WSR 97-19-014

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed September 5, 1997, 11:27 a.m., effective November 5, 1997]

Date of Adoption: September 5, 1997.

Purpose: Asbestos, chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, federal-initiated amendments relating to asbestos as published in the Federal Register Volume 61, Number 165, dated August 23, 1996, are adopted and made to be at-least-as-effective-as the federal standard. Some of these changes will establish additional compliance requirements. State-initiated adopted amendments are made to correct errors and clarify existing requirements and do not establish additional compliance requirements.

WAC 296-62-07711 Regulated areas. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Add clarifying language relating to the use of respirators in regulated areas.

WAC 296-62-07712 Requirements for asbestos activities in construction and shipyard work. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Correct a WAC reference.

WAC 296-62-07715 Respiratory protection. Federal-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify the requirement that employers must inform employees that they may demand the use of a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) in lieu of a negative pressure respirator.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify when respirators must be used during construction activities.

WAC 296-62-07717 Protective work clothing and equipment. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Correct a WAC reference.

WAC 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards to employees. Federal-initiated amendments are made to:

Add a new requirement that employers must ensure that non-English speaking employees understand warning signs and labels.

State-initiated amendments are made to:

Correct two WAC references.

Clarify the type of bulk samples that must be analyzed for asbestos.

WAC 296-62-07725 Medical surveillance. Federal-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify the amount of time an employee must be engaged in asbestos work before medical surveillance is required.

WAC 296-62-07728 Competent person. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify the requirements of a competent person where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work.

WAC 296-62-07761 Nonasbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Repeal this section and the regulations on nonfibrous asbestos since they are not a significant health hazard. (OSHA no longer regulates this type of asbestos.)

Chapter 296-65 WAC, Safety standards for asbestos removal and encapsulation, the following state-initiated adopted amendments are made to correct errors and clarify existing requirements and will not establish additional compliance requirements.

WAC 296-65-001 Purpose and scope. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify that this standard applies only to materials containing more than 1% asbestos.

WAC 296-65-030 Methods of compliance. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Clarify when certification of supervisors or employees is required when they are doing Class I, II, III, or IV asbestos work.

Respiratory protection, chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards.

WAC 296-62-07113 Selection of respirators. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Correct errors in Tables 3, 4, and 5. The errors included misspellings, word omissions, and column entry misplacement.

1,3-Butadiene, chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, federal-initiated adopted amendments relating to 1,3-Butadiene, as published in Federal Register Volume 61, Number 214, dated November 4, 1996, are made to be identical to the federal standard. In addition, state-initiated adopted amendments are made to correct typographical and other minor errors.

WAC 296-62-07460 1,3-Butadiene. Federal-initiated amendments are made to:

Add this new section.

Set a permissible exposure limit (PEL).

Require air monitoring of workplaces where the chemical is used.

Require training and medical monitoring of exposed employees.

Require the use of respirators when employee exposures exceed the PEL.

WAC 296-62-075 Air contaminants. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Delete a sentence in WAC 296-62-075(3) relating to transitional limits because these limits expired in 1992 and are no longer applicable. (The transitional limits table is deleted as indicated in WAC 296-62-07515 below.)

WAC 296-62-07501 Airborne contaminants. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Correct typographical errors.

Delete a reference to Table 2 which has been deleted.

WAC 296-62-07510 Total particulates. State-initiated amendments are made to:

Remove references to Table 2 which has been deleted.

WAC 296-62-07515 Control of chemical agents. Federal-initiated amendments are made to:

Lower the permissible exposure limit of 1,3-Butadiene from 10 part per million (ppm) to 1 ppm.

State-initiated amendments are made to correct errors in Table 1: Limits For Air Contaminants as indicated below:

Biphenyl - correct the spelling of the word "diphenyl."

Carbon dioxide - change 30,00 ppm, to 30,000, in the STEL column to correct a typographical error.

Chromic acid and chromates - move the PEL (0.1 mg/m3) from the ceiling column to the TWA column.

Formaldehyde - correct the PEL in the TWA column from 1 ppm to 0.75 ppm to be identical to the PEL listed in WAC 296-62-07540 (which is the specific regulation for formaldehyde).

Mercury (aryl and inorganic) - move the PEL (0.1 ppm) from the ceiling column to the TWA column.

Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) - delete a duplicate listing for this chemical.

Nitrotirchloromethane - correct the spelling of this chemical to "Nitrotrichloromethane."

Vinyl cyanid - correct the spelling of this chemical to "Vinyl cyanide."

Correct typographical errors in Notes g and h at the end of Table 1.

Delete Table 2 - Transitional Limits, which expired on December 31, 1992.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-62-07113 Selection of respirators, 296-62-075 Air contaminants, 296-62-07501 Airborne contaminants, 296-62-07510 Total particulates, 296-62-07515 Control of chemical agents, 296-62-07711 Regulated areas, 296-62-07712 Requirements for asbestos acties in construction and shipyard work, 296-62-07715, Respiratory protection, 296-62-07717, Protective work clothing and equipment, 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards to employees, 296-62-07725 Medical surveillance, 296-62-07728 Competent person, 296-65-001 Purpose and scope, and 296-65-030 Methods of compliance; and repealing WAC 296-62-07761 Nonasbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050, [49.17.]060.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-09-079 on April 22, 1997.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: The adopted rules are identical to the rules proposed for adoption. Please note: Proposed amendments relating to grain handling facilities, which also went to hearing on June 4, 1997, are not being adopted at the present time. Amendments to grain handling facilities (chapter 296-99 WAC) will be filed for adoption at a later date.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 14, repealed 1; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's own Initiative: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Effective Date of Rule: November 5, 1997.

September 5, 1997

Gary Moore

Director

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-62-07113 Selection of respirators. (1) General considerations. Proper selection of respirators shall be made in accordance with the classification, capabilities, and limitations listed in tables I through IV of this section. Additional guidance may be obtained by referring to American National Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection Z88.2 - 1980.

(2) Respirator protection factor (PF). Respirators shall be selected according to the characteristics of the hazards involved, the capabilities and limitations of the respirators, and the ability of each respirator wearer to obtain a satisfactory fit with a respirator. Taking into account the capabilities and limitations of respirators and the results of respirator-fitting tests, a table of respirator protection factors has been prepared (see Table V). A respirator protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to a wearer. Multiplying either (a) the permissible time-weighted average concentration or the permissible ceiling concentration, whichever is applicable, for a toxic substance, or (b) the maximum permissible airborne concentration for a radionuclide by a protection factor assigned to a respirator gives the maximum concentration of the hazardous substance in which the respirator can be used. Limitations of filters, cartridges, and canisters also shall be considered (see Table V).

(3) Respirator-fitting tests. A qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test shall be used to determine the ability of each individual respirator wearer to obtain a satisfactory fit with a negative-pressure respirator. The results of qualitative or quantitative respirator fitting-tests shall be used to select specific types, makes, and models of negative-pressure respirators for use by individual respirator wearers. A respirator-fitting test shall be carried out for each wearer of a negative-pressure respirator equipped with a facepiece. Respirator-fitting tests shall not be required for positive-pressure respirators or for mouthpiece respirators.

(a) Qualitative respirator-fitting test - A person wearing a respirator is exposed to an irritant smoke, an odorous vapor, or other suitable test agent. An air-purifying respirator must be equipped with an air-purifying element(s) which effectively removes the test agent from inspired air. If the respirator wearer is unable to detect penetration of the test agent into the respirator, the respirator wearer has achieved a satisfactory fit with the respirator.

(b) Quantitative respirator-fitting test - A person wears a respirator in a test atmosphere containing a test agent in the form of an aerosol, vapor, or gas. Instrumentation, which samples the test atmosphere and the air inside the respiratory-inlet covering of the respirator, is used to measure quantitatively the penetration of the test agent into the respiratory-inlet covering.

(c) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test, the respirator wearer shall carry out a series of exercises which simulate work movements.

(d) When carrying out respirator-fitting tests, it shall be an acceptable procedure to make the following modifications to respirators provided that such modifications do not affect the seal of the respirators to wearers.

(i) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test which uses an aerosol as the test agent, it shall be acceptable procedure to equip an air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency filter.

(ii) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test which uses a vapor or gas as the test agent, it shall be acceptable procedure to equip an air-purifying respirator with an appropriate cartridge or canister which removes the vapor or gas from air.

(iii) When carrying out a quantitative respirator-fitting test, it shall be acceptable procedure to attach a sampling probe to the respirator which is connected by flexible tubing to an instrument which measures the penetration of the test agent into the respirator.

(e) If a qualitative respirator-fitting test has been used in respirator selection, a person shall be allowed to use only the specific make(s) and model(s) of respirator(s) for which the person obtained a satisfactory fit, and the respirator protection factor listed under "qualitative test" in Table V shall apply. Under no circumstances shall a person be allowed to use any respirator for which the results of the qualitative respirator fitting test indicate that the person is unable to obtain a satisfactory fit.

(f) If a quantitative respirator-fitting test has been used in selecting a respirator, the test results shall be used to assign a respirator protection factor to each person for each specific make and model of respirator tested. The assigned respirator protection factor shall be applied when the person wears the specific respirator in a hazardous atmosphere, but it shall not exceed the respirator protection factor listed under "quantitative test" in table V for the particular type of respirator.

(4) Respirator-fitting test records. Records of respirator-fitting tests shall be kept for at least the duration of employment. These records shall include the following information:

(a) Type of respirator-fitting test used;

(b) Specific make and model of respirator tested;

(c) Name of person tested;

(d) Name of test operator;

(e) Date of test;

(f) Results of respirator-fitting tests;

(i) Success or failure of person to obtain satisfactory fit if a qualitative respirator-fitting test was carried out.

(ii) Respirator protection factor based upon test results if a quantitative respirator-fitting test was carried out.

(5) Face dimensions and facepiece sizes. The wide range of face dimensions may require more than a single size of respirator facepiece to provide a proper fit to all respirator users. Therefore, respirator facepieces of more than one size should be available in any respirator-selection program involving respirators equipped with facepieces.



[Open Style:Columns Off]

Table 1

Classification of Respiratory Hazards According to Their Biological Effect



Oxygen Deficiency Gas and Vapor Contaminants Particulate Contaminants

(Dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke, and spray)

Minimum legal requirements: 19.5% by volume for Asphyxiants: Interfere with utilization Relatively inert: May cause discomfort and minor

respirable air at-sea-level conditions. (See Note 1.) of oxygen in the body. irritation, but generally without injury at reasonable

concentrations (for example: marble, gypsum).

Occurrence: Confined or unventilated cellars, wells, Simple asphyxiants:

mines, ship holds, tanks, burning buildings, and Physiologically inert substances that dilute Pulmonary-fibrosis-producing: produce nodulation

enclosures containing inert atmospheres. oxygen in the air (for example: nitrogen, and fibrosis in the lung, possibly leading to

hydrogen, helium, methane). See Oxygen complications (for example: quartz, asbestos).

Atmospheric oxygen content (percent by volume) Deficiency, Column 1.

versus expected conditions: Carcinogens: Produce cancer in some individuals

Chemical asphyxiants: Low concentrations after latent period (for example: asbestos,

20.9%: Oxygen content of normal air at sea-level interfere with supply or utilization of chromates, radioactive particulates).

conditions. oxygen in the body (for example: carbon

monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, and Chemical irritants: Produce irritation, inflammation,

Oxygen nitriles). and ulceration in the upper respiratory tract (for

Volume example: acidic mists, alkalies).

Percent Irritants: Corrosive in action. May cause

at Sea irritation and inflammation of parts of the Systemic poisons: Produce pathologic reactions in

Level Physiological Effects respiratory system (also skin and eyes) and various systems of the body (for example: lead,

pulmonary edema (for example: ammonia manganese, cadmium).

16%-12% Loss of peripheral vision, increased hydrogen chloride, formaldehyde, sulfur

breathing volume, accelerated heartbeat, dioxide, chlorine, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, Allergy-producing: Produce reactions such as

impaired attention and thinking, impaired phosgene, and arsenic trichloride). itching, sneezing, and asthmas (for example:

coordination. pollens, spices, and animal fur).

Anesthetics: Causes loss of feeling and

12%-10% Very faulty judgment, very poor sensation with unconsciousness and death Febrile-reaction-producing: Produce chills

muscular coordination, muscular possible (for example: nitrous oxide, hydro- followed by fever (for example: fumes of zinc

exertion causes fatigue that may cause carbons and ethers). Some anesthetics and copper).

permanent heart damage, intermittent injure body organs (for example: carbon

respiration. tetrachloride (liver and kidneys), chloroform

(liver and heart), benzene (bone marrow),

10%-6% Nausea, vomiting, inability to perform and carbon disulfide (nervous system)).

vigorous movement, unconsciousness

followed by death.

Sensitizers: Cause increased probability of

Less physiological reactions (for example:

than 6% Spasmatic breathing, convulsive move- isocyanates, epoxy resin systems).

ments, death in minutes.

Systemic poisons: Damage organs and

systems in the body (for example: mercury

(nervous system and various organs),

phosphorus (bone), hydrogen sulfide

(respiratory paralysis), and arsine (red blood

cells and liver)).

Carcinogens: produce cancer in some

individuals after a latent period (for example:

vinyl chloride, benzene).

Combination of Gas, Vapor, and Particulate Contaminants

Combinations of contaminants may occur simultaneously in the atmosphere. Contaminants may be

entirely different substances (dusts and gases from blasting) or the particulate and vapor forms of

the same substance. Synergistic effects (joint action of two or more agents that results in an effect

which is greater than the sum of their individual effects) may occur. Such effects may require

extraordinary protective measures.



NOTE 1: See definition in WAC 296-62-07105 for "oxygen deficiency - not immediately dangerous to life or health" and "oxygen deficiency - immediately dangerous to life or health."

Table 2

Classification of Respiratory Hazards According to Their Properties Which Influence Respirator Selection





Gas and Vapor Contaminants Particulate Contaminants



Inert: Substances that do not react with other substances under most Particles are produced by mechanical means by disintegration processes

conditions, but create a respiratory hazard by displacing air and such as grinding, crushing, drilling, blasting, and spraying; or by physio-

producing oxygen deficiency (for example: helium, neon, argon). chemical reactions such as combustion, vaporization, distillation, sublimation,

calcination, and condensation. Particles are classified as follows:

Acidic: Substances that are acids or that react with water to produce an

acid. In water, they produce positively charged hydrogen ions (H+1) and Dust: A solid, mechanically produced particle with sizes varying from

a pH of less than 7. They taste sour, and many are corrosive to tissues submicroscopic to visible or macroscopic.

(for example: hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, fluorine, nitrogen Spray: A liquid, mechanically produced particle with sizes generally in the

dioxide, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen visible or macroscopic range.

cyanide).

Alkaline: Substances that are alkalies or that react with water to produce Fume: A solid condensation particle of extremely small particle size,

an alkali. In water, they result in the production of negatively charged generally less than one micrometer in diameter.

hydroxyl ions (OH-1) and a pH greater than 7. They taste bitter, and

many are corrosive to tissues (for example: ammonia, amines, phospine, Mist: A liquid condensation particle with sizes ranging from submicroscopic

arsine, and stibine). to visible or macroscoic.

Organic: The components of carbon. Examples are saturated hydro- Fog: A mist of sufficient concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.

carbons (methane, ethane, butane) unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene,

acetylene) alcohols (methyl ether, ethyl ether) aldehydes (formaldehyde),

ketones (methyl ketone), organic acids (formic acid, acetic acid), halides Smoke: A system which includes the products of combustion, pyrolysis, or

(chloroform, carbon tetrachloride), amides (formamide, acetamide), nitriles chemical reaction of substances in the form of visible and invisible solid and

(acetonitrile), isocyanates (toluene diisocyanate), amines liquid particles and gaseous products in air. Smoke is usually of sufficient

(methylamine), epoxies (epoxyethane, propylene oxide), and aromatics concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.

(benzene, toluene, xylene).

Organometallic: Compounds in which metals are chemically bonded to

organic groups (for example: ethyl silicate, tetraethyl lead, and organic

phosphate).

Hydrides: Compounds in which hydrogen is chemically bonded to metals

and certain other elements (for example: diborane and tetraborane).



Table 3

Classification and Description of Respirators by Mode of Operation



((Air)) Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators

A respirable atmosphere independent of the ambient air is supplied to Ambient air, prior to being inhaled, is passed through a filter, cartridge, or canister

the wearer. which removes particles, vapors, gases, or a combination of these contaminants. The

breathing action of the wearer operates the nonpowered type of respirator. The

Self-Contained Breathing powered type contains a blower-stationary or carried by the wearer - which passes

Apparatus (SCBA) Supplied-Air Respirators ambient air through an air-purifying component and then supplies purified air to the

respirator-inlet covering. The nonpowered type is equipped with a facepiece or mouth-

A supply of air, oxygen, or oxygen- (1) Hose Mask piece and nose clamp. The powered type is equipped with a facepiece, helmet, hood,

generated material is carried by the or suit.

wearer. Normally equipped with Equipped with a facepiece,

full facepiece, but may be equipped breathing tube, rugged safety

with a quarter-mask facepiece, half- harness, and large-diameter Vapor-and-Gas-Removing Respirators Particulate-Removing Respirators

mask facepiece, helmet, hood or heavy-duty non-kinking air-

mouthpiece and nose clamp. supply hose. The breathing Equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) Equipped with filter(s) to remove a

tube and air-supply hose are remove a single vapor or gas (for single type of particulate matter (for

(1) Closed-Circuit SCBA (oxygen securely attached to the example: chlorine gas), a single class example: dust) or a combination of

only, negative pressurea or positive harness. The facepiece is of vapors or gases (for example: two or more types of particulate

pressureb). equipped with an exhalation organic vapors), or a combination of matter (for example: dust and fume)

valve. The harness has two or more classes of vapors or gases from air. Filter may be a replaceable

(a) Compressed liquid oxygen provision for attaching a (for example: organic vapors and part or a permanent part of the respirator.

type. Equipped with a facepiece or safety line. acidic gases) from air. Filter may be of the single-use or the

mouth-piece and nose clamp. reusable type.

High-pressure oxygen from a gas (a) Hose mask with blower.

cylinder passes through a high- Air is supplied by a motor-

pressure reducing valve, and in driven orhand-operated blower.

some designs, through a low- The wearer can continue to

pressure admission valve to a inhale through the hose if

breathing bag or container. Liquid the blower fails. Up to 300

oxygen is converted to low- feet (91 meters) of hose

pressure gaseous oxygen and length is permissible.

delivered to the breathing bag. The

wearer inhales from the bag (b) Hose mask without blower. Combination Particulate-and Vapor-and Gas-Removing Respirators

through a corrugated tube The wearer provides motivating

connected to a mouthpiece or force to pull air through the Equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) to remove particulate matter, vapors and

facepiece and a one-way check hose. The hose inlet is gases from air. The filter may be a permanent part or a replaceable part of a cartridge

valve. Exhaled air passes through anchored and fitted with a or canister.

another check valve and tube into a funnel or like object covered

container of carbon-dioxide with a fine mesh screen to

removing chemical and reenters prevent entrance of course

the breathing bag. Make-up oxygen particulate matter. Up to 75

enters the bag continuously or as feet (23 meters) of hose length

the bag deflates sufficiently to is permissible.

actuate an admission valve. A

pressure-relief system is provided, (2) Air-Line Respirator

and a manual bypass and saliva Respirable air is supplied

trap may be provided depending through a small-diameter hose

upon the design. from a compressor or

compressed-air cylinder(s).

(b) Oxygen-generating type. The hose is attached to the

Equipped with a facepiece or wearer by a belt or other suitable

mouth-piece and nose clamp. means and can be detached

Water vapor in the exhaled breath rapidly in an emergency. A

reacts with chemical in the canister flow-control valve or orifice is

to release oxygen to the breathing provided to govern the rate of

bag. The wearer inhales from the air flow to the wearer. Exhaled

bag through a corrugated tube and air passes to the ambient

one-way check valve at the atmosphere through a valve(s)

facepiece. or opening(s) in the enclosure

(facepiece, helmet, hood, or

Exhaled air passes through a suit). Up to 300 feet (91

second check valve/breathing tube meters) of hose length is

assembly into the canister. The permissible.

oxygen-release rate is governed

by the volume of exhaled air. (a) Continuous-flow class.

