the factor.

(c) When compensation paid in this state. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests, applied consecutively, is met:

(i) The employee's services are performed entirely within this state.

(ii) The employee's services are performed both inside and outside the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The term "incidental" means any service which is temporary or transitory in nature, or which is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.

(iii) If the employee's services are performed both inside and outside this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:

(A) If the employee's principal base of operations is inside this state; or

(B) If there is no principal base of operations in any state in which some part of the services are performed, but the place from which the services are directed or controlled is in this state; or

(C) If the principal base of operations and the place from which the services are directed or controlled are not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.

(7) Alternative factor calculation.

(a) General. A taxpayer may elect to use the alternative factors calculation as provided in this subsection. The alternative factors calculation requires the use of all three factors provided below. A taxpayer making such an election must keep books and records sufficient to explain the calculations. Such an election, once made, must continue for a full calendar year.

(b) Receipts factor. The alternative receipts factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the receipts factor as calculated in subsection (4) of this section gross income attributable to items that would not be subject to tax under the provisions of RCW 82.04.290, whether from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property in Washington from the numerator and all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property, wherever located, in the denominator.

(c) Property factor. The alternative property factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the property factor as calculated in subsection (5) of this section property, the income from which would be considered wholesale or retail sales under chapter 82.04 RCW, whether from activities inside or outside the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all tangible personal property rented to customers in Washington from the numerator and all tangible personal property rented to customers, wherever located, in the denominator.

(d) Payroll factor. The alternative payroll factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the payroll factor as calculated in subsection (6) of this section that amount paid to employees in connection with earning gross income which would not be subject to tax under RCW 82.04.290, whether earned from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all compensation paid to employees in connection with activities that are not taxable under RCW 82.04.290 from the numerator and all compensation paid to employees wherever located that would not be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if it had been earned in Washington.

(8) Effective date.

(a) General. This section applies to gross income that is reportable with respect to periods beginning on and after July 1, 1997.

(b) Transition period election. A financial institution may notify the department of its intention to apportion its gross receipts in the manner prescribed in RCW 82.04.460(1) and WAC 458-20-194. Such election may continue until the earlier of the date the financial institution elects to report in accordance with this section, but not later than January 1, 2000.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.04.460(2) and 82.32.300. 97-11-033, 458-20-14601, filed 5/15/97, effective 7/1/97.]

Reviser's note: RCW 34.05.395 requires the use of underlining and deletion marks to indicate amendments to existing rules. The rule published above varies from its predecessor in certain respects not indicated by the use of these markings.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-24-054, filed 12/1/05, effective 1/1/06)

WAC 458-20-194   Doing business inside and outside the state.   (1) Introduction.

(a) This section ((applies to)) explains the apportionment requirements of persons entitled to apportion income under RCW 82.04.460(1), and applies only to tax liability incurred during the period of January 1, 2006 through May 31, 2010. Chapter 23, 2010 Laws 1st Special Session (2ESSB 6143) changed the apportionment provisions of RCW 82.04.460(1) effective June 1, 2010. ((Specifically this)) This section specifically applies to taxpayers who maintain places of business both within and without the state that contribute to the rendition of services and who are taxable under RCW 82.04.290, 82.04.2908, or any other statute that provides for apportionment under RCW 82.04.460(1) during this period.

Persons subject to the service and other activities, international investment income, licensed boarding home, and low-level radioactive waste disposal business and occupation (B&O) tax classifications, and who are not required to apportion their income under another statute or rule, should use this section. In addition, this section describes Washington nexus standards for business activities subject to apportionment under RCW 82.04.460(1) for tax liability incurred between January 1, 2006 through May 31, 2010. Nexus is described in subsection (2) of this section; separate accounting in subsection (3) of this section; and cost apportionment in subsection (4) of this section.

(b) Readers may also find helpful information in the following rules:

(((i) WAC 458-20-14601 (Financial institutions -- Income apportionment).

(ii) WAC 458-20-170 (Constructing and repairing of new or existing buildings or other structures upon real property).

(iii) WAC 458-20-179 (Public utility tax).

(iv) WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property).

(v) WAC 458-20-236 (Baseball clubs and other sport organizations).))

(i) WAC 458-20-19401 Minimum nexus thresholds for apportionable activities. This rule describes minimum nexus thresholds that are effective June 1, 2010.

(ii) WAC 458-20-19402 Single factor receipts apportionment - Generally. This rule describes the general application of single factor receipts apportionment that is effective June 1, 2010.

