LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Effective Date of Rule: January 1, 2011.
Purpose: On May 17, 2010, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published in the Federal Register a final rule adding a nonmandatory note to the steel erection standard. The note provides information regarding existing Federal Highway Administration regulations that may apply to employers engaged in activities covered by the standards. The division of occupational safety and health (DOSH) believes that knowledge of these requirements will enhance the safety of employees operating on or near structural steel elements used in highway construction. Although this adoption does not impose any additional or more stringent requirements, it provides information that will enhance employee safety. References were also corrected.
WAC 296-155-704 Hoisting and rigging.
• Subsection (1): Changed the reference from "WAC 296-155-525 and 296-155-526" to "applicable parts of Part L."
• Subsection (3)(d): Changed the reference from "WAC 296-155-525 through 296-155-528" to "applicable parts of Part L."
WAC 296-155-706 Structural steel assembly.
• Subsection (1): Added a note that reads, "Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) regulations incorporate by reference a number of standards, policies, and standard specifications published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and other organizations. (See C.F.R. 625.4). Many of these incorporated provisions may be relevant to maintaining structural stability during the erection process. For instance, as of May 17, 2010, in many cases FHWA requires a Registered Engineer to prepare and seal working drawings for falsework used in highway bridge construction. (See AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges, Div. II, Sec. 3.2.1, 15th edition, 1992, which FHWA incorporates by reference in 23 C.F.R. 625.4). FHWA also encourages compliance with AASHTO Specifications that the FHWA regulations do not currently incorporate by reference. (See http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/lrfd/index.htm.)"
• Subsection (2)(b): Removed the word "reserved."
• Subsection (2)(c): Deleted this subdivision.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-155-704 Hoisting and rigging and 296-155-706 Structural steel assembly.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Other Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 10-16-122 on August 3, 2010.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.
Date Adopted: November 2, 2010.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 06-05-027, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06)
WAC 296-155-704 Hoisting and rigging. (1) All the applicable provisions of ((
WAC 296-155-525 and 296-155-526))
Part L of this chapter apply to hoisting and rigging.
(2) In addition, subsections (3) through (5) of this section apply regarding the hazards associated with hoisting and rigging.
(a) Crane preshift visual inspection.
(i) Cranes being used in steel erection activities must be visually inspected prior to each shift by a competent person. The inspection must include observation for deficiencies during operation and, as a minimum, must include:
• All control mechanisms for maladjustments;
• Control and drive mechanism for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter;
• Safety devices, including boom angle indicators, boom stops, boom kick out devices, anti-two block devices, and load moment indicators where required;
• Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation;
• Hooks and latches for deformation, chemical damage, cracks, or wear;
• Wire rope reeving for compliance with hoisting equipment manufacturer's specifications;
• Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, or moisture accumulation;
• Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;
• Tires for proper inflation and condition;
• Ground conditions around the hoisting equipment for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers, ground water accumulation, or similar conditions;
• The hoisting equipment for level position; and
• The hoisting equipment for level position after each move and setup.
(ii) If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the competent person if the deficiency constitutes a hazard.
(iii) If the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the hoisting equipment must be removed from service until the deficiency has been corrected.
(iv) The operator is responsible for those operations under their direct control. Whenever there is any doubt as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until safety has been assured.
(b) A qualified rigger (a rigger who is also a qualified person) must inspect the rigging prior to each shift in accordance with WAC 296-155-330.
(c) The headache ball, hook or load must not be used to transport personnel, except as provided in (d) of this subsection.
(d) Cranes or derricks may be used to hoist employees on
a personnel platform when work under this part is being
conducted if all the applicable provisions of ((
WAC 296-155-525 through 296-155-528)) Part L of this chapter are
(e) Safety latches on hooks must not be deactivated or made inoperable except:
(i) When a qualified rigger has determined that the hoisting and placing of purlins and single joists can be performed more safely by doing so; or
(ii) When equivalent protection is provided in a site-specific erection plan.
(4) Working under loads.
(a) Routes for suspended loads must be preplanned to ensure that no employee works directly below a suspended load except when:
(i) Engaged in the initial connection of the steel; or
(ii) Necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.
(b) When working under suspended loads, the following criteria must be met:
(i) Materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement;
(ii) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent must be used to prevent components from slipping out of the hook; and
(iii) All loads must be rigged by a qualified rigger.
(5) Multiple lift rigging procedure.
(a) A multiple lift must only be performed if the following criteria are met:
• A multiple lift rigging assembly is used;
• A multiple lift is only permitted when specifically within the manufacturer's specifications and limitations;
• A maximum of five members are hoisted per lift;
|Exception:||Bundles of decking must not be lifted using the multiple lift rigging procedure, even though they meet the definition of structural members in WAC 296-155-702.|
• All employees engaged in the multiple lift have been trained in these procedures in accordance with WAC 296-155-717 (3)(a).
(b) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly must be specifically designed and assembled with a maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual attachment point. This capacity, certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger, must be based on the manufacturer's specifications with a five to one safety factor for all components.
