WSR 00-18-017

PROPOSED RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed August 28, 2000, 8:40 a.m. ]

Supplemental Notice to WSR 00-16-131.

Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 00-03-017.

Title of Rule: Amendment of chapter 51-11 WAC, Washington State Energy Code.

Purpose: To consider whether to amend the 1997 Edition of the Washington State Energy Code, chapter 51-11 WAC.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW.

Summary: The proposed rules include adoption of amendments to the 1997 Washington State Energy Code, including editorial corrections, clarifications, corrections, consolidation of auxiliary chapters (2/12, 7/17, and 10/20), and amendments to specific requirements (see Explanation of Rule below for itemized list of proposed changes).

Reasons Supporting Proposal: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting and Implementation: Judith Darst, P.O. Box 48300, Olympia, WA 98504, (360) 586-2251; and Enforcement: Local jurisdictions.

Name of Proponent: Washington State Building Code Council, governmental.

Agency Comments or Recommendations, if any, as to Statutory Language, Implementation, Enforcement, and Fiscal Matters: The council is seeking comments on the issues proposed in the rules shown below.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: The proposed rule amends chapter 51-11 WAC, Washington State Energy Code. The purpose is to amend the 1997 Washington State Energy Code, including editorial corrections, clarifications, corrections, consolidation of auxiliary chapters (2/12, 7/17, and 10/20), and amendments to specific requirements. The proposed amendments will provide greater clarity, consistency, and ease of use than the published version for application in Washington state.

Regulatory Review: In compliance with Executive Order 97-02, regulatory improvement, the following criteria for regulatory review will be considered at the time of final adoption of the rule.

1. Need. This rule is authorized by RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. The council regularly reviews state-wide amendment proposals to the Washington State Energy Code, and adopts the amendments as deemed appropriate. The purpose and objective of this review, as given in RCW 19.27.020, is to promote the health, safety and welfare of the occupants or users of buildings; to require minimum construction standards for the state of Washington; to permit the use of modern technical methods; to eliminate restrictive, obsolete, conflicting, duplicating and unnecessary regulations; and to provide standards to make buildings accessible to and usable by persons with physical disabilities. The technical advisory groups appointed by the council have identified rules that are obsolete, duplicative or ambiguous, and have proposed amendments and revisions.

2. Effectiveness and Efficiency. The mission of the council is to adopt building codes for uniform application throughout the state. In the course of the regular rule review, the council examined regulatory alternatives and new technologies. The council has identified where alternatives can be used effectively and efficiently. The council efficiently achieves uniform state building codes by serving as the central administrative agency for state-wide adoption of building codes.

3. Clarity. The council revised their filing procedure for state amendments to the national uniform codes. To enhance clarity, only those subsections with a state amendment will be filed under the main section number. The balance of the main section will remain as written in the national uniform code, as adopted by reference, unless otherwise noted. This reformatting change reorganizes and shortens the WACs.

4. Intent and Statutory Authority. The proposed rule is consistent with the legislative intent of the statute chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW. These statute give the council sufficient authority to maintain the state building code, and to adopt amendments to the Washington State Energy Code.

5. Coordination. The council rule-making process has included participation by national, state, and local building, fire, mechanical and plumbing officials, as well as state agency representatives for the Departments of Social and Health Services, Health, Labor and Industries, and the State Fire Marshal. The council actively seeks participation from other state agencies to assure that duplication and inconsistency is eliminated.

6. Cost. The council appointed technical advisory groups and an Economic and Regulatory Assessment Committee to examine the costs and benefits associated with the revisions to the building codes.

7. Fairness. The state amendments to the Washington State Energy Code proposed by the council are intended to mitigate disproportionate impact on the regulated community. The council is made up of representatives from the regulated community, as well as public and regulatory officials. In addition, the council enlisted the assistance of technical advisory groups, made up of the individuals, organizations and businesses impacted by the building codes, to review code changes and proposals.

Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: RESIDENTIAL

1. Section 101.3.2.1: This proposed amendment clarifies the requirements for additions to existing buildings. The term "heat loss" is changed to the more specific term "Target UA." Also, language is added to explain that removed elements are not supposed to be represented in the calculation.

2. Section 101.3.2.8: This proposed amendment requires compliance with the lighting regulations in Section 1132.3 for the communal areas in multi-family occupancies.

3. Chapters 2/12, 7/17, and 10/20: This proposed amendment consolidates the auxiliary chapters Definitions (2/12), Standards (7/17) and Defaults (10/20). This effort will simplify the code by shortening it and providing one place to find the needed information. The most accurate and up to date information is used and applied to both residential and nonresidential, where ever possible. This approach will reduce duplicative and conflicting regulations. Where needed, the specific residential or nonresidential information is identified.

4. Sections 502.1.1 and Table 10-5A (two options): Both options of this proposed amendment provide R-values for air cavities by adding a new row to the table. Option 1 deletes the table from Section 502.1.1 and replaces it with a reference to Table 10-5A. Option 2 maintains the location of the table in Section 502.1.1. However, the table is repeated in Table 10-5A.

5. Section 502.1.4.6: This proposed amendment is editorial. The added word "framed" specifies that the requirement applies to framed structures.

6. Section 502.1.5.1, exception 3: This proposed amendment adds a new exception that allows compliance to be based on the NFRC nonresidential model size provided the average glazing product size meets or exceeds it and a glazing schedule and calculation are provided.

7. Section 503.1, exception: This proposed amendment deletes the exception since it is not applicable to Group R occupancies.

8. Section 503.2.2 (2): This proposed amendment amends the natural gas-fired or oil-fired space heating and space cooling system sizing limits. Equipment 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit since equipment is generally not manufactured this small. Larger equipment may be oversized (greater than 200%) if it is 90% efficient. The graduated threshold calculation has been simplified to 90%.

9. Section 503.7, 1423, and 1433: This proposed amendment deletes the present residential economizer requirements and refers to the nonresidential requirements. The change in the nonresidential sections 1423 and 1433 specifies that the equipment serving a Group R occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizer in a building.

10. Section 503.10.2: This proposed amendment revises the sealing requirements for ducts. The new language lists the acceptable means of sealing, discloses the testing standards required, specifies that duct tape is not permitted, and exempts ducts and air distribution cavities that are located entirely within conditioned space.

11. Section 503.10.4: This proposed amendment is a new section referencing Table 5-11 for duct insulation requirements.

12. Section 503.11: This proposed amendment simplifies the section by referring to Table 5-12 for pipe insulation requirements. Exceptions are piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment and cold water pipes outside the conditioned space.

13. Section 504.5.2: This proposed amendment adds a new requirement for an R-12 pool cover for pools heated to more than 90F.

14. Section 504.7: This proposed amendment amends this section for consistency and references Section 503.11.

15. Section 505, 605, and Table 15-1: This proposed amendment is new sections (component performance and prescriptive) requiring residential lighting compliance for hotel/motel guest rooms and common areas in Group R-1, as cited in Table 15-1.

16. Tables 5-1, 6-2, 6-4, and 6-6: This proposed amendment reduces the window U-factor requirement for homes heated with other fuels from anything above 0.50 to 0.50. Corresponding U-factor requirements in other paths are adjusted accordingly. This change resulted in a number of superfluous paths and footnotes so they are deleted and the prescriptive tables are ultimately simplified.

17. Section 601.1 and note to Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, and 6-4: This proposed amendment clarifies that prescriptive packages are for wood framed assemblies. Metal frame assemblies must demonstrate compliance with either the component performance or the systems analysis approach. The exception given is an assembly (regardless of framing) with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing.

18. Section 602.5: This proposed amendment specifies the edge of slab insulation requirements when the floor insulation is installed below a concrete slab. The edge of slab shall either meet the exterior wall insulation requirements in a prescriptive approach or compliance must be shown through component performance or system analysis.

19. Tables 6-2, 6-4, and 6-6: This proposed amendment deletes the HVAC Equipment Efficiency requirements including both the column and footnote. The delineation of "Low," "Med," and "High" have been outdated by typical practice and equipment technology. These requirements are no longer needed and so this change simplifies the code requirements.

20. Tables 10-6C and 10-6D: This proposed amendment deletes the existing door default tables and replaces them with updated information from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 29, Table 7.

NONRESIDENTIAL

21. Section 1132.3: This proposed amendment clarifies the existing requirements by defining what "60% of the fixtures" means. This change will increase the code's ease of use.

22. Section 1312.1, new exception: This proposed amendment is a new exception allowing field glazed site built fenestration systems to comply with the U-factor requirement with a simulation alone.

23. Section 1313.2: This proposed amendment adds a cross reference for enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces to the UBC Section 1505.3, Attic ventilation. This proposed amendment also clarifies that roof/ceiling assemblies without a vented airspace are only allowed when both the structure and deck are not wood.

24. Section 1322 and note to Tables 13-1 and 13-2: This proposed amendment specifies the compliance approach required for metal frame assemblies, adds a note for clarity to the tables and deletes footnote 3.

25. Section 1323, exception 1: This proposed amendment clarifies the glazing is the "display side" of the street level story, adds the maximum threshold of low-e 0.40 or an area weighted U-factor of 0.60 or less, and explains how to proceed if the designed glazing exceeds 20 feet in height. These clarifications and additions will allow greater design flexibility by allowing calculations and trade-offs so that this exception can be utilized in more situations.

26. Section 1331: This proposed amendment deletes reference to RS-9, or later and inserts "ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989."

27. Section 1411.1: This proposed amendment requires equipment efficiency ratings to be listed in the certification program, if a certification program exists for the product.

28. Section 1412.4.1: This proposed amendment adds the word "motorized" to the damper requirement. It further requires stair and elevator shaft vents equipped with motorized dampers capable of automatically closing during normal building operation and interlocked to open as required by the fire and smoke detection system. This section is also amended with a new exception for gravity dampers, in buildings less than 40 feet.

29. Section 1412.4.2: This proposed amendment is a new section requiring optimum start controls for systems exceeding 10,000 cfm design supply air capacities.

30. Section 1412.8 (RS-29 Section 3.6.5): This proposed amendment is a new section requiring enclosed parking garage ventilation controls for garage ventilation fan systems. (The change to RS 29 Section 3.6.5 is editorial for consistency with the main change.)

31. Section 1414.2: This proposed amendment allows a minimum R-7 insulation for outside air ducts serving individual supply air units with less that 2,800 cfm of total supply air capacity and does not consider them part of the building envelope.

32. Section 1414.2, exception 3 (two options): This proposed amendment changes the word "space" to "zone." Option 1 excepts exposed ductwork within a zone as long as it serves that zone (and it may serve others also). Option 2 excepts exposed ductwork within a zone only if it serves that zone exclusively.

33. Section 1415.1: This proposed amendment specifies that the water pipes that shall be insulated in accordance with the plumbing code are "cold" water pipes.

34. Section 1416 (Figure 14A and RS 29 Section 2.1): This proposed amendment is a new section requiring completion requirements including drawings, manuals, system balancing and systems commissioning. (The changes to Figure 14A and RS 29 Section 2.1 are editorial for consistency with the main change.)

35. Section 1433 and 1401: This proposed amendment makes clarifications to the existing exceptions, adds four additional comprehensive exceptions, and deletes the exception to Section 1401. These proposed changes provide for new technology, give more specific guidance for designed systems, and remove vague language that could result in obsolete and inefficient systems that increase costs for no appreciable gains.

36. Section 1435: This proposed amendment deletes the portion that references the VIAQ, adds "reheat for humidity control" to the list of prohibitions, and revises the exceptions so they are more comprehensive and also more in line with the ASHRAE language.

37. Section 1438 (two options): This proposed amendment adds system design criteria with performance based thresholds as an alternative compliance choice to the already allowed variable frequency drives. Option 1 amends, but maintains a list of prohibited devices. Option 2 does not.

38. Section 1439: This proposed amendment is a new section providing requirements for exhaust hoods. The language is from ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Section 6.3.7.

39. Section 1443: This proposed amendment is a new section referencing Section 1415.1.

40. Section Tables 14-1, 14-2, and 14-3: This proposed amendment revises the standard rating conditions and minimum performance for mechanical equipment to the national standards, ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999.

41. Section 1512.1: This proposed amendment adds house of worship sanctuaries to the list of exempt spaces.

42. Section 1513: This proposed amendment adds language to reference sections required for specific devices.

43. Section 1513.3: This proposed amendment clarifies daylight zones and explains when contiguous daylight zones can and cannot be controlled by a single switch. This change also proposes a new exception that allows fewer switches for enclosed daylight spaces with two or fewer fixtures.

44. Section 1513.6: This proposed amendment reduces the office building square footage threshold from 25,000 to 5,000. This change will require more office buildings to install interior automatic shut-off controls.

45. Section 1513.7: This proposed amendment is a new section requiring commissioning requirements for lighting controls, components, equipment, and systems.

46. Section 1521: This proposed amendment revises the prescriptive interior lighting requirements. This change reformats the section, making it easier to read. It adds more lamp types, increasing the design flexibility. It also further defines "electronic ballasts," clarifying the requirements. Finally, it adds two new exceptions which provide more allowance for food prep/serving areas, patient care areas, and exit lights.

47. Section 1530: This proposed amendment specifies when exit lights shall be and shall not be included in the lighting power allowance calculation.

48. Section 1531: This proposed amendment makes small language changes to clarify the requirements.

49. Section 1532: This proposed amendment specifies "outdoor areas" are those areas "that are illuminated," changes Group "M" to "U" and Group "R" to "R-3," and adds a new exception for covered parking increasing the w/sf allowance if the walls and ceilings have a reflectance value of 0.70 or higher.

50. Section Table 15-1: This proposed amendment clarifies that school building use is Group E occupancy only and revises footnote #1 to explain that a specific use takes precedence over a general use if both are listed.

51. Section Table 15-1: This proposed amendment removes the distinction of Retail A and Retail B. This change proposes one category of retail at 1.5 w/sf. It also revises footnote #10 to give further specific allowances.

52. Section Table 15-1: This proposed amendment makes a distinction between regular lobbies and main floor lobbies and increases the lighting power allowance for main floor lobbies from 0.80 w/sf to 1.20 w/sf. Common areas, corridors, toilet facilities, washrooms, and elevator lobbies remain at 0.80 w/sf.

53. RS-29 Sections 2.4 and 4: This proposed amendment deletes the list of programs only acceptable for commercial buildings 25,000 sf and less and the exception to Section 2.4 that allows them.

54. RS-29 Section 3.4.4: This proposed amendment is editorial, changing terms for more accuracy.

55. RS-29 Section 3.5: This proposed amendment is editorial, changing a referenced title to the RS citing.

56. RS-29 Section 4: This proposed amendment updates the list of programs that are suggested software for the systems analysis approach.

A small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW.

Small Business Economic Impact Statement

The State Building Code Council is proposing to adopt amendments to chapter 51-11 WAC, the Washington State Energy Code. The council appoints Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs) to conduct a comprehensive review of proposed code amendments. The participants on the Energy Code TAG represent architects, mechanical engineers, illumination engineers, building officials, commercial contractors, manufacturers, model code organizations, homebuilders, utilities, mechanical contractors, state agencies, educators and the general public. The Economic and Regulatory Assessment Committee consists of council members as specified in SBCC bylaws.

Proposed amendments to the following sections have been identified by the Energy Code TAG and the Economic and Regulatory Assessment Committee as having a cost impact on businesses required to comply with the rule. According to the definition established by the Economic Committee, these rules would not impose more than a minor cost on businesses required to comply. A cost less than 1/4 of 1% of the total construction cost is considered to be minor.

Chapter 51-11 WAC, Tables 5-1, 6-2, 6-4, 6-6. For Group R (residential) construction, the proposed rule adds vertical glazing (window) U-factor improvements and simplifies the prescriptive path. Homebuilders required to comply with this rule would have less flexibility in the design of homes using gas heat or heat pumps. Current estimates show 18% of homes in this category use tradeoffs to reduce wall insulation. Baseline window U-values would prohibit use of aluminum framed windows under prescriptive compliance. Purchase of windows in compliance with baseline U-factor is standard practice and does not add cost. Manufacturers of window products would be impacted minimally, with already limited demand for aluminum framed windows.

WAC 51-11-0505 Lighting. Requires master light switches and power allowance for hotel and motel guest rooms.

WAC 51-11-1416 Completion requirements. Requires testing of mechanical and lighting systems prior to occupancy of commercial buildings.

WAC 51-11-1439 Exhaust hoods. Requires unconditioned make-up air for commercial kitchen exhaust hoods.

WAC 51-11-1513 Automatic shut-off controls for lighting. Expands the scope of the automatic shut-off requirement for lighting: Requirement would apply to office buildings 5,000 square feet in area and greater. Current requirement applies to office buildings 25,000 square feet and greater.

A copy of the statement may be obtained by writing to Tim Nogler, Managing Director, Washington State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 48300, Olympia, WA 98504-8300, phone (360) 586-0486, fax (360) 586-5880.

RCW 34.05.328 does not apply to this rule adoption. The state Building Code Council is not listed in this section as one of the agencies required to comply with this regulation.

Hearing Location: Radisson Hotel, 17101 International Boulevard, SeaTac, WA, on October 13, 2000, at 10:00 a.m.

Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Sue Mathers by September 25, 2000, TDD (360) 753-2200, or (360) 753-1184.

Submit Written Comments to: Judy Wilson, Chairman, State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 48300, Olympia, WA 98504-8300, fax (360) 586-5880, by October 13, 2000.

Date of Intended Adoption: November 17, 2000.

August 23, 2000

Judy Wilson

Council Chairman

OTS-4217.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-078, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99)

WAC 51-11-0101
Section 101. Scope and general requirements.


101.1 Title: Chapters 1 through 10 of this Code shall be known as the "Washington State Residential Energy Code" and may be cited as such; and will be referred to herein as "this Code."


101.2 Purpose and Intent: The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum standards for new or altered buildings and structures or portions thereof to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy.


The purpose of this Code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefitted by the terms of this Code.


It is intended that these provisions provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve efficient use and conservation of energy. These provisions are structured to permit compliance with the intent of this Code by any one of the following three paths of design:


1. A systems analysis approach for the entire building and its energy-using sub-systems which may utilize renewable energy sources, Chapter 4.


2. A component performance approach for various building elements and mechanical systems and components, Chapter 5.


3. A prescriptive requirements approach, Chapter 6.


Compliance with any one of these approaches meets the intent of this Code. This Code is not intended to abridge any safety or health requirements required under any other applicable codes or ordinances.


The provisions of this Code do not consider the efficiency of various energy forms as they are delivered to the building envelope. A determination of delivered energy efficiencies in conjunction with this Code will provide the most efficient use of available energy in new building construction.


101.3 Scope: This Code sets forth minimum requirements for the design of new buildings and structures that provide facilities or shelter for residential occupancies by regulating their exterior envelopes and the selection of their HVAC, service water heating systems and equipment for efficient use and conservation of energy.


Buildings shall be designed to comply with the requirements of either Chapter 4, 5, or 6 of this Code.


101.3.1 Exempt Buildings: Buildings and structures or portions thereof meeting any of the following criteria shall be exempt from the building envelope requirements of sections 502 and 602, but shall comply with all other requirements for building mechanical systems, and service water heating.


101.3.1.1: Buildings and structures or portions thereof whose peak design rate of energy usage is less than three and four tenths (3.4) Btu/h per square foot or one point zero (1.0) watt per square foot of floor area for space conditioning requirements.


101.3.1.2: Buildings and structures or portions thereof which are neither heated according to the definition of heated space in Chapter 2, nor cooled by a nonrenewable energy source, provided that the nonrenewable energy use for space conditioning complies with requirements of section 101.3.1.1.


101.3.1.3: Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.


101.3.1.4: The provisions of this code do not apply to the construction, alteration, or repair of temporary worker housing except as provided by rule adopted under chapter 70.114A RCW or chapter 37, Laws of 1998 (SB 6168). "Temporary worker housing" means a place, area, or piece of land where sleeping places or housing sites are provided by an employer for his or her employees or by another person, including a temporary worker housing operator, who is providing such accommodations for employees, for temporary, seasonal occupancy, and includes "labor camps" under RCW 70.54.110.


101.3.2 Application to Existing Buildings: Additions, historic buildings, changes of occupancy or use, and alterations or repairs shall comply with the requirements in the subsections below.

EXCEPTION: The building official may approve designs of alterations or repairs which do not fully conform with all of the requirements of this Code where in the opinion of the building official full compliance is physically impossible and/or economically impractical and:

1. The alteration or repair improves the energy efficiency of the building; or
2. The alteration or repair is energy efficient and is necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of the general public.
In no case, shall building envelope requirements or mechanical system requirements be less than those requirements in effect at the time of the initial construction of the building.


101.3.2.1 Additions to Existing Buildings: Additions to existing buildings or structures may be made to such buildings or structures without making the entire building or structure comply, provided that the new additions shall conform to the provisions of this Code.


EXCEPTION: New additions which do not fully comply with the requirements of this Code and which have a floor area which is less than seven hundred fifty square feet shall be approved provided that improvements are made to the existing occupancy to compensate for any deficiencies in the new addition. Compliance shall be demonstrated by either systems analysis or component performance calculations. The nonconforming addition and upgraded, existing occupancy shall have an energy budget or ((heat loss)) Target UA which is less than or equal to the unimproved existing building (minus any elements which are no longer part of the building envelope once the addition is added), with the addition designed to comply with this Code.

101.3.2.2 Historic Buildings: The building official may modify the specific requirements of this Code for historic buildings and require in lieu thereof alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings which have been specifically designated as historically significant by the state or local governing body, or listed in The National Register of Historic Places or which have been determined to be eligible for listing.


101.3.2.3 Change of Occupancy or Use:


Any Other than Group R Occupancy which is converted to Group R Occupancy shall be brought into full compliance with this Code.


101.3.2.4 Alterations and Repairs: All alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without exception. For all other existing buildings, initial tenant alterations shall comply with the new construction requirements of this Code. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:


101.3.2.5 Building Envelope: The result of the alterations or repairs both:


1. Improves the energy efficiency of the building, and


2. Complies with the overall average thermal transmittance values of the elements of the exterior building envelope in Table 5-1 of Chapter 5 or the nominal R-values and glazing requirements of the reference case in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Untested storm windows may be installed over existing glazing for an assumed U-factor of 0.90, however, where glass and sash are being replaced in Group R Occupancy, glazing shall comply with the appropriate reference case in Table 6-1 through Table 6-6.
2. Where the structural elements of the altered portions of roof/ceiling, wall or floor are not being replaced, these elements shall be deemed to comply with this Code if all existing framing cavities which are exposed during construction are filled to the full depth with batt insulation or insulation having an equivalent nominal R-value while, for roof/ceilings, maintaining the required space for ventilation. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities need not be insulated. Existing roofs shall be insulated to the requirements of this Code if
a. The roof is uninsulated or insulation is removed to the level of the sheathing, or
b. All insulation in the roof/ceiling was previously installed exterior to the sheathing or nonexistent.

101.3.2.6 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 503 of this Code.


101.3.2.7 Service Water Heating: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with section 504.


101.3.2.8 ((Reserved.)) Lighting: Alterations shall comply with section 1132.3.


EXCEPTION: Group R-3 occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 occupancy.


101.3.3 Mixed Occupancy: When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein. Where approved by the building official, where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than ten percent of the area of any floor of a building, the major use may be considered the building occupancy.


101.4 Amendments by Local Government: Except as provided in RCW 19.27A.020(7), this Code shall be the maximum and minimum energy code for Group R Occupancy in each town, city and county, no later than July 1, 1991.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. 98-24-078, 51-11-0101, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0101, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0101, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0101, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0201
((General definitions.)) Scope.

The following definitions shall apply to chapters 1 through 20.


201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.

Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 1007.2 of this Code.)

Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.

Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.

ARI: Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)

Below grade walls: Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.

((Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.))

Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.

Building envelope: For Group R occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1. For other than Group R occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.

Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.

Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.

Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.

((Comfort envelope: The area on a psychrometric chart enclosing all those conditions described in Standard RS-4, Figure No. 1, as being comfortable.))

Conditioned floor area: (See Gross conditioned floor area.)

Conditioned space: ((All spaces which are provided with heated and/or cooled air or which are capable of being maintained at temperatures over fifty degrees F during the heating season, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors).)) A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated) or indirectly conditioned space.

Cooled space: ((Space within a building which is provided with a positive cooling supply.)) An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity

a. exceeds 5 Btu/(h ft2), or

b. is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90F or less at design cooling conditions.

COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)

Daylighted zone:

a. Under overhead glazing: the area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

b. At vertical glazing: the area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the daylighting zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.

Daylight sensing control (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.

Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.

((Degree day, heating: A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating load of a building in winter. For any one day when the mean temperature is less than sixty-five degrees F there exist as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean temperature for the day and sixty-five degrees F.))

Design cooling conditions: The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5% column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Design heating conditions: The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6% column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."

Door: ((An operable opening area in the shell of a conditioned space, excluding sliding glass doors, which is designed and used as a means of ingress and egress. A door may also include a double door one of which is fixed and one of which is operable.)) All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.

Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.

Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.

EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.

Economizer, air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.

Economizer, water: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.

Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.

Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.

Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)

Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)

Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)

Facade area: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.

Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.

F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in

Btu/hr ft F.

F-Value: (See F-Factor.)

Garden window: A multi-sided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.

Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.

Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls. ((The daylight opening area in all other doors shall be considered glazing for the purpose of calculating glazing area. The daylight opening area in all other doors is included in the door U-factor and shall not be considered in calculations of glazing U-factors.))

Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. ((For sliding glass doors the glazing area is the rough opening area. For all other doors the glazing area is the daylight opening area.)) For doors where the daylight opening area is less than 50% of the door area, the glazing area is the daylighting area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.

Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.

Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, ((window)) vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, ((window)) vertical glazing areas ((including sash,)) and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. (See Below grade wall.)

Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.

Gross roof/ceiling area: ((The sum of the areas of the roof/ceiling assembly, consisting of the total interior surface area of all elements, including skylights, which enclose a conditioned space.)) A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.

Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.