(iii) WAC 458-20-19403 Single factor receipts apportionment - Royalties. This rule describes the application of single factor receipts apportionment to gross income from royalties and applies only to tax liability incurred after May 31, 2010.

(iv) WAC 458-20-19404 Single factor receipts apportionment - Financial institutions. This rule describes the application of single factor receipts apportionment to certain income of financial institutions and applies only to tax liability incurred after May 31, 2010.

(v) WAC 458-20-14601 Financial institutions - Income apportionment. This rule describes the apportionment of income for financial institutions for tax liability incurred prior to June 1, 2010.

(c) The examples included in this section identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of all situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances.

(2) Nexus.

(a) Place of business - minimum presence necessary for tax. The following discussion of nexus applies only to gross income from activities subject to apportionment under this rule. A place of business exists in a state when a taxpayer engages in activities in the state that are sufficient to create nexus. Nexus is that minimum level of business activity or connection with the state of Washington which subjects the business to the taxing jurisdiction of this state. Nexus is created when a taxpayer is engaged in activities in the state, either directly or through a representative, for the purpose of performing a business activity. It is not necessary that a taxpayer have a permanent place of business within a state to create nexus.

(b) Examples. The following examples demonstrate Washington's nexus principles.

(i) Assume an attorney licensed to practice only in Washington performs services for clients located in both Washington and Florida. All of the services are performed within Washington. The attorney does not have nexus with any state other than Washington.

(ii) Assume the same facts as the example in (b)(i) of this subsection, plus the attorney attends continuing education classes in Florida related to the subject matter for which his Florida clients hired him. The attorney's presence in Florida for the continuing education classes does not create nexus because he is not engaging in business in Florida.

(iii) Assume the same facts as the example in (b)(ii) of this subsection, plus the attorney is licensed to practice law in Florida and frequently travels to Florida for the purpose of conducting discovery and trial work. Even though the attorney does not maintain an office in Florida, the attorney has nexus with both Washington and Florida.

(iv) Assume an architectural firm maintains physical offices in both Washington and Idaho. The architectural firm has nexus with both Washington and Idaho.

(v) Assume an architectural firm maintains its only physical office in Washington, and when the firm needs a presence in Idaho, it contracts with nonemployee architects in Idaho instead of maintaining a physical office in Idaho. Employees of the Washington firm do not travel to Idaho. Instead, the contract architects interact directly with the clients in Idaho, and perform the services the firm contracted to perform in Idaho. The architectural firm has nexus with both Washington and Idaho.

(vi) Assume the same facts as the example in (b)(v) of this subsection except the contracted architects never meet with the firm's clients and instead forward all work products to the firm's Washington office, which then submits that work product to the client. In this case, the architectural firm does not have nexus with Idaho. The mere purchase of services from a subcontractor located in another state that does not act as the business' representative to customers does not create nexus.

(vii) Assume that an accounting firm maintains its only office in Washington. The accounting firm enters into contracts with individual accountants to perform services for the firm in Oregon and Idaho. The contracted accountants represent the firm when they perform services for the firm's clients. The firm has nexus with Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.

(viii) Assume that an accounting firm maintains its only office in Washington and has clients located in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The accounting firm's employees frequently travel to Oregon to meet with clients, review client's records, and present their findings, but do not travel to Idaho. The accounting firm has nexus with Washington and Oregon, but does not have nexus with Idaho.

(ix) Assume that a sales representative earns commissions from the sale of tangible personal property. The sales representative is located in Oregon and does not enter Washington for any business purpose. The sales representative contacts Washington customers only by telephone and earns commissions on sales of tangible personal property to Washington customers. The sales representative does not have nexus with Washington and the commissions earned on sales to Washington customers are not subject to Washington's business and occupation tax.

(x) The examples in this subsection (2) apply equally to situations where the Washington activities and out-of-state activities are reversed. For example, in example (b)(ix) of this subsection, if the locations were reversed, the sales representative would have nexus with Washington, but not in Oregon.

(3) Separate accounting.

(a) In general. "Separate accounting" refers to a method of accounting that segregates and identifies sources or activities which account for the generation of income within the state of Washington. Separate accounting is distinct from cost apportionment, which assigns a formulary portion of total worldwide income to Washington. A separate accounting method must be used by a business entitled to apportion its income under RCW 82.04.460(1) if this use results in an accurate description of gross income attributable to its Washington activities.

