WSR 17-18-065
(Washington Apple Health)
[Filed September 1, 2017, 2:15 p.m.]
Original Notice.
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 17-13-071.
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: WAC 182-531-0050 Physician-related services definitions, 182-531-0950 Office and other outpatient physician-related services, and 182-531-1850 Payment methodology for physician-related servicesGeneral and billing modifiers.
Hearing Location(s): On October 10, 2017, at 10:00 a.m., at Cherry Street Plaza, Sue Crystal Conference Room 106A, 626 8th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98504. Metered public parking is available street side around building. A map is available at or directions can be obtained by calling 360-725-1000.
Date of Intended Adoption: Not sooner than October 11, 2017.
Submit Written Comments to: Health Care Authority (HCA) Rules Coordinator, P.O. Box 42716, Olympia, WA 98504-2716, email, fax 360-589-9727, by October 10, 2017.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Amber Lougheed, phone 360-725-1349, fax 360-586-9727, TTY 800-848-5429 or 711, email, by October 6, 2017.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The agency will replace estimated acquisition cost with actual acquisition cost to comply with CMS-2345-FC, Covered Outpatient Drug Rule.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: See Purpose above.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 41.05.021, 41.05.160, 42 C.F.R. Part 447.
Statute Being Implemented: RCW 41.05.021, 41.05.160, 42 C.F.R. Part 447.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: HCA, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Vance Taylor, P.O. Box 42716, Olympia, WA 98504-2716, 360-725-1344; Implementation and Enforcement: Wendy Penquite, P.O. Box 42716, Olympia, WA 98504-2716, 360-725-5145.
A school district fiscal impact statement is not required under RCW 28A.305.135.
A cost-benefit analysis is not required under RCW 34.05.328. RCW 34.05.328 does not apply to HCA rules unless requested by the joint administrative rules review committee or applied voluntarily.
This rule proposal, or portions of the proposal, is exempt from requirements of the Regulatory Fairness Act because the proposal:
Is exempt under RCW 19.85.061 because this rule making is being adopted solely to conform and/or comply with federal statute or regulations. Citation of the specific federal statute or regulation and description of the consequences to the state if the rule is not adopted.
Citation and description: 42 C.F.R. 447 Medicaid Program; Covered Outpatient Drugs (CMS-2345-FC); consequence for failure to follow the federal statute is potential suspension of federal matching funds.
September 1, 2017
Wendy Barcus
Rules Coordinator
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 17-09-002, filed 4/5/17, effective 5/6/17)
WAC 182-531-0050 Physician-related services definitions.
The following definitions and abbreviations and those found in chapter 182-500 WAC, apply to this chapter.
"Acquisition cost" - The cost of an item excluding shipping, handling, and any applicable taxes.
"Acute care" - Care provided for clients who are not medically stable. These clients require frequent monitoring by a health care professional in order to maintain their health status. See also WAC 246-335-015.
"Acute physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R)" - A comprehensive inpatient and rehabilitative program coordinated by a multidisciplinary team at an agency-approved rehabilitation facility. The program provides twenty-four hour specialized nursing services and an intense level of specialized therapy (speech, physical, and occupational) for a diagnostic category for which the client shows significant potential for functional improvement (see WAC 182-550-2501).
"Add-on procedure(s)" - Secondary procedure(s) that are performed in addition to another procedure.
"Admitting diagnosis" - The medical condition responsible for a hospital admission, as defined by the ICD diagnostic code.
"Advanced registered nurse practitioner (ARNP)" - A registered nurse prepared in a formal educational program to assume an expanded health services provider role in accordance with WAC 246-840-300 and 246-840-305.
"Allowed charges" - The maximum amount reimbursed for any procedure that is allowed by the agency.
"Anesthesia technical advisory group (ATAG)" - An advisory group representing anesthesiologists who are affected by the implementation of the anesthesiology fee schedule.
"Bariatric surgery" - Any surgical procedure, whether open or by laparoscope, which reduces the size of the stomach with or without bypassing a portion of the small intestine and whose primary purpose is the reduction of body weight in an obese individual.
