WSR 11-16-081

PROPOSED RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed August 1, 2011, 4:28 p.m. ]

Original Notice.

Exempt from preproposal statement of inquiry under RCW 34.05.310(4).

Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Amend chapters 51-50, 51-51, 51-54 WAC, to modify rules regarding the requirements for installation of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms in residential settings.

Hearing Location(s): Spokane City Council Chambers, West 808 Spokane Falls Boulevard, Spokane, WA, on September 9, 2010 [2011], at 10:00 a.m.; and at Shoreline City Hall, 17500 Midvale Avenue North, Council Chambers, Shoreline, WA, on October 14, 2011, at 10:00 a.m.

Date of Intended Adoption: November 18, 2010 [2011].

Submit Written Comments to: Kristyn Clayton, Council Chair, P.O. Box 41011, Olympia, WA 98504-1011, e-mail SBCC@ga.wa.gov, fax (360) 586-0493, by September 6, 2011.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Peggy Bryden by August 25, 2011, TTY (360) 753-7427 or (360) 902-7293.

Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The purpose of these rules is to replace existing requirements for the installation of CO alarms in residential settings. The rule will provide for a later implementation date, and will exempt certain categories of residences. WAC 51-50-0908, 51-51-0315, 51-54-0900 (section 908), and 51-54-4600 (section 4603).

Reasons Supporting Proposal: The state building code council assembled a technical advisory group of experts and interested parties to discuss the permanent rules adopted in November 2009 and propose changes. The proposed rules allow for later implementation and some exemptions, in accordance with statute.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27.074.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 19.27 RCW.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Agency Comments or Recommendations, if any, as to Statutory Language, Implementation, Enforcement, and Fiscal Matters: Proposed rules will resolve conflict over stakeholder concerns with potential economic impact.

Name of Proponent: State building code council, governmental.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting and Implementation: Joanne McCaughan, P.O. Box 41011, Olympia, WA 98504-1011, (360) 902-7295; and Enforcement: Local jurisdictions, statewide city and county building officials.

A small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW.

Small Business Economic Impact Statement

Executive Summary

Impact on Small Business: Permanent rule making for CO alarms will result in some cost outlay for small businesses in the lodging and rental housing industries. These costs will be incurred for the purchase of CO alarms and batteries, and in some cases for installation services. In rental housing, tenants are required to maintain the alarms including battery replacement. There could also be installation costs under certain limited circumstances, for example during new construction or remodeling projects, depending on the needs and desires of a particular business.

The enacting legislation and proposed rules are silent on cost recovery, however, it is assumed that rental property owners and lodging establishments could and would charge fees.

Other small businesses would see an increase in revenue; these include hardware stores and home centers that sell alarms and batteries. The overall impact would be positive; the degree of impact would depend on the number of alarms and batteries sold.

The rules are anticipated to be job neutral, although there would be some temporary work for installation jobs for certain trades people such as maintenance personnel or electricians; these would primarily be for short term contracts for installation or maintenance of CO alarms, and would likely be part of larger remodeling or new construction projects. Businesses that install smoke, fire and burglar alarms might experience increased business revenue if they offer installation services for CO alarms. There is not expected to be a disproportionate impact on smaller versus larger businesses.


Section I: Introduction/Compliance with the Rules

Who Is Required to Comply with the Rules? The proposed rules regarding installation of CO alarms in residential settings will modify the Building Code, Fire Code and Residential Code, as follows:


Building Code (chapter 51-50 WAC) and Fire Code (chapter 51-54 WAC):
o Residential occupancies building owners are required to install CO alarms in all new residential construction, regardless of fuel source.
o Exceptions are allowed for sleeping or dwelling units in transient residential occupancies (R-1), and permanent residential (R-2) college dorms, hotels, and DSHS licensed boarding homes and residential treatment facilities which do not contain fuel sources or an attached garage but are located in a building that contains such sources.
o Existing Group R-2 occupancies building owners would be required to install CO alarms when a permit is pulled for alterations, repairs or additions, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created.
o Exceptions are allowed in certain situations related to adjacency to rooms that contain fuel-fired systems, duct work and ventilation shafts; or if a building contains a common area CO alarm system.
o For existing buildings, certain work is excluded for existing buildings, e.g., replacement of roofing, siding, windows, doors, additions of porches or decks, or electrical permits; installation/repair of noncombustion plumbing or mechanical systems are also exempt.
Residential Code (chapter 51-51 WAC):
o CO alarms are required in all new residential construction.
o Alarms would be required in existing dwellings when a permit is pulled for alterations, repairs or additions, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created.
o Certain work is excluded, e.g., replacement of roofing, siding, windows, doors, additions of porches or decks, or electrical permits; installation/repair of noncombustion plumbing or mechanical systems are also exempt.
o These provisions apply regardless of fuel source.

Required implementation dates are as set in the enacting legislation, i.e., January 1, 2011, for new construction and no later than January 1, 2013, for existing dwellings.

To comply with these rules, property owners will need to:


o Assess how many alarms are needed for each dwelling unit they are renting or leasing to tenants.
o Determine whether installation should be done by the landlord, the tenant, existing maintenance personnel, or if they will contract with a third party for this task.
o Analyze whether any of their units meet the exceptions allowed for in the rules.
o Purchase or order and pay for alarms, keep records, and manage inventory.
o Budget for the purchase, and potentially the installation, of the alarms.
o Educate tenants, e.g., about necessary maintenance of the alarm and batteries.