(b) Accuracy. Separate accounting is accurate only when the activities that significantly contribute, directly or indirectly, to the production of income can be identified and segregated geographically. Separate accounting thus links taxable income to activities occurring in a discrete jurisdiction. The result is inaccurate when services directly supporting these activities occur in different jurisdictions. For example, if a taxpayer provides investment advice to clients in Washington, but performs all of its research and due diligence activities in another state, then separate accounting would not be accurate. However, if instead of research and due diligence, only the client billing activity is performed in another state, then separate accounting would be allowed.

(c) Approved methods of separate accounting. The following methods of separate accounting are acceptable to the department, if accurate:

(i) Billable hours of employees or representative third parties performing services in Washington. If a business charges clients an hourly rate for the performance of services, and the place of performance of the employee, contractor, or other individual whose time is billed is reasonably ascertainable, then the billable hours may be used as a basis for separate accounting. The gross amount received from hours billed for services performed in Washington should be reported.

(ii) Specific projects or contracts. A business may assign the revenue from specific projects or contracts in or out of Washington by the primary place of performance. For example:

(A) A consulting business with no other presence in Washington that agrees to provide on-site management consulting services for a Washington business and receives five hundred thousand dollars in payment for the project must report five hundred thousand dollars in gross income to Washington.

(B) If the same business gets another Washington client for on-site management consulting, and receives another payment of five hundred thousand dollars, the business must report an additional five hundred thousand dollars in gross income to Washington.

(C) If a business contracts to distribute advertisements for another business within the state of Washington, the gross amount received for this action should be reported as Washington income.

(iii) Other reasonable and accurate methods -- Notice to the department.

(A) A taxpayer may report with, or the department may require, the use of one of the alternative methods of separate accounting.

(B) A taxpayer reporting under this subsection must notify the department at the time of filing that it is using an alternative method and provide a brief description of the method employed. If a taxpayer reports using an alternate method, the same method must be used for all subsequent tax reporting periods unless it is demonstrated another method is necessary under the standard in (c)(iii)(E) of this subsection.

(C) If on review of a taxpayer's return(s) the department determines another method is necessary to fairly represent the extent of a taxpayer's business activity in Washington, then the department may impose the method for all returns within the statute of limitations. Statutory interest applies to both balances due and refund or credit claims arising under this section. Further, applicable penalties will be imposed on balances due arising under this section. However, if the taxpayer reported using the separate accounting method in (c)(i) or (ii) of this subsection or cost apportionment under subsection (4)(a) through (h) of this section, the department may impose the alternate method for future periods only.

(D) A taxpayer may request that the department approve an alternative method of separate accounting by submitting a request for prior ruling pursuant to WAC 458-20-100. Such letter ruling may be subject to audit verification before issuance.

(E) The taxpayer or the department, in requesting or imposing an alternate method of separate accounting, must demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that the separate accounting methods in (c) of this subsection do not fairly represent the extent of the taxpayer's business activity in Washington.

(4) Cost apportionment.

(a) Apportionment ratio.

(i) Each cost must be computed according to the method of accounting (cash or accrual basis) used by the taxpayer for Washington state tax purposes for the taxable period. Persons should refer to WAC 458-20-197 (When tax liability arises) and WAC 458-20-199 (Accounting methods) for further guidance on the requirements of each accounting method. Taxpayers must file returns using costs calculated based on the taxpayer's most recent fiscal year for which information is available, unless there is a significant change in business operations during the current period. A significant change in business operations includes commencement, expansion, or termination of business activities in or out of Washington, formation of a new business entity, merger, consolidation, creation of a subsidiary, or similar change. If there is a significant change in business operations, then the taxpayer must estimate its cost apportionment formula based on the best records available and then make the appropriate adjustments when the final data is available.

(ii) The apportionment ratio is the cost of doing business in Washington divided by the total cost of doing business as described in RCW 82.04.460(1). The apportionment ratio is calculated under this section as follows. The denominator of the apportionment ratio is the worldwide costs of the apportionable activity and the numerator is all costs specifically assigned to Washington plus all costs assigned to Washington by formula, as described below. Costs are calculated on a worldwide basis for the tax reporting period in question. The tax due to Washington is calculated by multiplying total income times the apportionment ratio times the tax rate. Available tax credits may be applied against the result. Statutory interest and penalties apply to underreported income. For the purposes of this rule, "total income" means gross income under the tax classification in question, less deductions, calculated as if the B&O tax classification applied on a worldwide basis.