"Base anesthesia units (BAU)" - A number of anesthesia units assigned to a surgical procedure that includes the usual preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative visits. This includes the administration of fluids and/or blood incident to the anesthesia care, and interpretation of noninvasive monitoring by the anesthesiologist.
"Bundled services" - Services integral to the major procedure that are included in the fee for the major procedure. Bundled services are not reimbursed separately.
"Bundled supplies" - Supplies that are considered to be included in the practice expense RVU of the medical or surgical service of which they are an integral part.
"By report (BR)," see WAC 182-500-0015.
"Call" - A face-to-face encounter between the client and the provider resulting in the provision of services to the client.
"Cast material maximum allowable fee" - A reimbursement amount based on the average cost among suppliers for one roll of cast material.
"Center of excellence (COE)" - A hospital, medical center, or other health care provider that meets or exceeds standards set by the agency for specific treatments or specialty care.
"Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)," see WAC 182-500-0020.
"Certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA)" - An advanced registered nurse practitioner (ARNP) with formal training in anesthesia who meets all state and national criteria for certification. The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists specifies the national certification and scope of practice.
"Children's health insurance plan (CHIP)," see chapter 182-542 WAC.
"Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)" - Regulations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that require all laboratory testing sites to have either a CLIA registration or a CLIA certificate of waiver in order to legally perform testing anywhere in the U.S.
"Conversion factors" - Dollar amounts the agency uses to calculate the maximum allowable fee for physician-related services.
"Covered service" - A service that is within the scope of the eligible client's medical care program, subject to the limitations in this chapter and other published WAC.
"CPT," see "current procedural terminology."
"Critical care services" - Physician services for the care of critically ill or injured clients. A critical illness or injury acutely impairs one or more vital organ systems such that the client's survival is jeopardized. Critical care is given in a critical care area, such as the coronary care unit, intensive care unit, respiratory care unit, or the emergency care facility.
"Current procedural terminology (CPT)" - A systematic listing of descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services, procedures, and interventions performed by physicians and other practitioners who provide physician-related services. CPT is copyrighted and published annually by the American Medical Association (AMA).
"Emergency medical condition(s)," see WAC 182-500-0030.
"Emergency services" - Medical services required by and provided to a patient experiencing an emergency medical condition.
(("Estimated acquisition cost (EAC)" - The agency's best estimate of the price providers generally and currently pay for drugs and supplies.))
"Evaluation and management (E&M) codes" - Procedure codes that categorize physician services by type of service, place of service, and patient status.
"Expedited prior authorization" - The process of obtaining authorization that must be used for selected services, in which providers use a set of numeric codes to indicate to the agency which acceptable indications, conditions, diagnoses, and/or criteria are applicable to a particular request for services.
"Experimental" - A term to describe a health care service that lacks sufficient scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness. A service is not "experimental" if the service:
(1) Is generally accepted by the medical profession as effective and appropriate; and
(2) Has been approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration or other requisite government body, if such approval is required.
"Federally approved hemophilia treatment center" - A hemophilia treatment center (HTC) that:
(1) Receives funding from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Maternal and Child Health Bureau National Hemophilia Program;
(2) Is qualified to participate in 340B discount purchasing as an HTC;
(3) Has a U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) and prevention surveillance site identification number and is listed in the HTC directory on the CDC web site;
(4) Is recognized by the Federal Regional Hemophilia Network that includes Washington state; and
(5) Is a direct care provider offering comprehensive hemophilia care consistent with treatment recommendations set by the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MASAC) of the National Hemophilia Foundation in their standards and criteria for the care of persons with congenital bleeding disorders.
"Fee-for-service," see WAC 182-500-0035.
"Flat fee" - The maximum allowable fee established by the agency for a service or item that does not have a relative value unit (RVU) or has an RVU that is not appropriate.
"Geographic practice cost index (GPCI)" - As defined by medicare, means a medicare adjustment factor that includes local geographic area estimates of how hard the provider has to work (work effort), what the practice expenses are, and what malpractice costs are. The GPCI reflects one-fourth the difference between the area average and the national average.
"Global surgery reimbursement," see WAC 182-531-1700.
"HCPCS Level II" - Health care common procedure coding system, a coding system established by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to define services and procedures not included in CPT.