When are Professional Services Required to Comply with the Rule? If and when residential property owners obtain a permit for remodeling, they will be required to install CO alarms. During such a remodel, laborers, carpenters, plumbers, electricians and other professional building trades would be on-site to complete the renovations required by the project plan documents. In the event that the property owner decides to install hard-wired alarms or an alarm system throughout the residence, an electrician would do the actual installation of the alarms or alarm system. The cost of construction is indeterminate because it is driven by the alarm system chosen, the specific project design, and local market construction industry costs. Estimates for the total cost, including burdened wage rate with benefits, and time and materials range from $150 to $250 per alarm, according to the Independent Electrical Contractors Association and the National Electrical Contractors Association; estimates do not include taxes or profit margins.

What Installation Methods Are Used? Most CO alarms are designed and manufactured to be user-friendly and intended to be installed by a homeowner or resident. Some CO alarm installations can be accomplished with basic home repair tools such as a drill, a screwdriver, and a hammer; others would require specialized electrical wiring tools and would be installed by a skilled electrician.


Battery alarms are available that require no installation at all; these can be placed on a table or desk and will operate once the batteries are inserted. Other battery alarms are meant to be attached to a wall/ceiling bracket that comes with the unit. The bracket is screwed to the wall or ceiling with two screws, like a smoke alarm. The alarm is mounted to the bracket by a twisting motion.
Plug-in with battery back-up alarms require no installation. Once the batteries are inserted, the alarm is fully functional when plugged into a wall outlet.
Hard-wire with battery back-up models include a battery, a mounting bracket, and a wiring harness. They connect to the house wiring with a three pin connector in the back of the alarm. They are connected with the house wiring using wire nuts. Once the wiring installation is complete, the alarm is mounted to the bracket, as above.

Section II: Compliance Costs for Washington Businesses

Assumptions: In rental housing, where alarms are required, most if not all landlords and property owners will incur initial costs for the purchase and installation of the alarms; it is assumed that these costs would be passed on to tenants through maintenance fees or rent payments. Hotel and motel owners could also pass the cost on through increased rates. For existing dwellings, where alarms are required, most if not all property owners will choose either battery-powered or plug-in models rather than electrical hard-wired models.

For new construction and potentially for remodeling jobs, many residential designers, housing construction contractors and property owners will choose hard-wired combination smoke alarm/CO alarm models because both smoke and CO alarms are required under the building code. Therefore, no additional installation costs should be incurred beyond what it required for the smoke alarm system installation, unless the combination units are significantly more expensive. It is assumed that any costs incurred for CO alarms in new construction would be passed on to the homebuyer or property owner.

Average Alarm Cost: Alarm costs range from an average of $30 to $51 per alarm, depending on the model and manufacturer chosen, and not including cost of taxes, batteries, or installation. Taking into account the cost of batteries and installation, the cost range shifts to $38 to $84 per alarm.


EQUIPMENT: CO alarms; conduit and wire for hard-wired systems.
SUPPLIES: Batteries (replacement batteries will be furnished by the tenant, per statute).
MATERIAL: Information regarding CO poisoning and the function of the alarms is contained in the product packaging.
LABOR: Optional expense, depending on the type of alarm system chosen and whether it is installed by a property owner or tenant directly, or will be installed by a professional electrician.
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES: Some property owners may choose to have an alarm company install, monitor and maintain their CO alarm systems.
ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS: Inventory management, dependent on the number of housing units and the type of alarms chosen.

Impact on Sales or Revenue: There will be a positive impact on home improvement stores and hardware stores as sales of the alarms and batteries will increase.

There will be a positive impact on smoke and fire alarm companies as they will perform more alarm system installations.


Section III: Analysis of Proportionate Impact on Small Businesses


TABLE ONE: Small Businesses Impacted by CO Alarm Rules
Type of Business NAICS CODE # # IN STATE (UP TO 49 Employees) # IN STATE (50 OR MORE Employees) ANTICIPATED IMPACTS
Hardware stores #444130 308 9 Positive: Due to sales on alarm systems and batteries.
Home centers #444110 20 2 Positive: Due to sales on alarm systems and batteries.
Homes for the elderly (licensed adult family homes) #623312 1103 61 Neutral: Depending on the specifics of a given facility, many units in this category of housing will be exempt from the requirements of the rule.
Hotels and motels #721110 906 71 Negative: Costs will be incurred for alarm purchase, installation and maintenance. Some costs may be recovered.
Rental housing #531110 1609 46 Neutral: Initial cost of alarms, batteries and installation may be recovered from tenants.
Real estate agents and brokers #531210 1977 96 Neutral: The rules do not contain requirements for real estate agents. Statute requires seller's disclosure form.
Alarm systems - electric/installation #238210 1992 59 Positive: Due to contracts for installation of alarms in new construction or remodels.

The Impact on Small Businesses Compared to the Largest Businesses in the State Will Not Be Disproportionate.


Smaller hardware stores and home centers will experience increased revenues for the sale of alarms and batteries. Larger stores will likely have a larger volume of sales, thus, they may experience greater revenue increases. In addition, larger stores may be able to sell the alarms at a lower price due to economies of scale, and thus would increase their profit margin compared to smaller businesses.
Licensed adult family homes which do not contain a fuel source will not be required to install the alarms unless their units are adjacent to units which do contain a fuel source. Residents of these facilities are closely monitored and would be unable to bring in any fuel-burning devices. Thus many will be exempt from the rule requirements, regardless of the size of the business.
Lodging industry requirements are identical to those in licensed adult family homes, thus many will be exempt. Small and large lodging businesses and large businesses will all have the same requirements, though larger hotel/motel facilities are more likely than smaller facilities to have on-site full time personnel available for installation and maintenance of the alarm systems. There would be no disproportionate impact as any additional costs could be passed on to lodging customers.
The impact on the real estate industry will be neutral. When homes are sold the seller's disclosure form will be required to specify if a CO alarm has been installed. Realtors are not required to supply homes with the alarms.