(c) The total load must not exceed:
• The rated capacity of the hoisting equipment specified in the hoisting equipment load charts; and
• The rigging capacity specified in the rigging-rating chart.
(d) The multiple lift rigging assembly must be rigged with members:
• Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level;
• Rigged from top down; and
• Rigged at least seven feet (2.1 m) apart.
(e) The members on the multiple lift rigging assembly must be set from the bottom up.
(f) Controlled load lowering must be used whenever the load is over the connectors.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 06-05-027, § 296-155-704, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 02-13-115, § 296-155-704, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 07-03-163, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07)
WAC 296-155-706 Structural steel assembly. (1) Structural stability must be maintained at all times during the erection process.
|Note:||Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) regulations incorporate by reference a number of standards, policies, and standard specifications published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and other organizations. (See 23 C.F.R. 625.4.) Many of these incorporated provisions may be relevant to maintaining structural stability during the erection process. For instance, as of May 17, 2010, in many cases FHWA requires a registered engineer to prepare and seal working drawings for falsework used in highway bridge construction. (See AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges, Div. II, Sec. 3.2.1, 15th edition, 1992, which FHWA incorporates by reference in 23 C.F.R. 625.4.) FHWA also encourages compliance with AASHTO Specifications that the FHWA regulations do not currently incorporate by reference. (See http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/lrfd/index.htm.)|
– Permanent floors installed as the erection of structural members progress;
– No more than eight stories between the erection floor and the upper-most permanent floor; and
– No more than four floors or forty-eight feet (14.6 m),
whichever is less, of unfinished bolting or welding above the
foundation or uppermost permanent secured floor.
|Exception:||The above applies except where the structural integrity is maintained as a result of design.|
(a) Shear connectors and other similar devices.
(i) Shear connectors, reinforcing bars, deformed anchors or threaded studs must not be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or beam attachments so they project vertically from or horizontally across the top flange of the member until after the metal decking, or other walking/working surface has been installed. This becomes a tripping hazard. Examples of shear connectors are headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs.
(ii) Installation of shear connectors on composite floors. When shear connectors are used in construction of composite floors, roofs and bridge decks, employees must lay out and install the shear connectors after the metal decking has been installed, using the metal decking as a working platform.
(b) Slip resistance of metal decking. ((
(d))) Safe access must be provided to the working level. Employees must not slide down ropes, columns, or ladders.
(a) When deemed necessary by a competent person, plumbing-up equipment must be installed in conjunction with the steel erection process to ensure the stability of the structure.
(b) When used, plumbing-up equipment must be in place and properly installed before the structure is loaded with construction material such as loads of joists, bundles of decking or bundles of bridging.
(c) Plumbing-up equipment must be removed only with the approval of a competent person.
(4) Metal decking.
(a) Hoisting, landing and placing of metal decking bundles.
(i) Bundle packaging and strapping must not be used for hoisting unless specifically designed for that purpose.
(ii) If loose items such as dunnage, flashing, or other materials are placed on the top of metal decking bundles to be hoisted, such items must be secured to the bundles.
(iii) Bundles of metal decking on joists must be landed in accordance with WAC 296-155-709 (5)(d).
(iv) Metal decking bundles must be landed on framing members so that enough support is provided to allow the bundles to be unbanded without dislodging the bundles from the supports.
(v) At the end of the shift or when environmental or job site conditions require, metal decking must be secured against displacement.
(b) Roof and floor holes and openings. Metal decking at roof and floor holes and openings must be installed as follows:
(i) Framed metal deck openings must have structural members turned down to allow continuous deck installation except where not allowed by structural design constraints or constructibility.
(ii) Roof and floor holes and openings must be decked over. Where large size, configuration or other structural design does not allow openings to be decked over (such as elevator shafts, stair wells, etc.) employees must be protected in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 or Part K.
(iii) Metal decking holes and openings must not be cut until immediately prior to being permanently filled with the equipment or structure needed or intended to fulfill its specific use and which meets the strength requirements of (c) of this subsection, or must be immediately covered.
(c) Covering roof and floor openings. Smoke dome or skylight fixtures that have been installed are not considered covers for the purpose of this section unless they meet the strength requirements of WAC 296-155-505 (4)(g) (Part K).
(d) Decking gaps around columns. Wire mesh, exterior plywood, or equivalent, must be installed around columns where planks or metal decking do not fit tightly. The materials used must be of sufficient strength to provide fall protection for personnel and prevent objects from falling through.
(e) Installation of metal decking.
(i) Metal decking must be laid tightly and immediately secured upon placement to prevent accidental movement or displacement.
(ii) During initial placement, metal decking panels must be placed to ensure full support by structural members.
(f) Derrick floors.
(i) A derrick floor must be fully decked and or planked and the steel member connections completed to support the intended floor loading.
(ii) Temporary loads placed on a derrick floor must be distributed over the underlying support members so as to prevent local overloading of the deck material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 07-03-163, § 296-155-706, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 02-13-115, § 296-155-706, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02.]