"Health care financing administration common procedure coding system (HCPCS)" - The name used for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (formerly known as the Health Care Financing Administration) codes made up of CPT and HCPCS level II codes.
"Health care team" - A group of health care providers involved in the care of a client.
"Hospice" - A medically directed, interdisciplinary program of palliative services which is provided under arrangement with a Title XVIII Washington licensed and certified Washington state hospice for terminally ill clients and the clients' families.
"ICD," see "International Classification of Diseases."
"Informed consent" - That an individual consents to a procedure after the provider who obtained a properly completed consent form has done all of the following:
(1) Disclosed and discussed the client's diagnosis; and
(2) Offered the client an opportunity to ask questions about the procedure and to request information in writing; and
(3) Given the client a copy of the consent form; and
(4) Communicated effectively using any language interpretation or special communication device necessary per 42 C.F.R. Chapter IV 441.257; and
(5) Given the client oral information about all of the following:
(a) The client's right to not obtain the procedure, including potential risks, benefits, and the consequences of not obtaining the procedure; and
(b) Alternatives to the procedure including potential risks, benefits, and consequences; and
(c) The procedure itself, including potential risks, benefits, and consequences.
"Inpatient hospital admission" - An admission to a hospital that is limited to medically necessary care based on an evaluation of the client using objective clinical indicators, assessment, monitoring, and therapeutic service required to best manage the client's illness or injury, and that is documented in the client's medical record.
"International Classification of Diseases (ICD)" - The systematic listing that transforms verbal descriptions of diseases, injuries, conditions, and procedures into numerical or alphanumerical designations (coding).
"Investigational" - A term to describe a health care service that lacks sufficient scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness for a particular condition. A service is not "investigational" if the service:
(1) Is generally accepted by the medical professional as effective and appropriate for the condition in question; or
(2) Is supported by an overall balance of objective scientific evidence, that examines the potential risks and potential benefits and demonstrates the proposed service to be of greater overall benefit to the client in the particular circumstance than another generally available service.
"Life support" - Mechanical systems, such as ventilators or heart-lung respirators, which are used to supplement or take the place of the normal autonomic functions of a living person.
"Limitation extension," see WAC 182-501-0169.
"Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC)" - Subdermal implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs).
"Maximum allowable fee" - The maximum dollar amount that the agency will reimburse a provider for specific services, supplies, and equipment.
"Medically necessary," see WAC 182-500-0070.
"Medicare clinical diagnostic laboratory fee schedule" - The fee schedule used by medicare to reimburse for clinical diagnostic laboratory procedures in the state of Washington.
"Medicare physician fee schedule database (MPFSDB)" - The official CMS publication of the medicare policies and RVUs for the RBRVS reimbursement program.
"Medicare program fee schedule for physician services (MPFSPS)" - The official CMS publication of the medicare fees for physician services.
"Mentally incompetent" - A client who has been declared mentally incompetent by a federal, state, or local court.
"Modifier" - A two-digit alphabetic and/or numeric identifier that is added to the procedure code to indicate the type of service performed. The modifier provides the means by which the reporting physician can describe or indicate that a performed service or procedure has been altered by some specific circumstance but not changed in its definition or code. The modifier can affect payment or be used for information only. Modifiers are listed in fee schedules.
"Outpatient," see WAC 182-500-0080.
"Peer-reviewed medical literature" - A research study, report, or findings regarding a medical treatment that is published in one or more reputable professional journals after being critically reviewed by appropriately credentialed experts for scientific validity, safety, and effectiveness.
"Physician care plan" - A written plan of medically necessary treatment that is established by and periodically reviewed and signed by a physician. The plan describes the medically necessary services to be provided by a home health agency, a hospice agency, or a nursing facility.
"Physician standby" - Physician attendance without direct face-to-face client contact and which does not involve provision of care or services.
"Physician's current procedural terminology," see "current procedural terminology (CPT)."
"PM&R," see acute physical medicine and rehabilitation.
"Podiatric service" - The diagnosis and medical, surgical, mechanical, manipulative, and electrical treatments of ailments of the foot and ankle.