Section IV: Small Business Involvement and Impact Reduction Efforts

Actions Taken to Reduce the Impact of the Rule on Small Businesses: The proposed rules are written to allow exceptions under the Building Code and Fire Code which limit the placement of alarms in certain situations. The alarms would not be required in sleeping units or dwelling units in R-1 occupancies, and R-2 college dormitories, hotels, DSHS licensed boarding home and residential treatment facility occupancies that do not themselves contain fuel-burning appliances, or a fuel-burning fireplace, or have an attached garage, but that are located in a building which contains such a fuel source.

Another mitigating factor which reduces the impact of the rules on small businesses is the delay of the implementation date for existing dwellings until January 1, 2013. When the rules were initially drafted and adopted, that implementation date was set for July 1, 2011. In response to concerns from the rental housing community and the lodging industry about potential economic impacts imposed by that short timeframe, the council adopted emergency rules in December 2010 changing the date to the statutory deadline of January 1, 2013; that change is retained in these proposed permanent rules.

Involvement of Small Business in the Development of the Proposed Rules: A special technical advisory group (TAG) was developed to address permanent rule-making issues on CO alarms. Several TAG members represented the interests of small business, as follows:


Rental Housing Association of Washington (Julie Johnson) NAICS #53111
Washington Multi-Family Housing Association (Joe Puckett) NAICS #53111
Washington Lodging Association (Rodney Schauf) NAICS #721110
Aging Services of Washington (Julie Martin) NAICS #623312
Washington Realtors Association (Annie Fitzsimmons) NAICS #531210

Other TAG members brought expertise in epidemiology, building design, fire and emergency response, and the alarm industry and other fields, as well as poisoning victims' families. The group met four times to consider a number of proposed changes. Ultimately, after a great deal of debate and collaboration, the group voted to propose permanent rules to the council that would require the alarms in residential settings, regardless of the fuel source or presence of an attached garage; their proposal did allow for certain exceptions within Group R occupancies.


Section V: Number of Affected Businesses in Washington:


Hardware Stores (NAICS Code #444130) = 308 (50 ees or less) or 9 (50+ ees)
Home Centers (NAICS Code #444110) = 20 (50 ees or less) or 2 (50+ ees)
Homes for the Elderly (Licensed Adult Family Homes) (NAICS Code #623312) = 1103 (50 ees or less) or 61 (50+ ees)
Hotels and Motels (NAICS Code #721110) = 906 (50 ees or less) or 71 (50+ ees)
Rental Housing (NAICS Code #531110) = Lessors of Residential Buildings and Dwellings - 1609 (50 ees or less) or 46 (50+ ees)
Real Estate Agents and Brokers (NAICS Code #531210) = 1,977 (50 ees or less) or 96 (50+ ees)
Alarm Systems, Electric, Installation Only (NAICS Code #238210) = 1992 (50 ees or less) or 59 (50+ ees)

Section VI: Jobs Created or Lost as a Result of These Rules:

These rules are likely to be job neutral overall, i.e., they will not result in any job gains or losses. Initially, some job gains may be anticipated in the short term, but these would be of a temporary nature.


The types of jobs that might be likely to increase temporarily in the short term would be for alarm installation businesses and/or electrical contractors working on new residential construction or on remodeling projects for existing residences to install hard-wired alarm systems. This would not have a significant impact on the industry and would not affect employment rates in the construction industry.
In terms of sales jobs for hardware stores and home centers, no additional hiring is anticipated as a result of these rules, and no jobs would be lost.
In terms of the lodging industry and the rental housing industry, it is likely that some businesses would hire contractors on a temporary basis for installation of the battery or plug-in alarms, but that would be on a case-by-case basis depending on the needs of an individual business.

APPENDIX 1: Estimated Economic Impact for CO Alarms per Dwelling Unit (based on installation method)


Type of alarm and assumptions* Type of dwelling unit Time to install Installation costs

(hourly rates)

Total cost per chosen installation method
Maintenance personnel (if chosen) Homeowner Contractor**
All battery powered:*

Average cost per alarm including batteries is $31.86 plus tax

May be installed by property owner at no cost, or

If installed by maintenance personnel, assume burdened wage @ $22.40 per hour**

1-2 bedroom apartment, one level, adjacent bedrooms 20 minutes $7.50 NA NA $39.36
Multi-level townhouse, two bedrooms on two levels 40 minutes $15.00 NA NA $78.72
Single-family home, one level, three bedrooms separated throughout the house One hour $22.40 NA NA $117.98
Dormitory room, i.e., one sleeping room 20 minutes $7.50 NA NA $39.36
Plug-in with battery back-up:*

Average cost per alarm including battery is $45.18 plus tax

Installed by property owner at no cost, or

If installed by maintenance personnel, assume burdened wage @ $22.40 per hour**

1-2 bedroom apartment, one level, adjacent bedrooms 10 minutes $3.75 NA NA $48.93
Multi-level townhouse, two bedrooms on two levels 20 minutes $7.50 NA NA $97.86
Single-family home, one level, three bedrooms separated throughout the house 30 minutes $11.20 NA NA $146.74
Dormitory room, i.e., one sleeping room 10 minutes $3.75 NA NA $48.93
Hard-wired with battery back-up:***

Average cost of installation, including conduit, wire and labor is $150 - $250 per unit****

May be installed by a property owner or a qualified maintenance employee; for new construction and major remodeling projects, a licensed electrical contractor is required

1-2 bedroom apartment, one level, adjacent bedrooms 1 hour NA NA $150 - $250 $150 - $250
Multi-level townhouse, two bedrooms on two levels 2 hours NA NA $300 - $500 $300 - $500
Single-family home, one level, three bedrooms separated throughout the house 3 hours NA NA $450 - $750 $450 - $750
Dormitory room, i.e., one sleeping room 1 hour NA NA $150 - $250 $150 - $250

*Battery powered and plug-in units can be readily installed with ordinary household tools by home owners, and by building maintenance personnel in rental housing, hotels and motels, etc.