Heated space (Fully heated): ((Space within a building which is provided with a positive heating supply. Finished living space within a basement or registers or heating devices designed to supply heat to a basement space shall automatically define that space as heated space. (See Positive Heating Supply.))) An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is

a. Capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45F or greater at design heating conditions; or

b. 8 Btu/(h ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 12 Btu/(h ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2.

Heated space (Semi-heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system

a. whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(h ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(h ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2; and

b. is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).

HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in ((the December 27, 1979, Federal Register, Vol 44, No. 24, IOCFR. 430)) Standard RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.

Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)

HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)

HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)

((Illumination: The density of the luminous flux incident on a surface; it is the quotient of the luminous flux by the area of the surface when the latter is uniformly illuminated.))

Indirectly conditioned space: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.

Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.

Insulation position:

a. Exterior Insulation Position: a wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.

b. Integral Insulation Position: a wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.

c. Interior Insulation Position: a wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.

IPLV -- Integrated part-load value: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.

Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)

Microcell: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).

Net heat removal: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.

New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)

Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation as specified by the manufacturer according to recognized trade and engineering standards.

Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, liquified petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.

Nonresidential: All buildings and spaces in the Uniform Building Code (UBC) occupancies other than Group R.

Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.

Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for ((windows, skylights,)) doors, glazing and building service systems.

Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.

Outdoor air (outside air): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through ((the system)) a building.

Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-10.)

((Packaged terminal heat pump: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended for application in an individual room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-21.)))

Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hour ft2 inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-72 or other approved dry cup method as specified in ((RS-1)) RS-27.

Personal wireless service facility: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.

((Positive cooling supply: Mechanical cooling deliberately supplied to a space, such as through a supply register. Also, mechanical cooling indirectly supplied to a space through uninsulated surfaces of space cooling components, such as evaporator coil cases and cooling distribution systems which are capable of maintaining air temperatures within the space of eighty-five degrees F, or lower, at the exterior design conditions specified in Section 302.1. To be considered exempt from inclusion in this definition, such surfaces shall comply with the insulation requirements of this Code.

Positive heating supply: Heat deliberately supplied to a space by design, such as a supply register, radiator or heating element. Also, heat indirectly supplied to a space through uninsulated surfaces of service water heaters and space heating components, such as furnaces, boilers and heating and cooling distributions systems which are capable of maintaining air temperature within the space of fifty degrees F, or higher, at the exterior design conditions specified in Section 302.1. To be considered exempt from inclusion in this definition, such surfaces shall comply with the insulation requirements of this Code.))

Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).

((Public facility rest room: A rest room used by the transient public on a regular (rather than casual) basis. Examples include rest rooms in service stations, airports, train terminals and convention halls. Rest rooms incorporated with private guest rooms in hotels, motels or dormitories and rest room facilities intended for the use of employees and not usually used by the general public are not considered public facility rest rooms.))

Radiant slab floor: A slab floor assembly on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a ((radiant slab)) floor or portion thereof for a complete or partial heating of the structure.

Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.

Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.

Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e. not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.

Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.

Roof/ceiling assembly: ((A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed exterior ambient conditions to and encloses a conditioned space. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including skylights.)) (See Gross roof/ceiling area.)

Seer - seasonal energy efficiency ratio: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.

Semi-heated space: Sub-category of Heated Space. (SeeHeated Space.)

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.

Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.

Shading coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through nonopaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8 inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.


Note: Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter 28 of Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 17 of this Code.

Shall: Denotes a mandatory code requirement.

Single family: One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.

Skylight: ((A glazing surface that has a slope of less than sixty degrees from the horizontal plane.)) (See Overhead glazing.)

Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

((Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.))

Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.

Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

Split system: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.

Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)

Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.

System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.

Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.

Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.

Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hr ft2 F).

Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hr ft2 F/Btu).

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hr ft2 F). ((The U-factor applies to the fractional combinations of different materials used in series along the heat flow path.))

Thermal transmittance, overall (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hr ft2 F). The Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as ((windows,)) glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.

Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.

Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.

Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.

U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)

U-Value: (See U-factor.)

Uniform Building Code (UBC): ((The Washington State Uniform Building Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.)) (See Washington State Building Code.)

Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC): ((The Washington State Uniform Mechanical Code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.)) (See Washington State Mechanical Code.)

Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC): (See Washington State Plumbing Code.)

Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.

Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also ((complies with this Code)) meets this definition.

Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.

Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.

Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

Vertical glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of 60 or greater from the horizontal plane.

Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.

Washington State Building Code: The building code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Washington State Mechanical Code: The mechanical code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Washington State Plumbing Code: The plumbing code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0201, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0502
Building envelope requirements.


502.1 General:


OPTION 1:


502.1.1: The stated U- or F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1 or 5-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors specified in this Section.


The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters 21-29 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.


For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.


2. Standard RS-25, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.


3. The zone method as provided in Chapter 24 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


4. Results of parallel path correction factors effective framing/cavity R-values as provided from the following table for metal stud walls and roof ceilings:


Framing
Cavity Insulation
Effective R-Value
Nominal Depth,

Inches

Actual Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Framing

16" o.c.

Framing

24" o.c.

Air cavity any any 0.91 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 R-5.5 R-6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 R-6.0 R-7.2
Wall 4 3-1/2 R-15 R-6.4 R-7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 R-7.1 R-8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 R-7.4 R-9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 R-7.8 R-9.6
Insulation R-11 R-5.5 R-6.1
Roof is R-19 R-7.0 R-9.1
uncompressed R-30 R-9.3 R-11.4

502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.


502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and


b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.


502.1.4 Insulation:


502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections 2602 and/or 707 of the Uniform Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.

Alternatively, the thickness of roof/ceiling and wall insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling and/or wall space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness and minimum settled thickness with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.


502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with UBC Standard 8-1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section 2602 of the Uniform Building Code.
2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section 707 of the Uniform Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.


502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the Uniform Building Code section 1505.3 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire framed cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.


502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.


EXCEPTION: Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. See Uniform Mechanical Code section 607 for underfloor supply plenum requirements. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation, installed inside the foundation wall, shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the frostline. Above grade insulation shall be protected.

EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer.


502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.


502.1.5 Glazing and Door U-factors: Glazing and door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default U-factor. The labeled U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:
a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in all Table 6-1 through 6-6 options except the unlimited glazing area options (Option VIII in Table 6-2, Option IX in Table 6-4, and Option VIII for Climate Zone 1 and Option IX for Climate Zone 2 in Table 6-6):
a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."

502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing U-factors: U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS: 1.Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
2. Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
3. Compliance may be based on the NFRC Nonresidential Model Size providing the average glazing product size for each operator type meets or exceeds the NFRC Nonresidential Model Size. A glazing schedule and average glazing size calculation shall be provided for each operator type.

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door U-factors: Half-lite and full-lite doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6D. All other doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.
2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.
3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
502.1.6 Moisture Control:


502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil[0.004 inch thick] polyethylene or kraft faced material).


502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.


502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.


502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.


502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.


502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for Group R Occupancy:


502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using values in Table 5-1. The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:


1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)


502.3 Reserved.


502.4 Air Leakage:


502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.


502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.


502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:


a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope for all occupancies and all other openings in between units in R-1 occupancy shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.


b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.


c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.


d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.


502.4.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting fixtures shall meet one of the following requirements:


1. Type IC rated, manufactured with no penetrations between the inside of the recessed fixture and ceiling cavity and sealed or gasketed to prevent air leakage into the unconditioned space.


2. Type IC rated, installed inside a sealed box constructed from a minimum 1/2 inch thick gypsum wall board, or constructed from a preformed polymeric vapor barrier, or other air tight assembly manufactured for this purpose.


3. Type IC rated, certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0502, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0502
Building envelope requirements.


502.1 General:


OPTION 2:


502.1.1: The stated U- or F-factor of any component assembly, listed in Table 5-1 or 5-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors specified in this Section.


The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 10. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 10, values shall be calculated in accordance with Chapters 21-29 in Standard RS-1 listed in Chapter 7, using the framing factors listed in Chapter 10 where applicable.


For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:


1. Results of laboratory or field measurements.


2. Standard RS-25, listed in Chapter 7, where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.


3. The zone method as provided in Chapter 24 of Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7.


4. Results of parallel path correction factors effective framing/cavity R-values as provided ((from the following table for metal stud walls and roof ceilings:)) in Table 10-5A - Default U-Factors and Effective R-Values for Metal Stud Walls and Default Metal Building U-Factors.


((Framing
Cavity Insulation
Effective R-Value
Nominal Depth,

Inches

Actual Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Framing

16" o.c.

Framing

24" o.c.

Air cavity any any 0.91 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 R-5.5 R-6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 R-6.0 R-7.2
Wall 4 3-1/2 R-15 R-6.4 R-7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 R-7.1 R-8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 R-7.4 R-9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 R-7.8 R-9.6
Insulation R-11 R-5.5 R-6.1
Roof is R-19 R-7.0 R-9.1
uncompressed R-30 R-9.3 R-11.4))

502.1.2: For consideration of thermal mass effects, see section 402.4.


502.1.3: When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:


a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and


b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.


502.1.4 Insulation:


502.1.4.1 General: All insulating materials shall comply with sections 2602 and/or 707 of the Uniform Building Code. Substantial contact of the insulation with the surface being insulated is required. All insulation materials shall be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions to achieve proper densities and maintain uniform R-values and shall be installed in a manner which will permit inspection of the manufacturer's R-value identification mark. To the maximum extent possible, insulation shall extend over the full component area to the intended R-value.

Alternatively, the thickness of roof/ceiling and wall insulation that is either blown in or spray-applied shall be identified by inches of thickness, density and R-value markers installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) through the attic, ceiling and/or wall space. In attics, the markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness and minimum settled thickness with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access. The thickness of installed attic insulation shall meet or exceed the minimum initial installed thickness shown by the marker. In cathedral ceilings and walls, the markers shall be affixed to the rafter and wall frame at alternating high and low intervals and marked with the minimum installed density and R-value with numbers a minimum 1.0 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the conditioned room area.


502.1.4.2 Insulation Materials: All insulation materials including facings such as vapor barriers or breather papers installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies, walls, crawl spaces, or attics shall have a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke density not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with UBC Standard 8-1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with section 2602 of the Uniform Building Code.
2. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces of Types III, IV and V construction, the flame spread and smoke developed limitations do not apply to facing, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
3. Cellulose insulation shall comply with section 707 of the Uniform Building Code.

502.1.4.3 Clearances: Where required, insulation shall be installed with clearances according to manufacturer's specifications. Insulation shall be installed so that required ventilation is unobstructed. For blown or poured loose fill insulation, clearances shall be maintained through installation of a permanent retainer.


502.1.4.4 Access Hatches and Doors: Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment which prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer must be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.5 Roof/Ceiling Insulation: Open-blown or poured loose fill insulation may be used in attic spaces where the slope of the ceiling is not more than 3 feet in 12 and there is at least 30 inches of clear distance from the top of the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the underside of the sheathing at the roof ridge. When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided so as to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. Baffles shall be, rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture. Requirements for baffles for ceiling insulation shall meet the Uniform Building Code section 1505.3 for minimum ventilation requirements. When feasible, the baffles shall be installed from the top of the outside of the exterior wall, extending inward, to a point 6 inches vertically above the height of noncompressed insulation, and 12 inches vertically above loose fill insulation.


502.1.4.6 Wall Insulation: Insulation installed in exterior walls shall comply with the provisions of this section. All wall insulation shall fill the entire framed cavity. Exterior wall cavities isolated during framing shall be fully insulated to the levels of the surrounding walls. All faced insulation shall be face stapled to avoid compression.


502.1.4.7 Floor Insulation: Floor insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the surface being insulated. Insulation supports shall be installed so spacing is no more than 24 inches on center. Foundation vents shall be placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation.


EXCEPTION: Insulation may be omitted from floor areas over heated basements, heated garages or underfloor areas used as HVAC supply plenums. See Uniform Mechanical Code section 607 for underfloor supply plenum requirements. When foundation walls are insulated, the insulation shall be attached in a permanent manner. The insulation shall not block the airflow through foundation vents when installed. When foundation vents are not placed so that the top of the vent is below the lower surface of the floor insulation, a permanently attached baffle shall be installed at an angle of 30 from horizontal, to divert air flow below the lower surface of the floor insulation.

502.1.4.8 Slab-On-Grade: Slab-on-grade insulation, installed inside the foundation wall, shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally beneath the slab for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Insulation installed outside the foundation shall extend downward to a minimum of 24 inches or to the frostline. Above grade insulation shall be protected.

EXCEPTION: For monolithic slabs, the insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab to the bottom of the footing.

502.1.4.9 Radiant Slabs: The entire area of a radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the soil, with a minimum of R-10 insulation. The insulation shall be an approved product for its intended use. If a soil gas control system is present below the radiant slab, which results in increased convective flow below the radiant slab, the radiant slab shall be thermally isolated from the sub-slab gravel layer.


502.1.4.10 Below Grade Walls: Below grade exterior wall insulation used on the exterior (cold) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the top of the footing and shall be approved for below grade use. Above grade insulation shall be protected.


Insulation used on the interior (warm) side of the wall shall extend from the top of the below grade wall to the below grade floor level.


502.1.5 Glazing and Door U-factors: Glazing and door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with sections 502.1.5.1 and 502.1.5.2. All products shall be labeled with the NFRC certified or default U-factor. The labeled U-factor shall be used in all calculations to determine compliance with this Code. Sealed insulating glass shall conform to, or be in test for, ASTM E-774-81 class A.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. For glazed wall systems, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater:
a. Double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.10 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, and a non-aluminum spacer (as defined in footnote 1 to Table 10-6B), and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
2. For overhead glazing, assemblies with all of the following features are deemed to satisfy the overhead glazing U-factor requirement in all Table 6-1 through 6-6 options except the unlimited glazing area options (Option VIII in Table 6-2, Option IX in Table 6-4, and Option VIII for Climate Zone 1 and Option IX for Climate Zone 2 in Table 6-6):
a. Either, double glazing with a minimum 1/2 inch gap width, having a low-emissivity coating with e=0.20 maximum, with 90% minimum argon gas fill, or, triple glazed plastic domes, and
b. Frame that is thermal break aluminum (as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B), wood, aluminum clad wood, vinyl, aluminum clad vinyl, or reinforced vinyl.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 overhead glazing U-factor requirement using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
3. For solariums with a floor area which does not exceed 300 square feet, assemblies which comply with the features listed in exception 2 are deemed to satisfy the vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirement in Table 6-1 through 6-6 options with vertical glazing U-0.40 and greater.
The only labeling requirement for products using this exception shall be a description of the product and a label stating: "This product is deemed to satisfy the Table 6-1 through 6-6 vertical glazing and overhead glazing U-factor requirements using the exception to Section 502.1.5 in the Washington State Energy Code."
502.1.5.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing U-factors: U-factors for glazing shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC. Compliance shall be based on the Residential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Products that are listed in the NFRC Certified Products Directory or certified to the NFRC standard shall not use default values.

EXCEPTIONS: 1.Glazing products without NFRC ratings may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for vertical glazing and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
2. Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6A for garden windows, from Table 10-6B for other vertical glazing, and from Table 10-6E for overhead glazing.
3. Compliance may be based on the NFRC Nonresidential Model Size providing the average glazing product size for each operator type meets or exceeds the NFRC Nonresidential Model Size. A glazing schedule and average glazing size calculation shall be provided for each operator type.

502.1.5.2 Standard Procedure for Determination of Door U-factors: Half-lite and full-lite doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6D. All other doors, including fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. U-factors determined, certified and labeled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Product Certification Program (PCP), as authorized by an independent certification and inspection agency licensed by the NFRC.
2. The default values for the opaque portions of doors shall be those listed in Table 10-6C, provided that the U-factor listed for a door with a thermal break shall only be allowed if both the door and the frame have a thermal break.
3. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.

502.1.6 Moisture Control:


502.1.6.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as specified in the following cases.

EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

502.1.6.2 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. The vapor retarder shall have a one perm dry cup rating or less (i.e., four mil[0.004 inch thick] polyethylene or kraft faced material).


502.1.6.3 Roof/Ceilings: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of 12 inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. Faced batt insulation where used as a vapor retarder shall be face stapled. Single rafter joist vaulted ceiling cavities shall be of sufficient depth to allow a minimum one inch vented air space above the insulation.


502.1.6.4: Vapor retarders shall not be required in roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation averages 12 inches or greater.


502.1.6.5: Vapor retarders shall not be required where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.


502.1.6.6 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall have a vapor retarder installed. Faced batt insulation shall be face stapled.


502.1.6.7 Ground Cover: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped 12 inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.

EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of 3-1/2 inches.

502.2 Thermal Criteria for Group R Occupancy:


502.2.1 UA Calculations: The proposed UA as calculated using Equations 2 and 3 shall not exceed the target UA as calculated using Equation 1. For the purpose of determining equivalent thermal performance, the glazing area for the target UA shall be calculated using values in Table 5-1. The opaque door area shall be the same in the target UA and the proposed UA.

EXCEPTION: Log and solid timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" and with space heat type other than electric resistance, are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

502.2.2 Space Heat Type: The following two categories comprise all space heating types:


1. Electric Resistance: Space heating systems which include baseboard units, radiant units and forced air units as either the primary or secondary heating system.

EXCEPTION: Electric resistance systems for which the total electric heat capacity in each individual dwelling unit does not exceed the greater of: 1) One thousand watts (1000 w) per dwelling unit, or; 2) One watt per square foot (1 w/ft2) of the gross floor area.

2. Other: All gas, wood, oil and propane space heating systems, unless electric resistance is used as a secondary heating system, and all heat pump space heating systems. (See EXCEPTIONS, Electric Resistance, section 502.2.2 above.)


502.3 Reserved.


502.4 Air Leakage:


502.4.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all buildings and structures, or portions thereof, and only to those locations separating outdoor ambient conditions from interior spaces that are heated or mechanically cooled.


502.4.2 Doors and Windows, General: Exterior doors and windows shall be designed to limit air leakage into or from the building envelope. Site-constructed doors and windows shall be sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.


502.4.3 Seals and Weatherstripping:


a. Exterior joints around windows and door frames, openings between walls and foundation, between walls and roof and wall panels; openings at penetrations of utility services through walls, floors and roofs; and all other openings in the building envelope for all occupancies and all other openings in between units in R-1 occupancy shall be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weatherstripped to limit air leakage. Other exterior joints and seams shall be similarly treated, or taped, or covered with moisture vapor permeable housewrap.


b. All exterior doors or doors serving as access to an enclosed unheated area shall be weatherstripped to limit leakage around their perimeter when in a closed position.


c. Site built windows are exempt from testing but shall be made tight fitting. Fixed lights shall have glass retained by stops with sealant or caulking all around. Operating sash shall have weatherstripping working against overlapping trim and a closer/latch which will hold the sash closed. The window frame to framing crack shall be made tight with caulking, overlapping membrane or other approved technique.


d. Openings that are required to be fire resistive are exempt from this section.


502.4.4 Recessed Lighting Fixtures: When installed in the building envelope, recessed lighting fixtures shall meet one of the following requirements:


1. Type IC rated, manufactured with no penetrations between the inside of the recessed fixture and ceiling cavity and sealed or gasketed to prevent air leakage into the unconditioned space.


2. Type IC rated, installed inside a sealed box constructed from a minimum 1/2 inch thick gypsum wall board, or constructed from a preformed polymeric vapor barrier, or other air tight assembly manufactured for this purpose.


3. Type IC rated, certified under ASTM E283 to have no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pascals or 1.57 lbs/ft2 pressure difference and have a label attached, showing compliance.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0502, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0502, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0502, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0502, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-24-075, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99)

WAC 51-11-0503
Building mechanical systems.


503.1 General: This section covers the determination of design requirements, system and component performance, control requirements, insulating systems and duct construction.


((EXCEPTIONS: Special applications, including but not limited to hospitals, laboratories, thermally sensitive equipment, and computer rooms may be exempted from the requirements of this section when approved by the building official.))

503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.


503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.


503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: Building mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized no greater than two hundred percent (200%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above.


EXCEPTIONS: The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed, however, in all cases heating and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.
1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance need only be demonstrated for either the space heating or space cooling system size.
2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one dwelling unit is ((fifty-six thousand Btu/h or less))
a. 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit,
b. larger than 40,000 Btu/h may exceed the two hundred (200%) percent sizing limit provided that the installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of not less than ((the sum of seventy-eight percent plus one percent for every five thousand Btu/h that the space heating equipment output exceeds the design heating load of the dwelling unit)) ninety (90%) percent.
3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.

503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.


503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements:


503.4.1 Equipment Components:


503.4.1.1: The requirements of this section apply to equipment and mechanical component performance for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. Equipment efficiency levels are specified. Data furnished by the equipment supplier or certified under a nationally recognized certification program or rating procedure shall be used to satisfy these requirements. Equipment efficiencies shall be based on the standard rating conditions in Tables 5-4, 5-5 or 5-6 as appropriate.


503.4.1.2: Where components from more than one manufacturer are assembled into systems regulated under this section, compliance for each component shall be as specified in sections 503.4.2 through 503.4.6 of this Code.


503.4.2: HVAC System Heating Equipment Heat Pump-heating Mode. Heat pumps whose energy input is entirely electric shall have a coefficient of performance (COP) heating, not less than the values in Table 5-7. Heat Pumps with supplementary backup heat other than electricity shall meet the requirements of Table 5-7.


503.4.2.1: These requirements apply to, but are not limited to, unitary (central) heat pumps (air source and water source) in the heating mode, water source (hydronic) heat pumps as used in multiple-unit hydronic HVAC systems, and heat pumps in the packaged terminal air-conditioner in the heating mode.


503.4.2.3 Supplementary Heater: The heat pump shall be installed with a control to prevent supplementary backup heater operation when the operating load can be met by the heat pump compression cycle alone.


503.4.2.4 Heat Pump Controls: Requirements for heat pump controls are listed in section 503.8.3.5 of this Code.


503.4.3 HVAC System Combustion Equipment: For Group R Occupancy, all gas, oil, and propane central heating systems shall have a minimum AFUE of 0.78*. All other Group R Occupancy heating equipment fueled by gas, oil, or propane shall be equipped with an intermittent ignition device, or shall comply with the efficiencies as required in the 1987 National Appliances Energy Conservation Act (Public Law 100-12).


*HVAC Heating system efficiency trade-offs shall be made using Chapters 4 or 6 of this Code.


503.4.4 Packaged and Unitary HVAC System Equipment, Electrically Operated, Cooling Mode: HVAC system equipment as listed below, whose energy input in the cooling mode is entirely electric, shall have an energy efficiency ratio (EER) or a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) cooling not less than values in Table 5-8.


503.4.4.1: These requirements apply to, but are not limited to, unitary (central) and packaged terminal heat pumps (air source and water source); packaged terminal air conditioners.


503.4.5 Other HVAC Equipment: HVAC equipment, other than that addressed in Sections 503.4.2 through 503.4.4, shall have a minimum performance at the specified rating conditions not less than the values shown in Tables 14-1 through 14-3.


503.5 Reserved.


503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.


503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): ((Each fan system shall be designed to use up to and including 100% of the fan system capacity for cooling with outdoor air automatically whenever its use will result in lower usage of new energy. Activation of economizer cycle shall be controlled by sensing outdoor air enthalpy or outdoor air dry-bulb temperature alone or alternate means approved by the building official.


((EXCEPTIONS:)) ((Cooling with outdoor air is not required under any one or more of the following conditions:))
((1.)) ((The fan system capacity is less than 3,500 cfm or total cooling capacity is less than 90,000 Btu/h.))
((2.)) ((The quality of the outdoor air is so poor as to require extensive treatment of the air and approval by the building official.))
((3.)) ((The need for humidification or dehumidification requires the use of more energy than is conserved by the outdoor air cooling on an annual basis.))
((4.)) ((The use of outdoor air cooling may affect the operation of other systems so as to increase the overall energy consumption of the building.))
((5.)) ((When energy recovered from an internal/external zone heat recovery system exceeds the energy conserved by outdoor air cooling on an annual basis.))
((6.)) ((When all space cooling is accomplished by a circulating liquid which transfers space heat directly or indirectly to a heat rejection device such as a cooling tower without use of a refrigeration system.))
((7.)) ((When the use of 100% outside air will cause coil frosting, controls may be added to reduce the quantity of outside air. However, the intent of this exception is to use 100% air in lieu of mechanical cooling when less energy usage will result and this exception applies only to direct expansion systems when the compressor is running.))

Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or 1433.

503.8 Controls:


503.8.1 Temperature Control: Each system shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:


503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.


503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.


503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.


503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.


EXCEPTION: Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building official.

503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:


503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.


503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.


503.8.3.3 Reserved.


503.8.3.4 Control Setback and Shut-off:


Residential Occupancy Groups. One- and Two-Family and Multifamily dwellings -- The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of non-use or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.


503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.


503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.


EXCEPTIONS: Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following cases:
1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements of the building.
2. Within the HVAC equipment.
3. Exhaust air ducts.
4. Supply or return air ducts installed in unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls, basements, or cellars in one-and two-family dwellings.

503.10 Duct Construction: All duct work shall be constructed in accordance with Standards RS-15, RS-16, RS-17, RS-18, RS-19 or RS-20, as applicable, and the Uniform Mechanical Code.


503.10.1 Leakage Testing: High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the applicable standards in Chapter 7 of this Code with the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate specified in that standard.


503.10.2 Seams and Joints: ((When low-pressure supply air ducts are located outside of the conditioned space, all HVAC ductwork seams and joints, both longitudinal and transverse, shall be taped and sealed with products approved by the building official only. Ductwork joints shall be mechanically fastened with a minimum of three fasteners per joint for a cylindrical duct. Use Table 5-11 for duct insulation requirements.)) All low-pressure supply and return, including enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/space used to transport air, shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Tapes and mastics used with rigid fibrous glass ducts shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 181A. Tapes and mastics used with flexible air ducts shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 181B. Duct tape is not permitted as a sealant on any ducts.