Carbon dioxide in the exhaled Equipped with a facepiece, hood,

breath is removed by the canister helmet, or suit. At least 115

fill. liters (four cubic feet) of air per

minute to tight-fitting facepieces

(2) Open-Circuit (SCBA) (compressed and 170 liters (six cubic feet)

air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, of air per minute to loose fitting

liquid oxygen). A bypass system is helmets, hoods and suits is

provided in case of regulator failure required. Air is supplied to a

except on escape-type units. suit through a system of internal

tubes to the head, trunk and

(a) Demand-type.c Equipped with a extremities through valves

facepiece or mouthpiece and nose located in appropriate parts

clamp. The demand valve permits of the suit.

oxygen or air flow only during

inhalation. Exhaled breath passes (b) Demand type.c Equipped

to ambient atmosphere through a with a facepiece only. The

valve(s) in the facepiece. demand valve permits flow of

air only during inhalation.

(b) Pressure-demand type.d

Equipped with a facepiece only. (c) Pressure-demand type.d

Positive pressure is maintained Equipped with a facepiece only.

in the facepiece. The apparatus A positive pressure is

may have provision for the wearer maintained in the facepiece.

to select the demand or pressure-

demand mode of operation, in

which case the demand mode

should be used only when donning

or removing the apparatus.

Combination Air-Line Respirators with Auxiliary Self-Contained Air Supply

Includes an air-line respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply.

To escape from a hazardous atmosphere in the event the primary air supply

falls to operate, the wearer switches to the auxiliary self-contained air

supply. Devices approved for both entry into and escape from dangerous

atmospheres have a low-pressure warning alarm and contain at least a 15-

minute self-contained air supply.

Combination Atmosphere-Supplying and Air-Purifying Respirators

Provide the wearer with the option of using either of two different modes of operation: (1) an atmosphere-supplying respirator with an auxiliary air-purifying attachment which provides protection in the event the air supply fails or (2) an air-purifying respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply which is used when the atmosphere may exceed safe conditions for use of an air-purifying respirator.



a Device produces negative pressure in respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation.

b Device produces positive pressure in respiratory-inlet covering during both inhalation and exhalation.

c Equipped with a demand valve that is activated on initiation of inhalation and permits the flow of breathing atmosphere to the facepiece. On exhalation, pressure in the facepiece becomes positive and the demand valve is deactivated.

d A positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece by a spring-loaded or balanced regulator and exhalation valve.



Table 4

Capabilities and Limitations of Respirators



Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators

(See WAC 296-62-07111 for specifications on respirable atmospheres.) General limitations: Air-purifying respirators do not protect against

oxygen-deficient atmospheres nor against skin irritation by, or sorption

Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide protection against oxygen deficiency through the skin of airborne contaminants.

and toxic atmospheres. The breathing atmosphere is independent of ambient

atmospheric conditions.

General limitations: Except for some air-line suits, no protection is provided The maximum contaminant concentration against which an air-purifying

against skin irritation by materials such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride, respirator will protect is determined by the design efficiency and capacity

or against sorption of materials such as hydrogen cyanide, tritium, or organic of the cartridge, canister, or filter and the facepiece-to-face seal on the

phosphate pesticides through the skin. Facepieces present special problems user. For gases and vapors, the maximum concentration for which the

to individuals required to wear prescription lenses. Use of atmosphere- air-purifying element is designed is specified by the manufacturer or is

supplying respirators in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health listed on labels of cartridges and canisters.

is limited to specific devices under specified conditions (see Table 5.)

Self-Contained Breathing Nonpowered air-purifying respirators will not provide the maximum design

Apparatus (SCBA) Supplied-Air Respirators protection specified unless the facepiece or mouthpiece/nose clamp is

carefully fitted to the wearer's face to prevent inward leakage (WAC 296-

The wearer carries his own The respirable air supply is not 62-07115(4). The time period over which protection is provided is

breathing atmosphere. limited to the quantity the dependent on canister, cartridge, or filter type; concentration of

individual can carry, and the contaminant; humidity levels in the ambient atmosphere; and the wearer's

Limitations: The period over which devices are lightweight and simple. respiratory rate.

the device will provide protection

is limited by the amount of air or Limitations: Limited to use in The proper type of canister, cartridge, or filter must be selected for the

oxygen in the apparatus, the ambient atmospheres from which the wearer particular atmosphere and conditions. Nonpowered air-purifying

atmospheric pressure (service life can escape unharmed without the respirators may cause discomfort due to a noticeable resistance to

of open-circuit devices is cut in half aid of the respirator. inhalation. This problem is minimized in powered respirators. Respirator

by a doubling of the atmospheric facepieces present special problems to individuals required to wear

pressure), and the type of work being The wearer is restricted in movement prescription lenses. These devices do have the advantage of being small,

performed. Some SCBA devices have by the hose and must return to a light, and simple in operation.

a short service life (less than 15 respirable atmosphere by retracing

minutes) and are suitable only for his route of entry. The hose is Use of air-purifying respirators in atmospheres immediately dangerous to

escape (self-rescue) from an subject to being served or pinched life or health is limited to specific devices under specified conditions

irreparable atmosphere. off. (See Table 5).

Chief limitations of SCBA devices are (1) Hose Mask.

their weight or bulk, or both, limited The hose inlet or blower must be Vapor and Gas-Removing Respirators Particulate-Removing Respirators

service life, and the training require- located and secured in a respirable

ments for their maintenance and safe atmosphere. Limitations: No protection is provided Limitations: Protection against

use. against particulate contaminants. A non-volatile particles only. No

(a) Hose mask with blower. rise in canister or cartridge tempera- protection against gases and

(1) Closed-Circuit SCBA If the blower fails, the unit still ture indicates that a gas or vapor is vapors.

The closed-circuit operation provides protection, although a being removed from the inspired air. Not for use in atmospheres

conserves oxygen and permits longer negative pressure exists in the immediately dangerous to life

service life at reduced weight. facepiece during inhalation. An uncomfortably high temperature or health unless the device is

indicates a high concentration of gas a powered-type respirator with

The negative-pressure type produces a (b) Hose mask without blower. or vapor and requires an immediate escape provisions

negative pressure in the respiratory- Maximum hose length may restrict return to fresh air. (see Table 5).

inlet covering during inhalation, and application of device.

this may permit inward leakage of Use should be avoided in (1) Full Facepiece Respirator.

contaminants; whereas the positive- (2) Air-Line Respirator (Continuous atmospheres where the contaminant(s)

pressure type always maintains a Flow, Demand and Pressure-Demand lack sufficient warning properties (that Provides protection against eye

positive pressure in the respiratory- Types). is: odor, taste, or irritation at a irritation in addition to respiratory

inlet covering and is less apt to permit concentration in air at or above the protection.

inward leakage of contaminants. The demand type produces a permissible exposure limit). ((())Vapor-

negative pressure in the facepiece on and gas-removing respirators are not (2) Quarter-Mask and Half-Mask

(2) Open Circuit SCBA. inhalation, whereas continuous-flow approved for contaminants that lack Facepiece Respirator. A fabric

and pressure-demand types maintain adequate warning properties. covering (facelet) available from

The demand type produces a negative a positive-pressure in the respirator- some manufacturers shall not

pressure in the respiratory-inlet inlet covering and are less apt to Not for use in atmospheres used unless approved for use with

covering during inhalation, whereas permit inward leakage of immediately dangerous to life or respirator.

the pressure-demand type maintains a contaminants. health unless the device is a powered-

positive pressure in the respiratory- type respirator with escape provisions (3) Mouthpiece Respirator.

inlet covering during inhalation and is Air-line suits may protect against (see Table 5).

less apt to permit inward leakage of atmospheres that irritate the skin Shall be used only for escape

contaminants. or that may be absorbed through the (1) Full Facepiece Respirator. applications. Mouth breathing

unbroken skin. prevents detection of contaminant

Provides protection against eye by odor. Nose clamp must be

Limitations: Air-line respirators irritation in addition to respiratory securely in place to prevent nasal

provide no protection if the air protection. breathing.

supply fails. Some contaminants,

such as tritium, may penetrate the (2) Quarter-Mask and Half-Mask Face- A small, lightweight device that

material of an air-line suit and piece Respirator. A fabric covering can be donned quickly.

limit its effectiveness. (facelet) available from some manu-

facturers shall not be used.

Other contaminants, such as fluorine,

may react chemically with the (3) Mouthpiece Respirator. Shall be

material of an air-line suit and used only for escape application.

damage it. Mouth breathing prevents detection

of contaminant by odor. iNose clamp

Combination Airline Respirators with Auxiliary ((SC)) SCBA Air Supply must be securely in place to prevent

((prevent)) nasal breathing.

The auxiliary self-contained air supply on this type of device allows the

wearer to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. This device with auxiliary

self-contained air supply is approved for escape and may be used for entry A small lightweight device that can be

when it contains at least 15-minute auxiliary self-contained air supply. donned quickly.

(See Table 5).

Combination Particulate-and-Vapor-and Gas-Removing Respirators

The advantages and disadvantages of the component sections of the

combination respirator as described above apply.

Combination Atmosphere-Supplying and Air-Purifying Respirators

The advantages and disadvantages, expressed above, of the mode of operation being used will govern. The mode with the greater limitations (air-purifying mode) will mainly determine the overall capabilities and limitations of the respirator, since the wearer may for some reason fail to change the mode of operation even though conditions would require such a change.



Table 5

Respirator Protection Factorsa



Permitted for Use Permitted for Use in

in Oxygen-Deficient Immediately-Dangerous-to

Type of Respirator Atmosphere Life-or-Health Atmospheref Qualitative Test Quantitative Test



Particulate-filter No No 10 As measured on each person with

quarter-mask or half- maximum of 100.

mask facepieceb,c

Vapor- or gas-removing, No No 10, or maximum use limit As measured on each person with

quarter-mask or half- of cartridge or canister maximum of 100, or maximum use

mask facepiecec for vapor or gas, which- limit of cartridge or canister for vapor

ever is less or gasi,j, whichever is less.

Combination particulate- No No 10, or maximum use limit As measured on each person with

filter and vapor- or gas- of cartridge or canister maximum of 100, or maximum use

removing, quarter-mask for vapor or gas, which- limit of cartridge or canister for vapor

or half-mask facepieceb,c ever is less or gasi,j, whichever is less.

Particulate-filter, full No No 100 As measured on each person with

facepieceb maximum of 100 if dust, fume, or mist

filter is used or maximum of 1,000 if

high-efficiency filter is used.

Vapor- or gas-removing, No No 100, or maximum use limit As measured on each person with

full facepiece of cartridge or canister maximum of 1000, or maximum use

for vapor or gas, which- limit of cartridge or canister for vapor

ever is less or gasi,j, whichever is less.

Combination particulate- No No 100, or maximum use limit As measured on each person with

filter and vapor- or gas- of cartridge or canister maximum of 100 if dust, fume, or

removing, full facepieceb for vapor or gas, which- mist filter is used and maximum of

ever is less 1,000 if high-efficiency filter is used,

or maximum use limit of cartridge or

canister for vapor or gasi,j, which-

ever is less.

Powered particulate-filter, No No (yes, if escape NA NA

any respiratory-inlet provisions are providedd) No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

coveringb,c,d The maximum protection factor is 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is

used and 3,000 if high-efficiency filter is used.

Powered vapor- or gas- No No (yes, if escape NA NA

removing, any respiratory- provisions are providedd) No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation ((or)) of respirator.

inlet coveringc,d The maximum protection factor is 3,000 or maximum use limit of

cartridge or canister for vapor of gasi,j, whichever is less.

Powered combination No No (yes, if escape NA NA

particulate-filter and vapor- provisions are providedd) No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

or gas-removing, any The maximum protection factor is 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is

respirator-inlet coveringb,c,d used and 3,000 if high-efficiency filter is used, or maximum use limit

of cartridge or canister for vapor of gas i,j, whichever is less.

Air-line, demand, quarter- Yesf No 10 As measured on each person, but

mask or half-mask facepiece, limited to the use of the respirator

with or without escape in concentrations of contaminants below

provisionsc,e the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-

health (IDLH) values.

Air-line, demand, full face- Yesf No 100 As measured on each person but limited

piece, with or without to the use of the respirators in

escape provisionse concentrations of contaminants below

the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-

health (IDLH) values.

Air-line, continuous-flow Yesf No NA NA

or pressure-demand No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

type, any facepiece The protection factor provided by the respirator is limited to the use

without escape provisionsc of the respirator in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-

dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.

Air-line, continuous-flow Yesg Yes NA NA

or pressure-demand type, No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

any facepiece with escape The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.

provisionsc,e

Air-line, continuous flow, Yesf No NA NA

helmet, hood, or suit, No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

without escape provisions The protection factor provided by the respirator is limited to the use

of the respirator in concentrations of contaminants below the

immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.

Air-line, continuous flow, Yesg No NA NA

helmet, hood, or suit, No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

with escape provisionse The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.

Hose mask, with or without Yesf No 10 As measured on each person, but limited

blower, full facepiece to the use of the respirators in

concentrations of contaminants below

the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or

health (IDLH) values.

Self-contained breathing Yesf No 10 As measured on each person, but limited

apparatus, demand-type to the use of the respirators in

open-circuit, or negative- concentrations of contaminants below

pressure-type closed-circuit the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or

quarter-mask or half-mask health (IDLH) values.

facepiecec

Self-contained breathing Yesf (Yesg, if No (Yes if respirator is 100 As measured on each person, but limited

apparatus, demand-type respirator is used for mine rescue and to the use of the respirators in

open-circuit, or negative- used for mine mine recovery operations.) concentrations of contaminants below

pressure-type closed- rescue and mine the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or

circuit, full facepiece or recovery health (IDLH) values, except when the

mouthpiece/nose clampc operations.) respirator is used for mine rescue and

mine recovery operations.

Self-contained breathing Yesg Yes NA NA

apparatus, pressure-demand No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator.

type open-circuit, or The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.

positive-pressure-type

closed-circuit quarter-

mask or half-mask facepiece

or mouthpiece/nose clampc

Combination respirators. The type and mode of operation having the lowest respirator protection factor shall be applied to the Combination Respirator not listed.



N/A means not applicable since a respirator-fitting test is not carried out.

a A respirator protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to a respirator wearer. Multiplying the permissible time-weighted average concentration or the permissible ceiling concentration, whichever is applicable, for a toxic substance, or the maximum permissible airborne concentration for a radionuclide, by a protection factor assigned to a respirator gives the maximum concentration of the hazardous substance for which the respirator can be used. Limitations of filters, cartridges, and canisters used in air-purifying respirators shall be considered in determining protection factors.

b When the respirator is used for protection against airborne particulate matter having a permissible time-weighted average concentration less than 0.05 milligram particulate matter per cubic meter of air or less than 2 million particles per cubic foot of air, or for protection against airborne radionuclide particulate matter, the respirator shall be equipped with a high-efficiency filter(s).

c If the air contaminant causes eye irritation, the wearer of a respirator equipped with a quarter-mask or half-mask facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp shall be permitted to use a protective goggle or to use a respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Mouthpiece and nose clamp respirators are approved by NIOSH only for escape from IDLH atmospheres.

d If the powered air-purifying respirator is equipped with a facepiece, the escape provision means that the wearer is able to breathe through the filter, cartridge, or canister and through the pump. If the powered air-purifying respirator is equipped with a helmet, hood, or suit, the escape provision shall be an auxiliary self-contained supply of respirable air.

e The escape provision shall be an auxiliary self-contained supply of respirable air.

f For definition of "oxygen deficiency-not immediately dangerous to life or health" see WAC 296-62-07105.

g For definition of "oxygen deficiency-immediately dangerous to life or health" see WAC 296-62-07105.

h The protection factor measurement exceeds the limit of sensitivity of the test apparatus. Therefore, the respirator has been classified for use in atmospheres having unknown concentrations of contaminants.

i The service life of a vapor-or-gas removing cartridge canister depends on the specific vapor or gas, the concentration of the vapor or gas in air, the temperature and humidity of the air, the type and quantity of the sorbent in the cartridge or canister, and the activity of the respirator wearer. Cartridges and canisters may provide only very short service lives for certain vapors and gases. Vapor/gas service life testing is recommended to ensure that cartridges and canisters provide adequate service lines. Reference should be made to published reports which give vapor/gas life data for cartridges and canisters.

j Vapor-and-gas removing respirators are not approved for contaminants that lack adequate warning properties of odor, irritation, or taste at concentrations in air at or above the permissible exposure limits.

Note: Respirator protection factors for air-purifying-type respirators equipped with a mouthpiece/nose clamp form of respirator-inlet covering are not given, since such respirators are approved only for escape purposes.

[Open Style:Columns On]



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-62-07113, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-62-07113, filed 7/6/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-16-016 (Order 81-19), 296-62-07113, filed 7/27/81.]

NEW SECTION

WAC 296-62-07460 Butadiene. (1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.

(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.

(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.

(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

"Action level" means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.

"Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.

"1,3-Butadiene" means an organic compound with chemical formula CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2) that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.

"Business day" means any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.

"Complete blood count (CBC)" means laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.

"Day" means any part of a calendar day.

"Emergency situation" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.

"Employee exposure" means exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

"Objective data" means monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.

"Permissible exposure limits (PELs)" means either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).

"Physician or other licensed health care professional" is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.

"Regulated area" means any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.

"This section" means this 1,3-butadiene standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.

(b) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or shall rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.

(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.

(d) Termination of monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.

(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.

(e) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.

(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hr TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer shall monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.

(f) Accuracy of monitoring.

Monitoring shall be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.

(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(h) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and shall ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hr TWA or the STEL.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(c) Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.

(d) An employer at a multi-employer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering controls and work practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance plan.

(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer shall establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section. No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.

(ii) The written compliance plan shall include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.

(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans shall be reviewed at least every 12 months, and shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iv) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(7) Exposure goal program.

(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer shall have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.

(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(c) Such plans shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.

(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.

(e) The exposure goal program shall include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:

(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.

(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.

(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.

(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.

(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.

(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. The employer shall provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection, at no cost to each affected employee, and ensure that each affected employee uses such respirator where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(i) During the time interval necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(ii) In nonroutine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration;

(iii) In work situations where feasible engineering controls and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs; or

(iv) In emergencies.

(b) Respirator selection.

(i) Where respirators are required, the employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 of this section, and ensure its use.

(ii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR Part 84, "Respiratory Protective Devices." Air purifying respirators shall have filter element(s) approved by NIOSH for organic vapors or BD.

(iii) If an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative pressure respirator, the employee must be provided with a respirator having less breathing resistance, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied air respirator, if the employee is able to use it and if it will provide adequate protection.

(c) Respirator program. Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(d) Respirator use.

(i) Where air-purifying respirators are used, the employer shall replace the air purifying filter element(s) according to the replacement life interval set for the class of respirator listed in Table 1 in (e) of this subsection and at the beginning of each work shift.

(ii) In lieu of the replacement intervals listed in Table 1, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of the expiration of service life, provided the employer can demonstrate that employees will be adequately protected. BD breakthrough data relied upon by the employer must derive from tests conducted under worst case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air flow rate through the filter element. The employer shall describe the data supporting the cartridge/canister change schedule and the basis for reliance on the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iii) A label shall be attached to the filter element(s) to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator. If an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

(iv) If a NIOSH-approved end of service life indicator (ESLI) for BD becomes available for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until such time as the indicator shows no further useful service life or until replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever comes first. If an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

(v) The employer shall permit employees who wear respirators to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary in order to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use or to change the filter elements of air-purifying respirators whenever they detect a change in breathing resistance or whenever the odor of BD is detected.

(e) Respirator fit testing.

(i) The employer shall perform either qualitative fit testing (QLFT) or quantitative fit testing (QNFT), as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for employees who wear tight-fitting negative pressure respirators. Fit testing shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which exhibits minimum leakage and provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1 of this section.

(ii) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting full facepiece negative pressure respirator who is exposed to airborne concentrations of BD that exceed 10 times the TWA PEL (10 ppm), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter.



[Open Style:Columns Off]

Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne BD

Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use Minimum required respirator

Less than or equal to 5 ppm(5 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece

respirator equipped with approved BD or organic

vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or

canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.

Less than or equal to 10 ppm(10 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece

respirator equipped with approved BD or organic

vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or

canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.