**Fully burdened wage rate for maintenance staff based on estimates from the Aging Services of Washington/Economic Impact Worksheet submitted to SBCC in September 2010.

***Hardwired models may be installed by a property owner or a qualified maintenance employee; installation by a licensed electrical contractor required in new construction and major remodeling contracts. The fully burdened wage for a journeyman Electrical Technician ranges from $24.15 to $34.71 per hour according to the National Electrical Contractors' Association.

****Rate estimates based on information from the Puget Sound Chapter of the Independent Electrical Contractors' Association and the National Electrical Contractors' Association including project materials and fully burdened wage rates (profit margin not included).

A copy of the statement may be obtained by contacting Joanne McCaughan, P.O. Box 41011, Olympia, WA 98504-1011, phone (360) 902-7295, fax (360) 586-0493, e-mail joanne.mccaughan@ga.wa.gov.

A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. The state building code council is not listed in this section as one of the agencies required to comply with this statute.

August 2 [1], 2011

Kristyn Clayton, Chair

Building Code Council

OTS-4122.1


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-50-0908   Section 908 -- Emergency alarm systems.  

[F] 908.7 Carbon monoxide alarms. Group R occupancies shall be provided with carbon monoxide alarms. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer's instructions.


EXCEPTION: Sleeping units or dwelling units in R-1 occupancies and R-2 college dormitories, hotel, and DSHS licensed boarding home and residential treatment facility occupancies which do not themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance, or a fuel-burning fireplace, or have an attached garage, but which are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance, or a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage, need not be provided with carbon monoxide alarms provided that:
1. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not adjacent to any room which contains a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage; and
2. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts with a supply or return register in the same room to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or to an attached garage; and
3. The building is provided with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.
4. An open parking garage, as defined in the International Building Code, or enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall not be deemed to be an attached garage.


908.7.1 Carbon monoxide detection systems. Carbon monoxide detection systems, that include carbon monoxide detectors and audible notification appliances, installed and maintained in accordance with this section for carbon monoxide alarms and NFPA 720 shall be permitted. The carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with UL 2075.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

OTS-3808.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-098, filed 1/20/10, effective 7/1/10)

WAC 51-51-0315   Section R315 -- Carbon monoxide alarms.  


R315.1 Carbon Monoxide Alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed ((by January 1, 2011,)) outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in dwelling units((. In a building where a tenancy exists, the tenant shall maintain the CO alarm as specified by the manufacturer including replacement of the batteries)) and on each level of the dwelling and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.


R315.2 Existing Dwellings. Existing dwellings shall be equipped with carbon monoxide alarms ((by July 1, 2011)) when alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created.


EXCEPTIONS: ((Owner-occupied detached one-family dwellings legally occupied prior to July 1, 2010.)) 1. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, or electrical permits, are exempt from the requirements of this section.
2. Installation, alteration or repairs of noncombustion plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.

R315.3 Alarm Requirements. Single station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 10-03-098, 51-51-0315, filed 1/20/10, effective 7/1/10.]

OTS-4177.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-24-059, filed 11/29/10, effective 7/1/11)

WAC 51-54-0900   Chapter 9 -- Fire protection systems.  


902.1 Definitions.


ALERT SIGNAL. See Section 402.1.


ALERTING SYSTEM. See Section 402.1.


PORTABLE SCHOOL CLASSROOM. A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which requires a chassis to be transported, and is designed to be used as an educational space with or without a permanent foundation. The structure shall be trailerable and capable of being demounted and relocated to other locations as needs arise.


903.2.1.6 Nightclub. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout Group A-2 nightclubs as defined in this code.


903.2.3 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E Occupancies.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Portable school classrooms, provided aggregate area of any cluster or portion of a cluster of portable school classrooms does not exceed 5,000 square feet (1465 m2); and clusters of portable school classrooms shall be separated as required by the building code.
2. Group E Occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less, calculated in accordance with Table 1004.1.1.

903.2.7 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy, where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. Where a Group M occupancy that is used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5000 square feet (464 m2).


903.2.8 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.


EXCEPTION: Group R-1 if all of the following conditions apply:
1. The Group R fire area is no more than 500 square feet and is used for recreational use only.
2. The Group R fire area is on only one story.
3. The Group R fire area does not include a basement.
4. The Group R fire area is no closer than 30 feet from another structure.
5. Cooking is not allowed within the Group R fire area.
6. The Group R fire area has an occupant load of no more than 8.
7. A hand held (portable) fire extinguisher is in every Group R fire area.

SECTION 906 -- PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations:

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1.

5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.l.

6. Special-hazard areas, including, but not limited to, laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.


SECTION 907 -- FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS


(([F] 907.2.8 Group R-1. Fire alarm systems, smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in this section and Section 907.2.8.4.


[F] 907.2.8.4. Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed by January 1, 2011, outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom in sleeping units. In a building where a tenancy exists, the tenant shall maintain the CO alarm as specified by the manufacturer including replacement of the batteries.


[F] 907.2.8.4.1 Existing sleeping units. Existing sleeping units shall be equipped with carbon monoxide alarms by July 1, 2011.


[F] 907.2.8.4.2 Alarm requirements. Single station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.


[F] 907.2.9 Group R-2. Fire alarm systems, smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 through 907.2.9.3.
))


[F] 907.2.9.1.1 Group R-2 boarding homes. A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where the building contains a boarding home licensed by the state of Washington.


EXCEPTION: In boarding homes licensed by the state of Washington, manual fire alarm boxes in resident sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if located at all constantly attended staff locations, provided such staff locations are visible, continuously accessible, located on each floor, and positioned so no portion of the story exceeds a horizontal travel distance of 200 feet to a manual fire alarm box.