"Point-of-sale (POS) actual acquisition cost (AAC)" - The agency determined rate paid to pharmacies through the POS system, which is intended to reflect pharmacy providers' actual acquisition cost.
"Pound indicator (#)" - A symbol (#) indicating a CPT procedure code listed in the agency's fee schedules that is not routinely covered.
"Preventive" - Medical practices that include counseling, anticipatory guidance, risk factor reduction interventions, and the ordering of appropriate laboratory and diagnostic procedures intended to help a client avoid or reduce the risk or incidence of illness or injury.
"Prior authorization," see WAC 182-500-0085.
"Professional component" - The part of a procedure or service that relies on the provider's professional skill or training, or the part of that reimbursement that recognizes the provider's cognitive skill.
"Prognosis" - The probable outcome of a client's illness, including the likelihood of improvement or deterioration in the severity of the illness, the likelihood for recurrence, and the client's probable life span as a result of the illness.
"Prolonged services" - Face-to-face client services furnished by a provider, either in the inpatient or outpatient setting, which involve time beyond what is usual for such services. The time counted toward payment for prolonged E&M services includes only face-to-face contact between the provider and the client, even if the service was not continuous.
"Provider," see WAC 182-500-0085.
"Radioallergosorbent test" or "RAST" - A blood test for specific allergies.
"RBRVS," see resource based relative value scale.
"RBRVS RVU" - A measure of the resources required to perform an individual service or intervention. It is set by medicare based on three components - Physician work, practice cost, and malpractice expense. Practice cost varies depending on the place of service.
"Reimbursement" - Payment to a provider or other agency-approved entity who bills according to the provisions in WAC 182-502-0100.
"Reimbursement steering committee (RSC)" - An interagency work group that establishes and maintains RBRVS physician fee schedules and other payment and purchasing systems utilized by the agency and the department of labor and industries.
"Relative value guide (RVG)" - A system used by the American Society of Anesthesiologists for determining base anesthesia units (BAUs).
"Relative value unit (RVU)" - A unit that is based on the resources required to perform an individual service or intervention.
"Resource based relative value scale (RBRVS)" - A scale that measures the relative value of a medical service or intervention, based on the amount of physician resources involved.
"RSC RVU" - A unit established by the RSC for a procedure that does not have an established RBRVS RVU or has an RBRVS RVU deemed by the RSC as not appropriate for the service.
"RVU," see relative value unit.
"Stat laboratory charges" - Charges by a laboratory for performing tests immediately. "Stat" is an abbreviation for the Latin word "statim," meaning immediately.
"Sterile tray" - A tray containing instruments and supplies needed for certain surgical procedures normally done in an office setting. For reimbursement purposes, tray components are considered by CMS to be nonroutine and reimbursed separately.
"Technical advisory group (TAG)" - An advisory group with representatives from professional organizations whose members are affected by implementation of RBRVS physician fee schedules and other payment and purchasing systems utilized by the agency and the department of labor and industries.
"Technical component" - The part of a procedure or service that relates to the equipment set-up and technician's time, or the part of the procedure and service reimbursement that recognizes the equipment cost and technician time.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 15-20-057, filed 10/1/15, effective 11/1/15)
WAC 182-531-0950 Office and other outpatient physician-related services.
(l) The medicaid agency pays eligible providers for the following:
(a) Two calls per month for routine medical conditions for a client residing in a nursing facility; and
(b) One call per noninstitutionalized client, per day, for an individual physician, except for valid call-backs to the emergency room per WAC 182-531-0500.
(2) The provider must provide justification based on medical necessity at the time of billing for visits in excess of subsection (l) of this section and follow the requirements in WAC 182-501-0169.
(3) See the agency's physician-related services billing instructions for procedures that are included in the office call and that cannot be billed separately.
(4) Using selected diagnosis codes, the agency reimburses the provider at the appropriate level of physician office call for history and physical procedures in conjunction with dental surgery services performed in an outpatient setting.
(5) The agency may reimburse providers for injection procedures and/or injectable drug products only when:
(a) The injectable drug is administered during an office visit; and
(b) The injectable drug used is from office stock and which was purchased by the provider from a pharmacy, drug manufacturer, or drug wholesaler.