Less than or equal to 25 ppm(25 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator

equipped with approved BD or organic vapor

cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters

shall be replaced every 2 hours.

(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped

with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges.

PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.

(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator

equipped with a hood or helmet.

Less than or equal to 50 ppm(50 times PEL) (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped

with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or

canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced

every 1 hour.

(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped

with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved

BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges

shall be replaced every 1 hour.

Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL) (a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a

half mask or full facepiece and operated in

a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

Greater than 1,000 ppm (a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration,

or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full

facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or

other positive pressure mode.

(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a

full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand

or other positive pressure mode in combination

with an auxiliary self-contained breathing

apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other

positive pressure mode.

Escape from IDLH Conditions (a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing

apparatus with an appropriate service life.

(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator

equipped with a front or back mounted BD or

organic vapor canister.

Notes: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.

[Open Style:Columns On]

(iii) The employer shall ensure that employees wearing tight-fitting respirators perform a facepiece seal fit check to ensure that a proper facepiece seal is obtained prior to entry into a BD atmosphere. The recommended positive or negative pressure fit check procedures listed in Appendix E to this section or the respirator manufacturer's recommended fit check procedure shall be used.

(9) Protective clothing and equipment. Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer shall provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and shall ensure its use. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-078.

(10) Emergency situations. Written plan. A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed, or an existing plan shall be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567, Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in WAC 296-62-3112, hazardous waste operations and emergency responses, for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.

(11) Medical screening and surveillance.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:

(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;

(ii) Employers (including successor owners) shall continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:

(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;

(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or

(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and

(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.

(b) Program administration.

(i) The employer shall ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures shall be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.

(iii) Laboratory tests shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory.

(c) Frequency of medical screening activities. The employer shall make medical screening available on the following schedule:

(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:

(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;

(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;

(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;

(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;

(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and

(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.

(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening shall be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.

(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by WAC 296-62-071.

(d) Content of medical screening.

(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall include:

(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually. Particular emphasis shall be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure. Health questionnaires shall consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;

(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;

(C) A CBC; and

(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.

(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation shall focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache. Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, shall be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.

(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional shall refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and shall make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.

(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection shall determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.

(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:

(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;

(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;

(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.

(g) The written medical opinion.

(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation. The written opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;

(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The written medical opinion provided to the employer shall not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.

Note: This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employee.

(h) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.

(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.

(12) Communication of BD hazards to employees.

(a) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the hazards associated with BD exposure in accordance with the requirements of the hazard communication standard, WAC 296-62-054.

(b) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall provide all employees exposed to BD with information and training in accordance with the requirements of the hazard communication standard, WAC 296-62-054.

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(iii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.

(iv) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;

(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and

(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:

(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;

(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(d) of this section; and

(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(c) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and

(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with WAC 296-62-052.

(c) Respirator fit test.

(i) The employer shall establish a record of the fit tests administered to an employee including:

(A) The name of the employee;

(B) Type of respirator;

(C) Brand and size of respirator;

(D) Date of test; and

(E) Where QNFT is used, the fit factor, strip chart recording or other recording of the results of the test.

(ii) Fit test records shall be maintained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.

(d) Medical screening and surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(f) of this section;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsections (11)(f) of this section.

(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records shall be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with WAC 296-62-052.

(e) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.

(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) through (c) of this subsection shall be granted in accordance with WAC 296-62-05209.

(f) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer records required by this section to the successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records. If there is no successor employer, the employer shall notify the director, at least three months prior to disposal, and transmit them to the director if requested by the director within that period.

(ii) The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(14) Dates.

(a) Effective date. This section shall become effective (day,month), 1997.

(b) Start-up dates.

(i) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section shall be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, shall be complied with immediately.

(iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.

(15) Appendices.

(a) Appendix E to this section is mandatory.

(b) Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Substance Identification.

(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.

(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.

(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry. Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.

(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, non-corrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.

(2) Health Hazard Data.

(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur. Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.

(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats. A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD. OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.

(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.

(3) Emergency First Aid Procedures.

In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area. If you have been trained in first aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures. If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.

(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids. Flush repeatedly. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.

(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.

(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures. Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty. Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.

(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, non-routine, intermittent exposure. Respirators may also be used in situations involving non-routine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations. In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints. For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.

If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators. If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before re-entering an area where there is BD exposure. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.

(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).

Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.

(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.

(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air. It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%. It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F). Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place. If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.

(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic. Slight respiratory irritant. Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.

(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers. Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred. Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition. Store cylinders vertically and do not stack. Do not store with oxidizing material.

(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.

(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code. If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B. Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger. See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).

(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.

(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.

(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Medical Requirements.

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year. Exposure for any part of a day counts. If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.

The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program. These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:

(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;

(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or

(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.

Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours. The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test. These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.

(7) Observation of Monitoring.

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.

(8) Access to Information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty (30) years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.

Appendix B. Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Physical and Chemical Data.

(a) Substance identification:

(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.

(ii) Formula: (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.

(b) Physical data:

(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).

(ii) Specific gravity (water=1): 0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).

(iii) Vapor density (air=1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.

(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.

(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.

(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor. Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.

(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.

(a) Fire:

(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.

(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage. Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.

(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.

(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.

(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.

(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.

(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.

(b) Reactivity:

(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat. Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.

(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions. The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.

(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.

(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron. Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.

(c) Warning Properties:

(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. (Ex. 32-28C).

(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.

(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.

(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.

(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.

(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.

(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):

(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).

(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.

(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.



[Open Style:Columns Off]

Table 1. -- Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated Monitoring Frequencies

Action Level 8-hr TWA STEL Required Monitoring Activity

__* __ __ No 8-hr TWA or STEL monitoring required.

+* __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr

TWA annually.

+ __ __ No STEL monitoring required. Periodic

monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance with

(4)(c)(iii).**

+ + + Periodic monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance

with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL

in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).

+ __ + Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with

(4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.

Footnote(*) Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: + = Yes, - = No.

Footnote(**) The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hr TWA, but at or above the action level.

[Open Style:Columns On]

(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.

(5) Personal Protective Equipment.

(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.

(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not re-worn until the butadiene has evaporated.

(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.

(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-24-120 (Part B-1 Sanitation), the following items should be emphasized:

(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.

(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.

(7) Additional Precautions.

(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.

(b) Non-sparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers. These containers must be effectively grounded.

(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.

(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.

Appendix C. Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.

(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.

(b) Toxicology.

Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity. Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects. BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites. Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.

Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy. Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test. In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.

Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene. In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.

(c) Epidemiology.

Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia. Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.

(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.

(a) Acute.

Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite. BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur. Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.

At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death. Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.

(b) Chronic.

The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.

(c) Reproductive.

Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child. For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.

(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.

(a) Health Questionnaire.

The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities. Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses. Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD.

Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD. After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.

(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure. This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood. The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.

Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies. The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females. A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as "abnormal" for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values. It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.

A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred. Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available. Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern. A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error. In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred. A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD. Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.

(c) Physical Examination.

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years. The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure. The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.

Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality. Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC. Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.

The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly. For these workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.

Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management. Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.

Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

OSHA Method No.: 56.

Matrix: Air.

Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m(3)).

Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.

Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.

Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.

Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.

Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.

(1) Background.

This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm. The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref. 5.2). This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.

The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC). TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref. 5.3).

(a) Toxic effects.

Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue. Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD. (Ref. 5.1)

NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice. BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system. It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects. (Ref. 5.1)

(b) Potential workplace exposure.

About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber. Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-stryene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates. (Ref. 5.1)

(c) Physical properties (Ref. 5.1).

CAS No.: 106-99-0

Molecular weight: 54.1

Appearance: Colorless gas

Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)

Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C

Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C

Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)

Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm

Structural formula: H(2)C:CHCH:CH(2)

Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.

(d) Limit defining parameters.

The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL. Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.

(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.

The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection. This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.

(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.

The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m(3)). This amount was determined graphically. It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

(g) Reliable quantitation limit.

The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m(3)). This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of +/- 25% or better.

(h) Sensitivity.(1)

Footnote(1) The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte. When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.

The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL. This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve. The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.

(i) Recovery.

The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature. These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data. The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.

(j) Precision (analytical method only).

The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.

(k) Precision (overall procedure).

The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was +/- 12.7%. This value includes an additional +/- 5% for sampling error. The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are +/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.

(l) Reproducibility.

Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation. The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.

(2) Sampling procedure.

(a) Apparatus. Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within +/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.

(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes. The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long. The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm. One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling. The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm). The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube. Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety. The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC. The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal. The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool. Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps. Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.

(c) Reagents.

None required.

(d) Technique.

(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.

(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere. Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube. The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.

(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps. Wrap the tube lengthwise.

(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set. The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.

(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.

(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions. The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures. If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer. The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.

(e) Breakthrough.

(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube. Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min. At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected. The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)

Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration. The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.

(f) Desorption efficiency.

The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%. The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.

(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.

(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.

(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.

(j) Interferences.

There are no known interferences to the sampling method.

(k) Safety precautions.

(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.

(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.

(3) Analytical procedure.

(a) Apparatus.

(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)

Footnote(2) A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation. Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.

(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)

Footnote(3) A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.

(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflon-lined caps.

(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.

(b) Reagents.

(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)

Footnote(4) Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S. Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.

The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.

(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.

(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)

Footnote(5) Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.

(c) Standard preparation.

(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide. This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial. Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)

Footnote(6) A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.

(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:

MV=(760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)

Where:

MV = ambient molar volume BP = ambient barometric pressure T = ambient temperature ug/uL

= 54.09/MV ug/standard = (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard

(d) Sample preparation.

(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial. Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial. If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.

(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.

(iii) Seal the vials with Teflon-lined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour. Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.

(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour. This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.

(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.

(e) Analysis.

(i) GC Conditions.

Column temperature: 95 deg. C

Injector temperature: 180 deg. C

Detector temperature: 275 deg. C

Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.

Injection volume: 0.80 uL

GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%

FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.

(ii) Chromatogram. See Section 4.2.

(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.

(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations. Prepare the calibration curve daily. Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.

(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.

(f) Interferences (analytical).

(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference. Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.

(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.

(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS. It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.

(g) Calculations.

(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves. Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard. The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.

(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve. If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section. Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.

(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:

mg/m(3)=(A)(B)/(C)(D)

Where:

A = ug/mL from Section 3.7.2 B = volume C = L of air sampled D = efficiency

(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m(3) to ppm:

ppm =(mg/m(3))(24.46)/54.09

Where:

mg/m(3) = result from Section 3.7.3. 24.46 = molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.

(h) Safety precautions (analytical).

(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.

(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.

(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.

(4) Additional Information.

(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.

(i) Apparatus.

(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.

(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)

Footnote(8) A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.

(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.

(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.

(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.

(ii) Reagents.

(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)

Footnote(9) Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.

(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)

Footnote(10) The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.

(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)

Footnote(11) Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation. The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.

(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.

(iii) Procedure.

Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture. Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel. Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid. Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube. Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube. Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C. Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour. After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker. Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.

CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.

Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle. Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape. Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level. Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour. Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.

The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes. The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature. The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.

(b) Chromatograms.

The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method. The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.

The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC. This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte. The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.

(5) References.

(a) "Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene", U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.

(b) "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods", 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.

(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. "The Condensed Chemical Dictionary", 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.

Appendix E: Respirator Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory)

A. The Employer Shall Conduct Fit Testing Using the Following Procedures.

These provisions apply to both QLFT and QNFT.

1. The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most comfortable respirator from a selection of respirators of various sizes and models.

2. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine a comfortable fit. A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning the respirator. This instruction may not constitute the subject's formal training on respirator use, because it is only a review.

3. The test subject shall be informed that he/she is being asked to select the respirator which provides the most comfortable fit. Each respirator represents a different size and shape, and if fitted and used properly, will provide adequate protection.

4. The test subject shall be instructed to hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those which obviously do not give a comfortable fit.

5. The more comfortable facepieces are noted; the most comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five minutes to assess comfort. Assistance in assessing comfort can be given by discussing the points in item 6 below. If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject shall be directed to don the mask several times and to adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps.

6. Assessment of comfort shall include reviewing the following points with the test subject and allowing the test subject adequate time to determine the comfort of the respirator:

(a) Position of the mask on the nose.

(b) Room for eye protection.

(c) Room to talk.

(d) Position of mask on face and cheeks.

7. The following criteria shall be used to help determine the adequacy of the respirator fit:

(a) Chin properly placed;

(b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened;

(c) Fit across nose bridge;

(d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin;

(e) Tendency of respirator to slip;

(f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

8. The test subject shall conduct the negative and positive pressure fit checks using procedures in Appendix A or those recommended by the respirator manufacturer. Before conducting the negative or positive pressure fit checks, the subject shall be told to seat the mask on the face by moving the head from side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in a few slow deep breaths. Another facepiece shall be selected and retested if the test subject fails the fit check tests.

9. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, or sideburns which cross the respirator sealing surface. Any type of apparel which interferes with a satisfactory fit shall be altered or removed.

10. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

11. If the employee finds the fit of the respirator unacceptable, the test subject shall be given the opportunity to select a different respirator and to be retested.

12. Exercise regimen. Prior to the commencement of the fit test, the test subject shall be given a description of the fit test and the test subject's responsibilities during the test procedure. The description of the process shall include a description of the test exercises that the subject will be performing. The respirator to be tested shall be worn for at least 5 minutes before the start of the fit test.

13. Test Exercises. The test subject shall perform exercises, in the test environment, while wearing any applicable safety equipment that may be worn during actual respirator use which could interfere with fit, in the manner described below:

(a) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally.

(b) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply, taking caution so as to not hyperventilate.

(c) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side.

(d) Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling).

(e) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song.

Rainbow Passage

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

(f) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning. (Only for QNFT testing, not performed for QLFT)

(g) Bending over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he/she were to touch his/her toes. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT units which prohibit bending at the waist.

(h) Normal breathing. Same as exercise (a). Each test exercise shall be performed for one minute except for the grimace exercise which shall be performed for 15 seconds.

The test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

B. Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) Protocols

1. General

(a) The employer shall assign specific individuals who shall assume full responsibility for implementing the respirator qualitative fit test program.

(b) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QLFT are able to prepare test solutions, calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, and assure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(c) The employer shall assure that QLFT equipment is kept clean and well maintained so as to operate within the parameters for which it was designed.

2. Isoamyl Acetate Protocol

(a) Odor threshold screening.

The odor threshold screening test, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine if the individual tested can detect the odor of isoamyl acetate.

(1) Three 1 liter glass jars with metal lids are required.

(2) Odor free water (e.g. distilled or spring water) at approximately 25 degrees C shall be used for the solutions.

(3) The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known at isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1 cc of pure IAA to 800 cc of odor free water in a 1 liter jar and shaking for 30 seconds. A new solution shall be prepared at least weekly.

(4) The screening test shall be conducted in a room separate from the room used for actual fit testing. The two rooms shall be well ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evident in the general room air where testing takes place.

(5) The odor test solution is prepared in a second jar by placing 0.4 cc of the stock solution into 500 cc of odor free water using a clean dropper or pipette. The solution shall be shaken for 30 seconds and allowed to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium. This solution shall be used for only one day.

(6) A test blank shall be prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor free water.

(7) The odor test and test blank jars shall be labeled 1 and 2 for jar identification. Labels shall be placed on the lids so they can be periodically peeled off and switched to maintain the integrity of the test.

(8) The following instruction shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e., 1 and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration. The two bottles in front of you contain water. One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil."

(9) The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection test shall be prepared in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory fatigue in the subject.

(10) If the test subject is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, the IAA qualitative fit test shall not be performed.

(11) If the test subject correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the test subject may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing.

(b) Isoamyl acetate fit test

(1) The fit test chamber shall be similar to a clear 55-gallon drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot diameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject's head. The inside top center of the chamber shall have a small hook attached.

(2) Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors.

(3) After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room. This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection, and shall be well ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination.

(4) A copy of the test exercises and any prepared text from which the subject is to read shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber.

(5) Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single-ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 cc of pure IAA. The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber.

(6) Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to stabilize before starting the fit test exercises. This would be an appropriate time to talk with the test subject; to explain the fit test, the importance of his/her cooperation, and the purpose for the test exercises; or to demonstrate some of the exercises.

(7) If at any time during the test, the subject detects the banana like odor of IAA, the test is failed. The subject shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory fatigue.

(8) If the test is failed, the subject shall return to the selection room and remove the respirator. The test subject shall repeat the odor sensitivity test, select and put on another respirator, return to the test area and again begin the fit test procedure described in (1) through (7) above. The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found. Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the subject shall wait about 5 minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time.

(9) When the subject wearing the respirator passes the test, its efficiency shall be demonstrated for the subject by having the subject break the face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber.

(10) When the test subject leaves the chamber, the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the chamber during subsequent tests. The used towels shall be kept in a self-sealing bag to keep the test area from being contaminated.

3. Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol

The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Taste threshold screening. The saccharin taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of saccharin.

(1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that allows free movements of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT 15 combined, is adequate.

(2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4-inch hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his/her slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent the test conductor shall spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(5) The threshold check solution consists of 0.83 grams of sodium saccharin USP in 100 ml of warm water. It can be prepared by putting 1 ml of the fit test solution (see (b)(5) below) in 100 ml of distilled water.

(6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then released and allowed to fully expand.

(7) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted.

(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted.

(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted.

(10) The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(11) If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject may not perform the saccharin fit test.

(12) If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

(b) Saccharin solution aerosol fit test procedure

(1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure described in (a) above.

(3) The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in section (a) above. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter(s).

(4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm water.

(6) As before, the test subject shall breathe through the slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and the fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response in the screening test. A minimum of 10 squeezes is required.

(8) After generating the aerosol the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section A. 13 above.

(9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the number of squeezes as initially.

(10) The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected.

(11) If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and a different respirator shall be tried.

4. Irritant Fume Protocol

(a) The respirator to be tested shall be equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.

(b) No form of test enclosure or hood for the test subject shall be used.

(c) The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before the respirator is donned to become familiar with its irritating properties.

(d) Break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chloride. Attach one end of the smoke tube to an aspirator squeeze bulb and cover the other end with a short piece of tubing to prevent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube.

(d) Advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes and instruct the subject to keep his/her eyes closed while the test is performed.

(e) The test conductor shall direct the stream of irritant smoke from the smoke tube towards the face seal area of the test subject. He/She shall begin at least 12 inches from the facepiece and gradually move to within one inch, moving around the whole perimeter of the mask.

(f) The exercises identified in section A. 13 above shall be performed by the test subject while the respirator seal is being challenged by the smoke.

(g) Each test subject passing the smoke test without evidence of a response (involuntary cough) shall be given a sensitivity check of the smoke from the same tube once the respirator has been removed to determine whether he/she reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test.

(h) The fit test shall be performed in a location with exhaust ventilation sufficient to prevent general contamination of the testing area by the test agent.

C. Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) Protocols

The following quantitative fit testing procedures have been demonstrated to be acceptable.

(1) Quantitative fit testing using a non-hazardous challenge aerosol (such as corn oil or sodium chloride) generated in a test chamber, and employing instrumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator.

(2) Quantitative fit testing using ambient aerosol as the challenge agent and appropriate instrumentation (condensation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit.

(3) Quantitative fit testing using controlled negative pressure and appropriate instrumentation to measure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify the respirator fit.

1. General

(a) The employer shall assign specific individuals who shall assume full responsibility for implementing the respirator quantitative fit test program.

(b) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QNFT are able to calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, calculate fit factors properly and assure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(c) The employer shall assure that QNFT equipment is kept clean, maintained and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions so as to operate at the parameters for which it was designed.

2. Generated aerosol quantitative fit testing protocol

Apparatus

(a) Instrumentation. Aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems using particulates (corn oil or sodium chloride) or gases or vapors as test aerosols shall be used for quantitative fit testing.

(b) Test chamber. The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to perform freely all required exercises without disturbing the challenge agent concentration or the measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the challenge agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber.

(c) When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter supplied by the same manufacturer in the case of particulate QNFT aerosols or a sorbent offering contaminant penetration protection equivalent to high-efficiency filters where the QNFT test agent is a gas or vapor.

(d) The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a computer record or strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of the challenge agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000. Integrators or computers which integrate the amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used provided a record of the readings is made.