(([F] 907.2.9.3 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed by January 1, 2011, outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom in dwelling units. In a building where a tenancy exists, the tenant shall maintain the CO alarm as specified by the manufacturer including replacement of the batteries.


[F] 907.2.9.3.1 Existing dwelling units. Existing dwelling units shall be equipped with carbon monoxide alarms by July 1, 2011.


[F] 907.2.10 Group R-3. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in Group R-3 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.


[F] 907.2.l0.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed by January 1, 2011, outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom in dwelling units. In a building where a tenancy exists, the tenant shall maintain the CO alarm as specified by the manufacturer including replacement of the batteries.


[F] 907.2.10.2 Existing dwelling units. Existing dwelling units shall be equipped with carbon monoxide alarms by July 1, 2011.
))


EXCEPTION: Owner-occupied Group R-3 residences legally occupied prior to July 1, 2010.

[F] 907.2.10.3 Alarm requirements. Single station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.))


SECTION 908 -- EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS


908.7 Carbon monoxide alarms. Group R occupancies shall be provided with carbon monoxide alarms. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer's instructions.


EXCEPTION: Sleeping units or dwelling units in R-1 occupancies and R-2 college dormitories, hotel, and DSHS licensed boarding home and residential treatment facility occupancies which do not themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance, or a fuel-burning fireplace, or have an attached garage, but which are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance, or a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage, need not be provided with carbon monoxide alarms provided that:
1. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not adjacent to any room which contains a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage; and
2. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts with a supply or return register in the same room to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or to an attached garage; and
3. The building is provided with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.
4. An open parking garage, as defined in the International Building Code, or enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall not be deemed to be an attached garage.

908.7.1 Carbon monoxide detection systems. Carbon monoxide detection systems, that include carbon monoxide detectors and audible notification appliances, installed and maintained in accordance with this section for carbon monoxide alarms and NFPA 720 shall be permitted. The carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with UL 2075.


909.6.3 Elevator shaft pressurization. Where elevator shaft pressurization is required to comply with Exception 6 of IBC Section 708.14.1, the pressurization system shall comply with and be maintained in accordance with IBC 708.14.2.


909.6.3.1 Activation. The elevator shaft pressurization system shall be activated by a fire alarm system which shall include smoke detectors or other approved detectors located near the elevator shaft on each floor as approved by the building official and fire code official. If the building has a fire alarm panel, detectors shall be connected to, with power supplied by, the fire alarm panel.


909.6.3.2 Power system. The power source for the fire alarm system and the elevator shaft pressurization system shall be in accordance with Section 909.11.


SECTION 915 ALERTING SYSTEMS


915.1 General. An approved alerting system shall be provided in buildings and structures as required in chapter 4 and this section, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.


EXCEPTION: Approved alerting systems in existing buildings, structures or occupancies.

915.2 Power source. Alerting systems shall be provided with power supplies in accordance with Section 4.4.1 of NFPA 72 and circuit disconnecting means identified as "EMERGENCY ALERTING SYSTEM."


EXCEPTION: Systems which do not require electrical power to operate.

915.3 Duration of Operation. The alerting system shall be capable of operating under nonalarm condition (quiescent load) for a minimum of 24 hours and then shall be capable of operating during an emergency condition for a period of 15 minutes at maximum connected load.


915.4 Combination system. Alerting system components and equipment shall be allowed to be used for other purposes.


915.4.1 System priority. The alerting system use shall take precedence over any other use.


915.4.2 Fire alarm system. Fire alarm systems sharing components and equipment with alerting systems must be in accordance with Section 6.8.4 of NFPA 72.


915.4.2.1 Signal priority. Recorded or live alert signals generated by an alerting system that shares components with a fire alarm system shall, when actuated, take priority over fire alarm messages and signals.


915.4.2.2 Temporary deactivation. Should the fire alarm system be in the alarm mode when such an alerting system is actuated, it shall temporarily cause deactivation of all fire alarm-initiated audible messages or signals during the time period required to transmit the alert signal.


915.4.2.3 Supervisory signal. Deactivation of fire alarm audible and visual notification signals shall cause a supervisory signal for each notification zone affected in the fire alarm system.


915.5 Audibility. Audible characteristics of the alert signal shall be in accordance with Section 7.4.1 of NFPA 72 throughout the area served by the alerting system.


EXCEPTION: Areas served by approved visual or textual notification, where the visible notification appliances are not also used as a fire alarm signal, are not required to be provided with audibility complying with Section 915.6.

915.6 Visibility. Visible and textual notification appliances shall be permitted in addition to alert signal audibility.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27 RCW. 10-24-059, 51-54-0900, filed 11/29/10, effective 7/1/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 10-03-100, 51-54-0900, filed 1/20/10, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.190, 19.27.020, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 09-04-027, 51-54-0900, filed 1/28/09, effective 7/1/10; 08-01-101, 51-54-0900, filed 12/18/07, effective 4/1/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031, 19.27.074, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-093, 51-54-0900, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.020, 19.27.031, 19.27.074 and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 05-24-071, 51-54-0900, filed 12/5/05, effective 7/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 04-01-105, 51-54-0900, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

OTS-4185.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-24-059, filed 11/29/10, effective 7/1/11)

WAC 51-54-4600   Chapter 46 -- Existing buildings.  


CHAPTER 46 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS


SECTION 4601 GENERAL


4601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of this Code.


4601.2 Intent. The intent of this chapter is to provide a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying buildings by providing for alterations to such existing buildings that do not comply with the minimum requirements of the International Building Code.


4601.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.7 and the International Building Code and this Code.


4601.4 Owner notification. Where a building is found to be in noncompliance, the fire code official shall duly notify the owner of the building. Upon receipt of such notice, the owner shall, subject to the following time limits, take necessary actions to comply with the provisions of this chapter.