EXCEPTION: Ducts or building cavities used for air distribution that are located entirely within the conditioned space of the building are exempt from this section.

503.10.3 Dampers: Requirements for Automatic or manual dampers are found in the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.


503.10.4 Duct Insulation: Ducts shall meet the insulation requirements specified in Table 5-11.


503.11 ((Piping)) Pipe Insulation: All piping ((installed to serve buildings (and within))) shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12. ((For service hot water systems see section 504.7. If water pipes are outside of conditioned space then the pipe insulation requirement shall be R-3 minimum for nonrecirculating hot and cold water pipes. For recirculating service hot and cold water pipes use Table 5-12 for pipe sizes and temperatures.))


EXCEPTION: Piping ((insulation is not required)) installed within unitary HVAC equipment.

Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter 51-46 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020. 98-24-075, 51-11-0503, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0503, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0504
Service water heating.


504.1 Scope: The purpose of this section is to provide criteria for design and equipment selection that will produce energy savings when applied to service water heating.


504.2 Water Heaters, Storage Tanks and Boilers:


504.2.1 Performance Efficiency: All Storage water heaters shall meet the requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and be so labeled. All electric water heaters in unheated spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.


For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor (EF) Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
<50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
>70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

504.2.2 Insulation: Heat loss from unfired hot-water storage tanks shall be limited to a maximum of 9.6 Btu/hr/ft2 of external tank surface area. The design ambient temperature shall be no higher than sixty-five degrees F.


504.2.3 Combination Service Water Heating/Space Heating Boilers: Service water heating equipment shall not be dependent on year round operation of space heating boilers.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems with service/space heating boilers having a standby loss Btu/h less than:
(13.3 pmd+ 400)/n
determined by the fixture count method where:
pmd = probably maximum demand in gallons/hour as

determined in accordance with Chapter 37 of

Standard RS-11.

n = fraction of year when outdoor daily mean

temperature exceeds 64.9 F.

The standby loss is to be determined for a test period of twenty-four-hour duration while maintaining a boiler water temperature of ninety degrees F above an ambient of sixty degrees F and a five foot stack on appliance.
2. For systems where the use of a single heating unit will lead to energy savings, such unit shall be utilized.

504.3 Automatic Controls: Service water heating systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable of adjustment from the lowest to the highest acceptable temperature settings for the intended use. Temperature setting range shall be set to one hundred twenty degrees F or forty-nine degrees C.


504.4 Shutdown: A separate switch shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to electric service water heating systems. A separate valve shall be provided to permit turning off the energy supplied to the main burner(s) of all other types of service water heater systems.


504.5 Swimming Pools:


504.5.1: All pool heaters shall be equipped with readily accessible ON/OFF switch to allow shutting off the operation of the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Controls shall be provided to allow the water temperature to be regulated from the maximum design temperature down to sixty-five degrees F.


504.5.2 Pool Covers: Heated swimming pools shall be equipped with a pool cover, approved by the building official. Pools heated to more than 90F shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.


504.6 Pump Operation: Circulating hot water systems shall be controlled so that the circulation pump(s) can be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the hot water system is not in operation.


504.7 Pipe Insulation: ((For recirculating and non-recirculating systems,)) Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with section 503.11 ((and Table 5-12)).


504.8 Conservation of Hot Water:


504.8.1 Showers and Lavatories: Showers and lavatories used for other than safety reasons shall be equipped with flow control devices or specially manufactured showerheads or aerators to limit the total water flow rate as set forth in chapter 51-26 WAC, as measured with both hot and cold faucets turned on to their maximum flow.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0504, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0504, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0505
((Reserved.)) Lighting.


505.1 Lighting Controls: Hotel and motel guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

505.2 Lighting Power: Lighting shall comply with the Prescriptive Lighting Option in Section 1520 or the Lighting Power Allowance Option in Section 1530.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Group R-3 occupancy and the dwelling unit portions of Group R-1 occupancy.
2. Lighting exempted by Section 1512.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0505, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0505, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0530
Table 5-1.

TABLE 5-1

TARGET COMPONENT VALUES FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

Electric Resistance Other Fuels
Climate Zone Climate Zone
Component 1 2 1 2
Glazing % Floor Area 15% 15% 15% 15%
Vertical Glazing U-Factor U = 0.400 U = 0.400 ((U = 0.650))

U = 0.500

((U = 0.600))

U = 0.500

Overhead Glazing U-Factor U = 0. 58 U = 0. 58 U = 0. 68 U = 0.64
Doors U = 0.200

(R-5)

U = 0.200

(R-5)

U = 0.400

(R-2.5)

U = 0.400

(R-2.5)

Ceilings

Attic

Single Rafter/

Joist Vaulted

U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30)

U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30)

U = 0.036

(R-30)

U = 0.034

(R-30)

U = 0.031

(R-38)

U = 0.034

(R-30)

Walls U = 0.058

(R-19A)

U = 0.044

(R-19+5A)

U = 0.0621

(R-19)

U = 0.0621

(R-19+5)

Floors U = 0.029

(R-30)

U = 0.029

(R-30)

U = 0.041

(R-19)

U = 0.029

(R-30)

Slab on Grade

Slab R-Value

F = 0.54

(R-10)

F = 0.54

(R-10)

F = 0.54

(R-10)

F = 0.54

(R-10)

Below Grade Interior
Wall R-Value R-19 R-19 R-19 R-19
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.043

F = 0.69

U = 0.043

F = 0.69

U = 0.043

F = 0.69

U = 0.043

F = 0.69

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

U = 0.041

F = 0.64

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

U = 0.037

F = 0.57

Below Grade Exterior
Wall R-Value R-10 R-12 R-10 R-12
2' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.070

F = 0.60

U = 0.061

F = 0.60

U = 0.070

F = 0.60

U = 0.061

F = 0.60

3.5' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.064

F = 0.57

U = 0.057

F = 0.57

U = 0.064

F = 0.57

U = 0.057

F = 0.57

7' Depth: Walls

Slab

U = 0.056

F = 0.42

U = 0.050

F = 0.42

U = 0.056

F = 0.42

U = 0.050

F = 0.42


1. Log and Solid Timber walls that have a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from wall target UA and proposed UA calculations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0530, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0530, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0530, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 94-05-059, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0601
Scope.


601.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of prescribed requirements for building construction.


The provisions of this chapter are applicable to all Group R Occupancies. Occupancies shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 5 except for the modifications herein specified.


For wood frame assemblies, the building envelope requirements of this chapter may be met by installing one of the prescriptive packages in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. Installed components shall meet the requirements of section 602 ((and 605)). Compliance with nominal R-Values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only and shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films, but shall permit interruption by occasional framing members. Other than wood frame assemblies with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing shall also be allowed to comply with nominal R-values.


For metal frame assemblies, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with Chapter 4 or Chapter 5 based on the assemblies in Chapter 10. Compliance with nominal R-values is not allowed, unless the full nominal R-value of the insulation is installed either inside or outside of the framing and is uninterrupted by framing.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0601, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0601, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0602
Building envelope requirements for Group R Occupancy.


602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable.


602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable. The following walls should be considered to meet R-19 without additional documentation:


1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-19 fiberglass batts.


2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-3.2 foam sheathing.


3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-11 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.


602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable.


602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Tables 6-1 to 6-6 as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.


602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. If the insulation is installed below a concrete slab, then the edge of the slab shall comply with the insulation requirements for exterior walls or shall show compliance through Chapter 4 or Chapter 5.


602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Doors whose area and U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door U-factor requirements prescribed in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.
2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be installed for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
602.6.1 Exterior Door Area: For half-lite and full-lite doors, the glazing area shall be included in calculating the allowed total glazing area in Section 602.7.1. Single glazing used for ornamental, security or architectural purposes shall be calculated using the exception to Section 602.7.2.


602.6.2 Exterior Door U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Tables 6-1 to 6-6.


602.7 Glazing:


602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. This area shall also include any glazing in doors.


602.7.2 Glazing U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average U-factor not to exceed that specified in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5. These areas and U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.


If the U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.


EXCEPTION: Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and double glazed garden windows with a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area doubled and shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Tables 6-1 to 6-6. The maximum area (before doubling) allowed for the total of all single glazing and garden windows is one percent of the floor area.

602.8 Air Leakage For Group R Occupancy: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0602, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-0604
((Electric power and lighting for Group R Occupancy.)) Reserved.


((604.1: All electrical power and lighting systems shall comply with the requirements of section 505.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0604, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-0605
((Reserved.)) Lighting.

Lighting shall comply with Section 505.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-0605, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0605, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0625
Table 6-1.

TABLE 6-1

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 1 HEATING BY ELECTRIC RESISTANCE

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door 9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall ext4 Below Grade Floor5 Slab4

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 10% 0.46 0. 58 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
II. 12% 0.43 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-30 R-10
III. 12% 0.40 0. 58 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
IV.* 15% 0.40 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-30 R-10
V. 18% 0.39 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
VI. 21% 0.36 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
VII.7 25% 0.327 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10
VIII.7 30% 0.297 0. 58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19

+R-58

R-21 R-10 R-30 R-10

* Reference Case
** Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 19%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 21% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7. The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.35 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.32 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.
8. This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C or 10-6D.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U=0.040 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0626
Table 6-2.

TABLE 6-2

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 1 HEATING BY OTHER FUELS

Option ((HVAC9

Equip.

Effic.))

Glazing

Area11:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door10

U-Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted

Ceiling3

Wall

Above

Grade

Wall

int4

Below

Grade

Wall

ext4

Below

Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead12
((I. Med. 10% 0.70 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-15 R-15 R-10 R-19 R-10
II. Med. 12% 0.65 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-15 R-15 R-10 R-19 R-10
III. High 21% 0.75 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10))
((IV.*

I.*

Med.)) 21% ((0.65))

0.50

0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10
((V. Low 21% 0.60 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10))
VI.7

II.

Med.)) 25% ((0.457))

0.40

0.68 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10
((VII.7

III.

Med.)) 30% ((0.407))

0.35

0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10
((VIII.

IV.

Med.)) unlimited 0.25 0.40 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10

* Reference Case
** Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1 Minium requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 19%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 21% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2 Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3 Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4 Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5 Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6 Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7 ((The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.50 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.45 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.)) Reserved.
8 This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9 ((Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement. 'Low' denotes an AFUE of 0.74. 'Med.' denotes an AFUE of 0.78. 'High' denotes an AFUE of 0.88. Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement for heat pumps. 'Low' denotes an HSPF of 6.35. 'Med' denotes an HSPF of 6.8. 'High' an HSPF of 7.7. Water and ground source heat pumps shall be considered as medium efficiency and have a minimum COP as required in Table 5-7.)) Reserved.
10 Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C or 10-6D.
11. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U= 0.040 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
12. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0626, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0626, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0626, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0626, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0627
Table 6-3.

TABLE 6-3

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 2 HEATING BY ELECTRIC RESISTANCE

Option Glazing Area11:

% of Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door10

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted

Ceiling3

Wall

Above

Grade

Wall

int4

Below

Grade

Wall

ext4

Below

Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Over-

head12

I. 10% 0.38 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-21 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
II. 12% 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19+R-58 R-21 R-12 R-25 R-10
III.* 15% 0.40 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19+R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
IV. 18% 0.38 0.58 0.20 R-38 R-30 R-19+R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
V. 21% 0.35 0.58 0.20 R-38Adv R-38 R-19+R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI.7 25% 0.307 0.58 0.20 R-49Adv R-38 R-19+R-58 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10
VII.7 30% 0.287 0.58 0.20 R-60Adv R-38 R-21+R-7.59 R-21 R-12 R-30 R-10

* Reference Case
** Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1 Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 19%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 21% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2 Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3 Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4 Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5 Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6 Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7 The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.33 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.31 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.
8 This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9 This wall insulation requirement denotes R-21 wall cavity insulation plus R-7.5 foam sheathing.
10 Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C or 10-6D.
11. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U=0.040 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
12. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0627, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0627, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0627, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0627, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0628
Table 6-4.

TABLE 6-4

PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY

CLIMATE ZONE 2 HEATING BY OTHER FUELS

Option ((HVAC9 Equip. Effic.)) Glazing Area11:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door10 U-Factor Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall Above Grade Wall

int4

Below Grade

Wall

ext4

Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead12
((I. Med. 10% 0.70 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
II. Med. 12% 0.65 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
III. High 17% 0.65 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
IV.*))

I.*

((Med.)) 17% ((0.60))

0.50

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((V. Low 17% 0.50 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI.))

II.

Med.)) 21% ((0.50))

0.40

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((VII.7

III.

Med.)) 25% ((0.407))

0.35

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((VIII.7

IV.

Med.)) 30% ((0.407))

0.30

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((IX.

V.

Med.)) unlimited 0.25 0.40 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10

* Reference Case

** Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.

1 Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 19%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 21% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2 Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3 Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4 Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5 Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6 Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7 ((The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.45 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.40 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.)) Reserved.
8 This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.
9 ((Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement. 'Low' denotes an AFUE of 0.74. 'Med.' denotes an AFUE of 0.78. 'High' denotes an AFUE of 0.88. Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement for heat pumps. 'Low' denotes an HSPF of 6.35. 'Med' denotes an HSPF of 6.8. 'High' an HSPF of 7.7. Water and ground source heat pumps shall be considered as medium efficiency and have a minimum COP as required in Table 5-7.)) Reserved.
10 Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C or 10-6D.
11. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U=0.040 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
12. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0628, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0628, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0628, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0628, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0630
Table 6-6.


TABLE 6-6

LOG HOMES PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS1

HEATING BY OTHER FUELS

Option ((HVAC9 Equip.

Effic.))

Glazing Area12:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door 10

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted

Ceiling3

Wall11

Above

Grade

Wall

int4

Below

Grade

Wall

ext4

Below

Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vert-

ical

Over-

head13

Climate Zone 1
((I. Med. 10% 0.70 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-15 R-15 R-10 R-19 R-10
II. Med. 12% 0.65 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-15 R-15 R-10 R-19 R-10
III. High 21% 0.75 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10
IV.*))

I.*

Med.)) 21% ((0.65))

0.50

0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10
((V. Low 21% 0.60 0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-19 R-10
VI.7))

II.

Med.)) 25% ((0.457))

0.40

0.68 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10
((VII.7

III.

Med.)) 30% ((0.407))

0.35

0.68 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10
((VIII.

IV.

Med.)) unlimited 0.25 0.40 0.40 R-30 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-10 R-25 R-10
Climate Zone 2
((I. Med. 10% 0.70 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
II. Med. 12% 0.65 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
III. High 17% 0.65 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-25 R-10
IV.*))

I.*

Med.)) 17% ((0.60))

0.50

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((V. Low 17% 0.50 0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
VI.))

II.

Med.)) 21% ((0.50))

0.40

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((VII.

III.

Med.)) 25% ((0.408))

0.35

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((VIII.

IV.

Med.)) 30% ((0.408))

0.30

0.64 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10
((IX.

V.

Med.)) unlimited 0.25 0.40 0.40 R-38 R-30 R-19 R-19 R-12 R-30 R-10

* Reference Case
1 Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 19%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 21% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2 Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3 Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4 Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5 Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6 Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.
7 ((The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.50 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.45 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.)) Reserved.
8 ((The following options shall be applicable to buildings less than three stories: 0.45 maximum for glazing areas of 25% or less; 0.40 maximum for glazing areas of 30% or less.)) Reserved.
9 ((Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement. 'Low' denotes an AFUE of 0.74. 'Med.' denotes an AFUE of 0.78. 'High' denotes an AFUE of 0.88. Minimum HVAC Equipment efficiency requirement for heat pumps. 'Low' denotes an HSPF of 6.35. 'Med' denotes an HSPF of 6.8. 'High' an HSPF of 7.7. Water and ground source heat pumps shall be considered as medium efficiency and have a minimum COP as required in Table 5-7.)) Reserved.
10 Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C or 10-6D.
11 Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.
12. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U=0.040 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
13. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0630, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0630, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0630, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0630, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-0701
((Standards.)) Scope.

The following standards shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. The standards and portions thereof, which are referred to in various parts of this Code shall be part of the Washington State Energy Code and are hereby declared to be a part of this Code.


((CODE)) REFERENCE

STANDARD

NO.

TITLE AND SOURCE
RS-1 ((1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook)) Same as RS-27.
RS-2 through RS-3 (Reserved.)
RS-4 ASHRAE Standard 55-92 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
RS-5 through RS-8 (Reserved.)
RS-9 ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, Efficient Design of New Buildings Except New Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
RS-10 Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ARI Standard 310/380-93.
RS-11 ((1995)) 1999 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Applications Handbook.
RS-12 through RS-14 (Reserved.)
RS-15 1996 ASHRAE System and Equipment Handbook.
RS-16 SMACNA, Installation Standards for Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems, 6th Edition, 1988.
RS-17 ((SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, 2nd Edition, 1995.)) Same as RS-18.
RS-18 ((Same as Standard RS-17.)) SMACNA, HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, 2nd Edition, 1995.
RS-19 SMACNA, Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, 6th Edition, 1992.
RS-20 ((1994)) 1998 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook.
RS-21 Same as Standard RS-10.
RS-22 through RS-24 (Reserved.)
RS-25 ((Thermal Bridge in Sheet Metal Construction from Appendix E of Standard RS-9.)) Same as RS-27.
RS-26 Super Good Cents Technical Reference (Builder's Field Guide).
RS-27 1997 ASHRAE Fundamental Handbook.
RS-28 (Reserved.)
RS-29 Nonresidential Building Design by Systems Analysis.
RS-30 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 430 (March 14, 1988).
RS-31 National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard 100-1997.

ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES


ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Phone (212) 642-4900 Fax (212) 398-0023, Internet www.ansi.org


ARI refers to the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute, 4301 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 425, Arlington, VA 22203

Phone (703) 524-8800 Fax (703) 528-3816, Internet www.ari.org


ASHRAE refers to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329

Phone (404) 636-8400 Fax (404) 321-5478, Internet www.ashrae.org


ASTM refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

Phone (610) 832-9585 Fax (610) 832-9555, Internet www.astm.org


CTI refers to the Cooling Tower Institute, 530 Wells Fargo Drive, Suite 218, Houston, TX 77090

Phone (281) 583-4087 Fax (281) 537-1721, Internet www.cti.org


IES refers to the Illuminating Engineering Society, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005-4001

Phone (212) 248-5000 Fax (212) 248-5017, Internet ((www.ies.org)) www.iesna.org


NFRC refers to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Incorporated, 1300 Spring Street, Suite 120, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910

Phone (301) 589-NFRC Fax (301) 588-0854, Internet www.nfrc.org


SMACNA refers to the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, P.O. Box 221230, Chantilly, VA 20153-1230

Phone (703) 803-2980 Fax (703) 803-3732, Internet www.smacna.org

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0701, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0701, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 91-01-112, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91)

WAC 51-11-1001
Section 1001 General.


1001.1 Scope: The following defaults shall apply to Chapters 1 through 20. This chapter includes tables of seasonal average heat-loss coefficients for specified nominal insulation. The heat-loss coefficients may also be used for heating system sizing.


1001.2 Description: These coefficients were developed primarily from data and procedures from Standard ((RS-1)) RS-27, and taken specifically from Standard RS-26, listed in Chapter 7.


Coefficients not contained in this chapter may be computed using the procedures listed in these references if the assumptions in the following sections and Standard RS-26, listed in Chapter 7, are used, along with data from the sources referenced above.


1001.3 Air Films: Default R-values used for air films shall be as follows:


R-Value Condition
0.17 All exterior surfaces
0.61 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up
0.92 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down
0.68 Interior vertical surfaces

1001.4 Compression of Insulation: Insulation which is compressed shall be rated in accordance with Table 10-A or reduction in value may be calculated in accordance with the procedures in Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 7.


TABLE 10-A

R-Value of Fiberglass Batts Compressed within Various Depth Cavities


Insulation R-Value at Standard Thickness
R-Value 38 30 22 21 19 15 13 11 8 5 3
Standard Thickness 12" 9-1/2" 6-3/4" 5-1/2" 6-1/4" 3-1/2" 3-5/8" 3-1/2" 2-1/2" 1-1/2" 3/4"
Nominal Lumber Sizes, Inches Actual Depth of Cavity, Inches Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity
2 x 12 11-1/4 37 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 10 9-1/4 32 30 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 8 7-1/4 27 26 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 6 5-1/2 -- 21 20 21 18 -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 4 3-1/2 -- -- 14 -- 13 15 13 11 -- -- --
2 x 3 2-1/2 -- -- -- -- -- -- 9.8 -- -- -- --
2 x 2 1-1/2 -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.0 --
2 x 1 3/4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3.2 3.0

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1001, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1002
Section 1002: Below grade walls and slabs.


1002.1 General: Table 10-1 lists heat-loss coefficients for below-grade walls and floors.


Coefficients for below-grade walls are given as U-factors (Btu/hrft2F ((per square foot)) of wall area). Coefficients for below-grade slabs are listed as F-factors (Btu/hrftF per lineal foot of slab perimeter).


Below-grade wall U-factors are only valid when used with the accompanying below-grade slab F-factors, and vice versa.


1002.2 Component Description: All below-grade walls are assumed to be eight-inch concrete. The wall is assumed to extend from the slab upward to the top of the mud sill for the distance specified in Table 10-1, with six inches of concrete wall extending above grade.


Interior insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts placed in the cavity formed by 2x4 framing on twenty-four inch centers with one-half inch of gypsum board as the interior finish material. Exterior insulation is assumed to be applied directly to the exterior of the below-grade wall from the top of the wall to the footing. The exterior case does not assume any interior framing or sheetrock.


In all cases, the entire wall surface is assumed to be insulated to the indicated nominal level with the appropriate framing and insulation application. Coefficients are listed for wall depths of two, three and one-half, and seven feet below grade. Basements shallower than two feet should use on-grade slab coefficients.


Heat-loss calculations for wall areas above grade should use above-grade wall U-factors, beginning at the mudsill.


1002.3 Insulation Description: Coefficients are listed for the following four configurations:


1. Uninsulated: No insulation or interior finish.


2. Interior insulation: Interior 2x4 insulated wall without a thermal break between concrete wall and slab.


3. Interior insulation w/thermal break: Interior 2x4 insulated wall with R-5 rigid board providing a thermal break between the concrete wall and the slab.


4. Exterior insulation: Insulation applied directly to the exterior surface of the concrete wall.


TABLE 10-1

DEFAULT WALL U-FACTORS AND SLAB F-FACTORS FOR BASEMENTS

Below Grade Wall U-factor Below Grade Slab F-factor
2-Foot Depth Below Grade
Uninsulated 0.350 0.59
R-11 Interior 0.066 0.68
R-11 Interior w/tb 0.070 0.60
R-19 Interior 0.043 0.69
R-19 Interior w/tb 0.045 0.61
R-10 Exterior 0.070 0.60
R-12 Exterior 0.061 0.60
3.5-Foot Depth Below Grade
Uninsulated 0.278 0.53
R-11 Interior 0.062 0.63
R-11 Interior w/tb 0.064 0.57
R-19 Interior 0.041 0.64
R-19 Interior w/tb 0.042 0.57
R-10 Exterior 0.064 0.57
R-12 Exterior 0.057 0.57
7-Foot Depth Below Grade
Uninsulated 0.193 0.46
R-11 Interior 0.054 0.56
R-11 Interior w/tb 0.056 0.42
R-19 Interior 0.037 0.57
R-19 Interior w/tb 0.038 0.43
R-10 Exterior 0.056 0.42
R-12 Exterior 0.050 0.42

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1002, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1002, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1003
Section 1003: On-grade slab floors.


1003.1 General: Table 10-2 lists heat-loss coefficients for heated on-grade slab floors, in units of Btu/hF((hr)) per lineal foot of perimeter.


1003.2 Component Description: All on-grade slab floors are assumed to be six-inch concrete poured directly onto the earth. The bottom of the slab is assumed to be at grade line. Monolithic and floating slabs are not differentiated.


Soil is assumed to have a conductivity of 0.75 Btu/hrFft2. Slabs two-feet or more below grade should use basement coefficients.


1003.3 Insulation Description: Coefficients are provided for the following three configurations:


Two-Foot (or four-foot) vertical: Insulation is applied directly to the slab exterior, extending downward from the top of the slab to a depth of two-feet (or four-feet) below grade.


Two-Foot (or four-foot) horizontal: Insulation is applied directly to the underside of the slab, and run horizontally from the perimeter inward for two-feet or four-feet. The slab edge is exposed in this configuration.

Note: A horizontal installation with a thermal break of at least R-5 at the slab edge should use the vertical-case F-factors.


Fully insulated slab: Insulation extends from the top of the slab, along the entire perimeter, and completely covers the area under the slab. Thicker perimeter insulation covers the slab edge and extends 2 feet under the slab.

TABLE 10-2

DEFAULT F-FACTORS FOR ON-GRADE SLABS


Insulation type R-0 R-5 R-10 R-15
Unheated Slab
Uninsulated slab 0.73
2-ft Horizontal (No thermal break) 0.70 0.70 0.69
4-ft Horizontal (No thermal break) 0.67 0.64 0.63
2-ft Vertical 0.58 0.54 0.52
4-ft Vertical 0.54 0.48 0.45
Fully insulated slab 0.36
Heated Slab
Uninsulated slab 0.84
Fully insulated slab 0.74 0.55 0.44
R-5 Center (With perimeter insulation) 0.66 0.62
R-10 Center (With perimeter insulation) 0.51
3-ft Vertical 0.78

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1003, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1004
Section 1004: ((Crawlspace floors.)) Floors over unconditioned space.


1004.1 General: Tables 10-3 ((and)), 10-4 and 10-4a list heat-loss coefficients for floors over ((crawlspaces)) unconditioned spaces in units of Btu/hft2F((hr per square foot of floor)).


They are derived from procedures listed in ((RS-1)) RS-27, listed in Chapter 7, assuming an average outdoor temperature of 45 F, an average indoor temperature of 65 F, and a crawlspace area of ((one thousand three hundred fifty)) 1350 ft2 and ((one hundred fifty)) 100 ft of perimeter. The crawlspace is assumed to be 2.5-feet high, with ((twenty-four)) 24 inches below grade and ((six)) 6 inches above grade.