(e) The combination of substitute air-purifying elements, challenge agent and challenge agent concentration shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of an established exposure limit for the challenge agent at any time during the testing process based upon the length of the exposure and the exposure limit duration.

(f) The sampling port on the test specimen respirator shall be placed and constructed so that no leakage occurs around the port (e.g. where the respirator is probed), a free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times and so that there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator. The in-mask sampling device (probe) shall be designed and used so that the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone of the test subject, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4 inch.

(g) The test set up shall permit the person administering the test to observe the test subject inside the chamber during the test.

(h) The equipment generating the challenge atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of challenge agent constant to within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.

(i) The time lag (interval between an event and the recording of the event on the strip chart or computer or integrator) shall be kept to a minimum. There shall be a clear association between the occurrence of an event and its being recorded.

(j) The sampling line tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be of equal diameter and of the same material. The length of the two lines shall be equal.

(k) The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through a high-efficiency filter before release.

(l) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent.

(m) The limitations of instrument detection shall be taken into account when determining the fit factor.

(n) Test respirators shall be maintained in proper working order and inspected for deficiencies such as cracks, missing valves and gaskets, etc.

3. Procedural Requirements

(a) When performing the initial positive or negative pressure fit check the sampling line shall be crimped closed in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of these fit checks.

(b) The use of an abbreviated screening QLFT test is optional and may be utilized in order to quickly identify poor fitting respirators which passed the positive and/or negative pressure test and thus reduce the amount of QNFT time. The use of the CNC QNFT instrument in the count mode is another optional method to use to obtain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fitting respirators before going on to perform a full QNFT.

(c) A reasonably stable challenge agent concentration shall be measured in the test chamber prior to testing. For canopy or shower curtain type of test units the determination of the challenge agent stability may be established after the test subject has entered the test environment.

(d) Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the challenge agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half mask or 1 percent for a full facepiece respirator.

(e) A stable challenge concentration shall be obtained prior to the actual start of testing.

(f) Respirator restraining straps shall not be over tightened for testing. The straps shall be adjusted by the wearer without assistance from other persons to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use.

(g) The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half masks and 1 percent for full facepiece respirators. The test subject shall be refitted and retested.

(h) Calculation of fit factors.

(1) The fit factor shall be determined for the quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the concentration measured inside the respirator for each test exercise except the grimace exercise.

(2) The average test chamber concentration shall be calculated as the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each test (i.e. 8 exercises) or the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each exercise or the true average measured continuously during the respirator sample.

(3) The concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be determined by one of the following methods:

(i) Average peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration into the respirator utilizing a strip chart recorder, integrator, or computer. The agent penetration is determined by an average of the peak heights on the graph or by computer integration, for each exercise except the grimace exercise. Integrators or computers which calculate the actual test agent penetration into the respirator for each exercise will also be considered to meet the requirements of the average peak penetration method.

(ii) Maximum peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration in the respirator as determined by strip chart recordings of the test. The highest peak penetration for a given exercise is taken to be representative of average penetration into the respirator for that exercise.

(iii) Integration by calculation of the area under the individual peak for each exercise except the grimace exercise. This includes computerized integration.

(iv) The calculation of the overall fit factor using individual exercise fit factors involves first converting the exercise fit factors to penetration values, determining the average, and then converting that result back to a fit factor. This procedure is described in the following equation:

Overall Number of exercises

Fit Factor: =

1/ff(1)+1/ff(2)+1/ff(3)+1/ff(4)+1/ff(5)+1/ff(7)+1/ff(8)

where ff(1), ff(2), ff(3), etc. are the fit factors for exercise 1,2,3, etc. (Results of the grimace exercise (7) are not used in this calculation.)

(j) The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half mask or quarter facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained, or a full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained.

(k) Filters used for quantitative fit testing shall be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media. Organic vapor cartridges/canisters shall be replaced if there is any indication of breakthrough by a test agent.

4. Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol

The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing (Portacount(TM)) protocol quantitatively fit tests respirators with the use of a probe. The probed respirator is only used for quantitative fit tests. A probed respirator has a special sampling device, installed on the respirator, that allows the probe to sample the air from inside the mask. A probed respirator is required for each make, model, and size in which your company requires and can be obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distributor. The CNC instrument manufacturer Dynatech Nevada also provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) that permits fit testing in an employee's own respirator. A fit factor pass level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a fit factor of at least 10 times greater than the assigned protection factor for any other negative pressure respirator. The Agency does not recommend the use of homemade sampling adapters. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Portacount Fit Test Requirements.

(1) Check the respirator to make sure the respirator is fitted with a high efficiency filter and that the sampling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece.

(2) Instruct the person to be tested to don the respirator several minutes before the fit test starts. This purges the particles inside the respirator and permits the wearer to make certain the respirator is comfortable. This individual should have already been trained on how to wear the respirator properly.

(3) Check the following conditions for the adequacy of the respirator fit: Chin properly placed; Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Fit across nose bridge; Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin; Tendencies for the respirator to slip; Self-observation in a mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

(4) Have the person wearing the respirator do a fit check. If leakage is detected, determine the cause. If leakage is from a poorly fitting facepiece, try another size of the same type of respirator.

(5) Follow the instructions for operating the Portacount and proceed with the test.

(b) Portacount Test Exercises.

(1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute.

(2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply for 1 minute, taking caution so as too not hyperventilate.

(3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his or her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side for 1 minute. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side.

(4) Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his or her head up and down for 1 minute. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling).

(5) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song for 1 minute.

(6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning for 15 seconds.

(7) Bending Over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he or she were to touch his or her toes for 1 minute. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT units which prohibit bending at the waist.

(8) Normal Breathing. Remove and re-don the respirator within a one-minute period. Then, in a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute.

After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

(c) Portacount Test Instrument.

(1) The Portacount will automatically stop and calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of exercises. The overall fit factor is what counts. The Pass or Fail message will indicate whether or not the test was successful. If the test was a Pass, the fit test is over.

(2) A record of the test needs to be kept on file assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model and size of respirator used, and date tested.

APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)

1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire

DIRECTIONS:

You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.

This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:

Name: SSN / /

Last First MI

Job Title:

Company's Name:

Supervisor's Name:

Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

Work History

1. Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job. (For more space, write on the back of this page.)

Main Job Duty

Year

Company Name

City, State

Chemicals

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.



3. Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:

benzene

glues

toluene

inks, dyes

other solvents, grease cutters

insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)

paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers

dusts

carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet")

arsine

carbon disulfide

lead

cement

petroleum products

nitrites

4. Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:

gloves

coveralls

respirator

dust mask

safety glasses, goggles

Please circle your answer.

5. Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you properly? yes no

6. Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment to make it fit better? yes no

7. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no

8. Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? (Please check all that apply.)

Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar

Break room/employee lounge

Smoking lounge

At my work station

Please circle your answer.

9. Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job you have now or at past jobs? yes no

10. Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals (including paints, glues, etc.)? yes no

11. Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?



12. Were you in the military? yes no

If yes, what did you do in the military?



Family Health History

1. In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which family member, if any, had the disease.

DISEASE FAMILY MEMBER

Cancer

Lymphoma

Sickle Cell Disease or Trait

Immune Disease

Leukemia

Anemia

2. Please fill in the following information about family health

Relative

Alive?

Age at Death?

Cause of Death?

Father

Mother

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Personal Health History

Birth Date / / Age Sex Height Weight

Please circle your answer.

1. Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no

2. Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation?

yes no

If yes, what type of surgery:



3. Have you ever been in the hospital for any other reasons? yes no

If yes, please describe the reason



4. Do you have any on-going or current medical problems or conditions? yes no

If yes, please describe:



5. Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check all that apply to you.

unexplained fever

anemia ("low blood")

HIV/AIDS

weakness

sickle cell

miscarriage

skin rash

bloody stools

leukemia/lymphoma

neck mass/swelling

wheezing

yellowing of skin

bruising easily

lupus

weight loss

kidney problems

enlarged lymph nodes

liver disease

cancer

infertility

drinking problems

thyroid problems

night sweats

chest pain

still birth

eye redness

lumps you can feel

child with birth defect

autoimmune disease

overly tired

lung problems

rheumatoid arthritis

mononucleosis ("mono")

nagging cough

Please circle your answer.

6. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:



7. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems? yes no don't know

If yes, please describe:



8. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no

9. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no

10. Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no

If yes, please list:



11. Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals? yes no

If yes, please list:



12. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please explain:



13. Did you understand all the questions? yes no

Signature



1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire

DIRECTIONS:

You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.

This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:

Name: SSN / /

Last First MI

Job Title:

Company's Name:

Supervisor's Name:

Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your job.



2. Please describe any additional job duties you have:



Please circle your answer.

3. Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to BD? yes no

If yes, please list what they are:



4. Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no

5. Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no

6. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no

7. Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no

If yes, please list what they are:



8. Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?





Personal Health History

1. What is your current weight? pounds

2. Have you been diagnosed with any new medical conditions or illness since your last evaluation? yes no

If yes, please tell what they are:



3. Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any illnesses, injuries, or surgery? yes no

If yes, please describe:



4. Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.

unexplained fever

anemia ("low blood")

HIV/AIDS

weakness

sickle cell

miscarriage

skin rash

bloody stools

leukemia/lymphoma

neck mass/swelling

wheezing

yellowing of skin

bruising easily

lupus

weight loss

kidney problems

enlarged lymph nodes

liver disease

cancer

infertility

drinking problems

thyroid problems

night sweats

chest pain

still birth

eye redness

lumps you can feel

child with birth defect

autoimmune disease

overly tired

lung problems

rheumatoid arthritis

mononucleosis ("mono")

nagging cough

Please circle your answer.

5. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:



6. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems? yes no don't know

If yes, please describe:



7. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no

8. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no

9. Have you been taking any NEW medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no

If yes, please list:



10. Have you developed any new allergies to medications, foods, or chemicals? yes no

If yes, please list:



11. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please explain:



12. Do you understand all the questions? yes no

Signature

[]

Reviser's note: The typographical error in the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appears in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-06, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89)

WAC 296-62-075 Air contaminants. (1) An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table((s)) 1 ((or 2)) of WAC 296-62-07515 shall be limited in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07501 through 296-62-07513.

(2) The following definitions are applicable to the limits in Table((s)) 1 ((and 2)).

(a) Time weighted average (TWA) is the employee's average airborne exposure to any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week which shall not be exceeded.

(b) Short term exposure limit (STEL) is the employee's 15-minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time during a work day unless another time limit is specified in a parenthetical notation below the limit. If another time period is specified, the time weighted average exposure over that time period shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day.

(c) Ceiling is the employee's exposure which shall not be exceeded during any part of the work day. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a 15-minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time over a working day.

(d) The terms "substance," "air contaminant," and "material" are equivalent in meaning for WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515.

(((3) The transitional limits listed in Table 2 of WAC 296-62-07515 may be utilized to determine the need for engineering controls until December 31, 1992.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-15-002 (Order 89-06), 296-62-075, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89; Order 73-3, 296-62-075, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-06, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89)

WAC 296-62-07501 Airborne contaminants. (1) Permissible exposure limits (PELs) refer to airborne concentrations of substances without regard to the use of respiratory protection and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect. Because of wide variation in individual susceptibility, however, a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort from some substances at concentrations at or below the permissible limit, a smaller percentage may be affected more seriously by aggravation of a preexisting condition or by development of an occupational illness.

(2) Permissible exposure limits refer to time-weighted concentrations for an 8-hour workday within a 40-hour workweek which shall not be exceeded.

(a) The cumulative time-weighted average exposure for an 8-hour work shift shall be computed as follows:

CaTa + CbTb + + CnTn

E =

8

where:

E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift.

C is the concentration during any period of time T where the concentration remains constant.

T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.

The value of E shall not exceed the eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) limit in Table((s)) 1 ((or 2)) (see WAC 296-62-07515), for the material involved.

(b) To illustrate the formula, assume that substance A has an 8-hour time-weighted average limit of 100 ppm as noted in Table 1 of WAC 296-62-07515. Assume that an employee is subject to the following exposure:

Two hours exposure at 150 ((p/m)) ppm

Two hours exposure at 75 ((p/m)) ppm

Four hours exposure at 50 ((p/m)) ppm

Substituting this information in the formula, we have

(2150+275+450)8=81.25 ((p/m)) ppm

Since 81.25 ppm is less than 100 ((p.p.m.)) ppm, the 8-hour time-weighted average limit, the exposure is acceptable.

(3) Methods of compliance:

(a) To achieve compliance with these standards, the employer shall determine and implement feasible administrative or engineering controls.

(b) When administrative or engineering controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls.

(c) Any control equipment or technical measure utilized for the purpose of complying with WAC 296-62-07501(3) must be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used their use shall comply with WAC 296-62-071 through 296-62-07121.

(d) Upon request, the employer shall prepare and submit a written compliance plan to the director. This plan must include a description of the manner in which compliance will be achieved with respect to cited violations of WAC 296-62-07501(3), and shall include proposed abatement methods, anticipated completion dates, and provision for progress reports to be sent to the department.

(4) An employee's exposure to any substance in Table 1 ((or 2)) (see WAC 296-62-07515) which does not have a ceiling or a specified short-term exposure limit (STEL) shall not exceed the generic STEL which is computed by multiplying the applicable eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) for the substance by the appropriate multiplier listed below.

Eight-hour TWA Multiplier

PEL > 0-1 (ppm or mg/M3) x 3

PEL > 1-10 (ppm or mg/M3) x 2

PEL > 10-100 (ppm or mg/M3) x 1.5

PEL > 100-1000 (ppm or mg/M3) x 1.25

PEL > 1000 (ppm or mg/M3) x 1

(5) Permissible limits are based on the best available information from industrial experience, from experimental human and animal studies, and, when possible, from a combination of the three. The basis on which the values are established may differ from substance to substance; protection against impairment of health may be a guiding factor for some, whereas reasonable freedom from irritation, narcosis, nuisance or other forms of stress may form the basis for others.

(6) The limits based on physical irritation shall be considered no less binding than those based on physical impairment. There is increasing evidence that physical irritation may initiate, promote or accelerate physical impairment through interaction with other chemical or biologic agents.

(7) In spite of the fact that serious injury is not believed likely as a result of exposure to the permissible limit concentrations, the best practice is to maintain concentrations of all atmospheric contaminants as low as is practical.

(8) These limits are intended for use in the practice of industrial hygiene and should be interpreted and applied only by a technically qualified person.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-15-002 (Order 89-06), 296-62-07501, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 82-03-023 (Order 82-1), 296-62-07501, filed 1/15/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07501, filed 7/27/81; 80-11-010 (Order 80-14), 296-62-07501, filed 8/8/80; Order 73-3, 296-62-07501, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-06, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89)

WAC 296-62-07510 Total particulate. Total particulate exposure shall not exceed a permissible limit of 10 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/M3) of air for total dust or 5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/M3) for respirable dust. The use of this eight-hour time-weighted-average exposure limit does not preclude the application of other applicable limits in WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515. Nor does it preclude the use of WAC 296-62-060 when substances not specifically listed in Table 1 ((or 2)) are found to require a lower limit. This section does, however, limit the combined total concentration of all particulate contaminants whether or not specifically listed in Table 1 ((or 2)).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-15-002 (Order 89-06), 296-62-07510, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 80-11-010 (Order 80-14), 296-62-07510, filed 8/8/80.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-62-07515 Control of chemical agents. Chemical agents shall be controlled in such a manner that the workers exposure shall not exceed the applicable limits in WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515.



[Open Style:Columns Off]

TABLE 1: LIMITS FOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)


TWA STELc/ CEILING Skin

CASi/ Designation

Substance Number ppma/ mg/m3b/ ppma/ mg/m3b/ ppma/ mg/m3b/

Abate, see Temephos ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 100 180 150 270 ---- ---- ----

Acetic acid 64-19-7 10 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 20 ----

Acetone 67-64-1 750 1800 1000 2400 ---- ---- ----

Acetonitrile 75-05-8 40 70 60 105 ---- ---- ----

2-Acetylaminofluorene 53-96-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Acetylene 74-86-2 Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Acetylene dichloride ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 1,2-Dichloroethylene)

Acetylene tetrabromide 79-27-6 1.0 14 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Acetylsalicylic acid 50-78-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Aspirin)

Acrolein 107-02-8 0.1 0.25 0.3 0.8 ---- ---- ----

Acrylamide 79-06-1 ---- 0.03 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Acrylic acid 79-10-7 10 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07341)

Aldrin 309-00-2 ---- 0.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 2.0 5.0 4.0 10 ---- ---- X

Allyl Chloride 107-05-1 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 ---- ---- ----

Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) 106-92-3 5.0 22 10 44 ---- ---- ----

Allyl propyl disulfide 2179-59-1 2.0 12 3.0 18 ---- ---- ----

alpha-Alumina

(see Aluminum oxide) 1344-28-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Aluminum, metal and

oxide (as Al) 7429-90-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

pyro powders ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

welding fumes f/ ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

soluble salts ---- ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

alkyls (NOC) ---- ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Alundum (see Aluminum oxide) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

4-Aminodiphenyl 92-67-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

2-Aminoethanol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethanolamine)

2-Aminopyridine 504-29-0 0.5 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Amitrole 61-82-5 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ammonia 7664-41-7 25 18 35 27 ---- ---- ----

Ammonium chloride, fume 12125-02-9 ---- 10 ---- 20 ---- ---- ----

Ammonium sulfamate (Ammate) 7773-06-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-Amyl acetate 628-63-7 100 525 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

sec-Amyl acetate 626-38-0 125 650 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Aniline and homologues 62-53-3 2.0 8.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Anisidine (o, p-isomers) 29191-52-4 0.1 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Anitmony and Compounds (as Sb) 7440-36-0 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

ANTU 86-88-4 ---- 0.3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(alpha Naphthyl thiourea)

Argon 7440-37-1 Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Arsenic, 7440-38-2 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Organic compounds (as As)

Arsenic, Inorganic ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

compounds, (as As) 7440-38-2

(see WAC 296-62-07347 for

applications and exclusions)

Arsine 7784-42-1 0.05 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Asbestos ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-077 through

296-62-07753)

Asphalt (Petroleum fumes) 8052-42-4 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Atrazine 1912-24-9 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Azinphos methyl 86-50-0 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Barium, soluble 7440-39-3 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

compounds (as Ba)

Barium Sulfate 7727-43-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Benomyl 17804-35-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- 0.8 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Benzene, 71-43-2 1.0 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07523)d/

Benzidine, 92-87-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

p-Benzoquimone, ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Quinone)

Benzo(a) pyrene; ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Coal tar pitch volatiles)

Benzoyl peroxide 94-36-0 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 1.0 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Beryllium and beryllium 7440-41-7 ---- 0.002 ---- 0.005 ---- 0.025 ----

compounds (as Be) (30 min.)