4601.4.1 Construction documents. Construction documents for the necessary alterations shall be completed within a time schedule approved by the fire code official.


4601.4.2 Completion of work. Work on the required alterations to the building shall be completed within a time schedule approved by the fire code official.


4601.4.3 Extension of time. The fire code official is authorized to grant necessary extensions of time when it can be shown that the specified time periods are not physically practical or pose an undue hardship. The granting of an extension of time for compliance shall be based on the showing of good cause and subject to the filing of an acceptable systematic plan of correction with the fire code official.


SECTION 4602 DEFINITIONS


4602.1 Definitions. The following word and term shall, for the purpose of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this Code, have the meaning shown herein.


EXISTING. Buildings, facilities or conditions that are already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior to the adoption of this Code.


SECTION 4603 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS


4603.1 Required construction. Existing buildings shall comply with not less than the minimum provisions specified in Table 4603.1 and as further enumerated in Sections 4603.2 through 4603.7.3.

The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to allow the elimination of fire protection systems or a reduction in the level of fire safety provided in buildings constructed in accordance with previously adopted codes.


EXCEPTION: Group U occupancies.

4603.2 Elevator operation. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for firefighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3.


4603.3 Vertical openings. Interior vertical shafts, including, but not limited to, stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building, shall be enclosed or protected as specified in Sections 4603.3.1 through 4603.3.7.


4603.3.1 Group I occupancies. In Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting two or more stories shall be protected with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.


4603.3.2 Three to five stories. In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting three to five stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.
3. Vertical opening protection is not required for escalators.

4603.3.3 More than five stories. In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting more than five stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.
3. Vertical opening protection is not required for escalators.


4603.3.4 Atriums and covered malls. In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings in a covered mall building or a building with an atrium shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.

4603.3.5 Escalators in Group B and M occupancies. Escalators creating vertical openings connecting any number of stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 installed throughout the building, with a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers around the escalator opening.


4603.3.6 Escalators connecting four or fewer stories. In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting four or fewer stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall be installed throughout the building, and a draft curtain with closely spaced sprinklers shall be installed around the escalator opening.


4603.3.7 Escalators connecting more than four stories. In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting five or more stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.


4603.4 Sprinkler systems. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in all existing buildings in accordance with Sections 4603.4.1 and 4603.4.2.


4603.4.1 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout existing buildings where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). Vaults located within buildings for the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of discharging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 L/min/m2) over the area of the vault.


4603.4.2 Group I-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout existing Group I-2 fire areas. The sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor where the Group I-2 occupancy is located, and in all floors between the Group I-2 occupancy and the level of exit discharge.


4603.4.3 Nightclub. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout Group A-2 nightclubs as defined in this code. No building shall be constructed for, used for, or converted to occupancy as a nightclub except in accordance with this section.


4603.5 Standpipes. Existing structures with occupied floors located more than 50 feet (15,240 mm) above or below the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905. The standpipes shall have an approved fire department connection with hose connections at each floor level above or below the lowest level of fire department access. The fire code official is authorized to approve the installation of manual standpipe systems to achieve compliance with this section where the responding fire department is capable of providing the required hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet.


4603.6 Fire alarm systems. An approved fire alarm system shall be installed in existing buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 4603.6.1 through 4603.6.7 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.6 unless other requirements are provided by other sections of this code.


EXCEPTION: Occupancies with an existing, previously approved fire alarm system.

4603.6.1 Group E. A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group E occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.3.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in a building with a maximum area of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) that contains a single classroom and is located no closer than 50 feet (15,240 mm) from another building.
2. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load less than 50.

4603.6.2 Group I-1. An automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-1 residential care/assisted living facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.6.1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.5.2 are not exceeded.
2. Where each sleeping room has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior egress balcony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with WAC 51-50-1019, and the building is not more than three stories in height.

4603.6.3 Group I-2. An automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-2 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2.


EXCEPTION: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.5.2.1 are not exceeded.

4603.6.4 Group I-3. An automatic and manual fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.


4603.6.5 Group R-1. A fire alarm system and smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R-1 occupancies in accordance with Sections 4603.6.5.1 through 4603.6.5.2.1.


4603.6.5.1 Group R-1 hotel and motel manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels more than three stories or with more than 20 sleeping units.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, exit court or yard.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and
2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

4603.6.5.1.1 Group R-1 hotel and motel automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping rooms not equipped with an approved, supervised sprinkler system installed in accordance with WAC 51-50-0903.


EXCEPTION: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

4603.6.5.2 Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses.


EXCEPTION: Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, exit court or yard.

4603.6.5.2.1 Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units not equipped with an approved, supervised sprinkler system installed in accordance with WAC 51-50-0903.


EXCEPTION: Buildings equipped with single-station smoke alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Section 907.2.10.1 and where the fire alarm system includes at least one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the alarm.

4603.6.6 Group R-2. An automatic or manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling or sleeping units.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where each living unit is separated from other contiguous living units by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, and where each living unit has either its own independent exit or its own independent stairway or ramp discharging at grade.
2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in buildings that are equipped throughout with an approved supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and having a local alarm to notify all occupants.
3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4.

4603.6.7 Group R-4. This section not adopted.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where there are interconnected smoke alarms meeting the requirements of Section 907.2.11 and there is at least one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to continuously sound the smoke alarms.
2. Other manually activated, continuously sounding alarms approved by the fire code official.

4603.7 Single and multiple-station smoke alarms. Single and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R occupancies and in dwellings not classified as Group R occupancies in accordance with Sections 4603.7.1 through 4603.7.3.


4603.7.1 Where required. Existing Group R occupancies and dwellings not classified as Group R occupancies not already provided with single-station smoke alarms shall be provided with single-station smoke alarms. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.10, except as provided in Sections 4603.7.2 and 4603.7.3.