1004.2 Crawlspace Description: Four ((crawlspace)) configurations are considered: Vented crawlspace, unvented crawlspace, ((enclosed and)) heated plenum crawlspace and exposed floor.


Vented crawlspaces: Assumed to have ((three)) 3.0 air-changes per hour, with at least ((one)) 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated.


Floors over unheated areas, such as garages, may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Unvented crawlspaces: Assumed to have 1.5 air changes per hour, with less than ((one)) 1.0 ft2 of net-free ventilation in the foundation for every three hundred ft2 of crawlspace floor area. The crawlspace is not actively heated. Floors over unheated basements may only use those values which have R-0 perimeter insulation.


Heated-plenum crawlspaces: Assumed to have 0.25 air-changes per hour, with no foundation vents. Heated supply air from central furnace is blown into a crawlspace and allowed to enter the living space unducted via holes cut into the floor.


Enclosed floors: Assumes no buffer space, and a covering of one-half inch of T1-11 on the exterior of the cavity exposed to the outside air or rigid insulation below a concrete floor, such as over parking garages.


1004.3 Construction Description: Floors are assumed to be either joisted floors framed on sixteen inch centers, or post and beam on four by eight foot squares. Insulation is assumed to be installed under the subflooring between the joists or beams with no space between the insulation and the subfloor. Insulation is assumed to be uncompressed. Exposed floors also include concrete with continuous rigid insulation assumed.


Perimeter insulation is assumed to extend from the top of the rim joist to the crawlspace floor and then inward along the ground (on top of the ground cover) for at least twenty-four inches.


Floor coverings are assumed to be light carpet with rubber pad.

TABLE 10-3

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER VENTED CRAWLSPACE OR

UNHEATED BASEMENT


Nominal R-value

U-factor
Floor Perimeter Post & Beam Joists
0 0

11

19

30

0.112

0.100

0.098

0.093

0.134

0.116

0.114

0.107

11 0

11

0.052

0.048

0.056

0.052

19 0

11

0.038

0.036

0.041

0.038

22 0

11

0.034

0.033

0.037

0.035

25 0

11

0.032

0.031

0.034

0.033

30 0

11

0.028

0.027

0.029

0.028

38 0

11

0.024

0.024

0.025

0.024

TABLE 10-4

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR FLOORS OVER HEATED PLENUM CRAWLSPACES

Nominal R-value

Perimeter

U-factor

11 0.085
19 0.075
30 0.069

TABLE 10-4A

EXPOSED FLOOR

Nominal

R-value

U-factor
Concrete Wood Joist Metal Joist
R-11 0.077 0.088 0.14
R-15 0.059 0.076 0.12
R-19 0.048 0.062 0.11
R-21 0.043 0.057 0.11
R-25 0.037 0.051 0.10
R-30 0.031 0.040 0.09
R-38 0.025 0.034 0.08

Note: Crawlspaces used as heated plenums have approximately 30% higher heat-loss rate than unvented crawlspaces with the same assumed ACH. Default U-values in Table 10-4 reflect this higher rate of heat loss.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1004, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1004, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1005
Section 1005: Above-grade walls.


Section 1005.1 General: Table 10-5, 10-5A and 10-5B list((s)) heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of above-grade wood stud frame walls (((Btu/Fhr per square foot))), metal stud frame walls and concrete masonry walls (Btu/hft2F) respectively. They are derived from procedures listed in ((RS-1)) RS-27, listed in Chapter 7((, assuming exterior air films at 7.5-mph wind speed)). For intermediate floor slabs which penetrate the insulated wall, use the concrete wall U-factors in Table 10-5B.


Insulation is assumed to uniformly fill the entire cavity and to be installed as per manufacturer's directions. All walls are assumed to be finished on the inside with one-half inch gypsum wallboard, and on the outside with either beveled wood siding over one-half inch plywood sheathing or with five-eighths inch T1-11 siding. Insulated sheathing (either interior or exterior) is assumed to cover the entire opaque wall surface.


1005.2 Framing Description: For wood stud frame walls, three framing types are considered, and defined as follows:


Standard: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use three studs and each opening is framed using two studs. Headers consist of double 2X or single 4X material with an air space left between the header and the exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections use two studs in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .19
Insulated cavity .77
Headers .04

Intermediate: Studs framed on sixteen inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and each opening is framed by two studs. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .18
Insulated cavity .78
Headers .04

Advanced: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall.


Framing weighting factors: Studs and plates .13
Insulated cavity .83
Headers .04

1005.3 Component Description: Default coefficients for four types of walls are listed: single-stud walls, metal stud walls, strap walls, and double-stud walls.


Single-Stud Wall: Assumes either 2x4 or 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. Headers are solid for 2x4 walls and double 2x for 2x6 walls, with either dead-air or rigid-board insulation in the remaining space.


Metal Stud Wall: Assumes metal studs spaced on 16 or 24 inch centers with insulation installed to fill wall cavities. Continuous rigid board insulation is applied without creating uninsulated voids in the wall assembly.

Strap Wall: Assumes 2x6 studs framed on sixteen or twenty-four inch centers. 2x3 or 2x4 strapping is run horizontally along the interior surface of the wall to provide additional space for insulation.


Double-Stud Wall: Assumes an exterior structural wall and a separate interior, non-structural wall. Insulation is placed in both wall cavities and in the space between the ((two)) 2 walls. Stud spacing is assumed to be on ((twenty-four)) 24 inch centers for both walls.

TABLE 10-5

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR ABOVE-GRADE WALLS

2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-11 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-11 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-11 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.088 0.084 0.094 0.090
1 0.080 0.077 0.085 0.082
2 0.074 0.071 0.078 0.075
3 0.069 0.066 0.072 0.070
4 0.064 0.062 0.067 0.065
5 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
6 0.056 0.055 0.059 0.057
7 0.053 0.052 0.055 0.054
8 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
9 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.049
10 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
11 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
12 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-13 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-13 at 3.63 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-12.7 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.082 0.078 0.088 0.083
1 0.075 0.072 0.080 0.076
2 0.069 0.066 0.073 0.070
3 0.065 0.062 0.068 0.065
4 0.060 0.058 0.063 0.061
5 0.057 0.055 0.059 0.057
6 0.053 0.052 0.056 0.054
7 0.051 0.049 0.052 0.051
8 0.048 0.047 0.050 0.048
9 0.046 0.045 0.047 0.046
10 0.044 0.043 0.045 0.044
11 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.042
12 0.040 0.039 0.041 0.040
2 x 4 Single Wood Stud: R-15 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD ADV STD ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-15 at 3.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-15 in 3.5 inch cavity

0 0.076 0.071 0.081 0.075
1 0.069 0.065 0.073 0.069
2 0.064 0.061 0.068 0.069
3 0.060 0.057 0.063 0.059
4 0.056 0.053 0.059 0.056
5 0.053 0.051 0.055 0.052
6 0.050 0.048 0.052 0.050
7 0.047 0.046 0.049 0.047
8 0.045 0.044 0.047 0.045
9 0.043 0.042 0.044 0.043
10 0.041 0.040 0.042 0.041
11 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.039
12 0.038 0.037 0.039 0.038
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-19 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-19 at 6 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.062 0.058 0.055 0.065 0.061 0.058
1 0.058 0.055 0.052 0.060 0.057 0.055
2 0.054 0.052 0.050 0.056 0.054 0.051
3 0.051 0.049 0.047 0.053 0.051 0.049
4 0.048 0.046 0.045 0.050 0.048 0.046
5 0.046 0.044 0.043 0.048 0.046 0.044
6 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.044 0.042
7 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
8 0.040 0.039 0.038 0.041 0.040 0.039
9 0.038 0.037 0.035 0.039 0.038 0.037
10 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
11 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.036 0.035 0.035
12 0.034 0.033 0.033 0.035 0.034 0.033
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-21 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-21 at 5.5 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-21 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.057 0.054 0.051 0.060 0.056 0.053
1 0.054 0.051 0.048 0.056 0.053 0.050
2 0.050 0.048 0.045 0.052 0.050 0.047
3 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.047 0.045
4 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.045 0.043
5 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.042 0.041
6 0.041 0.039 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
7 0.039 0.038 0.036 0.040 0.039 0.037
8 0.038 0.036 0.035 0.039 0.037 0.036
9 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.033
11 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.033 0.032
12 0.032 0.031 0.031 0.033 0.032 0.031
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: R-22 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:

Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 6.75 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-20 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.059 0.055 0.052 0.062 0.058 0.054
1 0.055 0.052 0.049 0.057 0.054 0.051
2 0.052 0.049 0.047 0.054 0.051 0.048
3 0.049 0.046 0.044 0.050 0.048 0.046
4 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.048 0.046 0.044
5 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.045 0.043 0.042
6 0.042 0.040 0.039 0.043 0.042 0.040
7 0.040 0.039 0.037 0.041 0.040 0.038
8 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.037
9 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.035
10 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
11 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
12 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
2 x 6 Single Wood Stud: Two R-11 Batts
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-22 at 7 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-18.9 in 5.5 inch cavity

0 0.060 0.057 0.054 0.063 0.059 0.056
1 0.056 0.053 0.051 0.059 0.056 0.053
2 0.053 0.050 0.048 0.055 0.052 0.050
3 0.050 0.048 0.046 0.052 0.049 0.047
4 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.049 0.047 0.045
5 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.046 0.045 0.043
6 0.043 0.041 0.040 0.044 0.043 0.041
7 0.041 0.040 0.038 0.042 0.041 0.039
8 0.039 0.038 0.037 0.040 0.039 0.038
9 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.039 0.038 0.036
10 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.037 0.036 0.035
11 0.035 0.034 0.033 0.036 0.035 0.034
12 0.034 0.033 0.032 0.034 0.034 0.033
2 x 8 Single Stud: R-25 Batt
Siding Material/Framing Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
R-value of

Foam

Board

STD INT ADV STD INT ADV
NOTE:


Nominal Batt R-value:

R-25 at 8 inch thickness

Installed Batt R-value:

R-23.6 in 7.25 inch cavity

0 0.051 0.047 0.045 0.053 0.049 0.046
1 0.048 0.045 0.043 0.049 0.046 0.044
2 0.045 0.043 0.041 0.047 0.044 0.042
3 0.043 0.041 0.039 0.044 0.042 0.040
4 0.041 0.039 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.038
5 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.040 0.038 0.037
6 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.037 0.036
7 0.036 0.035 0.033 0.037 0.035 0.034
8 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.035 0.034 0.033
9 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.034 0.033 0.032
10 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.033 0.032 0.031
11 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.032 0.031 0.030
12 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.030 0.029
2 x 6: Strap Wall

Siding Material/Frame Type
Lapped Wood T1-11
STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 + R-11 Batts 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.036
R-19 + R-8 Batts 0.041 0.039 0.042 0.040
2 x 6 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-19 ------- R-11 0.040 0.037 0.041 0.038
R-19 ------- R-19 0.034 0.031 0.035 0.032
R-19 R-8 R-11 0.029 0.028 0.031 0.029
R-19 R-11 R-11 0.027 0.026 0.028 0.027
R-19 R-11 R-19 0.024 0.023 0.025 0.023
R-19 R-19 R-19 0.021 0.020 0.021 0.020

2 x 4 + 2 x 4: Double Wood Stud

Siding Material/Frame Type
Batt Configuration Lapped Wood T1-11
Exterior Middle Interior STD ADV STD ADV
R-11 -------- R-11 0.050 0.046 0.052 0.048
R-19 -------- R-11 0.039 0.037 0.043 0.039
R-11 R-8 R-11 0.037 0.035 0.036 0.036
R-11 R-11 R-11 0.032 0.031 0.033 0.032
R-13 R-13 R-13 0.029 0.028 0.029 0.028
R-11 R-19 R-11 0.026 0.026 0.027 0.026


Log Walls

Average Log

Diameter,

Inches

U-factor
NOTE:

R-value of wood:

R-1.25 per inch thickness

Average wall thickness

90% average log diameter

6 0.148
8 0.111
10 0.089
12 0.074
14 0.063
16 0.056

Stress Skin Panel
Panel

Thickness,

Inches

U-factor
NOTE:
R-value of expanded polystyrene: R-3.85 per inch

Framing: 6%

Spline: 8%

3 1/2 0.071
5 1/2 0.048
7 1/4 0.037
9 1/4 0.030
11 1/4 0.025
No thermal bridging between interior and exterior splines


Metal Stud Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A may be used for purposes of calculating metal stud wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter 24 of Standard RS-27.


((TABLE 10-5A

Overall Assembly U-Factors for Metal Stud Walls

Metal R-Value of
Framing Continuous Cavity Insulation
Foam Board
Insulation R-11 R-13 R-15 R-19 R-21 R-25

16" o.c.

R-0 (none)

U-0.14

U-0.13

U-0.12

U-0.10

U-0.097

U-0.091
R-1 U-0.12 U-0.12 U-0.11 U-0.094 U-0.089 U-0.083
R-2 U-0.11 U-0.010 U-0.099 U-0.086 U-0.081 U-0.077
R-3 U-0.10 U-0.095 U-0.090 U-0.079 U-0.075 U-0.071
R-4 U-0.091 U-0.087 U-0.082 U-0.073 U-0.070 U-0.067
R-5 U-0.083 U-0.080 U-0.076 U-0.068 U-0.065 U-0.062
R-6 U-0.077 U-0.074 U-0.071 U-0.064 U-0.061 U-0.059
R-7 U-0.071 U-0.069 U-0.066 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.055
R-8 U-0.067 U-0.064 U-0.062 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.053
R-9 U-0.062 U-0.060 U-0.058 U-0.054 U-0.052 U-0.050
R-10 U-0.059 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.051 U-0.049 U-0.048


24" o.c

R-0 (none)

U-0.13

U-0.12

U-0.11

U-0.091

U-0.085

U-0.079
R-1 U-0.11 U-0.10 U-0.098 U-0.084 U-0.078 U-0.073
R-2 U-0.10 U-0.091 U-0.089 U-0.077 U-0.073 U-0.068
R-3 U-0.092 U-0.083 U-0.082 U-0.072 U-0.068 U-0.064
R-4 U-0.084 U-0.077 U-0.076 U-0.067 U-0.063 U-0.060
R-5 U-0.078 U-0.071 U-0.070 U-0.063 U-0.060 U-0.057
R-6 U-0.072 U-0.067 U-0.066 U-0.059 U-0.056 U-0.054
R-7 U-0.067 U-0.063 U-0.062 U-0.056 U-0.053 U-0.051
R-8 U-0.063 U-0.059 U-0.058 U-0.053 U-0.051 U-0.048
R-9 U-0.059 U-0.056 U-0.055 U-0.050 U-0.048 U-0.046
R-10 U-0.056 U-0.053 U-0.052 U-0.048 U-0.046 U-0.044))

TABLE 10-5A

Default U-Factors and Effective R-Values for Metal Stud Walls and Default U-Factors for Metal Building

OVERALL ASSEMBLY U-FACTORS FOR METAL STUD WALLS

Nominal Wall

Thickness,

Inches

Nominal

Insulation

R-Value

Overall Assembly U-Factors
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
4 R-11 0.14 0.13
4 R-13 0.13 0.12
4 R-15 0.12 0.11
6 R-19 0.11 0.10
6 R-21 0.11 0.09
8 R-25 0.10 0.09

EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL STUD AND INSULATED CAVITY ONLY

Cavity Insulation
Nominal

Depth,

Inches

Actual

Depth,

Inches

Nominal

R-Value

Effective R-Value
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
any any R-0.91 (air) 0.79 0.91
4 3-1/2 R-11 5.5 6.6
4 3-1/2 R-13 6.0 7.2
4 3-1/2 R-15 6.4 7.8
6 5-1/2 R-19 7.1 8.6
6 5-1/2 R-21 7.4 9.0
8 7-1/4 R-25 7.8 9.6

DEFAULT METAL BUILDING U-FACTORS

R-10 R-11 R-13 R-19 R-24 R-30
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened to the frame, holding insulation in place. 0.133 0.127 0.114 0.091 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Metal covering sheets fastened directly to frame. 0.131 0.123 0.107 0.079 0.065 0.057
Faced fiber glass blanket insulation rolled over and perpendicular to structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.102 0.096 0.084 0.065 na na
Faced fiber glass batt insulation suspended between structural frame. Rigid insulation blocks placed over insulation to align with structural frame. 0.099 0.093 0.080 0.059 0.048 0.041

Concrete Masonry Walls: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5B may be used for purposes of calculating concrete masonry wall section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE isothermal planes calculation method as provided in Chapter 24 of Standard RS-27.


TABLE 10-5B

Default U-Factors for Concrete and Masonry Walls

8" CONCRETE MASONRY
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.40 0.23 0.24 0.43
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.15
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.14
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.12

12" CONCRETE MASONRY
CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.35 0.17 0.18 0.33
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.13
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.13
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.10
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08
R-9.5 Rigid Polystyrene Integral Insulation, Two Webbed Block 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.12

8" CLAY BRICK
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Block, Both Sides 0.50 0.31 0.32 0.56
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11
R-6 Exterior Insulation 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.09

6" CONCRETE POURED OR PRECAST
WALL DESCRIPTION CORE TREATMENT
Partial Grout with Ungrouted Cores Solid Grout
Empty Loose-fill insulated
Perlite Vermiculite
Exposed Concrete, Both Sides NA NA NA 0.61
R-5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.16
R-6 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.15
R-10.5 Interior Insulation, Wood Furring NA NA NA 0.12
R-8 Interior Insulation, Metal Clips NA NA NA 0.12
R-6 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.13
R-10 Exterior Insulation NA NA NA 0.09

Notes for Default Table 10-5B
1. Grouted cores at 40" x 48" on center vertically and horizontally in partial grouted walls.
2. Interior insulation values include 1/2" gypsum board on the inner surface.
3. Furring and stud spacing is 16" on center. Insulation is assumed to fill furring space and is not compressed.
4. Intermediate values may be interpolated using this table. Values not contained in this table may be computed using the procedures listed in Standard RS-27.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1005, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1005, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1006
Section 1006 Default U-factors for glazing and doors.


1006.1 ((Untested)) Glazing and Doors without NFRC Certification: ((Untested)) Glazing and doors that do not have NFRC certification shall be assigned the ((U-factors from Tables 10-6A, 10-6B, 10-6C, 10-6D, or 10-6E as appropriate.)) following U-factors:

TABLE 10-6

Other than Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING, OVERHEAD GLAZING AND OPAQUE DOORS

Vertical Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Vinyl/Wood

Frame

Single 1.45 1.45
Double 0.90 0.75
1/2 Inch Air, Fixed 0.75 0.60
1/2 Inch Air,

Low-e(0.40), Fixed

0.60 0.50
1/2 Inch Argon,

Low-e(0.10), Fixed

0.50 0.40

Overhead Glazing
U-Factor
Any Frame Vinyl/Wood

Frame

Single 2.15 2.15
Double 1.45 1.00
Low-e(0.40) or Argon 1.40 0.95
Low-e(0.40)+ Argon 1.30 0.85
Low-e(0.20) Air 1.30 0.90
Low-e(0.20)+ Argon 1.25 0.80
Triple 1.25 0.80

Opaque Doors
U-Factor
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal (Including Fire Door and Smoke Vent) 0.60
Wood 0.50

Notes:


Where a gap width is listed (i.e.: 1/2 inch), that is the minimum allowed.

Where a low-emissivity emittance is listed (i.e.: 0.40, 0.20, 0.10), that is the maximum allowed.

Where a gas other than air is listed (i.e.: Argon), the gas fill shall be a minimum of 90%.

Where an operator type is listed (i.e.: Fixed), the default is only allowed for that operator type.

Where a frame type is listed (i.e.: Wood/vinyl), the default is only allowed for that frame type. Wood/vinyl frame includes reinforced vinyl and aluminum-clad wood.


TABLE 10-6A

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

Description1,2,3,4 Frame Type5,6
Aluminum Aluminum

Thermal Break7

Wood/Vinyl
Windows Single 1.20 1.20 1.20
Double, < 1/2" Clear 0.92 0.75 0.63
Clear+ Argon 0.87 0.71 0.60
Low-e 0.85 0.69 0.58
Low-e+Argon 0.79 0.62 0.53
Double, > 1/2" Clear 0.86 0.69 0.58
Clear+ Argon 0.83 0.67 0.55
Low-e 0.78 0.61 0.51
Low-e+Argon 0.75 0.58 0.48
Triple, Clear 0.70 0.53 0.43
Clear+ Argon 0.69 0.52 0.41
Low-e 0.67 0.49 0.40
Low-e+Argon 0.63 0.47 0.37
Garden Single 2.60 n.a. 2.31
Windows Double Clear 1.81 n.a. 1.61
Clear+ Argon 1.76 n.a. 1.56
Low-e 1.73 n.a. 1.54
Low-e+Argon 1.64 n.a. 1.47

1 <1/2"= a minimum dead air space of less than 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.
> 1/2"= a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches or greater between the panes of glass.
Where no gap width is listed, the minimum gap width is 1/4".
2 Any low-e (emissivity) coating (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4).
3 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, C02, SF6, argon/SF6 mixtures and Krypton.
4 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
5 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
6 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for wood/vinyl windows.
7 Aluminum Thermal Break= An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produces a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

TABLE 10-6B1

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR VERTICAL GLAZING

FOR SMALL BUSINESSES

FRAME TYPE7,8
DESCRIPTION2,3,4,5,6 ALUMINUM ALUM.

THERMAL

BREAK9

WOOD/VINYL ALUM. CLAD

WOOD/REINFORCED

VINYL10

Double, Clear 1/4" 0.82 0.66 0.56 0.59
Double, Clear 1/4"+ argon 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.56
Double, Low-e4 1/4" 0.76 0.61 0.52 0.54
Double, Low-e2 1/4" 0.73 0.58 0.49 0.51
Double, Low-e1 1/4" 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e4 1/4"+ argon 0.70 0.55 0.47 0.49
Double, Low-e2 1/4"+ argon 0.66 0.52 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e1 1/4"+ argon 0.64 0.50 0.41 0.43
Double, Clear 3/8" 0.78 0.63 0.54 0.57
Double, Clear 3/8"+ argon 0.75 0.60 0.51 0.54
Double, Low-e4 3/8" 0.72 0.57 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e2 3/8" 0.69 0.54 0.45 0.48
Double, Low-e1 3/8" 0.66 0.51 0.43 0.46
Double, Low-e4 3/8"+ argon 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 3/8"+ argon 0.63 0.49 0.41 0.44
Double, Low-e1 3/8"+ argon 0.61 0.47 0.39 0.41
Double, Clear 1/2" 0.75 0.60 0.50 0.54
Double, Clear 1/2"+ argon 0.72 0.58 0.48 0.51
Double, Low-e4 1/2" 0.68 0.53 0.44 0.47
Double, Low-e2 1/2" 0.64 0.50 0.41 0.44
Double, Low-e1 1/2" 0.61 0.47 0.39 0.42
Double, Low-e4 1/2"+ argon 0.65 0.50 0.42 0.44
Double, Low-e2 1/2"+ argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.40
Double, Low-e1 1/2"+ argon 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.38
Triple, Clear 1/4" 0.66 0.52 0.42 0.44
Triple, Clear 1/4"+ argon 0.63 0.49 0.39 0.42
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" 0.64 0.50 0.40 0.40
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" 0.62 0.48 0.39 0.41
Triple, Low-e1 1/4" 0.61 0.47 0.38 0.40
Triple, Low-e4 1/4"+ argon 0.60 0.46 0.37 0.39
Triple, Low-e2 1/4"+ argon 0.58 0.43 0.34 0.37
Triple, Low-el 1/4" + argon 0.57 0.42 0.34 0.36
Triple, Clear 1/2" 0.61 0.46 0.37 0.40
Triple, Clear 1/2"+ argon 0.59 0.45 0.36 0.38
Triple, Low-e4 1/2" 0.58 0.43 0.35 0.37
Triple, Low-e2 1/2" 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e1 1/2" 0.54 0.39 0.31 0.33
Triple, Low-e4 1/2"+ argon 0.55 0.41 0.32 0.35
Triple, Low-e2 1/2"+ argon 0.52 0.38 0.30 0.32
Triple, Low-e1 1/2"+ argon 0.51 0.37 0.29 0.31

Footnotes to Table 10-6B

1 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default U-factor for non-aluminum spacer. Acceptable spacer materials may include but is not limited to fiberglass, wood and butyl or other material with an equivalent thermal performance.
2 1/4"= a minimum dead air space of 0.25 inches between the panes of glass.

3/8"= a minimum dead air space of 0.375 inches between the panes of glass.

1/2"= a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.

Product with air spaces different than those listed above shall use the value for the next smaller air space; i.e. 3/4 inch= 1/2 inch U-factors, 7/16 inch= 3/8 inch U-factors, 5/16 inch= 1/4 inch U-factors.

3 Low-e4 (emissivity) shall be 0.4 or less.

Low-e2 (emissivity) shall be 0.2 or less.

Low-e1 (emissivity) shall be 0.1 or less.

4 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled insulated units for argon, CO2, SF6, and argon/SF6 mixtures. The following conversion factor shall apply to Krypton gas-filled units: 1/4" or greater with krypton is equivalent to 1/2" argon.
5 Dividers placed between glazing: The U-factor listed shall be used where the divider has a minimum gap of 1/8 inch between the divider and lite of each inside glass surface. Add 0.03 to the listed U-factor for True Divided Lite windows.
6 "Glass block” assemblies may use a U-factor of 0.51.
7 Insulated fiberglass framed products shall use wood/vinyl U-factors.
8 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default values for solariums.
9 Aluminum Thermal Break= An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and,
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a

thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.

10 Aluminum clad wood windows shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl windows. Vinyl clad wood window shall use the U-factors listed for Wood/Vinyl windows. Any vinyl frame window with metal reinforcement in more than one rail shall use the U-factors listed for Aluminum Clad Wood/Reinforced Vinyl window.