Biphenyl (see ((Diphnyl))

Diphenyl) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Bismuth telluride, Undoped 1304-82-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Bismuth telluride, Se-doped ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Borates, tetra, sodium salts: ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Anhydrous 1330-43-4 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Decahydrate 1303-96-4 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pentahydrate 12179-04-3 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Boron oxide 1303-86-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Boron tribromide 10294-33-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 10 ----

Boron trifluoride 7637-07-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 3.0 ----

Bromacil 314-40-9 1.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Bromine 7726-95-6 0.1 0.7 0.3 2.0 ---- ---- ----

Bromine pentafluoride 7789-30-2 0.1 0.7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Bromochloromethane, ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Chlorobromethane)

Bromoform 15-25-2 0.5 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Butadiene 106-99-0 ((10)) ((22)) ((----)) ---- ---- ---- ----

1 2.2 5

(1,3-butadiene)

Butane 106-97-8 800 1,900 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Butanethiol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Butyl mercaptan)

2-Butanone 78-93-3 200 590 300 885 ---- ---- ----

(Methyl ethyl ketone)

2-Butoxy ethanol 111-76-2 25 120 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(Butyl Cellosolve)

n-Butyl acetate 123-86-4 150 710 200 950 ---- ---- ----

sec-Butyl acetate 105-46-4 200 950 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

tert-Butyl acetate 540-88-5 200 950 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Butyl acrylate 141-32-2 10 55 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-Butyl alcohol 71-36-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- 50 150 X

sec-Butyl alcohol 78-92-2 100 305 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

tert-Butyl alcohol 75-65-0 100 300 150 450 ---- ---- ----

Butylamine 109-73-9 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 15 X

tert-Butyl chromate 1189-85-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 X

(see CrO3)

n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) 2426-08-6 25 135 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-Butyl lactate 138-22-7 5.0 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Butyl mercaptan 109-79-5 0.5 1.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

o-sec-Butylphenol 89-72-5 5.0 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

p-tert-Butyl-toluene 98-51-1 10 60 20 120 ---- ---- ----

Cadmium oxide fume, (as Cd) 1306-19-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-074)

Cadmium dust and salts (as Cd) 7440-43-9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-074)

Calcium arsenate ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07347)

Calcium carbonate 1317-65-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Calcium cyanamide 156-62-7 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Calcium oxide 1305-78-8 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Calcium silicate 1344-95-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Calcium sulfate 7778-18-9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Camphor (synthetic) 76-22-2 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Caprolactam; 105-60-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dust ---- ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Vapor ---- 5.0 20 10 40 ---- ---- ----

Captafol 2425-06-1 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(Difolatan)

Captan 133-06-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Carbaryl (Sevin) 63-25-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Carbofuran (Furadon) 1563-66-2 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Carbon black 1333-86-4 ---- 3.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 5,000 9,000 ((30,00)) 54,000 ---- ---- ----

30,000

Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 4.0 12 12 36 ---- ---- X

Carbon monoxide 630-08-0 35 40 ---- ---- 200 m/ 229 m/ ----

Carbon tetrabromide 558-13-4 0.1 1.4 0.3 4.0 ---- ---- ----

Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 2.0 12.6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Carbonyl chloride ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Phosgene)

Carbonyl fluoride 353-50-4 2.0 5.0 5.0 15 ---- ---- ----

Catechol (Pyrocatechol) 120-80-9 5.0 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Cellulose (paper fiber) 9004-34-6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cesium hydroxide 21351-79-1 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chlordane 57-74-9 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Chlorinated camphene 8001-35-2 ---- 0.5 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- X

Chlorinated diphenyl oxide 55720-99-5 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chlorine 7782-50-5 0.5 1.5 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 ----

Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.9 ---- ---- ----

Chlorine trifluoride 7790-91-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 0.4 ----

Chloroacetaldehyde 107-20-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 3.0 ----

a-Chloroacetophenone 532-21-4 0.05 0.3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Phenacyl chloride)

Chloroacetyl chloride 79-04-9 0.05 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 75 350 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Monochlorobenzene)

o-Chlorobenzylidene 2698-41-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.05 0.4 X

malononitrile (OCBM)

Chlorobromomethane 74-97-5 200 1,050 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-Chloro-1, 3-butadiene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see beta-Chloroprene)

Chlorodifluoromethane 75-45-6 1,000 3,500 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chlorodiphenyl 53469-21-9 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(42% Chlorine) (PCB)

Chlorodiphenyl 11097-69-1 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(54% Chlorine) (PCB)

1-Chloro-2, 3-epoxypropane, ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Epichlorhydrin)

2-Chloroethanol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethylene chlorohydrin)

Chloroethylene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see vinyl chloride)

Chloroform (Trichloromethane) 67-66-3 2.0 9.78 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1-Chloro-1-nitropropane 600-25-9 2.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

bis-Chloromethyl ether 542-88-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Chloromethyl methyl ether 107-30-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methyl carbomethyl ether)

Chloropentafluoroethane 76-15-3 1,000 6,320 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chloropicrin 76-06-2 0.1 0.7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

beta-Chloroprene 126-99-8 10 35 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

o-Chlorostyrene 2039-87-4 50 285 75 428 ---- ---- ----

o-Chlorotoluene 95-49-8 50 250 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-Chloro-6-trichloromethyl 1929-82-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

pyridine (see Nitrapyrin)

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chlorpyrifos 2921-88-2 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Chromic acid and chromates Varies ---- ((----)) ---- ---- ---- ((0.1)) ----

0.1 ----

(as CrO3) w/compounds

Chromium, sol, chromic,

chromous salts (as Cr) 7440-47-3 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chromium (VI) compounds ---- ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(as Cr)

Chromium Metal and

insoluble salts 7440-47-3 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chromyl chloride 14977-61-8 0.025 0.15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Chrysene: (see Coal tar ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

pitch volatiles)

Clopidol 2971-90-6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Coal Dust (less than 5% SiO2) ---- ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction

Coal dust (greater than or ---- ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

equal to 5% SiO2)

Respirable fraction

Coal tar pitch volatiles 65996-93-2 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(benzene soluble fraction

anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene,

acridine, chrysene, pyrene)

Cobalt, metal fume & dust, 7440-48-4 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(as Co)

Cobalt carbonyl (as Co) 10210-68-1 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cobalt hydrocarbonyl (as Co) 16842-03-8 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Coke oven emissions ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-200)

Copper fume 7440-50-8 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(as Cu)

Dusts and mists (as Cu) ---- ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cotton dust (raw) e/ ---- ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Corundum, (see Aluminum oxide) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Crag herbicide (Sesone) 136-78-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cresol (all isomers) 1319-77-3 5.0 22 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Crotonaldehyde 123-73-9; 2.0 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

4170-30-3

Crufomate 299-86-5 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cumene 98-82-8 50 245 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Cyanamide 420-04-2 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyanide (as CN) Varies ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

with Compound

Cyanogen 460-19-5 10 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyanogen chloride 506-77-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.3 0.6 ----

Cyclohexane 110-82-7 300 1,050

Cyclohexanol 108-93-0 50 200 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 25 100 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Cyclohexene 110-83-8 300 1,015 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyclohexylamine 108-91-8 10 40 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyclonite (see RDX) 121-82-4 ---- 1.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Cyclopentadiene 542-92-7 75 200 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyclopentane 287-92-3 600 1,720 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Cyhexatin 13121-70-5 ---- 5.0

2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxy- 94-75-7 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

acetic acid)

DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltri- 50-29-3 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

chloroethane)

DDVP, Dichlorvos 62-73-7 0.1 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Decaborane 17702-41-9 0.05 0.3 0.15 0.9 ---- ---- X

Demeton 8065-48-3 0.01 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diacetone alcohol 123-42-2 50 240 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone)

1, 2-Diaminoethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethylenediamine)

Diazinon 333-41-5 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diazomethane 334-88-3 0.2 0.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diborane 19287-45-7 0.1 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dibrom, (see Naled) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane ((96-12-3)) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

96-12-8

(see WAC 296-62-07345)

2-N-Dibutylamino ethanol 102-81-8 2.0 14 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dibutyl phosphate 107-66-4 1.0 5.0 2.0 10 ---- ---- ----

Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dichloroacetylene 7572-29-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 0.4 ----

o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 50 300 ----

p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 75 450 110 675 ---- ---- ----

3, 3'-Dichlorobenzidine 91-94-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 1,000 4,950 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 3-Dichloro-5, 5-dimethyl 118-52-5 ---- 0.2 ---- 0.4 ---- ---- ----

hydantoin

1, 1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 100 400 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 2-Dichloroethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethylene dichloride)

1, 2-Dichloroethylene 540-59-0 200 790 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 1-Dichloroethylene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Vinylidene chloride)

Dichloroethyl ether 111-44-4 5.0 30 10 60 ---- ---- X

Dichlorofluoromethane 75-43-4 10 40 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dichloromethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methylene chloride)

1, 1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane 594-72-9 2.0 10. 10. ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 2-Dichloropropane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Propylene dichloride)

Dichloropropene 542-75-6 1.0 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2, 2-Dichloropropionic acid 75-99-0 1.0 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dichlorotetrafluoroethane 76-14-2 1,000 7,000 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dichlorvos (DDVP) 62-73-7 0.1 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dicrotophos 141-66-2 ---- 0.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dicyclopentadiene 77-73-6 5.0 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dicyclopentadienyl iron 102-54-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dieldrin 60-57-1 ---- 0.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diethanolamine 111-42-2 3.0 15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diethylamine 109-89-7 10 30 25 75 ---- ---- ----

2-Diethylaminoethanol 100-37-8 10 50 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diethylene triamine 111-40-0 1.0 4.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diethyl ether (see Ethyl ether) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diethyl ketone 96-22-0 200 705 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diethyl phthalate 84-66-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Difluorodibromomethane 75-61-6 100 860 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diglycidyl ether (DGE) 2238-07-5 0.1 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dihydroxybenzene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Hydroquinone)

Diisobutyl ketone 108-83-8 25 150 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diisopropylamine 108-18-9 5.0 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dimethoxymethane (see Methylal) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dimethyl acetamide 127-19-5 10 35 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dimethylamine 124-40-3 10 18 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 60-11-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Dimethylaminobenzene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Xylidene)

Dimethylaniline

(N, N-Dimethylaniline) 121-69-7 5.0 25 10 50 ---- ---- X

Dimethylbenzene (see Xylene) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dimethyl-1, 2-dibromo-2, 300-76-5 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2-dichloroethyl phosphate

(see Naled)

Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 10 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2, 6-Dimethylheptanone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Diisobutyl ketone)

1, 1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7 0.5 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dimethyl phthalate 131-11-3 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dimethyl sulfate 77-78-1 0.1 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dinitolmide 148-01-6 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(3, 5-Dinitro-o-toluamide) ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Dinitrobenzene (all isomers) (alpha) 528-29-0; 0.15 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(meta) 99-65-0;

(para) 100-25-4

Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dinitrotoluene 25321-14-6 ---- 1.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide) 123-91-1 25 90 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Dioxathion 78-34-2 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Diphenyl (Biphenyl) 92-52-4 0.2 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diphenylamine 122-39-4 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diphenylmethane diisocyanate ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methylene bisphenyl

isocyanate (MDI))

Dipropylene glycol methyl ether 34590-94-8 100 600 150 900 ---- ---- X

Dipropyl ketone 123-19-3 50 235 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diquat 85-00-7 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Di-sec, Octyl phthalate 117-81-7 ---- 5.0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ----

(Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate)

Disulfram 97-77-8 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Disulfoton 298-04-4 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol 128-37-0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Diuron 330-54-1 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Divinyl benzene 1321-74-0 10 50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Emery 12415-34-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Endosulfan (Thiodan) 115-29-7 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Endrin 72-20-8 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Epichlorhydrin 106-89-8 2.0 8.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

EPN 2104-64-5 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

1, 2-Epoxypropane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Propylene oxide)

2, 3-Epoxy-1-propanol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Glycidol)

Ethane ---- Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethanethiol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethyl mercaptan)

Ethanolamine 141-43-5 3.0 8.0 6.0 15 ---- ---- ----

Ethion 563-12-2 ---- 0.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2-Ethoxyethanol 110-80-5 5.0 19 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

2-Ethoxyethyl acetate 111-15-9 5.0 27 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(Cellosolve acetate)

Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 400 1,400 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethyl acrylate 140-88-5 5.0 20 25 100 ---- ---- X

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) 64-17-5 1,000 1,900 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethylamine 75-04-07 10 18 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethyl amyl ketone 541-85-5 25 130 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(5-Methyl-3-hepatone)

Ethyl benzene 100-41-4 100 435 125 545 ---- ---- ----

Ethyl bromide 74-96-4 200 890 250 1,110 ---- ---- ----

Ethyl butyl ketone 106-35-4 50 230 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(3-Heptanone)

Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 1,000 2,600 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethylene 74-85-1 Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethylene chlorohydrin 107-07-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 3.0 X

Ethylenediamine 107-15-3 10 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 0.1 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethylene dichloride 107-06-2 1.0 4.0 2.0 8.0 ---- ---- ----

Ethylene glycol 107-21-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 50 125 ----

Ethylene glycol dinitrate 628-96-6 ---- ---- ---- 0.1 ---- ---- X

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether ---- 5.0 24 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

acetate (Methyl cellosolve

acetate)

Ethyleneimine 151-56-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Ethylene oxide 75-21-8 1.0 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07353)

Ethyl ether 60-29-7 400 1,200 500 1,500 ---- ---- ----

Ethyl formate 109-94-4 100 300 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ethylidine chloride ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 1, 1-Dichloroethane)

Ethylidene norbornene 16219-75-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 25 ----

Ethyl mercaptan 75-08-1 0.5 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-Ethylmorpholine 100-74-3 5.0 23 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Ethyl sec-amyl ketone ---- 25 130 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(5-methyl-3-heptanone)

Ethyl silicate 78-10-4 10 85 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Fenamiphos 22224-92-6 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Fensulfothion (Dasanit) 115-90-2 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Fenthion 55-38-9 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Ferbam 14484-64-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ferrovanadium dust 12604-58-9 ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Fluorides (as F) Varies ---- 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

w/compound

Fluorine 7782-41-4 0.1 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Fluorotrichloromethane 75-69-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1,000 5,600 ----

(see Trichlorofluoro methane)

Fonofos 944-22-9 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Formaldehyde 50-00-0 ((1.0)) ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ----

0.75

(see WAC 296-62-07540)

Formamide 75-12-7 20 30 30 45 ---- ---- ----

Formic acid 64-18-6 5.0 9.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Furfural 98-01-1 2.0 8.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Furfuryl alcohol 98-00-0 10 40 15 60 ---- ---- X

Gasoline 8006-61-9 300 900 500 1,500 ---- ---- ----

Germanium tetrahydride 7782-65-2 0.2 0.6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Glass, fibrous or dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Gluteraldehyde 111-30-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.2 0.8 ----

Glycerin mist 56-81-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Glycidol 556-52-5 25 75 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(2, 3-Epoxy-1- propanol)

Glycol monoethyl ether ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 2-Ethoxyethanol)

Grain dust (oat, wheat, barley) ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Graphite, natural 7782-42-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable dust ---- ---- 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Graphite, Synthetic ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Guthion ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Azinphosmethyl)

Gypsum 13397-24-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hafnium 7440-58-6 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Helium Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Heptachlor 76-44-8 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Heptane (n-heptane) 142-82-5 400 1,600 500 2,000 ---- ---- ----

2-Heptanone, ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methyl n-amyl ketone)

3-Heptanone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethyl butyl ketone)

Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 0.02 0.24 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 77-47-4 0.01 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 1.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Hexachloronaphthalene 1335-87-1 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Hexafluoroacetone 684-16-2 0.1 0.7 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Hexane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-hexane 110-54-3 50 180 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

other Isomers Varies 500 1,800 1,000 3,600 ---- ---- ----

w/compound

2-Hexanone 591-78-6 5.0 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Methyl-n-butyl ketone)

Hexone 108-10-1 50 205 75 300 ---- ---- ----

(Methyl isobutyl ketone)

sec-Hexyl acetate 108-84-9 50 300 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hexylene Glycol 107-41-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- 25 125 ----

Hydrazine 302-01-2 0.1 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Hydrogen ---- Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hydrogenated terphenyls 61788-32-7 0.5 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hydrogen bromide 10035-10-6 ---- ---- ---- ---- 3.0 10 ----

Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 7.0 ----

Hydrogen cyanide 74-90-8 ---- ---- 4.7 5.0 ---- ---- X

Hydrogen fluoride 7664-39-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- 3.0 2.5 ----

Hydrogen peroxide 7722-84-1 1.0 1.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hydrogen selenide (as Se) 7783-07-5 0.05 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Hydrogen Sulfide 7783-06-4 10 14 15 21 ---- ---- ----

Hydroquinone 123-31-9 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Diacetone alcohol)

2-Hydroxypropyl acrylate 999-61-1 0.5 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Indene 95-13-6 10 45 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Indium and compounds (as In) 7440-74-6 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Iodine 7553-56-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 1.0 ----

Iodoform 75-47-8 0.6 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Iron oxide dust and fume (as Fe) 1309-37-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total particulate ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Iron pentacarbonyl (as Fe) 13463-40-6 0.1 0.8 0.2 1.6 ---- ---- ----

Iron salts, soluble (as Fe) Varies ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

w/compound

Isoamyl acetate 123-92-2 100 525 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Isoamyl alcohol 123-51-3 100 360 125 450 ---- ---- ----

(primary and secondary)

Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 150 700 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 50 150 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Isooctyl alcohol 26952-21-6 50 270 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Isophorone 78-59-1 4.0 23 ---- ---- 5.0 25 ----

Isophorone diisocyanate 4098-71-9 0.005 0.045 0.02 ---- ---- ---- X

Isopropoxyethanol 109-59-1 25 105 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Isopropyl acetate 108-21-4 250 950 310 1,185 ---- ---- ----

Isopropyl alcohol 67-63-0 400 980 500 1,225 ---- ---- ----

Isopropylamine 75-31-0 5.0 12 10 24 ---- ---- ----

N-Isopropylaniline 768-52-5 2.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Isopropyl ether 108-20-3 250 1,050 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE) 4016-14-2 50 240 75 360 ---- ---- ----

Kaolin

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ketene 463-51-4 0.5 0.9 1.5 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Lead inorganic (as Pb) 7439-92-1 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07521)

Lead arsenate 3687-31-8 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07347)

Lead chromate 7758-97-6 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Limestone 1317-65-3

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Lindane 58-89-9 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Lithium hydride 7580-67-8 ---- 0.025 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

L.P.G. 68476-85-7 1,000 1,800 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(liquified petroleum gas)

Magnesite 546-93-0

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Magnesium oxide fume 1309-48-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total particulate ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Malathion 121-75-5

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 0.25 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Manganese and compound (as Mn) 7439-96-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 ----

Manganese tetroxide and fume 7439-96-5 ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

(as Mn)

Manganese cyclopentadienyl 12079-65-1 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

tricarbonyl (as Mn)

Manganese tetroxide (as Mn) 1317-35-7 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Marble 1317-65-3

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Mercury (aryl and inorganic) 7439-97-6 ---- ((----)) ---- ---- ---- ((0.1)) X

0.1 ----

(as Hg)

Mercury (organo-alkyl compounds) 7439-97-6 ---- 0.01 ---- 0.03 ---- ---- X

(as Hg)

Mercury (vapor) (as Hg) 7439-97-6 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Mesityl oxide 141-79-7 15 60 25 100 ---- ---- ----

Methacrylic acid 79-41-4 20 70 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methane ---- Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methanethiol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methyl mercaptan)

Methomyl (lannate) 16752-77-5 ---- 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methoxychlor 72-43-5

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-Methoxyethanol 109-86-4 5.0 16 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(Methyl cellosolve)

4-Methoxyphenol 150-76-5 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl acetate 79-20-9 200 610 250 760 ---- ---- ----

Methyl acetylene (propyne) 74-99-7 1,000 1,650 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl acetylene-propadiene ---- 1,000 1,800 1,250 2,250 ---- ---- ----

mixture (MAPP)

Methyl acrylate 96-33-3 10 35 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methylacrylonitrile 126-98-7 1.0 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane) 109-87-5 1,000 3,100 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl alcohol (methanol) 67-56-1 200 260 250 325 ---- ---- X

Methylamine 74-89-5 10 12 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl amyl alcohol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methyl isobutyl carbinol)

Methyl n-amyl ketone 110-43-0 50 235 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(2-Heptanone)

N-Methyl aniline ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Monomethyl aniline)

Methyl bromide 74-83-9 5.0 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methyl butyl ketone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 2-Hexanone)

Methyl cellosolve 109-86-4 5.0 16 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(see 2-Methoxyethanol)

Methyl cellosolve acetate 110-49-6 5.0 24 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(2-Methoxyethyl acetate)

Methyl chloride 74-87-3 50 105 100 210 ---- ---- ----

Methyl chloroform 71-55-6 350 1,900 450 2,450 ---- ---- ----

(1, 1, 1-trichlorethane)

Methyl chloromethyl ether 107-30-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Methyl 2-cyanoacrylate 137-05-3 2.0 8.0 4.0 16 ---- ---- ----

Methylcyclohexane 108-87-2 400 1,600 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methylcyclohexanol 25639-42-3 50 235 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methylcyclohexanone 583-60-8 50 230 75 345 ---- ---- X

Methylcyclopentadienyl 12108-13-3 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

manganese tricarbonyl (as Mn)

Methyl demeton 8022-00-2 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate 101-68-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.02 0.2 ----

(MDI)

4, 4'-Methylene bis 101-14-4 0.02 0.22 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(2-chloroaniline (MBOCA))

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Methylene bis 5124-30-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.01 0.11 ----

(4-cyclohexylisocyanate)