4603.7.2 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Interconnection is not required in buildings that are not undergoing alterations, repairs or construction of any kind.
2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required to be interconnected where alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.

4603.7.3 Power source. Single-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing buildings where no construction is taking place.
2. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in buildings that are not served from a commercial power source.
3. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or repairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for building wiring without the removal of interior finishes.

4603.8 Carbon monoxide alarms. Existing Group R occupancies shall be provided with carbon monoxide alarms. R-2 occupancies not already equipped with a carbon monoxide alarm system shall be provided with a carbon monoxide alarm system when alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer's instructions.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, or electrical permits.
2. Installation, alteration or repairs of noncombustion plumbing or mechanical systems.
3. Sleeping units or dwelling units in R-1 occupancies and R-2 college dormitories, hotel, and DSHS licensed boarding home and residential treatment facility occupancies which do not themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or have an attached garage, but which are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage, need not be provided with carbon monoxide alarms provided that:
a. The sleeping units or dwelling unit is not adjacent to any room which contains a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or an attached garage; and
b. The sleeping units or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts with a supply or return register in the same room to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance, a fuel-burning fireplace, or to an attached garage; and
c. The building is provided with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.
d. An open parking garage, as defined in the International Building Code, or enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall not be deemed to be an attached garage.

SECTION 4604 MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS


4604.1 General. Means of egress in existing buildings shall comply with Section 1030 and 4604.2 through 4604.23.


EXCEPTION: Means of egress conforming to the requirements of the building code under which they were constructed and Section 1030 shall not be required to comply with 4604.2 through 4604.21.

4604.1.1 Evaluation. Existing buildings that were not required to comply with a building code at the time of construction, and that constitute a distinct hazard to life as determined by the fire official, shall comply with the minimum egress requirements when specified in Table 4603.1 as further enumerated in Sections 4604.2 through 4604.23. The fire official shall notify the building owner in writing of the distinct hazard and, in addition shall have the authority to require a life safety evaluation be prepared, consistent with the requirements of Section 104.7.2. The life safety evaluation shall identify any changes to the means of egress that are necessary to provide safe egress to occupants and shall be subject to review and approval by the fire and building code officials. The building shall be modified to comply with the recommendations set forth in the approved evaluation.


4604.2 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where allowed by Section 1007.4.
2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in existing buildings.

4604.3 Exit sign illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.


EXCEPTION: Approved self-luminous signs that provide evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m2).

4604.4 Power source. Where emergency illumination is required in Section 4604.5, exit signs shall be visible under emergency illumination conditions.


EXCEPTION: Approved signs that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.

4604.5 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require two or more means of egress:

1. Group A having 50 or more occupants.


EXCEPTION: Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a place of worship and having an occupant load of less than 300.

2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, buildings with 100 or more occupants above or below a level of exit discharge serving the occupants or buildings with 1,000 or more total occupants.

3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas with student occupancy, shops and laboratories.

4. Group F having more than 100 occupants.


EXCEPTION: Buildings used only during daylight hours which are provided with windows for natural light in accordance with the International Building Code.

5. Group I.

6. Group M.


EXCEPTION: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mezzanines.

7. Group R-1.


EXCEPTION: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.

8. Group R-2.


EXCEPTION: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.

9. Group R-4.


EXCEPTION: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at ground level.

4604.5.1 Emergency power duration and installation. In other than Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. In Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 90 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 4604.


4604.6 Guards. Guards complying with this section shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.


4604.6.1 Height of guards. Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high.
2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not less than 36 inches (910 mm) high.
3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas.

4604.6.2 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
2. In occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, the clear distance between intermediate rails measured at right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches (533 mm).
3. Approved existing open guards.

4604.7 Minimum required egress width. The means of egress width shall not be less than as required by the code under which constructed but not less than as required by this section. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by the factors in Table 4604.7 and not less than specified elsewhere in this section. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of egress.

TABLE 4604.7
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED


WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEMa
OCCUPANCY Stairways

(inches per occupant)

Other egress components

(inches per occupant)

Stairways

(inches per occupant)

Other egress components

(inches per occupant)

Occupancies other than those listed below 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.15
Hazardous: H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 Not permitted Not permitted 0.3 0.2
Institutional: I-2 Not permitted Not permitted 0.3 0.2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

4604.8 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in an occupancy in Group I-2 used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3.
2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
3. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be limited.
4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in door width.

4604.9 Opening force for doors. The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 pounds (133 N). The door shall swing to a full open position when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side.


4604.10 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.

2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 4604.10.

3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an adjacent swinging door for street-floor elevator lobbies provided a stairway, escalator or door from other parts of the building does not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or use other than as a means of travel between elevators and a street.
2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolving doors does not exceed the number of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm).

4604.10.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 4604.10 and all of the following conditions:

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more than a 50-person capacity.

3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.


4604.11 Stair dimensions for existing stairs. Existing stairs in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not exceed 8 1/4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt.


EXCEPTION: Other stairs approved by the fire code official.

TABLE 4604.10
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS


INSIDE DIAMETER POWER-DRIVEN-

TYPE SPEED CONTROL

(RPM)

MANUAL-TYPE SPEED

CONTROL

(RPM)

6' 6" 11 12
7' 0" 10 11
7' 6" 9 11
8' 0" 9 10
8' 6" 8 9
9' 0" 8 9
9' 6" 7 8
10' 0" 7 8

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


4604.11.1 Dimensions for replacement stairs. The replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not be required to comply with the new stairway requirements of WAC 51-11-1009 where the existing space and construction will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.


4604.12 Winders. Existing winders shall be allowed to remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge.


4604.13 Circular stairways. Existing circular stairs shall be allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the width of the stairway.