(6) The agency does not reimburse a prescribing provider for a drug when a pharmacist dispenses the drug.
(7) The agency does not reimburse the prescribing provider for an immunization when the immunization material is received from the department of health; the agency does reimburse an administrative fee.
(8) The agency reimburses immunizations ((at estimated acquisition costs (EAC) when the immunizations are not part of the vaccine for children program.)) as follows:
(a) For immunizations that are not part of the vaccines for children program through the department of health, the agency reimburses for the immunization:
(i) At the medicare Part B drug file price; or
(ii) When a medicare Part B price is not available, the agency uses the point-of-sale actual acquisition cost (POS AAC) rate effective July 1st of each year; or
(iii) Invoice cost.
(b) The agency reimburses a separate administration fee for these immunizations.
(c) Covered immunizations are listed in the professional administered drugs and physician related/professional services fee schedules.
(d) Refer to WAC 182-531-0150 (1)(r) for vaccines recommended or required for the sole purpose of international travel.
(9) The agency reimburses therapeutic and diagnostic injections subject to certain limitations as follows:
(a) The agency does not pay separately for the administration of intra-arterial and intravenous therapeutic or diagnostic injections provided in conjunction with intravenous infusion therapy services. The agency does pay separately for the administration of these injections when they are provided on the same day as an E&M service. The agency does not pay separately an administrative fee for injectables when both E&M and infusion therapy services are provided on the same day. The agency reimburses separately for the drug(s).
(b) The agency does not pay separately for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of antibiotic injections provided on the same day as an E&M service. If the injection is the only service provided, the agency pays an administrative fee. The agency reimburses separately for the drug.
(c) The agency reimburses injectable drugs at acquisition cost. The provider must document the name, strength, and dosage of the drug and retain that information in the client's file. The provider must provide an invoice when requested by the agency. This subsection does not apply to drugs used for chemotherapy; see subsection (11) in this section for chemotherapy drugs.
(d) The provider must submit a manufacturer's invoice to document the name, strength, and dosage on the claim form when billing the agency for the following drugs:
(i) Classified drugs where the billed charge to the agency is over one thousand, one hundred dollars; and
(ii) Unclassified drugs where the billed charge to the agency is over one hundred dollars. This does not apply to unclassified antineoplastic drugs.
(10) The agency reimburses allergen immunotherapy only as follows:
(a) Antigen/antigen preparation codes are reimbursed per dose.
(b) When a single client is expected to use all the doses in a multiple dose vial, the provider may bill the total number of doses in the vial at the time the first dose from the vial is used. When remaining doses of a multiple dose vial are injected at subsequent times, the agency reimburses the injection service (administration fee) only.
(c) When a multiple dose vial is used for more than one client, the provider must bill the total number of doses provided to each client out of the multiple dose vial.
(d) The agency covers the antigen, the antigen preparation, and an administration fee.
(e) The agency reimburses a provider separately for an E&M service if there is a diagnosis for conditions unrelated to allergen immunotherapy.
(f) The agency reimburses for RAST testing when the physician has written documentation in the client's record indicating that previous skin testing failed and was negative.
(11) The agency reimburses for chemotherapy drugs:
(a) Administered in the physician's office only when:
(i) The physician personally supervises the E&M services furnished by office medical staff; and
(ii) The medical record reflects the physician's active participation in or management of course of treatment.
(b) At established maximum allowable fees that are based on ((the)) medicare Part B pricing ((method for calculating the estimated acquisition cost (EAC))), or POS AAC, maximum allowable cost (MAC) ((when generics are available)), or invoice cost;
(c) For unclassified antineoplastic drugs, the provider must submit the following information on the claim form:
(i) The name of the drug used;
(ii) The dosage and strength used; and
(iii) The National Drug Code (NDC).
(12) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the agency reserves the option of determining drug pricing for any particular drug based on the best evidence available to the agency, or other good and sufficient reasons (e.g., fairness/equity, budget), regarding the actual cost, after discounts and promotions, paid by typical providers nationally or in Washington state.
(13) The agency may request an invoice as necessary.
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 17-04-039, filed 1/25/17, effective 2/25/17)
WAC 182-531-1850 Payment methodology for physician-related servicesGeneral and billing modifiers.