Methylene chloride 75-09-2 100 ---- 500 ---- ---- ---- ----

4, 4-Methylene dianiline 101-77-9 0.1 0.8 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 78-93-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 2-Butanone)

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 1338-23-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.2 1.5 ----

(MEKP)

Methyl formate 107-31-3 100 250 150 375 ---- ---- ----

5-Methyl-3-heptanone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Ethyl amyl ketone)

Methyl hydrazine 60-34-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.2 0.35 X

(see Monomethyl hydrazine)

Methyl iodide 74-88-4 2.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methyl isoamyl ketone 110-12-3 50 240 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl isobutyl carbinol 108-11-2 25 100 40 165 ---- ---- X

Methyl isobutyl ketone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Hexone)

Methyl isocyanate 624-83-9 0.02 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methyl isopropyl ketone 563-80-4 200 705 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl mercaptan 74-93-1 0.5 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 100 410 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Methyl parathion 298-00-0 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Methyl propyl ketone ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see 2-Pentanone)

Methyl silicate 684-84-5 1.0 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

alpha-Methyl styrene 98-83-9 50 240 100 485 ---- ---- ----

((Methylene bisphenyl 101-68-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.02 0.2 ----

isocyanate (MDI)))

Mevinphos (see Phosdrin) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Metribuzin 21087-64-9 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Mica (see Silicates) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Molybdenum (as Mo) 7439-98-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble compounds ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Insoluble compounds

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Monocrotophos (Azodrin) 6923-22-4 ---- 0.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Monomethyl aniline 100-61-8 0.5 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Monomethyl hydrazine ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.2 0.35 ----

Morpholine 110-91-8 20 70 30 105 ---- ---- X

Naled 300-76-5 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Naphtha (Coal tar) 8030-30-6 100 400 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Naphthalene 91-20-3 10 50 15 75 ---- ---- ----

alpha-Naphthylamine 134-32-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

beta-Naphthylamine 91-59-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Neon 7440-01-9 Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nickel carbonyl (as Ni) 13463-39-3 0.001 0.007 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nickle, (as Ni) 7440-02-0

Metal and insoluble compounds ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble compounds ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nicotine 54-11-5 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Nitrapyrin (see 2-Chloro-6 1929-82-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

trichloromethyl pyridine)

Total dust ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nitric acid 7697-37-2 2.0 5.0 4.0 10 ---- ---- ----

Nitric oxide 10102-43-9 25 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

p-Nitroaniline 100-01-6 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 1.0 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

4-Nitrobiphenyl 92-93-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

p-Nitrochlorobenzene 100-00-5 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

4-Nitrodiphenyl ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Nitroethane 79-24-3 100 310 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nitrogen 7727-37-9 Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nitrogen dioxide 10102-44-0 ---- ---- 1.0 1.8 ---- ---- ----

Nitrogen trifluoride 7783-54-2 10 29 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nitroglycerin 55-63-0 ---- ---- ---- 0.1 ---- ---- X

Nitromethane 75-52-5 100 250 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1-Nitropropane 108-03-2 25 90 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 10 35 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Nitrotoluene:

o-isomer 88-72-2 2.0 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

m-isomer 98-08-2 2.0 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

p-isomer 99-99-0 2.0 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

((Nitrotirchloromethane)) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nitrotrichloromethane

(see Chloropicrin)

Nitrous Oxide 10024-97-2 50 90 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Nitrogen oxide)

Nonane 111-84-2 200 1,050 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Octachloronaphthalene 2234-13-1 ---- 0.1 ---- 0.3 ---- ---- X

Octane 111-65-9 300 1,450 375 1,800 ---- ---- ----

Oil mist, mineral (particulate) 8012-95-1 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Osmium tetroxide (as Os) 20816-12-0 0.0002 0.002 0.0006 0.006 ---- ---- ----

Oxalic acid 144-62-7 ---- 1.0 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ----

Oxygen difluoride 7783-41-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.05 0.1 ----

Ozone 10028-15-6 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 ---- ---- ----

Paraffin wax fume 8002-74-2 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Paraquat (Respirable dust) 4685-14-7 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

1910-42-5

2074-50-2

Parathion 56-38-2 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Particulate polycyclic ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

aromatic hydrocarbons

(see coal tar pitch volatiles)

Particulates not otherwise ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

regulated (see WAC 296-62-07510)

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pentaborane 19624-22-7 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.03 ---- ---- ----

Pentachloronaphthalene 1321-64-8 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Pentaerythritol 115-77-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pentane 109-66-0 600 1,800 750 2,250 ---- ---- ----

2-Pentanone 107-87-9 200 700 250 875 ---- ---- ----

(methyl propyl ketone)

Perchloroethylene 127-18-4 25 170 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(tetrachloroethylene)

Perchloromethyl mercaptan 594-42-3 0.1 0.8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6 3.0 14 6.0 28 ---- ---- ----

Perlite ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Petroleum distillates ---- 100 400 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(Naptha) (Rubber Solvent)

Phenol 108-95-2 5.0 19 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Phenothiazine 92-84-2 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

p-Phenylene diamine 106-50-3 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Phenyl ether (vapor) 101-84-8 1.0 7.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phenyl ether-diphenyl ---- 1.0 7.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

mixture (vapor)

Phenylethylene, (see Styrene) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) 122-60-1 1.0 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0 5.0 20 10 45 ---- ---- X

Phenyl mercaptan 108-98-5 0.5 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phenylphosphine 638-21-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.05 0.25 ----

Phorate 298-02-2 ---- 0.05 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- X

Phosdrin (Mevinphos) 7786-34-7 0.01 0.1 0.03 0.3 ---- ---- X

Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) 75-44-5 0.1 0.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phosphine 7803-51-2 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.0 ---- ---- ----

Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2 ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Phosphorus (yellow) 7723-14-0 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phosphorous oxychloride 10025-87-3 0.1 0.6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phosphorus pentachloride 10026-13-8 0.1 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Phosphorus pentasulfide 1314-80-3 ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Phosphorus trichloride 7719-12-2 0.2 1.5 0.5 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 1.0 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

m-Phthalodinitrile 626-17-5 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Picloram 1918-02-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Picric acid 88-89-1 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Pindone (see Pival) 83-26-1 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(2-Pivalyl-1, 3-indandione)

Piperazine dihydrochloride 142-64-3 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pival (see Pindone) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Plaster of Paris 26499-65-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Platinum (as Pt) 7440-06-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Metal ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble salts ---- 0.002 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Polychlorobiphenyls ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Chlorodiphenyls)

Portland cement 65997-15-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Potassium hydroxide 1310-58-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2.0 ----

Propane 74-98-6 1,000 1,800 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Propargyl alcohol 107-19-7 1.0 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

beta-Propiolactone 57-57-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-073)

Propionic acid 79-09-4 10 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Propoxur (Baygon) 114-26-1 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

n-Propyl acetate 109-60-4 200 840 250 1,050 ---- ---- ----

n-Propyl alcohol 71-23-8 200 500 250 625 ---- ---- X

n-Propyl nitrate 627-13-4 25 105 40 170 ---- ---- ----

Propylene ---- Simple Asphyxiant ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Propylene dichloride 78-87-5 75 350 110 510 ---- ---- ----

(1, 2-Dichloropropane)

Propylene glycol dinitrate 6423-43-4 0.05 0.3 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Propylene glycol

monomethyl ether 107-98-2 100 360 150 540 ---- ---- ----

Propylene imine 75-55-8 2.0 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Propylene oxide 75-56-9 20 50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Propyne, (see Methyl acetylene) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pyrethrum 8003-34-7 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Pyridine 110-86-1 5.0 15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Quinone 106-51-4 0.1 0.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

RDX (see Cyclonite) ---- ---- 1.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Resorcinol 108-46-3 10 45 20 90 ---- ---- ----

Rhodium (as Rh) 7440-16-6

Insoluble compounds,

Metal fumes and dusts ---- ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble compounds, salts ---- ---- 0.001 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Ronnel 299-84-3 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Rosin core solder, pyrolysis ---- ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

products (as formaldehyde)

Rotenone 83-79-4 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Rouge

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Rubber solvent (naphtha) 8002-05-9 100 400 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Selenium compounds (as Se) 7782-49-2 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Selenium hexafluoride (as Se) 7783-79-1 0.05 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sesone (see Crag herbicide) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silane (see Silicon ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

tetrahydride)

Silica, amorphous, precipitated 112926-00-8 ---- 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

and gel

Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous 61790-53-2 ---- 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

earth, containing less than

1% crystalline silica

Total dust ---- ---- 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silica, crystalline 14464-46-1 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

cristobalite,

respirable dust

Silica, crystalline 14808-60-7 ---- 0.1 g/ h/ ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

quartz, respirable dust

Silica, crystalline 1317-95-9 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

tripoli (as quartz),

respirable dust

Silica, crystalline 15468-32-3 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

tridymite,

respirable dust

Silica, fused, respirable dust 60676-86-0 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silicates (less than

1% crystalline silica:

Mica (Respirable dust) 12001-26-2 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soapstone, Total dust ---- 6.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soapstone, Respirable dust ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Talc (containing asbestos):

use asbestos limit (see

WAC 296-62-07517)

Talc (containing no 14807-96-6 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

asbestos), Respirable dust

Tremolite

(see WAC 296-62-07517)

Silicon 7440-21-3

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silicon Carbide 409-21-2

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silicon tetrahydride 7803-62-5 5.0 7.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Silver, metal dust and soluble 7440-22-4 ---- 0.01 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

compounds (as Ag)

Soapstone (see Silicates) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sodium azide 26628-22-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(as HN3) ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 0.3 X

(as NaN3) ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 0.3 X

Sodium bisulfite 7631-90-5 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sodium-2, ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

4-dichlorophenoxyethyl

sulfate (see Crag herbicide)

Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8 ---- 0.05 ---- 0.15 ---- ---- X

Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2.0 ----

Sodium metabisulfite 7681-57-4 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Starch 9005-25-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Stibine 7803-52-3 0.1 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Stoddard solvent 8052-41-3 100 525 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Strychnine 57-24-9 ---- 0.15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Styrene 100-42-5 50 215 100 425 ---- ---- ----

Subtilisins 9014-01-1 ---- ---- ---- 0.00006 ---- ---- ----

(60 min.)j/ ----

Sucrose 57-50-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- - ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sulfotep (see TEDP) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Sulfur dioxide 7446-09-5 2.0 5.0 5.0 13 ---- ---- ----

Sulfur hexafluoride 2551-62-4 1,000 6,000 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sulfuric acid 7664-93-9 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Sulfur monochloride 10025-67-9 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 6.0 ----

Sulfur pentafluoride 5714-22-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.01 0.1 ----

Sulfur tetrafluoride 7783-60-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 0.4 ----

Sulfuryl fluoride 2699-79-8 5.0 20 10 40 ---- ---- ----

Sulprofos 35400-43-2 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Systox (see Demeton) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2, 4, 5-T 93-76-5 ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Talc (see Silicates) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tantalum 7440-25-7 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Metal and oxide dusts

TEDP (Sulfotep) 3689-24-5 ---- 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tellurium and compounds (as Te) 13494-80-9 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te) 7783-80-4 0.02 0.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Temephos 3383-96-8 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

TEPP 107-49-3 0.004 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Terphenyls 26140-60-3 ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.5 5.0 ----

1, 1, 1, 2-Tetrachloro-2, 76-11-0 500 4,170 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-difluoroethane

1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloro-1, 76-12-0 500 4,170 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2-difluoroethane

1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 1.0 7.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tetrachloroethylene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Perchloroethylene)

Tetrachloromethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Carbon tetrachloride)

Tetrachloronaphhalene 1335-88-2 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) 78-00-2 ---- 0.075 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tetrahydrofuan 109-99-9 200 590 250 735 ---- ---- ----

Tetramethyl lead (as Pb) 75-74-1 ---- 0.075 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tetramethyl succinonitrile 3333-52-6 0.5 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tetranitromethane 509-14-8 1.0 8.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 7722-88-5 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tetryl (2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl- 479-45-8 ---- 1.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

methylnitramine)

Thallium (soluble compounds) 7440-28-0 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

(as Tl)

4, 4-Thiobis 96-69-5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol)

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Thioglycolic acid 68-11-1 1.0 4.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Thionyl chloride 7719-09-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1.0 5.0 ----

Thiram 137-26-8 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07519)

Tin (as Sn) 7440-31-5 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Inorganic compounds (except oxides)

Tin, Organic compounds (as Sn) 7440-31-5 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Tin Oxide (as Sn) 21651-19-4 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Titanium dioxide 13463-67-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Toulene 108-88-3 100 375 150 560 ---- ---- ----

Toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) 584-84-9 0.005 0.04 0.02 0.15 ---- ---- ----

m-Toluidine 108-44-1 2.0 9.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

o-Toluidine 95-53-4 2.0 9.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

p-Toluidine 106-49-0 2.0 9.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Toxaphene ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Chlorinated camphene)

Tremolite (see Silicates) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tributyl phosphate 126-73-8 0.2 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Trichloroacetic acid 76-03-9 1.0 7.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

1, 2, 4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- 5.0 40 ----

1, 1, 1-Trichloroethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Methyl chloroform)

1, 1, 2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 10 45 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 50 270 200 1,080 ---- ---- ----

Trichlorofluoromethane 75-69-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1,000 5,600 ----

Trichloromethane ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Chloroform)

Trichloronaphthalene 1321-65-9 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

1, 2, 3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 10 60 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

1, 1, 2-Trichloro-1, 2, 76-13-1 1,000 7,600 1,250 9,500 ---- ---- ----

2-trifluoroethane

Tricyclohexyltin hydroxide ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Cyhexatin)

Triethylamine 121-44-8 10 40 15 60 ---- ---- ----

Trifluorobromomethane 75-63-8 1,000 6,100 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Trimellitic anhydride 552-30-7 0.005 0.04 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Trimethylamine 75-50-3 10 24 15 36 ---- ---- ----

Trimethyl benzene 25551-13-7 25 125 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Trimethyl phosphite 121-45-9 2.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenol ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Picric acid)

2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenyl- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

methylnitramine

(see Tetryl)

2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7 ---- 0.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Triorthocresyl phosphate 78-30-8 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Triphenyl amine 603-34-9 ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Triphenyl phosphate 115-86-6 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Tungsten (as W) 7440-33-7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble compounds ---- ---- 1.0 ---- 3.0 ---- ---- ----

Insoluble compounds ---- ---- 5.0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ----

Turpentine 8006-64-2 100 560 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Uranium (as U) 7440-61-1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Soluble compounds ---- ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Insoluble compounds ---- ---- 0.2 ---- 0.6 ---- ---- ----

n-Valeraldehyde 110-62-3 50 175 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Vanadium (as V2O5) 1314-62-1 ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable dust and fume

Vegetable oil mist ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Vinyl acetate 108-05-1 10 30 20 60 ---- ---- ----

Vinyl benzene (see Styrene) ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Vinyl bromide 593-60-2 5.0 20 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see WAC 296-62-07329)

Vinyl ((cyanid)) cyanide ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(see Acrylonitrile)

Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide 106-87-6 10 60 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Vinyl toluene 25013-15-4 50 240 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Vinylidene chloride 75-35-4 1.0 4.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(1, 1-Dichloroethylene)

VM & P Naphtha 8032-32-4 300 1,350 400 1,800 ---- ---- ----

Warfarin 81-81-2 ---- 0.1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Welding fumes f/ ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

(total particulate)

Wood dust: ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Nonallergenic;

All soft woods and hard

woods except allergenics ---- ---- 5.0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ----

Allergenics; (e.g. cedar,

mahogany and teak) ---- ---- 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Xylenes(Xylol) 1330-20-7 100 435 150 655 ---- ---- ----

(o-, m-, p-isomers)

m-Xylene alpha, alpha-diamine 1477-55-0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 0.1 X

Xylidine 1300-73-8 2.0 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- X

Yttrium 7440-65-5 ---- 1.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Zinc chloride fume 7646-85-7 ---- 1.0 ---- 2.0 ---- ---- ----

Zinc chromate (as Cr03) Varies ---- 0.05 ---- ---- ---- 0.1 ----

w/compound

Zinc oxide 1314-13-2

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Zinc oxide fume 1314-13-2 ---- 5.0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ----

Zinc stearate 557-05-1

Total dust ---- ---- 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Respirable fraction ---- ---- 5.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Zirconium compounds (as Zr) 7440-67-2 ---- 5.0 ---- 10 ---- ---- ----

[Open Style:Columns On]



Notes: a/ Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25`C and 760 mm. Hg. pressure (torr.).

b/ Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When a numerical entry for a substance is in the mg/m3 column and not in the ppm column, then the number in the mg/m3 column is exact. When numerical entries for a substance are in both the ppm and mg/m3 columns, then the number in the ppm column is exact and the number in the mg/m3 column may be rounded off.

c/ Duration is for 15 minutes, unless otherwise noted.

d/ The final benzene standard in WAC 296-62-07523 applies to all occupational exposures to benzene except some sub-segments of industry where exposures are consistently under the action level (i.e., distribution and sale of fuels, sealed containers and pipelines, coke production, oil and gas drilling and production, natural gas processing, and the percentage exclusion for liquid mixtures).

e/ This 8-hour TWA applies to respirable dust as measured by a vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler or equivalent instrument. The time-weighted average applies to the cotton waste processing operations of waste recycling (sorting, blending, cleaning, and willowing) and garretting. See also WAC 296-62-14533 for cotton dust limits applicable to other sectors.

f/ As determined from breathing-zone air samples.

g/ Total dust formula for Silica (as quartz) is:

((30 mg/m3

% Si02 + 3))

30mg/m3

% Si02 + 3

h/ Both concentration and percent quartz for the application of this limit are to be determined from the fraction passing a size-selector with the following characteristics:

Aerodynamic diameter

(unit density sphere) Percent passing selector

2 90

2.5 75

3.5 50

5.0 25

10 0

((containing less than 1% quartz. If 1% quartz, use quartz limit.

The measurements under this note refer to the use of an AEC (now NRC) instrument. The respirable fraction of coal dust is determined with an MRE the figure corresponding to that of 2.4 mg/m3 in the table for coal dust is 4.5 mg/m3.))

Notes: i/ The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given -- not CAS numbers for the individual compounds.

j/ Compliance with the subtilisins PEL is assessed by sampling with a high volume sampler (600-800 liters per minute) for at least 60 minutes.

m/ Sampling for the carbon monoxide ceiling shall be averaged over 5 minutes but an instantaneous reading over 1500 ppm shall not be exceeded.

((TABLE 2

TRANSITIONAL LIMITS


The transitional limits listed are in effect until December 31, 1992. These limits require the use of engineering controls, where feasible, the additional protection to achieve the more protective limits listed in Table 1 may be achieved using protective control measures as set forth in WAC 296-62-07501(3).

Acceptable

Ceiling

PEL Concentration

Substance ppm mg/m3 ppm mg/m3

Carbon disulfide 10 ---- 15 ----

Carbon monoxide 50 55 ---- ----

Carbon tetrachloride 5.0 ---- 20 ----

Chloroform (Trichloro-

methane) 10 50 50 240

Coal dust-respirable

(less than 5% Si02) ---- 2.4 ---- ----

Cobalt metal, dust and

fume (as Co) ---- 0.1 ---- ----

Ethylene dichloride 10 ---- 15 ----

Ethylene glycol dinitrate 0.05 0.3 0.2 1.0

Nitrogen dioxide ---- ---- 5.0 9.0

Nitroglycerin 0.05 0.5 0.2 2.0

Perchloroethylene (Tetra-

chloroethylene) 50 ---- 200 ----

Styrene 100 ---- 200 ----

))



[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-62-07515, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 93-01-067 (Order 92-15), 296-62-07515, filed 12/11/92, effective 1/15/93; 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), 296-62-07515, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), 296-62-07515, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; 89-15-002 (Order 89-06), 296-62-07515, filed 7/6/89, effective 8/7/89; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), 296-62-07515, filed 7/6/88; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07515, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-16-009 (Order 86-28), 296-62-07515, filed 7/25/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), 296-62-07515, filed 12/11/84; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-62-07515, filed 6/11/82. Statutory Authy: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07515, filed 7/27/81; 80-11-010 (Order 80-14), 296-62-07515, filed 8/8/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150 and 49.17.240. 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), 296-62-07515, filed 7/31/79; Order 73-3, 296-62-07515, filed 5/7/73.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07711 Regulated areas. (1) General. The employer shall establish a regulated area in work areas where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705. All Class I, II and III asbestos work shall be conducted within regulated areas. All other operations covered by this standard shall be conducted within the regulated area where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed permissible exposure limits. Regulated areas shall comply with the requirements of subsections (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8) of this section.