((TABLE 10-6C

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR WOOD AND STEEL DOORS

((Nominal

Door

Thickness,

Inches

Description No

Storm

Door

Wood

Storm

Doorc

Metal

Storm

Doord

Wood

Doorsb

1-3/8 Panel door with 7/16 inch panelse 0.57 0.33 0.37
1-3/8 Hollow core flush door 0.47 0.30 0.32
1-3/8 Solid core flush door 0.39 0.26 0.28
1-3/4 Panel door with 7/16 inch panelse 0.57 0.33 0.36
1-3/4 Hollow core flush door 0.46 0.29 0.32
1-3/4 Panel door with 3/4 inch panelse 0.40 0.27 0.29
1-3/4 Panel door with 1-1/8 inch panelse 0.39 0.26 0.28
1-3/4 Solid core flush door 0.33 0.28 0.25
2-1/4 Solid core flush door 0.27 0.20 0.21
Steel

Doorsb

1-3/4 Fiberglass or mineral wool core w/ steel stiffeners, no thermal breakf 0.60
1-3/4 Paper honeycomb core without thermal breakf 0.56
1-3/4 Solid urethane foam core without thermal breaka 0.40
1-3/4 Solid fire rated mineral fiberboard core without thermal breakf 0.38
1-3/4 Polystyrene core without thermal break

(18 gage commercial steel)f

0.35
1-3/4 Polyurethane core without thermal break

(18 gage commercial steel)f

0.29
1-3/4 Polyurethane core without thermal break

(24 gage commercial steel)f

0.29
1-3/4 Polyurethane core w/ thermal break & wood perimeter

(24 gage commercial steel)f

0.20
1-3/4 Solid urethane foam core with thermal break 0.19 0.16 0.17))

Note: All U-factors for exterior doors in this table are for doors with no glazing, except for the storm doors which are in addition to the main exterior door. Any glazing area in exterior doors should be included with the appropriate glass type and analyzed. Interpolation and moderate extrapolation are permitted for door thicknesses other than those specified.

a Values are based on a nominal 32 by 80 in. door size with no glazing.
b Outside air conditions: 15 mph wind speed, 0F air temperature; inside air conditions: natural convection, 70F air temperature.
c Values for wood storm door are for approximately 50 percent glass area.
d Values for metal storm door are for any percent glass area.
e 55 percent panel area.
f ASTM C 236 hotbox data on a nominal 3 by 7 ft door size with no glazing.

The U-factors in Table 6C are for exterior wood and steel doors. The values given for wood doors were calculated, and those for steel doors were taken from hotbox tests (Sabine et al. 1975: Yellot 1965) or from manufacturer's test reports. An outdoor surface conductance of 6.0 Btu/hft2F was used, and the indoor surface conductance was taken as 1.4 Btu/hft2F for vertical surfaces with horizontal heat flow. All values given are for exterior doors without glazing. If an exterior door contains glazing, refer to Table 10-6D.))


TABLE 10-6C

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR DOORS


Door Type No Glazing Single Glazing Double Glazing with 1/2 in. Airspace Double Glazing with e=0.10, 1/2 in. Argon
SWINGING DOORS (Rough opening - 38 in. x 82 in.)
Slab Doors
Wood slab in wood framea 0.46
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.48 0.46 0.44
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.58 0.46 0.42
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.69 0.46 0.39
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Insulated steel slab with wood edge in wood framea 0.16
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.21 0.19 0.18
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.39 0.26 0.23
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.58 0.35 0.26
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Foam insulated steel slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.37
6% glazing (22 in. x 8 in. lite) - 0.44 0.41 0.39
25% glazing (22 in. x 36 in. lite) - 0.55 0.48 0.44
45% glazing (22 in. x 64 in. lite) - 0.71 0.56 0.48
More than 50% glazing Use Table 10-6A
Cardboard honeycomb slab with metal edge in steel frameb 0.61
Style and Rail Doors
Sliding glass doors/French doors Use Table 10-6A
Site-Assembled Style and Rail Doors
Aluminum in aluminum frame - 1.32 0.93 0.79
Aluminum in aluminum frame with thermal break - 1.13 0.74 0.63
REVOLVING DOORS (Rough opening - 82 in. x 84 in.)
Aluminum in aluminum frame
Open - 1.32 - -
Closed - 0.65 - -
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS (Nominal - 10 ft x 10 ft)
Uninsulated steel (nominal U = 1.15)c 1.15 - - -
Insulated steel (nominal U = 0.11)c 0.24 - - -
Insulated steel with thermal break (nominal U = 0.08)c 0.13 - - -

a. Thermally broken sill (add 0.03 for nonthermally broken sill)
b. Nonthermally broken sill
c. Nominal U-factors are through the center of the insulated panel before consideration of thermal bridges around the edges of the door sections and due to the frame.


TABLE 10-6D

((DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR GLAZED DOORS2))

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR GLAZED DOORS

See Table 10-6C

((Door Material
Insulated6 Wood7
Description2,3,4,5 Full-Lite4,9 Half-Lite10,11 Full-Lite3 Half-Lite10
Double, Clear 1/4" 0.39 0.31 0.47 0.42
Double, Clear 1/4"+ argon 0.37 0.30 0.45 0.41
Double, Low-e4 1/4" 0.36 0.30 0.44 0.41
Double, Low-e2 1/4" 0.35 0.29 0.43 0.40
Double, Low-e1 1/4" 0.24 0.28 0.41 0.39
Double, Low-e4 1/4"+ argon 0.33 0.28 0.41 0.39
Double, Low-e2 1/4"+ argon 0.31 0.26 0.39 0.38
Double, Low-e1 1/4"+ argon 0.31 0.26 0.38 0.37
Double, Clear 3/8" 0.37 0.30 0.45 0.41
Double, Clear 3/8"+ argon 0.36 0.29 0.44 0.41
Double, Low-e4 3/8" 0.34 0.28 0.42 0.40
Double, Low-e2 3/8" 0.33 0.28 0.41 0.39
Double, Low-e1 3/8" 0.21 0.26 0.38 0.37
Double, Low-e4 3/8"+ argon 0.32 0.27 0.40 0.38
Double, Low-e2 3/8"+ argon 0.29 0.25 0.37 0.37
Double, Low-e1 3/8"+ argon 0.29 0.25 0.36 0.36
Double, Clear 1/2" 0.36 0.29 0.44 0.41
Double, Clear 1/2"+ argon 0.34 0.28 0.42 0.40
Double, Low-e4 1/2" 0.32 0.27 0.40 0.38
Double, Low-e2 1/2" 0.30 0.26 0.38 0.37
Double, Low-e1 1/2" 0.29 0.25 0.36 0.36
Double, Low-e4 1/2"+ argon 0.30 0.26 0.38 0.37
Double, Low-e2 1/2"+ argon 0.28 0.25 0.36 0.36
Double, Low-e1 1/2"+ argon 0.28 0.24 0.34 0.35
Triple, Clear 1/4" 0.31 0.26 0.39 0.38
Triple, Clear 1/4"+ argon 0.29 0.25 0.37 0.37
Triple, Low-e4 1/4" 0.30 0.26 0.38 0.37
Triple, Low-e2 1/4" 0.29 0.25 0.37 0.36
Triple, Low-e4 1/4"+ argon 0.27 0.24 0.35 0.35
Triple, Low-e2 1/4"+ argon 0.26 0.24 0.34 0.35

Footnotes to Table 10-6D

1 Subtract 0.02 from the listed default U-factor for insulated spacers. Insulated spacer material includes fiberglass, wood and butyl or other material with an equivalent Thermal performance.
2 1/4"= a minimum dead air space of 0.25 inches between the panes of glass.

3/8"= a minimum dead air space of 0.375 inches between the panes of glass.

1/2"= a minimum dead air space of 0.5 inches between the panes of glass.

Products with air spaces different than those listed above shall use the value for next smaller air space; i.e. 3/4 inch= 1/2 inch U-factors, 7/16 inch= 3/8 inch U-factors, 5/16 inch= 1/4 inch U-factors.

3 Low-e4 (emissivity) shall be 0.4 or less.

Low-e2 (emissivity) shall be 0.2 or less.

Low-e1 (emissivity) shall be 0.1 or less.

4 U-factors listed for argon shall consist of sealed, gas-filled, insulated units for argon, CO2, SF6 and argon/SF6 mixtures.

The following conversion factor shall apply to Krypton gas-filled units:

1/4 inch or greater airspace of Krypton gas-fill= 1/2 inch air space Argon gas-fill.

5 Dividers placed between glazing: The U-factors listed shall be used where the divider has a minimum gap of 1/8 inch between the divider and lite of each inside glass surface. Add 0.03 to the listed U-factor for True Divided Lite windows.
6 Insulated= Any urethane insulated foam core door with a thermal break. Thermal Break= A thermal break door shall incorporate the following design characteristics:

a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than

3.6 Btu-in/hft2F; and

b) The thermal break material shall not be less than 0.210 inches.

7 Wood= any wood door.
8 Full-Lite= A door that consists of more than 50% glazing.
9 Add 0.05 to the listed U-factor for Full-Lite values if the insulated door does not have a thermal break.
10 Half-Lite= A door that consists of 50% or less glazing.
11 Add 0.06 to the listed U-factor for Half-Lite values if the insulated door does not have a thermal break.))

TABLE 10-6E

Group R Occupancy: DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR OVERHEAD GLAZING

Frame Type
Aluminum Aluminum Reinforced Wood or Vinyl-
Glazing Type without with Vinyl/ Clad Wood/
Thermal Thermal Aluminum-Clad Vinyl without
Break Break Wood or Vinyl Reinforcing
Single Glazing
glass U-1.58 U-1.51 U-1.40 U-1.18
acrylic/polycarb U-1.52 U-1.45 U-1.34 U-1.11
Double Glazing
air U-1.05 U-0.89 U-0.84 U-0.67
argon U-1.02 U-0.86 U-0.80 U-0.64
Double Glazing, e=0.20
air U-0.96 U-0.80 U-0.75 U-0.59
argon U-0.91 U-0.75 U-0.70 U-0.54
Double Glazing, e=0.10
air U-0.94 U-0.79 U-0.74 U-0.58
argon U-0.89 U-0.73 U-0.68 U-0.52
Double Glazing, e=0.05
air U-0.93 U-0.78 U-0.73 U-0.56
argon U-0.87 U-0.71 U-0.66 U-0.50
Triple Glazing
air U-0.90 U-0.70 U-0.67 U-0.51
argon U-0.87 U-0.69 U-0.64 U-0.48
Triple Glazing, e=0.20
air U-0.86 U-0.68 U-0.63 U-0.47
argon U-0.82 U-0.63 U-0.59 U-0.43
Triple Glazing, e=0.20 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.82 U-0.64 U-0.60 U-0.44
argon U-0.79 U-0.60 U-0.56 U-0.40
Triple Glazing, e=0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.81 U-0.62 U-0.58 U-0.42
argon U-0.77 U-0.58 U-0.54 U-0.38
Quadruple Glazing, e=0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.78 U-0.59 U-0.55 U-0.39
argon U-0.74 U-0.56 U-0.52 U-0.36
krypton U-0.70 U-0.52 U-0.48 U-0.32

1. U-factors are applicable to both glass and plastic, flat and domed units, all spacers and gaps.
2. Emissivities shall be less than or equal to the value specified.
3. Gap fill shall be assumed to be air unless there is a minimum of 90% argon or krypton.
4. Aluminum frame with thermal break is as defined in footnote 9 to Table 10-6B.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1006, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-1006, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1006, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1007
Section 1007 Ceilings.

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units ((of Btu/hrF per square foot)) Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard ((RS-1)) RS-27, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45 F.

1007.2 Component Description: The three types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrft2F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:


U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38
4/12 .036 .031
5/12 .035 .030
6/12 .034 .029
7/12 .034 .029
8/12 .034 .028
9/12 .034 .028
10/12 .033 .028
11/12 .033 .027
12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of ((three)) 3.0 air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.


TABLE 10-7

DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR CEILINGS

Ceilings Below Vented Attics

Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Flat Ceiling Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck
4x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5 2" Rigid insulation 0.064
R-21.9 3.5" Rigid insulation 0.040
R-37.5 6" Rigid insulation 0.025
R-50 8" Rigid insulation 0.019

Table 10-7A

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.1075 0.0991 0.0928 0.0878 0.0839 0.0807 0.0780 0.0757 0.0737 0.0720 0.0706 0.0693 0.0681
30 0.0907 0.0823 0.0760 0.0710 0.0671 0.0638 0.0612 0.0589 0.0569 0.0552 0.0538 0.0525 0.0513
38 0.0844 0.0759 0.0696 0.0647 0.0607 0.0575 0.0548 0.0525 0.0506 0.0489 0.0474 0.0461 0.0449
49 0.0789 0.0704 0.0641 0.0592 0.0552 0.0520 0.0493 0.0470 0.0451 0.0434 0.0419 0.0406 0.0395

Table 10-7B

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-3 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0809 0.0763 0.0728 0.0701 0.0679 0.0661 0.0647 0.0634 0.0623 0.0614 0.0606 0.0599 0.0592
30 0.0641 0.0595 0.0560 0.0533 0.0511 0.0493 0.0478 0.0466 0.0455 0.0446 0.0438 0.0431 0.0424
38 0.0577 0.0531 0.0496 0.0469 0.0447 0.0430 0.0415 0.0402 0.0392 0.0382 0.0374 0.0367 0.0361
49 0.0523 0.0476 0.0441 0.0414 0.0393 0.0375 0.0360 0.0348 0.0337 0.0328 0.0319 0.0312 0.0306

Table 10-7C

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-5 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0732 0.0697 0.0670 0.0649 0.0633 0.0619 0.0608 0.0598 0.0590 0.0583 0.0577 0.0571 0.0567
30 0.0564 0.0529 0.0502 0.0481 0.0465 0.0451 0.0440 0.0430 0.0422 0.0415 0.0409 0.0403 0.0399
38 0.0501 0.0465 0.0438 0.0418 0.0401 0.0388 0.0376 0.0367 0.0359 0.0351 0.0345 0.0340 0.0335
49 0.0446 0.0410 0.0384 0.0363 0.0346 0.0333 0.0322 0.0312 0.0304 0.0297 0.0291 0.0285 0.0280

Table 10-7D

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-10 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0626 0.0606 0.0590 0.0578 0.0569 0.0561 0.0555 0.0549 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0534 0.0531
30 0.0458 0.0437 0.0422 0.0410 0.0401 0.0393 0.0387 0.0381 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0363
38 0.0394 0.0374 0.0359 0.0347 0.0337 0.0330 0.0323 0.0318 0.0313 0.0309 0.0305 0.0302 0.0299
49 0.0339 0.0319 0.0304 0.0292 0.0283 0.0275 0.0268 0.0263 0.0258 0.0254 0.0251 0.0247 0.0245


Table 10-7E

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-15 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0561 0.0550 0.0541 0.0535 0.0530 0.0526 0.0522 0.0519 0.0517 0.0515 0.0513 0.0511 0.0509
30 0.0393 0.0382 0.0373 0.0367 0.0362 0.0358 0.0354 0.0351 0.0349 0.0347 0.0345 0.0343 0.0341
38 0.0329 0.0318 0.0310 0.0303 0.0298 0.0294 0.0291 0.0288 0.0285 0.0283 0.0281 0.0279 0.0278
49 0.0274 0.0263 0.0255 0.0249 0.0244 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0.0230 0.0228 0.0226 0.0225 0.0223

1 - Assembly values based on 24 inch on center truss spacing; 11 Truss member connections penetrating insulation (4 at the eaves, 7 in the interior space); inch drywall ceiling; all truss members are 2x4 "C" channels with a solid web.
2 - Ceiling sheathing installed between bottom chord and drywall.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1007, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1008
Section 1008 Air infiltration.

1008.1 General: Tables 10-8 and ((10-9)) 10-8A list effective air change rates and heat capacities for heat loss due to infiltration for Group R occupancy.

Estimated seasonal average infiltration rate in air changes per hour (ACH) is given for standard air-leakage control (see section 502.4 of this code for air leakage requirements for Group R occupancy). The effective air-change rate shall be used in calculations for compliance under either the Component Performance or Systems Analysis approaches.

Heat loss due to infiltration shall be computed using the following equation:


Qinfil= ACHeff* HCP
where: Qinfil = Heat loss due to air infiltration
ACHeff = the effective air infiltration rate in Table 10-8
HCP = the Heat Capacity Density Product for the appropriate elevation or climate zone as given below.


TABLE 10-8

ASSUMED EFFECTIVE AIR CHANGES

PER HOUR

Air-Leakage Air Changes per Hour
Control Package Natural Effective
Standard 0.35 0.35

TABLE ((10-9)) 10-8A

DEFAULT HEAT CAPACITY/DENSITY PRODUCT FOR AIR

Zone Average Elevation Heat Capacity/Density
1 Mean Sea Level 0.0180 Btu/hF
2 2000 0.0168 Btu/hF
3 3000 0.0162 Btu/hF

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1008, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1008, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1009
Section 1009 Mass.


1009.1 General: ((Table)) Tables 10-9 and 10-10 list((s)) default ((mass-values)) mass values for ((residential)) concrete masonry construction ((types)). ((All)) Calculations are based on standard ASHRAE values for heat-storage capacity as listed in Standard ((RS-1)) RS-27, Chapter 24.


Thermal capacity of furniture is ignored, as is heat storage beyond the first four inches of mass thickness. All mass is assumed to be in direct contact with the conditioned space. Concrete separated from the heated volume by other materials must multiply the listed concrete mass value by the result of the following formula:


Ln(R-value) x (-.221)+ 0.5

Where:

Ln= Natural log

R-value= R-value of material covering concrete


Note: All default values for covered concrete slabs have been adjusted according to this procedure.

1009.2 Mass Description: Mass is divided into two types: Structural and additional.

Structural Mass: Includes heat-storage capacity of all standard building components of a typical residential structure, including floors, ceilings, and interior and exterior walls in Btu/ft2F of floor area. It also assumes exterior wall, interior wall and ceiling surface area approximately equals three times the floor area.


Additional Mass: Includes any additional building material not part of the normal structure, which is added specifically to increase the building's thermal-storage capability. This category includes masonry fireplaces, water or trombe walls, and extra layers of sheetrock. Coefficients are in Btu/ft2F of surface area of material exposed to conditioned space. The coefficient for water is Btu/Fgallon.


1009.3 Component Description: Light frame assumes one inch thick wood flooring with five-eighths inch sheetrock on ceilings and interior walls, and walls consisting of either five-eighths inch sheetrock or solid logs. Slab assumes a four-inch concrete slab on or below grade, with five-eighths inch sheetrock on exterior and interior walls and ceiling, and with separate values for interior or exterior wall insulation. Adjustments for slab covering is based on R-value of material. Additional mass values are based on the density multiplied by the specific heat of the material adjusted for listed thickness.


TABLE 10-9

HEAT CAPACITY

Partial Grout Solid Grout
8" CMU 9.65 15.0
12" CMU 14.5 23.6
8" Brick 10.9 16.4
6" Concrete NA 14.4

TABLE 10-10

DEFAULT MASS VALUES

Structural Mass M-value Btu/ft2F floor area
Light Frame:
Joisted/post & beam floor, sheetrock
walls and ceilings 3.0
Joisted/post & beam floor, log walls,
sheetrock ceilings 4.0
Slab With Interior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 10.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 5.0
Slab With Exterior Wall Insulation:
Slab, no covering or tile, sheetrock walls and ceilings 12.0
Slab, hardwood floor covering, sheetrock walls and ceilings 9.0
Slab, carpet and pad, sheetrock walls and ceilings 7.0
Additional Mass M-Value: Btu/ft2F surface area
Gypsum wallboard, 1/2 inch thickness 0.54
Gypsum wallboard, 5/8 inch thickness 0.68
Hardwood floor 1.40
Concrete/Brick, 4 inch-thickness 10.30
Concrete/Brick, 6 inch-thickness 15.40
Btu/Fgallon
Water, 1 gallon 8.0

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1009, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1009, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

CHAPTER 12

DEFINITIONS

Note: For nonresidential definitions, see Chapter 2.


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1132
Alterations and repairs.

Alterations and repairs to buildings or portions thereof originally constructed subject to the requirements of this Code shall conform to the provisions of this Code without the use of the exception in Section 1130. Other alterations and repairs may be made to existing buildings and moved buildings without making the entire building comply with all of the requirements of this Code for new buildings, provided the following requirements are met:


1132.1 Building Envelope: Alterations or repairs shall comply with nominal R-values and glazing requirements in Table 13-1 or 13-2.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Storm windows installed over existing glazing.
2. Glass replaced in existing sash and frame provided that glazing is of equal or lower U-factor.
3. For solar heat gain coefficient compliance, glazing with a solar heat gain coefficient equal to or lower than that of the other existing glazing.
4. Existing roof/ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0 per inch installed per Sections 1311 and 1313.
5. Existing walls and floors without framing cavities, provided that any new cavities added to existing walls and floors comply with Exception 4.
6. Existing roofs where the roof membrane is being replaced and
a. The roof sheathing or roof insulation is not exposed; or
b. If there is existing roof insulation below the deck.
In no case shall the energy efficiency of the building be decreased.

1132.2 Building Mechanical Systems: Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Chapter 14 of this Code.


1132.3 Lighting and Motors: Tenant improvements, alterations or repairs where 60 percent or more of the fixtures in a use (as defined in Table 15-1) within a tenant space or in an entire floor (whichever is smaller) are new shall comply with Sections 1531 and 1532. Where less than 60 percent of the fixtures are new, the installed lighting wattage shall be maintained or reduced. Where 60 percent or more of the lighting fixtures in a suspended ceiling are new, and the existing insulation is on the suspended ceiling, the roof/ceiling assembly shall be insulated according to the provisions of Chapter 13 Section 1311.2.


Where new wiring is being installed to serve added fixtures and/or fixtures are being relocated to a new circuit, controls shall comply with Sections 1513.1 through 1513.5. Where a new lighting panel (or a moved lighting panel) with all new raceway and conductor wiring from the panel to the fixtures is being installed, controls shall comply with Section 1513.6.


Those motors which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section 1511.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1132, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1132, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1312
Glazing and doors.


1312.1 Standard Procedure for Determination of Glazing and Door U-Factors: U-Factors for glazing and doors shall be determined, certified and labeled in accordance with Standard RS-31 by a certified independent agency licensed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). Compliance shall be based on the Residential or the Nonresidential Model Size. Product samples used for U-factor determinations shall be production line units or representative of units as purchased by the consumer or contractor. Unlabeled glazing and doors shall be assigned the default U-factor in Section 2006.


EXCEPTION: Field glazed site built fenestration systems U-factors determined by an NFRC accredited simulation laboratory are acceptable. Simulations shall be done in accordance with NFRC Standard 100. Simulation reports shall be submitted with building permit submittal.


1312.2 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient and Shading Coefficient: Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), shall be determined, certified and labelled in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Standard by a certified, independent agency, licensed by the NFRC.


EXCEPTION: Shading coefficients (SC) shall be an acceptable alternate for compliance with solar heat gain coefficient requirements. Shading coefficients for glazing shall be taken from Chapter 29 of RS-27 or from the manufacturer's test data.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1312, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1312, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1313
Moisture control.


1313.1 Vapor Retarders: Vapor retarders shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) of insulation as required by this section.


EXCEPTION: Vapor retarder installed with not more than 1/3 of the nominal R-value between it and the conditioned space.

1313.2 Roof/Ceiling Assemblies: Roof/ceiling assemblies where the ventilation space above the insulation is less than an average of twelve inches shall be provided with a vapor retarder. (For enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces see Section 1505.3 of the Washington State Building Code.) Roof/ceiling assemblies without a vented airspace, allowed only where neither the roof deck nor the roof structure are made of wood, shall provide a continuous vapor retarder with taped seams.


EXCEPTION: Vapor retarders need not be provided where all of the insulation is installed between the roof membrane and the structural roof deck.

1313.3 Walls: Walls separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.4 Floors: Floors separating conditioned space from unconditioned space shall be provided with a vapor retarder.


1313.5 Crawl Spaces: A ground cover of six mil (0.006 inch thick) black polyethylene or approved equal shall be laid over the ground within crawl spaces. The ground cover shall be overlapped twelve inches minimum at the joints and shall extend to the foundation wall.


EXCEPTION: The ground cover may be omitted in crawl spaces if the crawl space has a concrete slab floor with a minimum thickness of three and one-half inches.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1313, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1322
Opaque envelope.

Roof/ceilings, opaque exterior walls, opaque doors, floors over unconditioned space, below grade walls, slab on grade floors, and radiant floors enclosing conditioned spaces shall be insulated according to Section 1311 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. Compliance with nominal R-values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only. Nominal R-values shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films.


For metal frame assemblies used in spaces with electric resistance space heat, compliance shall be demonstrated with the component U-factor for the overall assembly based on the assemblies in Chapter 10.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Opaque smoke vents are not required to meet insulation requirements.
2. The perimeter edge of an above grade floor slab which penetrates the exterior wall may be left uninsulated provided that the wall insulation is increased by R-2 above that required in Tables 13-1 and 13-2.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1322, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1323
Glazing.

Glazing shall comply with Section 1312 and Tables 13-1 or 13-2. All glazing shall be, at a minimum, double glazing.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Vertical glazing located on the display side of the street level story of a retail occupancy provided the glazing ((is double-glazed with a minimum 1/2 inch airspace and))
a. is double-glazed with a minimum 1/2 inch airspace and with a low-e coating having a maximum emittance of e-0.40 or has an area weighted U-factor of 0.60 or less. (When this exception is used, there are no SHGC requirements) and,
b. does not exceed 75 percent of the gross exterior wall area of the ((street level story which does not exceed 20 feet in height.)) display side of the street level story. However, if the display side of the street level story exceeds 20 feet in height, then this exception may only be used for the first 20 feet of that story.
When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. The 75 percent area may be exceeded on the street level, if the additional glass area is provided from allowances from other areas of the building.
2. Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area, U-factor calculation and SHGC as allowed in the Tables 13-1 or 13-2. The maximum area allowed for the total of all single glazing is one percent of the gross exterior wall floor area.