4604.14 Stairway handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail.


EXCEPTION: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are not required to have additional handrails.

4604.14.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm).


4604.15 Slope of ramps. Ramp runs utilized as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10 percent slope). The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 8 units horizontal (12.5 percent slope).


4604.16 Width of ramps. Existing ramps are permitted to have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than the width required for the number of occupants served as determined by Section 1005.1.


4604.17 Fire escape stairs. Fire escape stairs shall comply with Sections 4604.17.1 through 4604.17.7.


4604.17.1 Existing means of egress. Fire escape stairs shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity.


4604.17.2 Protection of openings. Openings within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fire escape stairs shall be protected by fire door assemblies having a minimum 3/4-hour fire-resistance rating.


EXCEPTION: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protection is not required.

4604.17.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as specified in Section 4604.10.


4604.17.4 Access. Access to a fire escape from a corridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire escape stair shall be from a door or window meeting the criteria of Section 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill.


4604.17.5 Materials and strength. Components of fire escape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot (4.78 kN/m2). Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side. The fire code official is authorized to require testing or other satisfactory evidence that an existing fire escape stair meets the requirements of this section.


4604.17.6 Termination. The lowest balcony shall not be more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with counterbalanced stairs reaching the ground.


EXCEPTION: For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to serve as the termination.

4604.17.7 Maintenance. Fire escapes shall be kept clear and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in good working order.


4604.18 Corridors. Corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept closed or self-closing.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, which are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 where smoke barriers are provided in accordance with the International Building Code.
3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior of the building at ground level.
4. Corridors that are in accordance with the International Building Code.

4604.18.1 Corridor openings. Openings in corridor walls shall comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are required, solid wood doors at least 1.75 inches (44 mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed.
2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in steel frames.
3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood on the room side.
4. Opening protection is not required when the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

4604.18.2 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in Table 4604.17.2.


EXCEPTION: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end passageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end passageway or corridor.

4604.18.3 Exit access travel distance. Exits shall be located so that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point to an approved exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not exceed the distances given in Table 4604.17.2.


4604.18.4 Common path of egress travel. The common path of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given in Table 4604.18.2.


4604.19 Stairway discharge identification. A stairway in an exit enclosure which continues below its level of exit discharge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of egress to a public way readily identifiable.


EXCEPTION: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond their levels of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers where the exit discharge is obvious.

4604.20 Exterior stairway protection. Exterior exit stairs shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1026.6. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for buildings that are two stories or less above grade where the level of exit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade.
2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior stairway is served by an exterior balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.
3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior stairway located in a building or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1022.
4. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for exterior stairways connected to open-ended corridors, provided that:
4.1. The building, including corridors and stairs, is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1018.
4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit stairway complying with Section 1026.
4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3 m2) or an exterior stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

TABLE 4604.18.2
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy)

OCCUPANCY COMMON PATH LIMIT DEAD-END LIMIT TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT
Unsprinklered

(feet)

Sprinklered

(feet)

Unsprinklered

(feet)

Sprinklered

(feet)

Unsprinklered

(feet)

Sprinklered

(feet)

Group A 20/75a 20/75a 20b 20b 200 250
Group B 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group E 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group F-1, S-1d 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group F-2, S-2d 75 100 50 50 300 400
Group H-1 25 25 0 0 75 75
Group H-2 50 100 0 0 75 100
Group H-3 50 100 20 20 100 150
Group H-4 75 75 20 20 150 175
Group H-5 75 75 20 20 150 200
Group I-1 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group I-2 (Health Care) NRe NRe NR NR 150 200c
Group I-3 (Detention and Correctional -- Use Conditions II, III, IV, V) 100 100 NR NR 150c 200c
Group I-4 (Day Care Centers) NR NR 20 20 200 250
Group M (Covered Mall) 75 100 50 50 200 400
Group M (Mercantile) 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group R-1 (Hotels) 75 75 50 50 200 250
Group R-2 (Apartments) 75 75 50 50 200 250
Group R-3 (One- and Two-Family) NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group R-4 (Residential Care/Assisted Living) NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group U 75 75 20 50 200 250

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. 20 feet for common path serving 50 or more persons; 75 feet for common path serving less than 50 persons.
b. See Section 1028.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies.
c. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter.
d. See the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars.
e. Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the patient sleeping room or suite to be served, measured in a straight line between exit access doors.
NR = No requirements.

4604.21 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width of aisles shall be:

1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seating on each side.


EXCEPTION: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having seating on only one side.


EXCEPTION: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.

3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle handrail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by the handrail.

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides.


EXCEPTION: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.

5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side.


EXCEPTION: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.

6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side.


4604.22 Stairway floor number signs. Existing stairs shall be marked in accordance with Section 1022.8.


4604.23 Egress path markings. Existing buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M and R-1 having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22,860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with luminous egress path markings in accordance with Section 1024.


EXCEPTION: Open, unenclosed stairwells in historic buildings designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program.

SECTION 4605 REQUIREMENTS FOR OUTDOOR OPERATIONS


4605.1 Tire storage yards. Existing tire storage yards shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Sections 4605.1.1 and 4605.1.2.


4605.1.1 Access to piles. Access roadways shall be within 150 feet (45,720 mm) of any point in the storage yard where storage piles are located, at least 20 feet (6096 mm) from any storage pile.


4605.1.2 Location within piles. Fire apparatus access roads shall be located within all pile clearances identified in Section 2505.4 and within all fire breaks required in Section 2505.5.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27 RCW. 10-24-059, 51-54-4600, filed 11/29/10, effective 7/1/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 10-03-100, 51-54-4600, filed 1/20/10, effective 7/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031, 19.27.074, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-093, 51-54-4600, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.020, 19.27.031, 19.27.074 and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-016, 51-54-4600, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office