(l) The medicaid agency bases the payment methodology for most physician-related services on medicare's RBRVS. The agency obtains information used to update the agency's RBRVS from the MPFSPS.
(2) The agency updates and revises the following RBRVS areas each January prior to the agency's annual update.
(3) The agency determines a budget-neutral conversion factor (CF) for each RBRVS update, by:
(a) Determining the units of service and expenditures for a base period. Then,
(b) Applying the latest medicare RVU obtained from the MPFSDB, as published in the MPFSPS, and GCPI changes to obtain projected units of service for the new period. Then,
(c) Multiplying the projected units of service by conversion factors to obtain estimated expenditures. Then,
(d) Comparing expenditures obtained in (c) of this subsection with base period expenditure levels. Then,
(e) Adjusting the dollar amount for the conversion factor until the product of the conversion factor and the projected units of service at the new RVUs equals the base period amount.
(4) The agency calculates maximum allowable fees (MAFs) in the following ways:
(a) For procedure codes that have applicable medicare RVUs, the three components (practice, malpractice, and work) of the RVU are:
(i) Each multiplied by the statewide GPCI. Then,
(ii) The sum of these products is multiplied by the applicable conversion factor. The resulting RVUs are known as RBRVS RVUs.
(b) For procedure codes that have no applicable medicare RVUs, RSC RVUs are established in the following way:
(i) When there are three RSC RVU components (practice, malpractice, and work):
(A) Each component is multiplied by the statewide GPCI. Then,
(B) The sum of these products is multiplied by the applicable conversion factor.
(ii) When the RSC RVUs have just one component, the RVU is not GPCI adjusted and the RVU is multiplied by the applicable conversion factor.
(c) For procedure codes with no RBRVS or RSC RVUs, the agency establishes maximum allowable fees, also known as "flat" fees.
(i) The agency does not use the conversion factor for these codes.
(ii) The agency updates flat fee reimbursement only when the legislature authorizes a vendor rate increase, except for the following categories which are revised annually during the update:
(A) Immunization codes are reimbursed at ((EAC)) the medicare Part B drug file price or POS AAC when there is no Part B rate. (See WAC 182-530-1050 for explanation of ((EAC)) POS AAC.) When the provider receives immunization materials from the department of health, the agency pays ((the provider)) only a flat fee ((only)) for administering the immunization.
(B) A cast material maximum allowable fee is set using an average of wholesale or distributor prices for cast materials.
(iii) Other supplies are reimbursed at physicians' acquisition cost, based on manufacturers' price sheets. Reimbursement applies only to supplies that are not considered part of the routine cost of providing care (e.g., intrauterine devices (IUDs)).
(d) For procedure codes with no RVU or maximum allowable fee, the agency reimburses "by report." By report codes are reimbursed at a percentage of the amount billed for the service.
(e) For supplies that are dispensed in a physician's office and reimbursed separately, the provider's acquisition cost when flat fees are not established.
(f) The agency reimburses at acquisition cost those HCPCS J and Q codes that do not have flat fees established.
(5) The technical advisory group reviews RBRVS changes.
(6) The agency also makes fee schedule changes when the legislature grants a vendor rate increase and the effective date of that increase is not the same as the agency's annual update.
(7) If the legislatively authorized vendor rate increase, or other increase, becomes effective at the same time as the annual update, the agency applies the increase after calculating budget-neutral fees. The agency pays providers a higher reimbursement rate for primary health care E&M services that are provided to children age twenty and under.
(8) The agency does not allow separate reimbursement for bundled services. However, the agency allows separate reimbursement for items considered prosthetics when those items are used for a permanent condition and are furnished in a provider's office.
(9) Variations of payment methodology which are specific to particular services and which differ from the general payment methodology described in this section are included in the sections dealing with those particular services.
(10) A modifier is a code a provider uses on a claim in addition to a billing code for a standard procedure. Modifiers eliminate the need to list separate procedures that describe the circumstance that modified the standard procedure. A modifier may also be used for information purposes.
(11) Certain services and procedures require modifiers in order for the agency to reimburse the provider. This information is included in the sections dealing with those particular services and procedures, as well as the fee schedule.