1323.1 Area: The percentage of total glazing (vertical and overhead) area relative to the gross exterior wall area shall not be greater than the appropriate value from Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical glazing U-factor, overhead glazing U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient selected.


1323.2 U-Factor: The area-weighted average U-factor of vertical glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. The area-weighted average U-factor of overhead glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and solar heat gain coefficient. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.


1323.3 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient: The area-weighted average solar heat gain coefficient of all glazing shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate area and U-factor.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1323, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1323, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1331
General.

Buildings or structures whose design heat loss rate (UAp) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*Ap) are less than or equal to the target heat loss rate (UAt) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC*At) shall be considered in compliance with this section. The stated U-factor, F-factor or allowable area of any component assembly, listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall, opaque door, glazing, floor over conditioned space, slab on grade floor, radiant floor or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor or F-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors, F-factors or allowable areas specified in this section.


EXCEPTION: For buildings or structures utilizing the other space heat type (including heat pumps and VAV) compliance path, for the gross opaque wall, opaque door and glazing (vertical and overhead) area only, compliance may also be shown using the ENVSTD diskette version 2.1 ((or later of Standard RS-9)) of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989, or an approved alternative, with the following additional requirements:
1. Only the Exterior Wall Requirements portion of the ENVSTD computer program may be used under this exception.
2. Overhead glazing shall be added to vertical glazing, and shall be input as 1/4 north, 1/4 east, 1/4 south and 1/4 west facing.
3. Lighting loads shall be determined according to Table 15-1.
4. Equipment loads shall be determined from Table 3-1 of Standard RS-29.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1331, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1331, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1334
Solar heat gain coefficient rate calculations.

Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Section 1323.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equation 13-3 and 13-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

Equation 13-1:

Target UA[t]

UAt = UratArat + UogratAograt + UortAort + UogortAogort + UwtAwt + UvgtAvgt + UdtAdt + UftAft + FstPst + UbgwtAbgwt
UAt = The target combined specific heat transfer of the gross roof/ceiling assembly, exterior wall and floor area.
Where:
Urat = The thermal transmittance value for roofs over attics found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uograt = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uort = The thermal transmittance value for other roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uogort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uvgt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Udt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque doors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uft = The thermal transmittance value for floors over unconditioned space found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Fst = The F-factor for slab-on-grade and radiant slab floors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Ubgwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Adt = The proposed opaque door area, Ad.
Aft = The proposed floor over unconditioned space area, Af.
Pst = The proposed lineal feet of slab-on-grade and radiant slab floor perimeter, Ps.
Abgwt = The proposed below grade wall area, Abgw.
and;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area does not exceed the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2:
Arat = The proposed roof over attic area, Ara.
Aograt = The proposed overhead glazing area in roofs over attics, Aogra.
Aort = The proposed other roof area, Aor.
Aogort = The proposed overhead glazing area in other roofs, Aogor.
Awt = The proposed opaque above grade wall area, Aw.
Avgt = The proposed vertical glazing area, Avg.
or;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area exceeds the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2:
Arat = The greater of:

the proposed roof over attic area, and

the gross roof over attic area minus Aograt.

Aograt = The lesser of:

proposed overhead glazing area in roofs over attics, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

Aort = The greater of:

the proposed other roof area, and

the gross other roof area minus Aogort.

Aogort = The lesser of:

the proposed overhead glazing area in other roofs, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2 minus Aograt.

Awt = The greater of:

proposed opaque above grade wall area, and

the gross exterior above grade wall area minus Adt minus Avgt.

Avgt = The lesser of:

the proposed vertical glazing area, and

the maximum allowed glazing area from Table 13-1 or 13-2 minus Aograt minus Aogort.

EQUATION 13-2

Proposed UAp

UAp = UraAra+UorAor+UogAog+UwAw+UdAd+UvgAvg+UfAf+FsPs+UbgwAbgw
Where:
UAp = The combined proposed specific heat transfer of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
Ura = The thermal transmittance of the roof over attic area.
Ara = Opaque roof over attic area.
Uor = The thermal transmittance of the other roof area.
Aor = Opaque other roof area.
Uog = The thermal transmittance for the overhead glazing
Aog = Overhead glazing area.
Uw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque wall area.
Aw = Opaque above grade wall area (not including opaque doors).
Uvg = The thermal transmittance of the vertical glazing area.
Avg = Vertical glazing area.
Ud = The thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area.
Ad = Opaque door area.
Uf = The thermal transmittance of the floor over unconditioned space area.
Af = Floor area over unconditioned space.
Fs = Slab-on-grade or radiant floor component F-factor.
Ps = Lineal feet of slab-on-grade or radiant floor perimeter.
Ubgw = The thermal transmittance value of the below grade wall area.
Abgw = Below grade wall area as defined in Tables 13-1 or 13-2.
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into sub-elements as:
Uw1Aw1+Uw2Aw2+Uw3Aw3+...etc.

EQUATION 13-3


Target SHGCAt

SHGCAt = SHGCt (Aograt + Aogort + Avgt)
Where:
SHGCAt = The target combined specific heat gain of the target glazing area.
SHGCt = The solar heat gain coefficient for glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area, and
Aograt , Aogort , and Avgt are defined under Equation 13-1.

EQUATION 13-4


Proposed SHGCAp

SHGCAp = SHGCogAog + SHGCvgAvg
Where:
SHGCAt = The combined proposed specific heat gain of the proposed glazing area.
SHGCog = The solar heat gain coefficient of the overhead glazing.
Aog = The overhead glazing area.
SHGCvg = The solar heat gain coefficient of the vertical glazing.
Avg = The vertical glazing area.


TABLE 13-1

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS FOR CLIMATE ZONE 1

MINIMUM INSULATION R-VALUES OR

MAXIMUM COMPONENT U-FACTORS FOR ZONE 1



Building Components

Space Heat Type Components
Roofs

Over

Attic

All Other Roofs Opaque Walls1,2 Opaque Doors Floor

Over

Uncond

Space

Slab On Grade5
1. Electric resistance heat

R-38 or U=0.031 R-30 or U=0.034 R-19 or U=0.062((3)) U=0.60 R-30 or U=0.029 R-10 or

F=0.54

2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV R-30 or U=0.036 R-21 or U=0.050 R-11 or U=0.14 U=0.60 R-19 or U=0.056 R-10 or

F=0.54


* Compliance with nominal prescriptive R-values requires wood framing.

MAXIMUM GLAZING AREAS AND U-FACTORS AND

MAXIMUM GLAZING SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENTS

FOR ZONE 1



Glazing

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 15% >15% to 20% >20% to 30% >30% to 40%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.65 0.50 1.25 0.45

Footnotes
1. Below Grade Walls:
When complying by the prescriptive approach, Section 1322:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use opaque wall values,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation,
c) those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and not included in the gross exterior wall area, may be left uninsulated.

When complying by the component performance approach, Section 1331:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use the opaque wall values when determining Ubgwt,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a target U-factor of U=0.070 for Ubgwt,
c) those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and not included in the gross exterior wall area, need not be included when determining Abgwt and Abgw.

2. Concrete Masonry Walls: If the area weighted heat capacity of the total opaque above grade wall is a minimum of 9.0 Btu/ft2 F, then the U-factor may be increased to 0.19 for interior insulation and 0.25 for integral and exterior insulation for insulation position as defined in Chapter 12. Individual walls with heat capacities less than 9.0 Btu/ft2 F and below grade walls shall meet opaque wall requirements listed above. Glazing shall comply with the following:

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0 to 10 % >10 to 15 % >15% to 20 % >20% to 25 %
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.65 1.30 0.80 0.60 1.30 0.65

3. ((Metal Stud Walls: For metal stud construction U=0.11.)) Reserved.
4. SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient per Section 1312.2): May substitute Maximum Shading Coefficient (SC) for SHGC (See Section 1210 for definition of Shading Coefficient).
5. Radiant Floors: Where insulation is required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation or F=0.55 maximum. Where insulation is not required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use R-10 perimeter insulation according to Section 1311.6 or F=0.78 maximum.


TABLE 13-2

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

FOR CLIMATE ZONE 2

MINIMUM INSULATION R-VALUES OR

MAXIMUM COMPONENT U-FACTORS FOR ZONE 2



Building Components

Space Heat Type Components
Roofs

Over

Attic

All Other Roofs Opaque Walls1,2 Opaque Doors Floor

Over

Uncond

Space

Slab On Grade
1. Electric resistance heat

R-38 or U=0.031 R-30 or U=0.034 R-24 or U=0.044((3)) U=0.60 R-30 or U=0.029 R-10 or

F=0.54

2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV R-38 or U=0.031 R-25 or U=0.040 R-19 or U=0.11 U=0.60 R-21 or U=0.047 R-10 or

F=0.54


* Compliance with nominal prescriptive R-values requires wood framing.

MAXIMUM GLAZING AREAS AND U-FACTORS AND

MAXIMUM GLAZING SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENTS

FOR ZONE 2



Glazing

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0% to 15% >15% to 20% >20% to 25% >25% to 30%
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 PRESCRIPTIVE PATH NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.75 1.40 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.60 0.50 1.25 0.50

Footnotes
1. Below Grade Walls:
When complying by the prescriptive approach, Section 1322:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use opaque wall values,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a minimum of R-12 insulation,
c) those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and not included in the gross exterior wall area, may be left uninsulated.

When complying by the component performance approach, Section 1331:
a) walls insulated on the interior shall use the opaque wall values when determining Ubgwt,
b) walls insulated on the exterior shall use a target U-factor of U=0.061 for Ubgwt,
c) those portions of below grade walls and footings that are more than 10 feet below grade, and not included in the gross exterior wall area, need not be included when determining Abgwt and Abgw.

2. Concrete Masonry Walls: If the area weighted heat capacity of the total opaque above grade wall is a minimum of 9.0 Btu/ft2 F, then the U-factor may be increased to 0.19 for interior insulation and 0.25 for integral and exterior insulation for insulation position as defined in Chapter 12. Individual walls with heat capacities less than 9.0 Btu/ft2 F and below grade walls shall meet opaque wall requirements listed above. Glazing shall comply with the following:

Maximum Glazing

Area as % of Wall

0 to 5 % >5 to 7 % >7% to 10 % >10% to 15 %
Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4 Maximum

U-Factor

Max. SHGC4
VG OG VG OG VG OG VG OG
1. Electric resistance heat 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 0.40 0.80 1.0 NOT ALLOWED
2. All others including Heat pumps and VAV 0.90 1.45 1.0 0.60 1.30 0.70 0.50 1.25 0.50 0.40 0.80 0.40

3. ((Metal Stud Walls: For metal stud construction U=0.10.)) Reserved.
4. SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient per Section 1312.2): May substitute Maximum Shading Coefficient (SC) for SHGC (See Section 1210 for definition of Shading Coefficient).
5. Radiant Floors: Where insulation is required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use a minimum of R-10 insulation or F=0.55 maximum. Where insulation is not required under the entire slab, radiant floors shall use R-10 perimeter insulation according to Section 1311.6 or F=0.78 maximum.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1334, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1334, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1401
Scope.

This section covers the determination of requirements, system and component performance, control requirements and duct construction.


((EXCEPTION: Special applications, including but not limited to hospitals, laboratories, thermally sensitive equipment, and rooms designed to comply with the special construction and fire protection requirements of NFPA 75, "Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment" may be exempt from the requirements of this section when approved by the building official. Exemptions shall be specific on a case-by-case basis and allowed only to the extent necessary to accommodate the special applications.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1401, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1410
General requirements.

The building mechanical system shall comply with Sections 1411 through 1415, Sections 1440 through 1442 and Sections 1450 through 1454, and with one of the following paths:


a. Simple Systems (Packaged Unitary Equipment) Sections 1420 through 1424.

b. Complex Systems Sections 1430 through 1438.

c. Systems Analysis. See Section 1141.4.

FIGURE 14A

Mechanical Systems Compliance Paths

Section

Number

Subject Simple

Systems

Path

Complex

Systems

Path

Systems

Analysis

Option

1410 General Requirements X X X
1411 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements X X X
1412 Controls X X X
1413 Air Economizers X X X
1414 Ducting Systems X X X
1415 Piping Systems X X X
1416 Completion Requirements X X X
1420 Simple Systems (Packaged Unitary Equipment) X
1421 System Type X
1422 Controls X
1423 Economizers X
1424 Separate Air Distribution Systems X
1430 Complex Systems X
1431 System Type X
1432 Controls X
1433 Economizers X
1434 Separate Air Distribution Systems X
1435 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling X
1436 Heat Recovery X
1437 Electric Motor Efficiency X
1438 Variable Flow Systems X
RS-29 Systems Analysis X
1440 Service Water Heating X X X
1441 Water Heater Installation X X X
1442 Shut Off Controls X X X
1450 Heated Pools X X X
1451 General X X X
1452 Pool Water Heaters X X X
1453 Controls X X X
1454 Pool Covers X X X

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1410, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1411
HVAC equipment performance requirements.


1411.1 General: Equipment shall have a minimum performance at the specified rating conditions not less than the values shown in Tables 14-1 through 14-3. If a certification program exists for a product covered in Tables 14-1 through 14-3, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program.


1411.2 Rating Conditions: Cooling equipment shall be rated at ARI test conditions and procedures when available. Where no applicable procedures exist, data shall be furnished by the equipment manufacturer.


1411.3 Combination Space and Service Water Heating: For combination space and service water heaters with a principal function of providing space heat, the Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) may be calculated by using ASHRAE Standard 124-1991. Storage water heaters used in combination space heat and water heat applications shall have either an Energy Factor (EF) or a Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE) of not less than the following:


Energy Factor

(EF)

Combined Annual Efficiency (CAE)
< 50 gallon storage 0.58 0.71
50 to 70 gallon storage 0.57 0.71
> 70 gallon storage 0.55 0.70

1411.4 Packaged Electric Heating and Cooling Equipment: Packaged electric equipment providing both heating and cooling with a total cooling capacity greater than 20,000 Btu/h shall be a heat pump.


EXCEPTION: Unstaffed equipment shelters or cabinets used solely for personal wireless service facilities.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1411, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1411, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1412
Controls.


1412.1 Temperature Controls: Each system shall be provided with at least one temperature control device. Each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls responding to temperature within the zone. At a minimum, each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone.


1412.2 Deadband Controls: When used to control both comfort heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be capable of a deadband of at least 5 degrees F within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a minimum.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Special occupancy, special usage, or code requirements where deadband controls are not appropriate.
2. Buildings complying with Section 1141.4, if in the proposed building energy analysis, heating and cooling thermostat setpoints are set to the same temperature between 70 degrees F and 75 degrees F inclusive, and assumed to be constant throughout the year.
3. Thermostats that require manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.
1412.3 Humidity Controls: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture, a humidistat shall be provided.


1412.4 Setback and Shut-Off: HVAC systems shall be equipped with automatic controls capable of accomplishing a reduction of energy use through control setback or equipment shutdown during periods of non-use or alternate use of the spaces served by the system. The automatic controls shall have a minimum seven-day clock and be capable of being set for seven different day types per week.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation at the same temperature setpoint.
2. Equipment with full load demands of 2 Kw (6,826 Btu/h) or less may be controlled by readily accessible manual off-hour controls.
1412.4.1 Dampers: Outside air intakes, exhaust outlets and relief outlets serving conditioned spaces shall be equipped with motorized dampers which close automatically when the system is off or upon power failure. Stair and elevator shaft vents shall be equipped with motorized dampers that are capable of being automatically closed during normal building operation and are interlocked to open as required by fire and smoke detection systems.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation.
2. Combustion air intakes.
3. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers are acceptable in buildings less than 40 feet above finished grade in height.

1412.4.2 Optimum Start Controls: Heating and cooling systems with design supply air capacities exceeding 10,000 cfm shall have optimum start controls. Optimum start controls shall be designed to automatically adjust the start time of an HVAC system each day to bring the space to desired occupied temperature levels immediately before scheduled occupancy. The control algorithm shall, as a minimum, be a function of the difference between space temperature and occupied setpoint and the amount of time prior to scheduled occupancy.


1412.5 Heat Pump Controls: Unitary air cooled heat pumps shall include microprocessor controls that minimize supplemental heat usage during start-up, set-up, and defrost conditions. These controls shall anticipate need for heat and use compression heating as the first stage of heat. Controls shall indicate when supplemental heating is being used through visual means (e.g., LED indicators).


1412.6 Combustion Heating Equipment Controls: Combustion heating equipment with a capacity over 225,000 Btu/h shall have modulating or staged combustion control.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Boilers.
2. Radiant heaters.
1412.7 Balancing: Each air supply outlet or air or water terminal device shall have a means for balancing, including but not limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.


1412.8 Enclosed Parking Garage Ventilation Controls: Garage ventilation fan systems with a total capacity greater than 30,000 cfm shall have both (a) and (b). Smaller systems shall have either (a) or (b).


a. An automatic control, with one or more sensors, that is capable of staging fans or modulating fan volume as required to maintain carbon monoxide (CO) concentration below a level of 50 ppm as stated in ASHRAE Standard 62. This option only applies to garages used predominantly by gasoline powered vehicles.


b. An automatic control that is capable of shutting off fans or reducing fan volume during periods when the garage is not in use. The system shall be equipped with at least one of the following:


i. An automatic timeclock that can start and stop the system under different schedules for seven different day-types per week, is capable of retaining programming and time setting during loss of power for a period of at least 10 h, and includes an accessible manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 h.


ii. An occupant sensor.


See the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code, Section 304.1, for other requirements for parking garage ventilation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1412, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1412, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1414
Ducting systems.


1414.1 Sealing: Duct work which is designed to operate at pressures above 1/2 inch water column static pressure shall be sealed in accordance with Standard RS-18. Extent of sealing required is as follows:


1. Static pressure: 1/2 inch to 2 inches; seal transverse joints.
2. Static pressure: 2 inches to 3 inches; seal all transverse joints and longitudinal seams.
3. Static pressure: Above 3 inches; seal all transverse joints, longitudinal seams and duct wall penetrations.

Duct tape and other pressure sensitive tape shall not be used as the primary sealant where ducts are designed to operate at static pressures of 1 inch W.C. or greater.


1414.2 Insulation: Ducts and plenums that are constructed and function as part of the building envelope, by separating interior space from exterior space, shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 13. These requirements include insulation installation, moisture control, air leakage, and building envelope insulation levels. Unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers must be isolated from the conditioned space by insulating interior surfaces to a minimum of R-11 and any exterior envelope surfaces per Chapter 13. Outside air ducts serving individual supply air units with less than 2,800 cfm of total supply air capacity shall be insulated to a minimum of R-7 and are not considered building envelope. Other outside air duct runs are considered building envelope until they,

1. connect to the heating or cooling equipment, or

2. are isolated from the exterior with an automatic shut-off damper complying with Section 1412.4.1.

Once outside air ducts meet the above listed requirements, any runs within conditioned space ((must)) shall comply with Table 14-5 requirements.

Other ducts and plenums shall be thermally insulated per Table 14-5.


EXCEPTIONS:

1. Within the HVAC equipment.
2. Exhaust air ducts not subject to condensation.


OPTION 1:


3. Exposed ductwork within a ((space)) zone that serves that ((space only)) zone.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1414, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1414, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1414
Ducting systems.


1414.1 Sealing: Duct work which is designed to operate at pressures above 1/2 inch water column static pressure shall be sealed in accordance with Standard RS-18. Extent of sealing required is as follows:


1. Static pressure: 1/2 inch to 2 inches; seal transverse joints.
2. Static pressure: 2 inches to 3 inches; seal all transverse joints and longitudinal seams.
3. Static pressure: Above 3 inches; seal all transverse joints, longitudinal seams and duct wall penetrations.

Duct tape and other pressure sensitive tape shall not be used as the primary sealant where ducts are designed to operate at static pressures of 1 inch W.C. or greater.


1414.2 Insulation: Ducts and plenums that are constructed and function as part of the building envelope, by separating interior space from exterior space, shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 13. These requirements include insulation installation, moisture control, air leakage, and building envelope insulation levels. Unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers must be isolated from the conditioned space by insulating interior surfaces to a minimum of R-11 and any exterior envelope surfaces per Chapter 13. Outside air ducts serving individual supply air units with less than 2,800 cfm of total supply air capacity shall be insulated to a minimum of R-7 and are not considered building envelope. Other outside air duct runs are considered building envelope until they,

1. connect to the heating or cooling equipment, or

2. are isolated from the exterior with an automatic shut-off damper complying with Section 1412.4.1.

Once outside air ducts meet the above listed requirements, any runs within conditioned space ((must)) shall comply with Table 14-5 requirements.

Other ducts and plenums shall be thermally insulated per Table 14-5.


EXCEPTIONS:

1. Within the HVAC equipment.
2. Exhaust air ducts not subject to condensation.


OPTION 2:


3. Exposed ductwork within a ((space)) zone that serves that ((space)) zone only.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1414, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1414, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1415
Piping systems.


1415.1 Insulation: Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 14-6.


Exception: Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.


Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter 51-26 WAC).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1415, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-1416
Completion requirements.


1416.1 Drawings: Construction documents shall require that within 90 days after the date of system acceptance, record drawings of the actual installation be provided to the building owner. Record drawings shall include as a minimum the location and performance data on each piece of equipment, general configuration of duct and pipe distribution system, including sizes, and the terminal air and water design flow rates.


1416.2 Manuals: Construction documents shall require an operating manual and maintenance manual be provided to the building owner. The manual shall be in accordance with industry accepted standards and shall include, at a minimum, the following:


1. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.


2. Operation and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.


3. Names and addresses of at least one service agency.


4. HVAC controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field determined set points shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices, or, for digital control systems, in programming comments.


5. A complete narrative of how each system is intended to operate including suggested set points.


1416.3 System Balancing


1416.3.1 General: Construction documents shall require that all HVAC systems be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within 10% of design rates, except variable flow distribution systems need not be balanced upstream of the controlling device (for example, VAV box or control valve). Construction documents shall require a written balance report be provided to the owner.


1416.3.2 Air System Balancing: Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp, fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.


1416.3.3 Hydronic System Balancing: Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the ability to measure pressure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 10 hp or less.
2. When throttling results in no greater than 5% of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed.

1416.4 Systems Commissioning


1416.4.1 Simple Systems: For simple systems, as defined in Section 1421, and for warehouses and semiheated spaces, HVAC control systems shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accord with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accord with approved plans and specifications. A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner. Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this paragraph.


1416.4.2 Other Systems: All other HVAC control systems, and other automatically controlled systems for which energy consumption, performance, or mode of operation are regulated by this code, shall be tested to ensure that control devices, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accord with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accord with approved plans and specifications.


1416.4.2.1 Documentation: Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this section. Drawing notes may refer to specifications for further commissioning requirements. Plans and specifications shall require tests mandated by this section be performed and the results recorded. Plans and specifications shall require preparation of preliminary and final reports of test procedures and results as described in 1416.4.2.2. Plans and specifications shall identify the following for each test:


1. Equipment and systems to be tested, including the extent of sampling tests,


2. Functions to be tested (for example calibration, economizer control, etc.),


3. Conditions under which the test shall be performed (for example winter design conditions, full outside air, etc.),


4. Measurable criteria for acceptable performance.


1416.4.2.2 Commissioning Reports


1416.4.2.2.1 Preliminary Commissioning Report: A preliminary commissioning report of test procedures and results shall be prepared. The preliminary report shall identify:


1. Deficiencies found during testing required by this section which have not been corrected at the time of report preparation and the anticipated date of correction.


2. Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.


3. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests, and the anticipated date of each deferred test.


1416.4.2.2.2 Final Commissioning Report: A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner.


1416.4.2.3 Acceptance: Buildings or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section, shall not be issued a final certificate of occupancy until such time that the building official determines that the preliminary commissioning report required by this section has been completed.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1423
Economizers.

Economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be installed on single package unitary fan-cooling units having a supply capacity of greater than 1,900 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/h.


The total capacity of all units without economizers shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of its aggregate cooling (economizer) capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizer in a building.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1423, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1423, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1433
Economizers.

Economizers meeting the requirements of Section 1413 shall be installed on the following systems:


a. Single package unitary fan-cooling units with a supply capacity of greater than 1,900 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 54,000 Btu/h.
b. Other individual fan-cooling units with a supply capacity of greater than 2,800 cfm or a total cooling capacity greater than 84,000 Btu/h.