(b) Place of business requirement. A taxpayer must maintain places of business within and without Washington that contribute to the rendition of its services in order to apportion its income. This "place of business" requirement, however, does not mean that the taxpayer must maintain a physical location as a place of business in another taxing jurisdiction in order to apportion its income. If a taxpayer has activities in a jurisdiction sufficient to create nexus under Washington standards, then the taxpayer is deemed to have a "place of business" in that jurisdiction for apportionment purposes. See subsection (2) of this section.

(c) Noncost expenditures. The following is a list of expenditures that are not costs of doing business within the meaning of RCW 82.04.460 and are therefore excluded from both the numerator and the denominator of the apportionment ratio. Expenditures that are not costs of doing business include expenditures that exchange one business asset for another; that reflect a revaluation of an asset not consumed in the course of business; or federal, state, or local taxes measured by gross or net business income. This list is not exclusive. Costs of an activity taxable under another BO tax classification are also excluded from the apportionment ratio. Similarly, the costs of acquiring a business by merger or otherwise, including the financing costs, are not the costs of doing the apportioned business activity and must be excluded from the cost apportionment calculation.

(i) The cost of acquiring assets that are not depreciated, amortized, or otherwise expensed on the taxpayer's books and records on the basis of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), or a loss incurred on the sale of such assets. For example, expenditures for land and investments are excluded from the cost apportionment formula.

(ii) Taxes (other then taxes specifically related to items of property such as retail sales or use taxes and real and personal property taxes).

(iii) Asset revaluations such as stock impairment or goodwill impairment.

(iv) Costs of doing a business activity subject to the B&O tax under a classification other than RCW 82.04.290 or 82.04.2908. For example, if a taxpayer were subject to manufacturing, wholesaling and service and other activities B&O tax, the costs associated with a warehouse and a manufacturing plant (property and employee costs) are excluded from the cost apportionment formula. But if costs support both the service activity and either manufacturing or wholesaling (for example, costs associated with headquarters or joint operating centers), then those costs must be included in the cost apportionment formula without segregating the service portion of the costs.

(d) Specifically assigned costs. Real or tangible personal property costs, employee costs, and certain payments to third parties are specifically assigned under (e) through (g) of this subsection.

(e) Property costs.

(i) Definitions. Real or tangible personal property costs are defined to include:

(A) Depreciation as reported on the taxpayer's books and records according to GAAP, provided that if a taxpayer does not maintain its books and records in accordance with GAAP, it may use tax reporting depreciation. A taxpayer may not change its method of calculating depreciation costs without approval of the department;

(B) Maintenance and warranty costs for specific property;

(C) Insurance costs for specific property;

(D) Utility costs for specific property;

(E) Lease or rental payments for specific property;

(F) Interest costs for specific property; and

(G) Taxes for specific property.

(ii) Assignment of costs. Real or tangible personal property costs are assigned to the location of the property. Property in transit between locations of the taxpayer to which it belongs is assigned to the destination state. Property in transit between a buyer and seller and included by a taxpayer in the denominator of the apportionment ratio in accordance with its regular accounting practices is assigned to the destination state. Mobile or movable property located both within and without Washington during the measuring period is assigned in proportion to the total time within Washington during the measuring period. An automobile assigned to a traveling employee is assigned to the state to which the employee's compensation is assigned below or to the state in which the automobile is licensed. Where a business contracts for the maintenance, warranty services, or insurance of multiple properties, the relative rental or depreciation expense may be used to assign these costs.

(f) Employee costs.

(i) Definitions. For the purposes of this subsection:

(A) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions, and any other form of remuneration paid to or accrued to employees for personal services. Employer contributions under a qualified cash plan, deferred arrangement plan, and nonqualified deferred compensation plan are considered compensation. Stock based compensation is considered compensation under this rule to the extent included in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

(B) "Employee" means any individual who, under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee, but does not include corporate officers.

(ii) Allocation method. Employee costs include all compensation paid to employees and all employment based taxes and other fees, for example, amounts paid related to unemployment compensation, labor and industries insurance premiums, and the employer's share of Social Security and medicare taxes. An employee's compensation is assigned to Washington if the taxpayer reports the employee's wages to Washington for unemployment compensation purposes. Employee wages reported for federal income tax purposes may be used to assign the remaining compensation costs.

(g) Representative third-party costs.

(i) Definitions. For the purposes of this section:

"Representative third party" includes an agent, independent contractor, or other representative of the taxpayer who provides services on behalf of the taxpayer directly to customers. The term includes leased employees who meet the standards under (g) of this subsection.