(2) Demarcation. The regulated area shall be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number of persons within the area and protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne asbestos. Where critical barriers or negative pressure enclosures are used, they may demarcate the regulated area. Signs shall be provided and displayed pursuant to the requirements of WAC 296-62-07721.

(3) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons authorized by the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(4) Provision of respirators. Each person entering a regulated area where employees are required in WAC 296-62-07715(1) to wear respirators shall be supplied with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with WAC 296-62-07715(2).

(5) Protective clothing. All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with and required to wear protective clothing, selected in accordance with WAC 296-62-07717.

(6) Prohibited activities. The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated areas.

(7) Permit-required confined space. The employer shall determine if a permit-required confined space hazard exists and shall take any necessary precautions in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC Part M.

(8) Competent persons. For construction and shipyard work the employer shall ensure that all asbestos work performed within regulated areas is supervised by a competent person, as defined in WAC 296-62-07703. The duties of the competent person are set out in WAC 296-62-07728.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07711, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, 296-62-07711, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), 296-62-07711, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07711, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07711, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07711, filed 4/27/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07712 Requirements for asbestos activities in construction and shipyard work. (1) Methods of compliance, the following engineering controls and work practices of this section shall be used for construction work defined in WAC 296-155-012 and for all ship repair defined in WAC 296-304-010.

(2) Engineering controls and work practices for all operations covered by this section. The employer shall use the following engineering controls and work practices in all operations covered by this section, regardless of the levels of exposure:

(a) Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters to collect all debris and dust containing ACM and PACM, except as provided in subsection (10)(b) of this section in the case of roofing material.

(b) Wet methods, or wetting agents, to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, mixing, removal, cutting, application, and cleanup, except where employers demonstrate that the use of wet methods is infeasible due to, for example, the creation of electrical hazards, equipment malfunction, and, in roofing, except as provided in subsection (10)(b) of this section.

(c) Asbestos shall be handled, mixed, applied, removed, cut, scored, or otherwise worked in a wet saturated state to prevent the emission of airborne fibers unless the usefulness of the product would be diminished thereby.

(d) Prompt cleanup and disposal of wastes and debris contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers except in roofing operations, where the procedures specified in this section apply.

(3) In addition to the requirements of subsection (2) of this section, the employer shall use the following control methods to achieve compliance with the TWA permissible exposure limit and excursion limit prescribed by WAC 296-62-07705:

(a) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;

(b) Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust;

(c) Ventilation of the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees and toward a filtration or collection device equipped with a HEPA filter;

(d) Use of other work practices and engineering controls that the department can show to be feasible;

(e) Wherever the feasible engineering and work practice controls described above are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels attainable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07715.

(4) Prohibitions. The following work practices and engineering controls shall not be used for work related to asbestos or for work which disturbs ACM or PACM, regardless of measured levels of asbestos exposure or the results of initial exposure assessments:

(a) High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with point or cut ventilator or enclosures with HEPA filtered exhaust air;

(b) Compressed air used to remove asbestos, or materials containing asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air;

(c) Dry sweeping, shoveling or other dry cleanup of dust and debris containing ACM and PACM;

(d) Employee rotation as a means of reducing employee exposure to asbestos.

(5) Cleanup.

(a) After completion of asbestos removal, demolition, and renovation operations, all surfaces in and around the work area shall be cleared of any asbestos debris.

(b) Lock-down. Where asbestos has been removed, encapsulant shall be applied to ensure binding of remaining fibers.

(c) The employer shall demonstrate by monitoring that the airborne fiber concentration is below the permissible exposure limits; or, at or below the airborne fiber level existing prior to the start of the removal, demolition, or renovation project; whichever level is lower.

(6) Class I requirements. The following engineering controls and work practices and procedures shall be used:

(a) All Class I work, including the installation and operation of the control system shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in WAC 296-62-07703;

(b) For all Class I jobs involving the removal of more than 25 linear or 10 square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material; for all other Class I jobs, where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment pursuant to WAC 296-62-07709(3), or where employees are working in areas adjacent to the regulation area, while the Class I work is being performed, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:

(i) Critical barriers shall be placed over all the openings to the regulated area, except where activities are performed outdoors; or

(ii) The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area surveillance during each work shift at each boundary of the regulated area, showing no visible asbestos dust; and perimeter area monitoring showing that clearance levels contained in 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, of the EPA Asbestos in Schools Rule are met, or that perimeter area levels, measured by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) are no more than background levels representing the same area before the asbestos work began. The results of such monitoring shall be made known to the employer no later than 24 hours from the end of the work shift represented by such monitoring. Exception: For work completed outdoors where employees are not working in areas adjacent to the regulated areas, (a) of this subsection is satisfied when the specific control methods in subsection (7) of this section are used;

(c) For all Class I jobs, HVAC systems shall be isolated in the regulated area by sealing with a double layer of 6 mil plastic or the equivalent;

(d) For all Class I jobs, impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;

(e) For all Class I jobs, all objects within the regulated area shall be covered with impermeable dropcloths or plastic sheeting which is secured by duct tape or an equivalent;

(f) For all Class I jobs where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment, or where exposure monitoring shows that a PEL is exceeded, the employer shall ventilate the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.

(7) Specific control methods for Class I work. In addition, Class I asbestos work shall be performed using one or more of the following control methods pursuant to the limitations stated below:

(a) Negative pressure enclosure (NPE) systems: NPE systems may be used where the configuration of the work area does not make the erection of the enclosure infeasible, with the following specifications and work practices:

(i) Specifications:

(A) The negative pressure enclosure (NPE) may be of any configuration;

(B) At least 4 air changes per hour shall be maintained in the NPE;

(C) A minimum of -0.02 column inches of water pressure differential, relative to outside pressure, shall be maintained within the NPE as evidenced by manometric measurements;

(D) The NPE shall be kept under negative pressure throughout the period of its use; and

(E) Air movement shall be directed away from employees performing asbestos work within the enclosure, and toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) Before beginning work within the enclosure and at the beginning of each shift, the NPE shall be inspected for breaches and smoke-tested for leaks, and any leaks sealed.

(B) Electrical circuits in the enclosure shall be deactivated, unless equipped with ground-fault circuit interrupters.

(b) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of piping and elbows and other connections with the following specifications and work practices:

(i) Specifications:

(A) Glove bags shall be made of 6 mil thick plastic and shall be seamless at the bottom.

(B) Glove bags used on elbows and other connections must be designed for that purpose and used without modifications.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) Each glove bag shall be installed so that it completely covers the circumference of pipe or other structure where the work is to be done.

(B) Glove bags shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to use.

(C) Glove bags may be used only once and may not be moved.

(D) Glove bags shall not be used on surfaces whose temperature exceeds 150F.

(E) Prior to disposal, glove bags shall be collapsed by removing air within them using a HEPA vacuum.

(F) Before beginning the operation, loose and friable material adjacent to the glove bag/box operation shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of six mil plastic or otherwise rendered intact.

(G) Where system uses attached waste bag, such bag shall be connected to collection bag using hose or other material which shall withstand pressure of ACM waste and water without losing its integrity.

(H) Sliding valve or other device shall separate waste bag from hose to ensure no exposure when waste bag is disconnected.

(I) At least two persons shall perform Class I glove bag removal operations.

(c) Negative pressure glove bag systems. Negative pressure glove bag systems may be used to remove ACM or PACM from piping.

(i) Specifications: In addition to specifications for glove bag systems above, negative pressure glove bag systems shall attach HEPA vacuum systems or other devices to bag during removal.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) The employer shall comply with the work practices for glove bag systems in this section.

(B) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used during removal shall run continually during the operation until it is completed at which time the bag shall be collapsed prior to removal of the bag from the pipe.

(C) Where a separate waste bag is used along with a collection bag and discarded after one use, the collection bag may be reused if rinsed clean with amended water before reuse.

(d) Negative pressure glove box systems: Negative pressure glove boxes may be used to remove ACM or PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices:

(i) Specifications:

(A) Glove boxes shall be constructed with rigid sides and made from metal or other material which can withstand the weight of the ACM and PACM and water used during removal.

(B) A negative pressure generator shall be used to create negative pressure in the system.

(C) An air filtration unit shall be attached to the box.

(D) The box shall be fitted with gloved apertures.

(E) An aperture at the base of the box shall serve as a bagging outlet for waste ACM and water.

(F) A back-up generator shall be present on site.

(G) Waste bags shall consist of 6 mil thick plastic double-bagged before they are filled or plastic thicker than 6 mil.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) At least two persons shall perform the removal.

(B) The box shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to each use.

(C) Loose or damaged ACM adjacent to the box shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of 6 mil plastic prior to the job, or otherwise made intact prior to the job.

(D) A HEPA filtration system shall be used to maintain pressure barrier in box.

(e) Water spray process system. A water spray process system may be used for removal of ACM and PACM from cold line piping if, employees carrying out such process have completed a 40-hour separate training course in its use, in addition to training required for employees performing Class I work. The system shall meet the following specifications and shall be performed by employees using the following work practices:

(i) Specifications:

(A) Piping shall be surrounded on 3 sides by rigid framing.

(B) A 360 degree water spray, delivered through nozzles supplied by a high pressure separate water line, shall be formed around the piping.

(C) The spray shall collide to form a fine aerosol which provides a liquid barrier between workers and the ACM and PACM.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) The system shall be run for at least 10 minutes before removal begins.

(B) All removal shall take place within the water barrier.

(C) The system shall be operated by at least three persons, one of whom shall not perform removal, but shall check equipment, and ensure proper operation of the system.

(D) After removal, the ACM and PACM shall be bagged while still inside the water barrier.

(f) A small walk-in enclosure which accommodates no more than two persons (mini-enclosure) may be used if the disturbance or removal can be completely contained by the enclosure with the following specifications and work practices:

(i) Specifications:

(A) The fabricated or job-made enclosure shall be constructed of 6 mil plastic or equivalent.

(B) The enclosure shall be placed under negative pressure by means of a HEPA filtered vacuum or similar ventilation unit.

(C) Change room. A small change room made of 6-mil-thick polyethylene plastic should be contiguous to the mini-enclosure, and is necessary to allow the worker to vacuum off his/her protective coveralls and remove them before leaving the work area. While inside the enclosure, the worker should wear Tyvekl disposable coveralls and use the appropriate HEPA-filtered dual cartridge respiratory protection. The advantages of mini-enclosures are that they limit the spread of asbestos contamination, reduce the potential exposure of bystanders and other workers who may be working in adjacent areas, and are quick and easy to install. The disadvantage of mini-enclosures is that they may be too small to contain the equipment necessary to create a negative-pressure within the enclosure; however, the double layer of plastic sheeting will serve to restrict the release of asbestos fibers to the area outside the enclosure.

(ii) Work practices:

(A) Before use, the mini-enclosure shall be inspected for leaks and smoke-tested to detect breaches, and any breaches sealed.

(B) Before reuse, the interior shall be completely washed with amended water and HEPA-vacuumed.

(C) During use, air movement shall be directed away from the employee's breathing zone within the mini-enclosure.

(8) Alternative control methods for Class I work. Class I work may be performed using a control method which is not referenced in subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section, or which modifies a control method referenced in subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section, if the following provisions are complied with:

(a) The control method shall enclose, contain or isolate the processes or source of airborne asbestos dust, or otherwise capture or redirect such dust before it enters the breathing zone of employees.

(b) A certified industrial hygienist or licensed professional engineer who is also qualified as a project designer as defined in WAC 296-62-07703, shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls and shall certify in writing that the planned control method is adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under worst-case conditions of use, and that the planned control method will prevent asbestos contamination outside the regulated area, as measured by clearance sampling which meets the requirements of EPA's Asbestos in Schools rule issued under AHERA, or perimeter monitoring which meets the criteria in subsection (6)(b)(ii) of this section. Where the TSI or surfacing material to be removed is 25 linear or 10 square feet or less, the evaluation required in subsection (8)(b) of this section may be performed by a competent person.

(c) Before work which involves the removal of more than 25 linear or 10 square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material is begun using an alternative method which has been the subject of subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section required evaluation and certification, the employer shall send a copy of such evaluation and certification to the Department of Labor and Industries, Asbestos Certification Program, P.O. Box 44614, Olympia, Washington 98504-4614. The submission shall not constitute approval by WISHA.

(9) Work practices and engineering controls for Class II work.

(a) All Class II work shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in WAC 296-62-07703.

(b) For all indoor Class II jobs, where the employer has not produced a negative exposure assessment pursuant to WAC 296-62-07709(3), or where during the job, changed conditions indicate there may be exposure above the PEL or where the employer does not remove the ACM in a substantially intact state, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:

(i) Critical barriers shall be placed over all openings to the regulated area; or

(ii) The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area monitoring or clearance monitoring which meets the criteria set out in subsection (6)(b)(ii) of this section; or

(iii) Impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity.

(c) (Reserved.)

(d) All Class II asbestos work shall be performed using the work practices and requirements set out above in subsection (9)(a) and (b) of this section.

(10) Additional controls for Class II work. Class II asbestos work shall also be performed by complying with the work practices and controls designated for each type of asbestos work to be performed, set out in this paragraph. Where more than one control method may be used for a type of asbestos work, the employer may choose one or a combination of designated control methods. Class II work also may be performed using a method allowed for Class I work, except that glove bags and glove boxes are allowed if they fully enclose the Class II material to be removed.

(a) For removing vinyl and asphalt flooring materials which contain ACM or for which in buildings constructed no later than 1980, the employer has not verified the absence of ACM pursuant to WAC 296-62-07712 (((9))) (10)(a)(ix). The employer shall ensure that employees comply with the following work practices and that employees are trained in these practices pursuant to WAC 296-62-07722.

(i) Flooring or its backing shall not be sanded.

(ii) Vacuums equipped with HEPA filter, disposable dust bag, and metal floor tool (no brush) shall be used to clean floors.

(iii) Resilient sheeting shall be removed by cutting with wetting of the snip point and wetting during delamination. Rip-up of resilient sheet floor material is prohibited.

(iv) All scraping of residual adhesive and/or backing shall be performed using wet methods.

(v) Dry sweeping is prohibited.

(vi) Mechanical chipping is prohibited unless performed in a negative pressure enclosure which meets the requirements of subsection (7)(a) of this section.

(vii) Tiles shall be removed intact, unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.

(viii) When tiles are heated and can be removed intact, wetting may be omitted.

(ix) Resilient flooring material including associated mastic and backing shall be assumed to be asbestos-containing unless an industrial hygienist determines that it is asbestos-free using recognized analytical techniques.

(b) For removing roofing material which contains ACM the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(i) Roofing material shall be removed in an intact state to the extent feasible.

(ii) Wet methods shall be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact, or that will be rendered not intact during removal, unless such wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.

(iii) Cutting machines shall be continuously misted during use, unless a competent person determines that misting substantially decreases worker safety.

(iv) When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and an aggregate surface using a power roof cutter, all dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected by a HEPA dust collector, or shall be HEPA vacuumed by vacuuming along the cut line. When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and a smooth surface using a power roof cutter, the dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected either by a HEPA dust collector or HEPA vacuuming along the cut line, or by gently sweeping and then carefully and completely wiping up the still wet dust and debris left along the cut line. The dust and debris shall be immediately bagged or placed in covered containers.

(v) Asbestos-containing material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist:

(A) Any ACM that is not intact shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains on the roof it shall either be kept wet, placed in an impermeable waste bag, or wrapped in plastic sheeting.

(B) Intact ACM shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.

(vi) Upon being lowered, unwrapped material shall be transferred to a closed receptacle in such manner so as to preclude the dispersion of dust.

(vii) Roof level heating and ventilation air intake sources shall be isolated or the ventilation system shall be shut down.

(viii) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, removal or repair of sections of intact roofing less than 25 square feet in area does not require use of wet methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods which do not render the material nonintact are used to remove the material and no visible dust is created by the removal method used. In determining whether a job involves less than 25 square feet, the employer shall include all removal and repair work performed on the same roof on the same day.

(c) When removing cementitious asbestos-containing siding and shingles or transite panels containing ACM on building exteriors (other than roofs, where subsection (10)(b) of this section applies) the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(i) Cutting, abrading or breaking siding, shingles, or transite panels, shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release cannot be used.

(ii) Each panel or shingle shall be sprayed with amended water prior to removal.

(iii) Unwrapped or unbagged panels or shingles shall be immediately lowered to the ground via covered dust-tight chute, crane or hoist, or placed in an impervious waste bag or wrapped in plastic sheeting and lowered to the ground no later than the end of the work shift.

(iv) Nails shall be cut with flat, sharp instruments.

(d) When removing gaskets containing ACM, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:

(i) If a gasket is visibly deteriorated and unlikely to be removed intact, removal shall be undertaken within a glove bag as described in subsection (7)(b) of this section.

(ii) (Reserved.)

(iii) The gasket shall be immediately placed in a disposal container.

(iv) Any scraping to remove residue must be performed wet.

(e) When performing any other Class II removal of asbestos-containing material for which specific controls have not been listed in subsection (10) of this section, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are complied with.

(i) The material shall be thoroughly wetted with amended water prior to and during its removal.

(ii) The material shall be removed in an intact state unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.

(iii) Cutting, abrading or breaking the material shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release are not feasible.

(iv) Asbestos-containing material removed, shall be immediately bagged or wrapped, or kept wet until transferred to a closed receptacle, no later than the end of the work shift.

(f) Alternative work practices and controls. Instead of the work practices and controls listed in subsection (10) of this section, the employer may use different or modified engineering and work practice controls if the following provisions are complied with.

(i) The employer shall demonstrate by data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used, that employee exposure will not exceed the PELs under any anticipated circumstances.

(ii) A competent person shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and shall certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions of use and that the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation shall include and be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.

(11) Work practices and engineering controls for Class III asbestos work. Class III asbestos work shall be conducted using engineering and work practice controls which minimize the exposure to employees performing the asbestos work and to bystander employees.

(a) The work shall be performed using wet methods.

(b) To the extent feasible, the work shall be performed using local exhaust ventilation.

(c) Where the disturbance involves drilling, cutting, abrading, sanding, chipping, braking, or sawing of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, the employer shall use impermeable dropcloths, and shall isolate the operation using mini-enclosures or glove bag systems pursuant to subsection (7) of this section or another isolation method.

(d) Where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" for a job, or where monitoring results show the PEL has been exceeded, the employer shall contain the area using impermeable dropcloths and plastic barriers or their equivalent, or shall isolate the operation using a control system listed in and in compliance with subsection (7) of this section.

(e) Employees performing Class III jobs, which involve the disturbance of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, or where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" or where monitoring results show a PEL has been exceeded, shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of WAC 296-62-07715.

(12) Class IV asbestos work. Class IV asbestos jobs shall be conducted by employees trained pursuant to the asbestos awareness training program set out in WAC 296-62-07722. In addition, all Class IV jobs shall be conducted in conformity with the requirements set out in this section, mandating wet methods, HEPA vacuums, and prompt clean up of debris containing ACM and PACM.

(a) Employees cleaning up debris and waste in a regulated area where respirators are required shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of WAC 296-62-07715.

(b) Employers of employees who clean up waste and debris in, and employers in control of, areas where friable thermal system insulation or surfacing material is accessible, shall assume that such waste and debris contain asbestos.

(13) Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer who complies with all provisions of subsection (10)(a) and (b) of this section when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof cements, mastics, coatings, or flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section. If an employer does not comply with all provisions of this subsection (13), or if during the course of the job the material does not remain intact, the provisions of subsection (10) of this section apply instead of this subsection (13).

(a) Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person who is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.

(b) All employees performing work covered by this subsection (13) shall be trained in a training program that meets the requirements of WAC 296-62-07722.

(c) The material shall not be sanded, abraded, or ground. Manual methods which do not render the material nonintact shall be used.

(d) Material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material shall be removed from the roof as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.

(e) Where roofing products which have been labeled as containing asbestos pursuant to WAC 296-62-07721, installed on nonresidential roofs during operations covered by this subsection (13), the employer shall notify the building owner of the presence and location of such materials no later than the end of the job.