The total capacity of all units smaller than a. or b. above without economizers installed after July 1, 1994, shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building, or 10% of it's aggregate cooling (((economizer))) capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizer in a building.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Systems with air or evaporatively cooled condensers and that either one of the following ((can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the enforcing agency)):
a. Special outside air filtration and treatment, for the reduction and treatment of unusual outdoor contaminants, makes an air economizer infeasible.
b. The use of outdoor air cooling affects the operation of other systems (such as ((humidification, dehumidification, and)) supermarket refrigeration systems) so as to increase the overall building energy consumption.
2. Systems for which at least 75 percent of the annual energy used for mechanical cooling is provided from site-recovery or site-solar energy source.
3. A ((water)) liquid (e.g. water, glycol, etc.) economizer system, which is capable of cooling supply air by indirect evaporation. Such a system shall be designed and capable of being controlled to provide 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 50 degrees F dry-bulb/45 degrees F wet-bulb and below. For this calculation, all factors including solar and internal load shall be the same as those used for peak load calculations, except for the outside air temperatures.
4. Systems in which a liquid (e.g. water, glycol, etc.) economizer system is used and where dehumidification requirements cannot be met using outside air temperatures of 50F dry-bulb / 45F wet-bulb, but which satisfy 100% of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 45F dry-bulb / 40F wet-bulb as calculated in accordance with the procedures in Exception 3.
5. For spaces with a design heat-generating equipment load of greater than 30 Watts/ft2 (such as electronic data centers), systems that utilize a liquid (e.g. water, glycol, etc.) for heat rejection and incorporate a liquid economizer circuit (such as a supplemental cooling coil or plate exchanger). Such a system shall be designed and capable of being controlled to provide 100% of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 35F dry-bulb and below. For this calculation, all factors including solar and internal load shall be the same as those used for peak load calculations, except for the outside air temperatures.
6. For spaces with a design heat-generating equipment load of greater than 30 Watts/ft2 (such as electronic data centers), systems with equipment having a refrigeration performance at standard rating conditions at least 15% higher than each of the applicable requirements (e.g. EER, IPLV, COP) in Tables 14-1 and 14-2.
7. Systems serving office buildings (90% minimum conditioned square footage is office occupancy) and complying with all of the following criteria:
a. Consist of multiple water source heat pumps connected to a common water loop having a gas- or oil-fired central boiler or furnace providing heat to the loop and having a central cooling tower providing cooling to the loop,
b. Have a minimum of 60% air economizer,
c. Have water source heat pumps with an EER at least 15% higher for cooling than each of the applicable requirements (e.g. EER, IPLV, COP) in Tables 14-1 and 14-2,
d. Have a gas- or oil-fired central boiler or furnace efficiency of 90% minimum, and
e. Provide heat recovery with a minimum 50% heat recovery effectiveness to preheat the outside air supply, and with a bypass duct to remove the heat recovery coil from the airstream when heat recovery is not necessary. Fifty percent heat recovery effectiveness shall mean an increase in the outside air supply temperature at design heating conditions of one half the difference between the outdoor design air temperature and 65F. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the heat recovery system to permit air economizer operation as required by Section 1433. Heat recovery energy may be provided from any site-recovered or site-solar source.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1433, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1433, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1435
Simultaneous heating and cooling.

Systems which provide heating and cooling simultaneously to a zone are prohibited. Zone thermostatic and humidistatic controls shall be capable of operating in sequence the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone. Such controls shall prevent:


a. Reheating for temperature control.
b. Recooling for temperature control.
c. Mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously mechanically heated and air that has been previously cooled, either by economizer systems((, for all air in excess of that required by the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code (WAC 51-13))) or by mechanical refrigeration.
d. Other simultaneous operation of heating and cooling systems to the same zone.
e. Reheating for humidity control.

EXCEPTIONS:

((1. Variable air volume systems which have fan-powered terminal units on the perimeter zones controlled to utilize plenum heat prior to new energy being used for morning warm-up; and which, during periods of occupancy, are designed to reduce the air supply to each zone to a minimum before reheating, recooling, or mixing takes place. The minimum volume of air from the main supply duct shall be no greater than the minimum required to meet ventilation requirements of the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code (WAC 51-13).
2. Zones having special pressurization relationships or cross-contamination requirements.
3. Where at least 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered or site-solar energy source.
4. Zones where specific humidity levels are required.
5. Zones with a peak supply air quantity of 300 cfm or less.))
1. Zones for which the volume of air that is reheated, recooled, or mixed is no greater than the larger of the following:
i. The volume of air required to meet the ventilation requirements of the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code for the zone. For variable air volume systems, the minimum volume controller shall be certified by the manufacturer to be able to maintain this minimum flow rate within 10%. A copy of the manufacturer's certification, along with installation and calibration requirements shall be included with plans submitted for permit.
ii. 0.4 cfm/ft2 of the zone conditioned floor area, provided that the temperature of the primary system air is, by design or through reset controls, 0-12F below the design space heating temperature when outside air temperatures are below 60F for reheat systems and the cold deck of mixing systems and 0-12F above design space temperature when outside air temperatures are above 60F for recooling systems and the hot deck of mixing systems. For multiple zone systems, each zone need not comply with this exception provided the average of all zones served by the system that have both heating and cooling ability comply.
iii. 300 cfm. This exception is for zones whose peak flow rate totals no more than 10% of the total fan system flow rate.
iv. Any higher rate that can be demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the building official, to reduce overall system annual energy usage by offsetting reheat/recool energy losses through a reduction in outdoor air intake in accordance with the multiple space requirements defined in ASHRAE Standard 62.
2. Zones where special pressurization relationships, cross-contamination requirements, or code-required minimum circulation rates are such that variable air volume systems are impractical.
3. Zones where at least 75% of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered (including condenser heat) or site solar energy source.
4. Zones where specific humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs, such as computer rooms, museums, surgical suites, and buildings with refrigerating systems, such as supermarkets, refrigerated warehouses, and ice arenas.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1435, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

OPTION 1:
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1438
Variable flow systems and system criteria.

For fans and pumps greater than 10 horsepower, where the application involves variable flow, there shall be

1. variable frequency drives or ((variable flow devices installed. Acceptable variable flow devices include variable inlet vanes, variable blade pitch, and variable fan geometry. Throttling))

2. other controls and devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 0.45 HP/1000 CFM at 50% of design air volume for fans when static pressure set point equals 1/3 of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer's test data; and 30% of design wattage at 50% of design water flow for pumps, based on manufacturer's test data. Variable inlet vanes, throttling valves (dampers), scroll dampers or bypass circuits shall not be allowed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1438, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

OPTION 2:
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1438
Variable flow systems and system criteria.

For fans and pumps greater than 10 horsepower, where the application involves variable flow, there shall be

1. variable frequency drives or ((variable flow devices installed. Acceptable variable flow devices include variable inlet vanes, variable blade pitch, and variable fan geometry. Throttling valves (dampers), scroll dampers or bypass circuits shall not be allowed.))

2. other controls and devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 0.45 HP/1000 CFM at 50% of design air volume for fans when static pressure set point equals 1/3 of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer's test data; and 30% of design wattage at 50% of design water flow for pumps, based on manufacturer's test data.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1438, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-1439
Exhaust hoods.


1439.1 Kitchen Hoods. Individual kitchen exhaust hoods larger than 5000 cfm shall be provided with make-up air sized so that at least 50% of exhaust air volume be (a) unheated or heated to no more than 60F and (b) uncooled or cooled without the use of mechanical cooling.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Where hoods are used to exhaust ventilation air which would otherwise exfiltrate or be exhausted by other fan systems.
2. Certified grease extractor hoods that require a face velocity no greater than 60 fpm.

1439.2 Fume Hoods. Each fume hood in buildings with fume hood systems having a total exhaust rate greater than 15,000 cfm shall include at least one of the following features:

(a) Variable air volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and make-up air volume to 50% or less of design values.

(b) Direct make-up (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75% of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2F below room set point, cooled to no cooler than 3F above room set point, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.

(c) Heat recovery systems to precondition make-up air in accordance with Section 1436, without using any exception.

(d) Constant volume fume hood designed and installed to operate at less than 50 fpm face velocity.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-1443
Pipe insulation.

Piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Section 1415.1.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1454
Pool covers.

Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90 degrees F shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.


TABLE 14-1

Standard Rating Conditions and Minimum Performance for

Air Cooled Unitary Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners,

Warm Air Furnaces, Duct Furnaces and Unit Heaters



Equipment Type &

Rating

Category Sub-category &

Rating Conditions

Minimum Rating Standard
Steady State Seasonal or Part

Load

Air Conditioners

and Heat Pumps

Cooling

Ratings

(()) <65,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Split Systems

Single Package

NA

NA

10.0 SEER

9.7 SEER

ARI 210/240-

((1989)) 94

((>)) >65,000 and

(()) <135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

((All Unitary))

Air Conditioners

((Standard Ratings:)) Heat Pumps

((8.9)) 10.3 EER

((95F db)) 10.1 EER

((8.3)) 10.6 IPLV

((80 F db)) 10.4 IPLV

((>)) >135,000 and

((≤760,000)) <240,000 Btu/h1

Cooling Capacity

Air Conditioners

Heat Pumps

((8.5)) 9.7 EER

((8.5)) 9.3 EER

((7.5)) 9.9 IPLV

((7.5)) 9.5 IPLV

ARI 340/360-

((1986)) 93

ARI 240/360-93

>240,000 and <760,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Air Conditioners

Heat Pumps

9.5 EER

9.0 EER

9.7 IPLV

9.2 IPLV

((>)) >760,000 Btu/h1

Cooling Capacity

Air Conditioners

Heat Pumps

((8.2)) 9.2 EER

((8.7)) 9.0 EER

((7.5)) 9.4 IPLV

((7.5)) 9.2 IPLV

Packaged Term.

Air Conditioners

& Heat Pumps

Cooling Ratings

All Capacities Air Conditioners ((and))

Heat Pumps

Standard/Low Temp[:]

((10.0)) 12.5 -(((0.16)) 0.213 x

Cap/1000)3

EER

12.3 - (0.213 x Cap/1000)

EER

95F

((12.2)) 14.7 -(((0.20)) 0.213 x

Cap/1000)2,3

EER

14.5 - (0.213 x Cap/1000) EER

82F

ARI 310/380-

((1990)) 93

Heat Pump

Heating

Ratings

(()) <65,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Split Systems

Single Package

6.8 HSPF

6.6 HSPF

ARI 210/240

-((1989)) 94

((>)) >65,000 and

(()) <135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

All Unitary

Standard Ratings:

((3.0)) 3.2 COP

47F db/43F wb

((2.0)) 2.2 COP

17F db/15F wb

((>)) >135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Ratings[:]

((2.9)) 3.1 COP

47F db/43F wb

2.0 COP

17F db/15F wb

ARI ((365

-1986)) 340/360-93

Packaged Term.

Heat Pumps

Heating Ratings

All Capacities Heat Pumps

((Standard Ratings[:]))

((2.9)) 3.2 - (0.026 x Cap/1000)3

[EER] [COP]

((47F db/ 43F wb))

ARI ((380

-1990)) 310/380-93

Warm Air

Furnaces &

Combination

Furnace/A.C.

<225,000 Btu/h Gas and Oil Fired

Seasonal Ratings[:]

80% Et4 78% AFUE5 DOE 10 CFR

Part430 AppN

(()) >225,000 Btu/h ((Gas, Max Rating6)) Gas Fired

((Gas, Min Rating6))

80% ((Et4)) Ec5

((78% Et4))

NA

((NA))

ANSI Z21.47-

((1983)) 1993

(()) >225,000 Btu/h ((Oil, Max Rating6))Oil-Fired

((Oil, Min Rating6))

81% Et4

((81% Et4))

NA

((NA))

UL 727-((1986)) 94

Warm-Air

Duct Furnaces

and Unit Heaters

All Size Gas Duct

Furnaces

((Max)) Rated Capacity6

((Min Rated Capacity6))

((78% Et4))

80% Ec5

((75% Et4))

NA

((NA))

ANSI Z83.9-

((1986)) 1990

All Size Gas Unit

Heaters

((Max)) Rated Capacity6

((Min Rated Capacity6))

((78% Et4))

80% Ec5

((74% Et4))

NA

((NA))

ANSI Z83.8-

((1985)) 1990

All Size Oil Unit

Heaters

((Max)) Rated Capacity6

((Min Rated Capacity6))

((81% Et4))

80% Ec5

((81% Et4))

NA

((NA))

UL 731-((1988)) 95

1. For units that have a heating section other than electric resistance heat, deduct 0.2 from all required EER's and IPLV's.
2. For multi-capacity equipment the minimum performance shall apply to each step provided Multi-capacity refers to manufacturer published rating for more than one capacity mode allowed by the product's controls.
3. Capacity (Cap) means the rated cooling capacity of the product in Btu/h in accordance with the cited ARI standard. If the unit's capacity is less than 7,000 Btu/h, use 7,000 Btu/h in the calculation. If the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculation.
4. These values apply to non-NAECA equipment. See referenced standard for definition of Thermal efficiency (Et), (100% flue losses).
5. Ec= combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.


TABLE 14-2

Standard Rating Conditions and Minimum Performance for

Water and Evaporatively Cooled Unitary Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, Water Source and Ground Source

Heat Pumps, Condensing Units, and Water Chilling Packages



Equipment Type &

Rating

Category

Sub-category &

Rating Conditions

Minimum Rating Standard
Steady State Seasonal or

Part Load

((Evaporatively

Cooled A/Cs &

Heat Pumps

Cooling Ratings

≤65,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Outdoor Conditions:

95F db/75F wb

9.3 EER 8.5 IPLV ARI 210/240

-1989

CTI 201

-1986

>65,000 and ≤135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

10.5 EER 9.7 IPLV
Water Source

Heat Pump

Cooling Ratings

≤65,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water[:]

9.3 EER

85F ewt2

10.2 EER

75F ewt2

ARI 320

-1986

CTI 201

-1986

>65,000 and ≤135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water[:]

10.5 EER

85F ewt2

NA
Ground Water

Heat Pump

Cooling Ratings

<135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water[:]

11.0 EER

70F ewt2

11.5 EER

50F ewt2

ARI 325

-1985

Water Cooled

Unitary Air

Conditioners

Cooling Ratings

≤65,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water[:]

9.3 EER

85F ewt2

8.3 IPLV

75F ewt2

ARI 210/240

-1989

CTI 201

-1986

>65,000 and ≤135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water[:]

10.5 EER

85F ewt2

NA
Water/Evap

Cooled Air Cond.

and Heat Pumps

Cooling Ratings

>135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1: 9.6 EER 9.0 IPLV ARI 360

-1986

CTI 201

-1986

Air and Water/Evap Cooled Condensing Units Cooling Ratings3 >135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Air Cooled

Water/Evap Cooled

9.9 EER

12.9 EER

11.0 IPLV

12.9 IPLV

ARI 365

-1987

CTI 201

-1986

Air and Water Cooled Water Chilling Packages Cooling Ratings <150 Tons

≥150 and <300 Tons

≥300 Tons

Water Cooled 3.8 COP

4.2 COP

5.2 COP4

3.9 IPLV

4.5 IPLV

5.3 IPLV4

ARI 550-90

ARI 590-86pN

CTI 201

-1986

<150 Tons

≥150 Tons

Air Cooled

with Condenser

2.7 COP

2.5 COP

2.8 IPLV

2.5 IPLV

All Capacities Air Cooled

Condenserless

3.1 COP 3.2 IPLV
Water & Ground-Water Source Heat Pumps Heating Ratings <135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Water Source

Standard Conditions1:

3.8 COP

70F ewt2

NA

NA

ARI 320

-1986

Ground Water Source Standard Conditions1: 3.4 COP

70F ewt2

3.0 COP

50F ewt2

ARI 325

-1985))

Water & Evaporatively

Cooled A/Cs

<65,000 Btu/h Cooling Capacity Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER 11.2 IPLV ARI 210/240-

94

>65,000 and <135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Split System and Single Package 11.5 EER 10.6 IPLV
>135,000 Btu/h Cooling Capacity Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER 10.3 IPLV ARI 340/360-

93

Water Source

Heap Pump

Cooling Ratings

<17,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water

11.2 EER

86F ewt2

NA ARI/ISO

13256-1

>17,000 and <135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water

12.0 EER

86F ewt2

NA
Ground Water Source

Heat Pump (Cooling)

<135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water

16.2 EER

59F ewt2

NA ARI/ISO

13256-1

Ground Source

Heat Pump (Cooling)

<135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Standard Conditions1:

Entering Water

13.4 EER

77F ewt2

NA ARI/ISO

13256-1

Air and Water/

Evap. Cooled

Condensing Units

Cooling Ratings3

>135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Air Cooled

Water/Evap. Cooled

10.1 EER

13.1 EER

11.2 IPLV

13.1 IPLV

ARI 365-94
Water Cooled,

Water Chilling

Packages

All Capacities Reciprocating 4.2 COP 4.65 IPLV ARI 550-92
<150 Tons

>150 Tons and <300 Tons

>300 Tons

Water Cooled, Rotary,

Screw and Scroll

4.45 COP

4.9 COP

5.5 COP

4.5 IPLV

4.95 IPLV

5.6 IPLV

ARI 550-92 or

ARI 590-92

<150 Tons

>150 Tons and <300 Tons

>300 Tons

Water Cooled, Centrifugal 5.0 COP

5.55 COP

6.10 COP

5.0 IPLV

5.55 IPLV

6.10 IPLV

Air Cooled Water

Chilling Packages

All Capacities Air Cooled with condenser 2.8 COP 2.8 IPLV
All Capacities Air Cooled, condenserless 3.1 COP 3.1 IPLV
Water & Ground-

Water Source

Heat Pumps

Heating Ratings

<135,000 Btu/h

Cooling Capacity

Water Source

Standard Conditions1:

4.2 COP

68F ewt2

NA

NA

ARI/ISO

13256-1

Ground Water Source

Standard Conditions1:

3.6 COP

50F ewt2

NA ARI/ISO

13256-1

Ground Source

Standard Conditions

3.1 COP

32F ewt2

NA ARI/ISO

13256-1


1. Standard Indoor Conditions: 80F dry bulb and 67F wet bulb.
2. ewt: Entering Water Temperature for water cooled heat pumps and air conditioners.
3. Condensing unit requirements are based on single - number rating defined in paragraph 5.1.3.2 of ARI Standard 365.
((4. These requirements are reduced to 4.7 COP and 4.8 IPLV, where refrigerants with ozone depletion factors of 0.05 or less are used. No reduction is allowed for standard design systems analyzed under RS-29.))


TABLE 14-3

Standard Rating Conditions and Minimum Performance,

Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers



Reference Category Rating Condition Minimum Performance
((DOE Test Procedure

10 CFR, Part 430

AppN

Gas-Fired

<300,000 Btu/h

Seasonal

Rating

AFUE

80%1,3

Oil-Fired

<300,000 Btu/h

Seasonal

Rating

AFUE

80%1

ANSI Z21.13-87

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86

ASME PTC4.1-64

U.L. 795-73

Gas-Fired

≥300,000 Btu/h

1. Max. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Ec4

80%

2. Min. Rated Capacity2 Steady-State Ec4

80%

U.L. 726-75

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86

ASME PTC4.1-64

Oil-Fired

≥300,000 Btu/h

1. Max. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Ec4

83%

2. Min. Rated Capacity2 Steady-State Ec4

83%

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86

ASME PTC4.1-64

Oil-Fired (Residual)

≥300,000 Btu/h

1. Max. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Ec4

83%

2. Min. Rated Capacity2 Steady-State Ec4

83%))

DOE Test Procedure

10 CFR, Part 430

AppN

Gas-Fired

<300,000 Btu/h

Gas-Fired

>300,000 Btu/h &

<2,500,000 Btu/h

Seasonal

Rating, Hot Water

AFUE

80%1,3

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86 Seasonal

Rating, Steam

AFUE

75%

1. Max. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Et4

75%

Gas-Fired >2,500,000

Btu/h

1. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State, Hot Water or Steam

Ec4

80%

DOE Test Procedure

10 CFR, Part 430, AppN

Oil-Fired

<300,000 Btu/h

Seasonal

Rating

AFUE

80%1

U.L. 726-75

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86

Oil-Fired

>300,000 Btu/h &

<2,500,000 Btu/h

1. Max. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Et4

78%

Oil-Fired

>2,500,000 Btu/h

Rated Capacity2

Steady-State, Hot Water or Steam

Ec4

83%

H.I. Htg. Boiler Std. 86 Oil-Fired (Residual)

>300,000 Btu/h and

<2,500,000

1. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State

Et4

78%

Oil-Fired

(Residual) >2,500,000

Btu/h

2. Rated Capacity2

Steady-State, Hot Water or Steam

Ec4

83%


1. To be consistent with National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12).
2. Provided and allowed by the controls.
3. Except for gas-fired steam boilers for which minimum AFUE is 75%.
4. Ec= combustion efficiency, 100% - flue losses. Et= Thermal efficiency. See reference document for detailed information.


TABLE 14-4

Energy Efficient Electric Motors

Minimum Nominal Full-Load Efficiency



Open Motors Closed Motors
Synchronous

Speed (RPM)

3,600 1,800 1,200 3,600 1,800 1,200
HP Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency
1.0 - 82.5 80.0 75.5 82.5 80.0
1.5 82.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 84.0 85.5
2.0 84.0 84.0 85.5 84.0 84.0 86.5
3.0 84.0 86.5 86.5 85.5 87.5 87.5
5.0 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 87.5
7.5 87.5 88.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5
10.0 88.5 89.5 90.2 89.5 89.5 89.5
15.0 89.5 91.0 90.2 90.2 91.0 90.2
20.0 90.2 91.0 91.0 90.2 91.0 90.2
25.0 91.0 91.7 91.7 91.0 92.4 91.7
30.0 91.0 92.4 92.4 91.0 92.4 91.7
40.0 91.7 93.0 93.0 91.7 93.0 93.0
50.0 92.4 93.0 93.0 92.4 93.0 93.0
60.0 93.0 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.6 93.6
75.0 93.0 94.1 93.6 93.0 94.1 93.6
100.0 93.0 94.1 94.1 93.6 94.5 94.1
125.0 93.6 94.5 94.1 94.5 94.5 94.1
150.0 93.6 95.0 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0
200.0 94.5 95.0 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.0


TABLE 14-5

Duct Insulation



Duct Type Duct Insulation Insulation

R-Value

Other

Requirements

Supply, Return Not within conditioned space: On exterior of building, on roof, in attic, in enclosed ceiling space, in walls, in garage, in crawl spaces R-7 Approved weather proof barrier
Outside air intake Within conditioned space R-7 See Section 1414.2
Supply, Return, Outside air intake Not within conditioned space: in concrete, in ground R-5.3
Supply with supply air temperature <55F or >105F Within conditioned space R-3.3
Note: Requirements apply to both supply and return ducts, whether heated or mechanically cooled. Mechanically cooled ducts requiring insulation shall have a vapor retarder, with a perm rating not greater than 0.5 and all joints sealed.


TABLE 14-6

Minimum Pipe Insulation (inches)1



Fluid Design

Operating

Temp. Range,

F

Insulation Conductivity Nominal Pipe Diameter (in.)
Conductivity Range

Btu in. / (h ft2 F)

Mean Rating

Temp. F

Runouts2

up to 2

1 and

less

>1 to 2 >2 to 4 >4 to 6 >6
Heating systems (Steam, Steam Condensate[,] and Hot water) Nominal Insulation Thickness
Above 350

251-350

201-250

141-200

105-140

0.32-0.34

0.29-0.31

0.27-0.30

0.25-0.29

0.24-0.28

250

200

150

125

100

1.5

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.5

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

1.0

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

3.5

3.5

2.0

1.5

1.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

1.5

1.5

Domestic and Service Hot Water Systems
105 and Greater 0.24-0.28 100 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cooling Systems (Chilled Water, Brine[,] and Refrigerant)
40-55

Below 40

0.23-0.27

0.23-0.27

75

75

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.75

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5


1. Alternative Insulation Types. Insulation thicknesses in Table 14-6 are based on insulation with thermal conductivities within the range listed in Table14-6 for each fluid operating temperature range, rated in accordance with ASTM C 335-84 at the mean temperature listed in the table. For insulation that has a conductivity outside the range shown in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid operating temperature range at the mean rating temperature shown (when rounded to the nearest 0.01 Btu in./(hft2F)), the minimum thickness shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:

T= PR[[(]1+ t/PR)K/k - 1]
Where

T= Minimum insulation thickness for material with conductivity K, inches.
PR= Pipe actual outside radius, inches[.]
t= Insulation thickness from Table 14-6, inches
K= conductivity of alternate material at the mean rating temperature indicated in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid temperature range, Btu in[.]/(hft2 F)
k= the lower value of the conductivity range listed in Table 14-6 for the applicable fluid temperature range, Btu in[.]/(h ft2 F)

2. Runouts to individual terminal units not exceeding 12 ft. in length.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1454, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1454, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1512
Exempt lighting.


1512.1 Exempt Spaces: The following rooms, spaces, and areas, are exempt from the lighting power requirements in Sections 1520 and 1530 but shall comply with all other requirements of this chapter.


1. Areas in which medical or dental tasks are performed.
2. High risk security areas or any area identified by building officials as requiring additional lighting.
3. Spaces designed for primary use by the visually impaired, hard of hearing (lip-reading) or by senior citizens.
4. Food preparation areas.
5. Outdoor manufacturing, greenhouses, and processing areas.
6. Electrical/mechanical equipment rooms.
7. Outdoor athletic facilities.
8. Inspection and restoration areas in galleries and museums.
9. The sanctuary portion of a house of worship, defined as the space or room where the worship service takes place. Classrooms, meeting rooms, offices and multipurpose rooms that are part of the same facility are not exempt.

1512.2 Exempt Lighting Equipment: The following lighting equipment and tasks are exempt from the lighting requirements of Section 1520 and need not be included when calculating the installed lighting power under Section 1530 but shall comply with all other requirements of this chapter. All other lighting in areas that are not exempted by Section 1512.2, where exempt tasks and equipment are used, shall comply with all of the requirements of this chapter.


1. Special lighting needs for research.
2. Emergency lighting that is automatically OFF during normal building operation.
3. Lighting integral to signs, and permanently ballasted lighting fixtures for walkways and pathways.
4. Lighting that is part of machines, equipment or furniture.
5. Lighting that is used solely for indoor plant growth during the hours of 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
6. Lighting for theatrical productions, television broadcasting (including sports facilities), audio-visual presentations, and special effects lighting for stage areas and dance floors in entertainment facilities.
7. Lighting for art exhibits, non-retail displays, portable plug in display fixtures, and show case lighting.
8. Exterior lighting for public monuments.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1512, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1512, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1513
Lighting controls.

Lighting, including exempt lighting in Section 1512, shall comply with this section. Where occupancy sensors are cited, they shall have the features listed in 1513.6.1. Where automatic time switches are cited, they shall have the features listed in 1513.6.2.


1513.1 Local Control and Accessibility: Each space, enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, shall be provided with lighting controls located within that space. The lighting controls, whether one or more, shall be capable of turning off all lights within the space. The controls shall be readily accessible, at the point of entry/exit, to personnel occupying or using the space.


EXCEPTIONS: The following lighting controls may be centralized in remote locations:
1. Lighting controls for spaces which must be used as a whole.
2. Automatic controls.
3. Controls requiring trained operators.
4. Controls for safety hazards and security.