(ii) Allocation method. Payments to a representative third party are assigned to the third party's place of performance. For example, if a business subcontracts with a representative third party who provides services on behalf of the taxpayer from a California location, the cost of compensating the representative third party is assigned to California. This is true even if the third party provides services to Washington customers. Conversely, the cost of compensating a representative third party providing services to California customers from a Washington location is assigned to Washington.

(iii) Examples.

(A) X, a Washington business, hires Taxpayer to design and write custom software for a document management system. Taxpayer subcontracts with Z, whose employees determine the needs of X, negotiate a statement of work, write the custom software, and install the software. Z's employees perform all of these services on-site at the X business location. Taxpayer's payments to Z are representative third-party costs and specifically assigned to Washington.

(B) Taxpayer, a service provider, subcontracts with X, who agrees to maintain a customer service center where staff will answer telephone inquiries about Taxpayer's services. X in turn subcontracts with Z, whose employees actually respond to questions from a phone center located in California. The payments by taxpayer to X are representative third-party costs with respect to Taxpayer because X is responsible for providing the staff of the service center. The payments to X are specifically assigned to California.

(C) Taxpayer sells various manufacturers' products at wholesale on a commission basis. Taxpayer subcontracts with X, who agrees to act as Taxpayer's sales representative on the West Coast. Taxpayer has various other sales representatives working on as independent contractors, who are assigned territories, but may make sales from an office or through in-person visits, or a combination of both. Taxpayer does not maintain records sufficient to show the representatives' places of performance. Taxpayer may use sales records and the standards under (h) of this subsection to assign commissions by each subcontractor.

(h) Costs assigned by formula.

(i) Costs not specifically assigned under (e) through (g) of this subsection and not excluded from consideration by (c) of this subsection are assigned to Washington by formula. These costs are multiplied by the ratio of sales in Washington over sales everywhere. For example, if a business has one thousand dollars in other unassigned costs and sales of ten thousand dollars in each of the four states in which it has nexus under Washington standards (including Washington), twenty-five percent ($10,000/$40,000), or two hundred fifty dollars of the other costs are assigned to Washington.

(ii) Sales are assigned to where the customer receives the benefit of the service. If the location where the services are received is not readily determinable, the services are attributed to the location of the office of the customer from which the services were ordered in the regular course of the customer's trade or business. If the ordering office cannot be determined, the services are attributed to the office of the customer to which the services are billed.

(iii) If under the method described above a sale is attributed to a location where the taxpayer does not have nexus under Washington standards, the sale must be excluded from both the numerator and denominator of the sales ratio. For the purposes of this calculation only, the department will presume a taxpayer has nexus anywhere the taxpayer has employees or real property, or where the taxpayer reports business and occupation, franchise, value added, income or other business activity taxes in the state. The burden is on the taxpayer to demonstrate nexus exists in other states.

(i) Alternative methods.

(i) A taxpayer may report with, or the department may require, the use of one of the alternative methods of cost apportionment described below:

(A) The exclusion of one or more categories of costs from consideration;

(B) The specific allocation of one or more categories of costs which will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in Washington; or

(C) The employment of another method of cost apportionment that will effectuate an equitable apportionment of the taxpayer's gross income.

(ii) A taxpayer reporting under (i) of this subsection must notify the department at the time of filing that it is using an alternative method and provide a brief description of the method employed. If a taxpayer reports using an alternate method, the same method must be used for all subsequent tax reporting periods unless it is demonstrated another method is necessary under the standard in (i)(v) of this subsection.

(iii) If on review of a taxpayer's return(s) the department determines another method is necessary to fairly represent the extent of a taxpayer's business activity in Washington, the department may impose the method for all returns within the statute of limitations. Statutory interest applies to both balances due and refund or credit claims arising under this section. Further, applicable penalties will be imposed on balances due arising under this section. However, if the taxpayer reported using the cost apportionment method in (a) through (h) of this subsection and separate accounting is unavailable, the department may impose the alternate method for future periods only.

(iv) A taxpayer may request that the department approve an alternative method of cost apportionment by submitting a request for prior ruling pursuant to WAC 458-20-100. Such letter ruling may be subject to audit verification before issuance.

(v) The taxpayer or the department, in requesting or imposing an alternate method, must demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that the cost apportionment method in (a) through (h) of this subsection does not fairly represent the extent of the taxpayer's business activity in Washington.

(5) Effective date. This amended rule shall be effective for tax reporting periods beginning on January 1, 2006, and thereafter.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). 05-24-054, 458-20-194, filed 12/1/05, effective 1/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), 458-20-194, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, 458-20-194 (Rule 194), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office