1513.2 Area Controls: The maximum lighting power that may be controlled from a single switch or automatic control shall not exceed that which is provided by a twenty ampere circuit loaded to not more than eighty percent. A master control may be installed provided the individual switches retain their capability to function independently. Circuit breakers may not be used as the sole means of switching.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Industrial or manufacturing process areas, as may be required for production.
2. Areas less than five percent of footprint for footprints over 100,000 square feet.

1513.3 Daylight Zone Control: All daylighted zones, as defined in Chapter 12, both under overhead glazing and adjacent to vertical glazing, shall be provided with individual controls, or daylight-or occupant-sensing automatic controls, which control the lights independent of general area lighting.

Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical glazing are allowed to be controlled by a single controlling device provided that they do not include zones facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e. north, east, south, west). Daylight zones under overhead glazing more than 15 feet from the perimeter shall be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical glazing.


EXCEPTION: Daylight spaces enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and containing 2 or fewer light fixtures are not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting.

1513.4 Display, Exhibition, and Specialty Lighting Controls: All display, exhibition, or specialty lighting shall be controlled independently of general area lighting.


1513.5 Automatic Shut-Off Controls, Exterior: Exterior lighting not intended for 24-hour continuous use shall be automatically switched by timer, photocell, or a combination of timer and photocell. Automatic time switches must also have program back-up capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for at least 10 hours, if power is interrupted.


1513.6 Automatic Shut-Off Controls, Interior: Office buildings greater than ((25,000)) 5,000 sq. ft. and all school classrooms shall be equipped with separate automatic controls to shut off the lighting during unoccupied hours. Automatic controls may be an occupancy sensor, time switch, or other device capable of automatically shutting off lighting.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Areas that must be continuously illuminated, or illuminated in a manner requiring manual operation of the lighting.
2. Emergency lighting systems.
3. Switching for industrial or manufacturing process facilities as may be required for production.

1513.6.1 Occupancy Sensors: Occupancy sensors shall be capable of automatically turning off all the lights in an area, no more than 30 minutes after the area has been vacated.


1513.6.2 Automatic Time Switches: Automatic time switches shall have a minimum 7 day clock and be capable of being set for 7 different day types per week and incorporate an automatic holiday "shut-off" feature, which turns off all loads for at least 24 hours and then resumes normally scheduled operations. Automatic time switches shall also have program back-up capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for at least 10 hours, if power is interrupted.

Automatic time switches shall incorporate an over-ride switching device which:

a. is readily accessible;
b. is located so that a person using the device can see the lights or the areas controlled by the switch, or so that the area being illuminated is annunciated; and
c. is manually operated;
d. allows the lighting to remain on for no more than two hours when an over-ride is initiated; and
e. controls an area not exceeding 5,000 square feet or 5 percent of footprint for footprints over 100,000 square feet, whichever is greater.

1513.7 Commissioning Requirements: For lighting controls which include daylight or occupant sensing automatic controls, automatic shut-off controls, occupancy sensors, or automatic time switches, the lighting controls shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accord with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accord with approved plans and specifications. A complete report of test procedures and results shall be prepared and filed with the owner. Drawing notes shall require commissioning in accordance with this paragraph.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1513, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1521
Prescriptive interior lighting requirements.

Spaces for which the Unit Lighting Power Allowance in Table 15-1 is 0.8 watts per square foot or greater may use unlimited numbers of lighting fixtures and lighting energy, provided that the installed lighting fixtures ((are)) comply with all four of the following criteria:

a. one- or two-lamp (but not three-or more lamp);

b. non-lensed, fluorescent fixtures;

c. fitted with type T-1, T-2, T-4, T-5, T-6, T-8 ((or PL type)) or compact fluorescent lamps from 5 to 50 watts (but not T-10 or T-12 lamps); and

d. electronic ballasts (electronic ballasts that screw into medium base sockets do not comply with this section).


EXCEPTION:
1. Up to a total of 5 percent of installed lighting fixtures need not be ballasted and may use any type of lamp.
2. Clear safety lenses are allowed in food prep and serving areas and patient care areas in otherwise compliant fixtures.
3. Exit lights are not included in the count of fixtures provided that they do not exceed 5 Watts per fixture and are light emitting diode (LED) type or T-1 fluorescent type only. (See the Uniform Fire Code for face illumination footcandle requirements and other requirements.)

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1521, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-1530
Lighting power allowance option.

The installed lighting wattage shall not exceed the lighting power allowance. Lighting wattage includes lamp and ballast wattage. Wattage for fluorescent lamps and ballasts shall be tested per ANSI Standard C82.2-1984.


The wattage used for any unballasted fixture shall be the maximum UL listed wattage for that fixture regardless of the lamp installed. The wattage used for track lighting shall be:

a. for line voltage track, 50 watts per lineal foot of track or actual luminare wattage, whichever is greater

b. for low voltage track, 25 watts per lineal foot of track or the VA rating of the transformer, whichever is greater.


No credit towards compliance with the lighting power allowances shall be given for the use of any controls, automatic or otherwise.


Exit lights that are 5 Watts or less per fixture shall not be included in the lighting power allowance calculations. Other exit lights shall be included in the lighting power allowance calculations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-1530, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1530, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1531
Interior lighting power allowance.

The interior lighting power allowance shall be calculated by multiplying the gross interior floor area, in square feet, by the appropriate unit lighting power allowance, in watts per square foot, for the use as specified in Table 15-1. Accessory uses, including corridors, lobbies and toilet facilities shall be included with the primary use.


((If multiple uses are intended,)) The lighting power allowance for each ((type of)) use shall be separately calculated and summed to obtain the interior lighting power allowance.


In cases where a lighting plan for only a portion of a building is submitted, the interior lighting power allowance shall be based on the gross interior floor area covered by the plan. Plans submitted for common areas only, including corridors, lobbies and toilet facilities shall use the lighting power allowance for common areas in Table 15-1.


When insufficient information is known about the specific use of the space, the allowance shall be based on the apparent intended use of the space.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1531, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-1532
Exterior lighting power allowance.

The exterior lighting power allowance shall be the sum of the calculated allowances for parking, outdoor areas and building exteriors. The lighting allowance for covered parking, open parking and outdoor areas that are illuminated shall be 0.20 watts per square foot. The lighting allowance for building exteriors shall be calculated either by multiplying the building facade area by 0.25 watts per square foot or multiplying the building perimeter in feet by 7.5 watts per linear foot.


EXCEPTIONS:
1. Group ((M)) U occupancy accessory to Group R-3 occupancy.
2. For covered parking, 0.30 w/sf may be used for the lighting provided that the ceilings and walls are painted or stained with a reflectance value of 0.70 or higher.

TABLE 15-1

Unit Lighting Power Allowance (LPA)


Use1 LPA2

(watts/sq. ft.)

Painting, welding, carpentry, machine shops 2.3
Barber shops, beauty shops 2.0
Hotel banquet/conference/exhibition hall3,4 2.0
Laboratories 2.0
Aircraft repair hangars 1.5
Cafeterias, fast food establishments5 1.5
Factories, workshops, handling areas 1.5
Gas stations, auto repair shops6 1.5
Institutions 1.5
Libraries5 1.5
Nursing homes and hotel/motel guest rooms 1.5
Retail10, retail banking 1.5
Wholesale stores (pallet rack shelving) 1.5
Mall concourses 1.4
Schools buildings (Group E occupancy only), school classrooms, day care centers 1.35
Laundries 1.3
Office buildings, office/administrative areas in facilities of other use types (including but not limited to schools, hospitals, institutions, museums, banks, churches)5,7,11 1.2
Police and fire stations8 1.2
Atria (atriums) 1.0
Assembly spaces9, auditoriums, gymnasia9, theaters 1.0
Group R-1 common areas 1.0
Process plants 1.0
Restaurants/bars5 1.0
((Retail A10 1.0
Retail B10, Retail banking 1.5))
Locker and/or shower facilities 0.8
Warehouses11, storage areas 0.5
Aircraft storage hangars 0.4
Parking garages See Section

1532

Plans Submitted for Common Areas Only7
((Common area, corridors, lobbies)) Main floor building lobbies3 (except mall concourses) ((0.8))

1.2

Common areas, corridors, toilet facilities and washrooms, elevator lobbies 0.8

Footnotes for Table 15-1


1. In cases in which a general use and a specific use are listed, the specific use shall apply. In cases in which a use is not mentioned specifically, the Unit Power Allowanceshall be determined by the building official. This determination shall be based upon the most comparable use specified in the table. See Section 1512 for exempt areas.

2. The watts per square foot may be increased, by two percent per foot of ceiling height above twenty feet, unless specifically directed otherwise by subsequent footnotes.

3. Watts per square foot of room may be increased by two percent per foot of ceiling height above twelve feet.

4. For all other spaces, such as seating and common areas, use the Unit Light Power Allowance for assembly.

5. Watts per square foot of room may be increased by two percent per foot of ceiling height above nine feet.

6. Includes pump area under canopy.

7. In cases in which a lighting plan is submitted for only a portion of a floor, a Unit Lighting Power Allowance of 1.35 may be used for usable office floor area and 0.80 watts per square foot shall be used for the common areas, which may include elevator space, lobby area and rest rooms. Common areas, as herein defined do not include mall concourses.

8. For the fire engine room, the Unit Lighting Power Allowance is 1.0 watts per square foot.

9. For indoor sport tournament courts with adjacent spectator seating, the Unit Lighting Power Allowance for the court area is 2.6 watts per square foot.

10. ((For both Retail A and Retail B, light)) Display window illumination installed within 2 feet of the window lighting for free-standing display where the lighting moves with the display, and building showcase illumination ((and display window illumination installed within two feet of the window are exempt.

Retail A allows a Unit Lighting Power Allowance of 1.0 watts per square foot. Ceiling mounted adjustable tungsten halogen and HID merchandise display illuminaries are exempt.

Retail B allows a Unit Lighting Power Allowance of 1.5 watts per square foot, including all ceiling mounted merchandise display luminaries)) where the lighting is enclosed within the showcase are exempt.

An additional 1.5 W/ft2 of merchandise display luminaires are exempt provided that they comply with all three of the following:


(a) located on ceiling-mounted track or directly on or recessed into the ceiling itself (not on the wall).


(b) adjustable in both the horizontal and vertical axes (vertical axis only is acceptable for fluorescent and other fixtures with two points of track attachment).


(c) fitted with tungsten halogen, fluorescent, or high intensity discharge lamps.


This additional lighting power is allowed only if the lighting is actually installed
.

11. Provided that a floor plan, indicating rack location and height, is submitted, the square footage for a warehouse may be defined, for computing the interior Unit Lighting Power Allowance, as the floor area not covered by racks plus the vertical face area (access side only) of the racks. The height allowance defined in footnote 2 applies only to the floor area not covered by racks.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1532, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

CHAPTER 17

STANDARDS

Note: For nonresidential standards, see chapter 7.

CHAPTER 20

DEFAULT HEAT-LOSS COEFFICIENTS

Note: For nonresidential defaults, see chapter 10.

REFERENCE STANDARD ((COMMERCIAL)) NONRESIDENTIAL

BUILDING DESIGN BY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 93-21-052, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94)

WAC 51-11-99902
Section 2 -- General principles and requirements.


2.1 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this Standard will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.


A building designed in accordance with this Standard will be deemed as complying with this Code, if


a. The calculated annual energy consumption is not greater than that of a corresponding "standard design," as defined below and in Section 3,


and;


b. Whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems comply with Sections 1310 through 1314, 1410 through ((1415)) 1416, 1440 through 1442, 1450 through 1454 and 1510 through 1513. Buildings shall only vary from those requirements in Sections 1330 through 1334, 1432 through 1438 and 1530 through 1532 where those variations have been accurately and completely modeled. Where variations are not specifically analyzed, the building shall comply with these requirements.

For a proposed building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule. Inputs to the energy analysis relating to occupancy and usage shall correspond to the expected occupancy and usage of the building.


Except as noted below, the systems identified, and, to the extent possible, the assumptions made in assigning energy inputs to each system, shall be the same for the standard design and the proposed design. When electrically driven heat pumps, other than multiple units connected to a common water loop, are employed to provide all or part of the heat for the proposed design, the standard design shall also, for the purposes of the analysis, assume that electrically driven heat pump, in conformance with Chapter 14 of the Code and having capacity at least as great as those used in the proposed design are employed.


2.2 Design: The standard design and the proposed design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:

a. The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site. Buildings which use electricity as the only fuel source, comparisons may be expressed in kWh. When converting electricity in kWh to kBtu a multiplier of 3.413 kWh/kBtu shall be used.

b. If the proposed design results in an increase in consumption of one energy source and a decrease in another energy source, even though similar sources are used for similar purposes, the difference in each energy source shall be converted to equivalent energy units for purposes of comparing the total energy used.


2.3 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed building and system design shall meet the following criteria:

a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in Section 2.4.

b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon 8,760 hours of operation of the building and its service systems and shall utilize the design methods, specified in Standards RS-27, -11, -12 and -13 listed in Chapter 7 and 17 of the Code or in other programs approved by the building official.


2.4 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:

a. Design requirements--Design heating conditions and design cooling conditions as defined in Chapter 12 of the Code.

b. Climatic data--Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.

c. Building data--Orientation, size, shape, mass, air and heat transfer characteristics.

d. Operational characteristics--Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination and control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.

e. Mechanical equipment--Design capacity and part load profile.

f. Building loads--Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment and number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.


((EXCEPTION: Proposed designs having an area of 25,000 square feet or less are exempt from the full-year energy analysis described in section 2.3(b). However, comparison of energy consumption between the proposed design and the standard design shall be provided based on one of the programs suggested in Section 4.2 for these buildings.))

2.5 Documentation: All analyses submitted shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Section 1.


The calculation procedure for the standard design and the proposed design shall separately identify the calculated annual energy consumption for each different occupancy type, if possible, for each of the following end uses:


a. Interior lighting;

b. Parking lighting;

c. Exterior lighting;

d. Space heating;

e. Space cooling;

f. Interior ventilation/fans;

g. Parking ventilation/fans;

h. Exhaust fans;

i. Service water heating;

j. Elevators;

k. Appliances.


Energy consumption of the following items shall be included but is not required to be separated out by each individual item.


a. Office equipment;

b. Refrigeration other than comfort cooling;

c. Cooking; and

d. Any other energy-consuming equipment.


The specifications of the proposed building project used in the analysis shall be as similar as is reasonably practical to those in the plans submitted for a building permit.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-99902, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-03-003, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98)

WAC 51-11-99903
Section 3--Specific modeling assumptions.


The specific modeling assumptions consist of methods and assumptions for calculating the standard energy consumption for the standard building and the proposed energy consumption of the proposed design. In order to maintain consistency between the standard and the proposed design energy consumptions, the input assumptions in this section shall be used.


"Prescribed" assumptions shall be used without variation. "Default" assumptions shall be used unless the designer can demonstrate that a different assumption better characterizes the building's use over its expected life. Any modification of a default assumption shall be used in modeling both the standard building and the proposed design unless the designer demonstrates a clear cause to do otherwise.


3.1 Orientation and Shape: The standard building shall consist of the same number of stories and gross floor area for each story as the proposed design. Each floor shall be oriented exactly as the proposed design. The geometric form shall be the same as the proposed design.


3.2 Internal Loads: Internal loads shall be modeled as noted in the following parts of Section 3.2. The systems specified for calculating the standard energy consumption in Section 3.2 are intended only as constraints in calculating the consumption. They are not intended as requirements or recommendations for systems to be used in the proposed building or for the calculation of the proposed energy consumption.


3.2.1 Occupancy: Occupancy schedules shall be default assumptions. The same assumptions shall be made in computing proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. Occupancy levels vary by building type and time of day. Table 3-1 establishes the density presented as ft2/person of conditioned floor area that will be used by each building type. Table 3-2 establishes the percentage of the people that are in the building by hours of the day for each building type.


3.2.2 Lighting: The interior and exterior lighting power allowance for calculating the standard energy consumption shall be determined from Sections 1531 and 1532. The lighting power used to calculate the proposed energy consumption shall be the actual lighting power of the proposed lighting design. Exempt lighting in the standard design shall be equal to the exempt lighting in the proposed design.

Lighting levels in buildings vary based on the type of uses within buildings, by area and by time of day. Table 3-2 contains the lighting energy profiles which establish the percentage of the lighting load that is switched ON in each prototype or reference building by hour of the day. These profiles are default assumptions and can be changed if required when calculating the standard energy consumption to provide, for example, a 12 hour rather than an 8 hour work day or to reflect the use of automatic lighting controls. The lighting schedules used in the standard and proposed designs shall be identical and shall reflect the type of controls to be installed in the proposed design. The controls in the proposed design shall comply with the requirements in Section 1513 and no credit shall be given for the use of any additional controls, automatic or otherwise.


3.2.3 Receptacle: Receptacle loads and profiles are default assumptions. The same assumptions shall be made in calculating proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. Receptacle loads include all general service loads that are typical in a building. These loads should include additional process electrical usage but exclude HVAC primary or auxiliary electrical usage. Table 3-1 establishes the density in W/ft2 to be used. The receptacle energy profiles shall be the same as the lighting energy profiles in Table 3-2. This profile establishes the percentage of the receptacle load that is switched ON by hour of the day and by building type.


3.3 Envelope


3.3.1 Insulation and Glazing:
Glazing area and U-factor of the standard building envelope shall be determined by using the Target UA requirements of Equation 13-1 and U-factor values in Table 13-1 or 13-2. The glazing solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) or shading coefficient of the standard building shall be the lesser of 0.65 and the SHGC required by Table 13-1 or 13-2 for the vertical or overhead glazing area for the appropriate wall type. The opaque area U-factors of the standard building shall be determined by using the Target UA requirements from Equation 13-1 including the appropriate mass for walls. The insulation characteristics and glazing area are prescribed assumptions for the standard building for calculating the standard energy consumption. In the calculation of the proposed energy consumption of the proposed design, the envelope characteristics of the proposed design shall be used. The standard design shall use the maximum glazing areas listed in Tables 13-1 or 13-2 for the appropriate use. The distribution of vertical glazing in the gross wall area of the standard design shall be equal to the distribution of vertical glazing in the proposed design or shall constitute an equal percentage of gross wall area on all sides of the standard building. The distribution of overhead glazing in the gross roof/ceiling area of the standard design shall be equal to the distribution of overhead glazing in the proposed design. The distribution of doors in the gross opaque wall area of the standard design shall be identical to the distribution of doors in the proposed design.


3.3.2 Infiltration: For standard and proposed buildings, infiltration assumptions shall be equal.


3.3.3 Envelope and Ground Absorptivities: For the standard building, absorptivity assumptions shall be default assumptions for computing the standard energy consumption and default assumptions for computing the proposed energy consumption. The solar absorptivity of opaque elements of the building envelope shall be assumed to be 70 percent. The solar absorptivity of ground surfaces shall be assumed to be 80 percent (20 percent reflectivity).


3.3.4 Window Treatment: No draperies or blinds shall be modeled for the standard or proposed building.


3.3.5 Shading: For standard building and the proposed design, shading by permanent structures and terrain shall be taken into account for computing energy consumption whether or not these features are located on the building site. A permanent fixture is one that is likely to remain for the life of the proposed design. Credit may be taken for external shading devices that are part of the proposed design.


3.4 HVAC Systems and Equipment: For the standard building, the HVAC system used shall be the system type used in the proposed design. If the proposed HVAC system type does not comply with Sections 1432 through 1438, the standard design system shall comply in all respects with those sections.


Exception: When approved by the building official, a prototype HVAC system may be used, if the proposed design system cannot be modified to comply with Sections 1422 and 1432 through 1438, as a standard design. Use of prototype HVAC systems shall only be permitted for the building types listed below. For mixed-use buildings, the floor space of each building type is allocated within the floor space of the standard building. The specifications and requirements for the HVAC systems of prototype buildings shall be those in Table 3-3.

1. assembly 6. restaurant
2. health/institutional 7. retail (mercantile)
3. hotel/motel 8. school (educational)
4. light manufacturing 9. warehouse (storage)
5. office (business)

3.4.1 HVAC Zones: HVAC zones for calculating the standard energy consumption and proposed energy consumption shall consist of at least four perimeter and one interior zone per floor, with at least one perimeter zone facing each orientation. The perimeter zones shall be fifteen feet in width or one-third the narrow dimension of the building when this dimension is between 30 and 45 feet inclusive or half the narrow dimension of the building when this dimension is less than thirty feet.


Exceptions:

1. Building types such as assembly or warehouse may be modeled as a single zone if there is only one space.
2. Thermally similar zones, such as those facing one orientation on different floors, may be grouped together for the purposes of either the standard or proposed building simulation.

3.4.2 Process Equipment Sizing: Process sensible and latent loads shall be equal in calculating both the standard energy consumption and the proposed energy consumption. The designer shall document the installation of process equipment and the size of process loads.


3.4.3 HVAC Equipment Sizing: The equipment shall be sized to include the capacity to meet the process loads. For calculating the proposed energy consumption, actual air flow rates and installed equipment size shall be used in the simulation. Equipment sizing in the simulation of the proposed design shall correspond to the equipment intended to be selected for the design and the designer shall not use equipment sized automatically by the simulation tool.


Equipment sizing for the standard design shall be based on the same as the proposed design or lesser sizing ratio of installed system capacity to the design load for heating and for cooling.


Chilled water systems for the standard building shall be modeled using a reciprocating chiller for systems with total cooling capacities less than 175 tons, and centrifugal chillers for systems with cooling capacities of 175 tons or greater. For systems with cooling capacities of 600 tons or more the standard energy consumption shall be calculated using two centrifugal chillers, lead/lag controlled. Chilled water shall be assumed to be controlled at a constant 44 degree F temperature rise, from 44 degrees F to 56 degrees F, operating at 65 percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. Condenser water pumps shall be sized using a 10 degree F temperature rise, operating at 60 percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. The cooling tower shall be an open circuit, centrifugal blower type sized for the larger of 85 degrees F leaving water temperature or 10 degrees F approach to design wetbulb temperature. The tower shall be controlled to provide a 65 degrees F leaving water temperature whenever weather conditions permit, floating up to design leaving water temperature at design conditions.


3.4.4 ((Variable Speed:)) Fans: The ((energy)) power of the combined fan system per air volume at design conditions (w/cfm) of the proposed design shall be equal to that of the standard design.

Variable air volume fan systems in the standard building shall be variable speed.


3.5 Service Water Heating: The service water heating loads for prototype buildings are defined in terms of Btu/person-hour in Table 3-1. The values in the table refer to energy content of the heated water. The service water heating loads from Table 3-1 are default for all buildings. The same service-water-heating load assumptions shall be made in calculating proposed energy consumption as were used in calculating the standard energy consumption. The service water heating system for the standard building shall be modeled as closely as possible as if it were designed in accordance with ((the ASHRAE Handbook, 1995 HVAC Systems and Applications Volume)) RS-11 and meeting all the requirements of Sections 1440 through 1442.


3.6 Controls


3.6.1:
All occupied conditioned spaces in standard and proposed design buildings in all climates shall be simulated as being both heated and cooled.


Exceptions:

1. If a building or portion of a building is to be provided with only heating or cooling, both the standard building and the proposed design shall be simulated using the same assumptions.
2. If warehouses are not intended to be mechanically cooled, both the standard and proposed energy consumption shall be modeled assuming no mechanical cooling.

3.6.2: Space temperature controls for the standard building, shall be set at 70 degrees F for space heating and 75 degrees F for space cooling, with a deadband in accordance with Section 1412.2. The system shall be OFF during off-hours according to the appropriate schedule in Table 3-2, except that the heating system shall cycle ON if any space should drop below the night setback setting 55 degrees F. There shall be no similar setpoint during the cooling season. Lesser deadband ranges may be used in calculating the proposed energy consumption.


Exceptions:

1. Setback shall not be modeled in determining either the standard or proposed energy consumption if setback is not realistic for the proposed design such as a facility being operated 24 hours/day. For instance, health facilities need not have night setback during the heating season.
2. If deadband controls are not to be installed, the proposed energy consumption shall be calculated with both heating and cooling thermostat setpoints set to the same value between 70 degrees F and 75 degrees F inclusive, assumed to be constant for the year.

3.6.3: When providing for outdoor air ventilation when calculating the standard energy consumption, controls shall be assumed to close the outside air intake to reduce the flow of outside air to 0.0 cfm during "setback" and "unoccupied" periods. Ventilation using inside air may still be required to maintain scheduled setback temperature. Outside air ventilation, during occupied periods, shall be as required by the Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code chapter 51-13 WAC.


3.6.4: If humidification is to be used in the proposed design, the same level of humidification and system type shall be used in the standard building.


3.6.5: There shall be no credit in the proposed design for control of parking garage ventilation.


TABLE 3-1

Acceptable Occupancy Densities, Receptacle Power Densities and Service Hot Water Consumption1

Building Type Occupancy

Density2 Sq. Ft./Person

(Btu/hft2)

Receptacle

Power Density3

Watts/Sq. Ft.

(Btu/hft2)

Service Hot Water

Quantities4

Btu/hperson

Assembly 50 (4.60) 0.25 (0.85) 215
Health/Institutional 200 (1.15) 1.00 (3.41) 135
Hotel/Motel 250 (0.92) 0.25 (0.85) 1,110
Light Manufacturing 750 (0.31) 0.20 (0.68) 225
Office 275 (0.84) 0.75 (2.56) 175
Parking Garage N.A. N.A. N.A.
Restaurant 100 (2.30) 0.10 (0.34) 390
Retail 300 (0.77) 0.25 (0.85) 135
School 75 (3.07) 0.50 (1.71) 215
Warehouse 15,000 (0.02) 0.10 (0.34) 225

1. The occupancy densities, receptacle power densities and service hot water consumption values are from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 and addenda.
2. Values are in square feet of conditioned floor area per person. Heat generation in Btu per person per hour is 230 sensible and 190 latent. Fig