(f) All removal or disturbance of pipeline asphaltic wrap shall be performed using wet methods.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07712, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), 296-62-07712, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07712, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07712, filed 11/30/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07715 Respiratory protection. (1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by WAC 296-62-077 through 296-62-07753. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(a) During the interval necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(b) In work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, or other activities for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(c) In work situations where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(d) In emergencies;

(e) In all regulated areas, except for construction activities which follow requirements set forth in WAC 296-62-07715 (1)(g);

(f) Whenever employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits;

(g) During ((all Class I asbestos jobs;)) the following construction activities:

(((h))) (i) During all Class I asbestos jobs;

(ii) During all Class II work where the ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state;

(((i))) (iii) During all Class II and Class III work which is not performed using wet methods, provided, however, that respirators need not be worn during removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state;

(((j))) (iv) During all Class II and Class III asbestos jobs where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment";

(((k))) (v) During all Class III jobs where TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed; and

(((l))) (vi) During all Class IV work performed within regulated areas where employees performing other work are required to wear respirators.

(2) Respirator selection.

(a) Where respirators are used, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 of this section or in WAC 296-62-07715(2), and shall ensure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(b) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(c) The employer shall provide a tight fitting powered, air-purifying respirator in lieu of any negative pressure respirator specified in Table 1 of this section whenever:

(i) An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

(ii) This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

(d) The employer shall inform any employee required to wear a respirator under this subsection that the employee may require the employer to provide a powered air purifying respirator in lieu of a negative pressure respirator.

(e) In addition to the selection criterion below, the employer shall provide a half-mask air purifying respirator, other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high efficiency filters whenever the employee performs the following activities: Class II and III asbestos jobs where the employer does not produce a negative exposure assessment; and Class III jobs where TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.



[Open Style:Columns Off]

TABLE 1--RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS

Airborne concentration of Required respirator.

asbestos or conditions of use (See Note a.)

Not in excess of 1 f/cc (10 X Half-mask air-purifying

PEL), or otherwise as required respirator other than a

independent of exposure disposable respirator,

equipped with high

efficiency filters.

(See Note b.)

Not in excess of 5 f/cc (50 X Full facepiece air-

PEL) purifying respirator

equipped with high

efficiency filters.

Not in excess of 10 f/cc (100 Any powered air-purifying

X PEL) respirator equipped with

high efficiency filters

or any supplied-air

respirator operated in

continuous flow mode.

Not in excess of 100 f/cc (1, Full facepiece supplied-air

000 X PEL) respirator operated in

pressure demand mode.

Greater than 100 f/cc (1,000 X Full facepiece supplied-air

PEL) or unknown concentration respirator operated in

pressure demand mode,

equipped with an

auxiliary positive pressure

self-contained breathing

apparatus or HEPA filter

egress cartridges.

(See Note c.)





[Open Style:Columns On]

Note:

a. Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

b. A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of all monodispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers mean aerodynamic diameter or larger.

c. See subsection (5)(c) of this section for fit testing requirements.

(3) Special respiratory protection requirements.

(a) Unless specifically identified in this subsection, respirator selection for asbestos removal, demolition, and renovation operations shall be in accordance with Table 1 of subsection (2) of this section. The employer shall provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a HEPA filter egress cartridge, to employees engaged in the following asbestos operations:

(i) Inside negative pressure enclosures used for removal, demolition, and renovation of friable asbestos from walls, ceilings, vessels, ventilation ducts, elevator shafts, and other structural members, but does not include pipes or piping systems; or

(ii) Any dry removal of asbestos.

(b) For all Class I work excluded or not specified in (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, the employer shall provide a tight-fitting powered air purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters or a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with HEPA filter egress cartridges or an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus for all employees within the regulated area where asbestos work is being performed for which a negative exposure assessment has not been produced and, the exposure assessment indicates the exposure level will not exceed 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average. A full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or a HEPA filter egress cartridge, shall be provided under such conditions, if the exposure assessment indicates exposure levels above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average.

Exception: In lieu of the supplied-air respirator required by subsection (3) of this section, an employer may provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous flow mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge where daily and historical personal monitoring datdicates the concentration of asbestos fibers is not reasonably expected to exceed 10 f/cc. The continuous flow respirator shall be operated at a minimum air flow rate of six cubic feet per minute at the facepiece using respirable air supplied in accordance with WAC 296-62-07111.

(4) Respirator program.

(a) Where respiratory protection is used, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(b) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(c) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(d) No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally wearing a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employee shall be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position whose duties he or she is able to perform with the same employer, in the same geographical area and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer, if such a different position is available.

(5) Respirator fit testing.

(a) The employer shall ensure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(b) For each employee wearing negative pressure respirators, employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, and shall be conducted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07739, Appendix C. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table 1 of this section.

(c) Any supplied-air respirator facepiece equipped with a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge shall be quantitatively fit tested with the air supply disconnected at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter. The quantitative fit tests shall be conducted using the procedures described in WAC 296-62-07739(2), Appendix C, for negative pressure respirators.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07715, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07715, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07715, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07715, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07715, filed 4/27/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07717 Protective work clothing and equipment. (1) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to asbestos above the permissible exposure limits, or where the possibility of eye irritation exists, or for which a required negative exposure assessment is not produced and for any employee performing Class I operations, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and require that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(a) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(b) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and

(c) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-24-07801.

(2) Removal and storage.

(a) The employer shall ensure that employees remove work clothing contaminated with asbestos only in change rooms provided in accordance with WAC 296-62-07719(1).

(b) The employer shall ensure that no employee takes contaminated work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(c) Contaminated clothing. Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and be labeled in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721.

(d) Containers of contaminated protective devices or work clothing which are to be taken out of change rooms or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, shall bear labels in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721(((3))) (6).

(3) Cleaning and replacement.

(a) The employer shall clean, launder, repair, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain their effectiveness. The employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(b) The employer shall prohibit the removal of asbestos from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(c) Laundering of contaminated clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705.

(d) Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in (c) of this subsection to effectively prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(e) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with asbestos of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to asbestos.

(f) Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and labeled in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721.

(4) Inspection of protective clothing for construction and shipyard work.

(a) The competent person shall examine worksuits worn by employees at least once per workshift for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.

(b) When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working, rips and tears shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07717, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-62-07717, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07717, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07717, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07717, filed 4/27/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards to employees. (1) Communication of hazards to employees. General industry requirements.

(a) Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in general industry. Asbestos exposure in industry occurs in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Employees who manufacture asbestos-containing products may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Employees who repair and replace automotive brakes and clutches may be exposed to asbestos fibers. In addition, employees engaged in housekeeping activities in industrial facilities with asbestos product manufacturing operations, and in public and commercial buildings with installed asbestos-containing materials may be exposed to asbestos fibers. It should be noted that employees who perform housekeeping activities during and after construction activities are covered by asbestos construction work requirements in WAC 296-62-077. Housekeeping employees, regardless of industry designation, should know whether building components they maintain may expose them to asbestos. Building owners are often the only and/or best source of information concerning the presence of previously installed asbestos-containing building materials. Therefore they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section.

(b) Installed asbestos-containing material. Employers and building owners are required to treat installed TSI and sprayed-on and troweled-on surfacing materials as ACM for the purposes of this standard. These materials are designated "presumed ACM or PACM," and are defined in WAC 296-62-07703. Asphalt and vinyl flooring installed no later than 1980 also shall be treated as asbestos-containing. The employer or building owner may demonstrate that PACM and flooring materials do not contain asbestos by complying with WAC ((296-62-07721(3))) 296-62-07712 (10)(a)(ix).

(c) Duties of employers and building and facility owners.

(i) Building and facility owners shall determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the worksite. Employers and building and facility owners shall exercise due diligence in complying with these requirements to inform employers and employees about the presence and location of ACM and PACM.

(ii) Before authorizing or allowing any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, an owner or owner's agent shall perform, or cause to be performed, a good faith inspection to determine whether materials to be worked on or removed contain asbestos. The inspection shall be documented by a written report maintained on file and made available upon request to the director.

(A) The good faith inspection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector.

(B) Such good faith inspection is not required if the owner or owner's agent is reasonably certain that asbestos will not be disturbed by the project or the owner or owner's agent assumes that the suspect material contains asbestos and handles the material in accordance with WAC 296-62-07701 through 296-62-07753.

(iii) The owner or owner's agent shall provide, to all contractors submitting a bid to undertake any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, the written statement either of the reasonable certainty of nondisturbance of asbestos or of assumption of the presence of asbestos. Contractors shall be provided with the written report before they apply or bid to work.

(iv) Any owner or owner's agent who fails to comply with (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection shall be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars for each violation. Each day the violation continues shall be considered a separate violation. In addition, any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition which was started without meeting the requirements of this section shall be halted immediately and cannot be resumed before meeting such requirements.

(v) Building and facility owners shall inform employers of employees, and employers shall inform employees who will perform housekeeping activities in areas which contain ACM and/or PACM of the presence and location of ACM and/or PACM in such areas which may be contacted during such activities.

(vi) Upon written or oral request, building or facility owners shall make a copy of the written report required in this section available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report shall be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(vii) Building and facility owners shall maintain records of all information required to be provided pursuant to this section and/or otherwise known to the building owner concerning the presence, location and quantity of ACM and PACM in the building/facility. Such records shall be kept for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners.

(2) Communication of hazards to employees. Requirements for construction and shipyard employment activities.

(a) Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in construction and shipyard employment activities. Most asbestos-related construction and shipyard activities involve previously installed building materials. Building/vessel owners often are the only and/or best sources of information concerning them. Therefore, they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section. Installed Asbestos Containing Building/Vessel Material: Employers and building/vessel owners shall identify TSI and sprayed or troweled on surfacing materials as asbestos-containing unless the employer, by complying with WAC 296-62-07721(3) determines it is not asbestos containing. Asphalt or vinyl flooring/decking material installed in buildings or vessels no later than 1980 shall also be considered as asbestos containing unless the employer/owner, pursuant to WAC ((296-62-07721(3))) 296-62-07712 (10)(a)(ix) determines it is not asbestos containing. If the employer or building/vessel owner has actual knowledge or should have known, through the exercise of due diligence, that materials other than TSI and sprayed-on or troweled-on surfacing materials are asbestos containing, they shall be treated as such. When communicating information to employees pursuant to this standard, owners and employers shall identify "PACM" as ACM. Additional requirements relating to communication of asbestos work on multi-employer worksites are set out in WAC 296-62-07706.

(b) Duties of building/vessel and facility owners.

(i) Before work subject to this section is begun, building/vessel and facility owners shall identify the presence, location and quantity of ACM, and/or PACM at the work site. All thermal system insulation and sprayed on or troweled on surfacing materials in buildings/vessels or substrates constructed no later than 1980 shall be identified as PACM. In addition, resilient flooring/decking material installed no later than 1980 shall also be identified as asbestos containing.

(ii) Before authorizing or allowing any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, a building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent shall perform, or cause to be performed, a good faith inspection to determine whether materials to be worked on or removed contain asbestos. The inspection shall be documented by a written report maintained on file and made available upon request to the director.

(A) The good faith inspection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector.

(B) Such good faith inspection is not required if the building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent assumes that the suspect material contains asbestos and handles the material in accordance with WAC 296-62-07701 through 296-62-07753 or if the owner or the owner's agent is reasonably certain that asbestos will not be distributed by the project.

(iii) The building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent shall provide, to all contractors submitting a bid to undertake any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, the written statement either of the reasonable certainty of nondisturbance of asbestos or of assumption of the presence of asbestos. Contractors shall be provided the written report before they apply or bid on work.

(iv) Any building/vessel and facility owner or owners agent who fails to comply with WAC 296-62-07719 (2)(b)(ii) and (iii) shall be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars for each violation. Each day the violation continues shall be considered a separate violation. In addition, any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition which was started without meeting the requirements of this section shall be halted immediately and cannot be resumed before meeting such requirements.

(v) Upon written or oral request, building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent shall make a copy of the written report required in this section available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report shall be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(vi) Building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent shall notify in writing the following persons of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at work sites in their buildings/facilities/vessels.

(A) Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees reasonably can be expected to work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;

(B) Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;

(C) On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials;

(D) Tenants who will occupy areas containing such materials.

(c) Duties of employers whose employees perform work subject to this standard in or adjacent to areas containing ACM and PACM. Building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agents whose employees perform such work shall comply with these provisions to the extent applicable.

(i) Before work subject to this standard is begun, building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agents shall determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site pursuant to WAC 296-62-07721 (2)(b).

(ii) Before work under this standard is performed employers of employees who will perform such work shall inform the following persons of the location and quantity of ACM and/or PACM present at the work site and the precautions to be taken to insure that airborne asbestos is confined to the area.

(A) Owners of the building/vessel or facility;

(B) Employees who will perform such work and employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas;

(iii) Upon written or oral request, a copy of the written report required in this section shall be made available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report shall be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(iv) Within 10 days of the completion of such work, the employer whose employees have performed work subject to this standard, shall inform the building/vessel or facility owner and employers of employees who will be working in the area of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the former regulated area and final monitoring results, if any.

(d) In addition to the above requirements, all employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a work site shall convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of such newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the owner and to other employers of employees working at the work site, within 24 hours of the discovery.

(e) No contractor may commence any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project without receiving a copy of the written response or statement required by WAC 296-62-07721 (2)(b). Any contractor who begins any project without the copy of the written report or statement shall be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars per day. Each day the violation continues shall be considered a separate violation.

(3) Criteria to rebut the designation of installed material as PACM.

(a) At any time, an employer and/or building/vessel owner may demonstrate, for purposes of this standard, that PACM does not contain asbestos. Building/vessel owners and/or employers are not required to communicate information about the presence of building material for which such a demonstration pursuant to the requirements of (b) of this subsection has been made. However, in all such cases, the information, data and analysis supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos, shall be retained pursuant to WAC 296-62-07727.

(b) An employer or owner may demonstrate that PACM does not contain asbestos by the following:

(i) Having a completed inspection conducted pursuant to the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E) which demonstrates that the material is not ACM;

(ii) Performing tests of the material containing PACM which demonstrate that no asbestos is present in the material. Such tests shall include analysis of ((3 bulk samples of each homogeneous area of PACM collected in a randomly distributed manner)) bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86. The tests, evaluation and sample collection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector. Analysis of samples shall be performed by persons or laboratories with proficiency demonstrated by current successful participation in a nationally recognized testing program such as the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) ((of)) or the Round Robin for bulk samples administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Associate (AIHA), or an equivalent nationally recognized Round Robin testing program.

(4) At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to enter and which contain TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM, the building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent shall post signs which identify the material which is present, its location, and appropriate work practices which, if followed, will ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

(5) Warning signs.

(a) Warning signs that demarcate the regulated area shall be provided and displayed at each location where a regulated area is required. In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas and be posted at such a distance from such a location that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area marked by the signs.

(b) The warning signs required by (a) of this subsection shall bear the following information:

danger

asbestos

cancer and lung disease hazard

authorized personnel only

respirators and protective clothing are required in this area

(c) The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by (a) of this subsection. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, and graphics.

(6) Warning labels.

(a) Warning labels shall be affixed to all products containing asbestos including raw materials, mixtures, scrap, waste, debris, and other products containing asbestos fibers, and to their containers including waste containers. Where feasible, installed asbestos products shall contain a visible label.

(b) Labels shall be printed in large, bold letters on a contrasting background.

(c) The labels shall comply with the requirements of WAC 296-62-05411, and shall include the following information:

danger

contains asbestos fibers

avoid creating dust

cancer and lung disease hazard

avoid breathing airborne asbestos fibers

(7) The provisions for labels required by subsection (6)(a) of this section or for material safety data sheets required by subsection (8) of this section do not apply where:

(a) Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material, provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos in excess of the excursion limit will be released; or

(b) Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 0.1 percent by weight.

(8) Material safety data sheets. Employers who are manufacturers or importers of asbestos, or asbestos products shall comply with the requirements regarding development of material safety data sheets as specified in WAC 296-62-05413, except as provided by subsection (7) of this section.

(9) When a building/vessel owner/or employer identifies previously installed PACM and/or ACM, labels or signs shall be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain PACM and/or ACM. The employer shall attach such labels in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas. Signs required by subsection (5)(a) of this section may be posted in lieu of labels so long as they contain information required for labeling. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07721, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-01-005 (Order 92-20), 296-62-07721, filed 12/2/92, effective 1/15/93; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07721, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), 296-62-07721, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07721, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07721, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07721, filed 4/27/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07725 Medical surveillance. (1) General.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limits. Exception.

Employers in the construction or shipyard industries shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who for a combined total of 30 or more days per year are engaged in Class I, II, and III work, or are exposed at or above the permissible exposure limit for combined 30 days or more per year; or who are required by the ((section)) standard to wear negative pressure respirators. For the purpose of this subsection, any day in which an employee engaged in Class II or III work or a combination thereof for one hour or less (taking into account the entire time spent on the removal operation, including cleanup), and, while doing so adheres to the work practices specified in this standard, shall not ((count)) be counted.

(b) Examination by a physician.

(i) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section, shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.

(2) Preplacement examinations.

(a) Except as provided by WAC 296-62-07725 (1)(a), before an employee is assigned to an occupation exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos, a preplacement medical examination shall be provided or made available by the employer. Examinations administered using the thirty or more days per year criteria of WAC 296-62-07725 (1)(a) shall be given within ten working days following the thirtieth day of exposure. Examinations must be given prior to assignment of employees to areas where negative-pressure respirators are worn.

(b) All examinations shall include, as a minimum, a medical and work history: A complete physical examination of all systems with special emphasis on the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems; completion of the respiratory disease standardized questionnaire in WAC 296-62-07741, Appendix D, Part 1; a chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior 14x17 inches); pulmonary function tests to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1.0); and any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician. Interpretation and classification of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07743, Appendix E.

(3) Periodic examinations.

(a) Periodic medical examinations shall be made available annually.

(b) The scope of the medical examination shall be in conformance with the protocol established in subsection (2)(b) of this section, except that the frequency of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with Table 2 of this section, and the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in WAC 296-62-07741, Appendix D, Part 2, shall be administered to the employee.

TABLE 2--FREQUENCY OF CHEST ROENTGENOGRAMS

Years since first exposure Age of employee

15 to 35 35+ to 45 45+

0 to 10 Every 5 years Every 5 years Every 5 years.

10+ Every 5 years Every 2 years Every 1 year.



(c) If the examining physician determines that any of the examinations should be provided more frequently than specified, the employer shall provide such examinations to affected employees at the frequencies specified by the physician.

(4) Termination of employment examinations.

(a) The employer shall provide, or make available, a termination of employment medical examination for any employee who has been exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limits.

(b) The medical examination shall be in accordance with the requirements of the periodic examinations stipulated in subsection (3) of this section, and shall be given within thirty calendar days before or after the date of termination of employment.

(5) Recent examinations. No medical examination is required of any employee, if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with subsection (2), (3), or (4) of this section within the past one-year period.

(6) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(a) A copy of this standard and Appendices D, E, and H of WAC 296-62-07741, 296-62-07743, and 296-62-07749 respectively.

(b) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.

(c) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level.

(d) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used.

(e) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(7) Physician's written opinion.

(a) The employer shall obtain a written signed opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:

(i) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;

(ii) Any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as clothing or respirators;

(iii) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions resulting from asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment; and

(iv) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

(b) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

(c) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within thirty days from its receipt.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07725, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07725, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07725, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07725, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07725, filed 4/27/87.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 97-01-079, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97)

WAC 296-62-07728 Competent person. (1) General. For all construction and shipyard work covered by this standard, the employer shall designate a competent person, having the qualifications and authorities for ensuring worker safety and health as required by chapter 296-155 WAC.

(2) Required inspections by the competent person. WAC 296-155-110(9) which requires health and safety prevention programs to provide for frequent and regular inspections on the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by the competent person, is incorporated.

(3) Additional inspections. In addition, the competent person shall make frequent and regular inspections of the job sites in order to perform the duties set out below in this section. For Class I jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at least once during each work shift, and at any time at employee request. For Class II and III jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at intervals sufficient to assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time at employee request.

(((a))) (4) On all worksites where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work, the competent person designated in accordance with WAC 296-62-07712 shall perform or supervise the following duties, as applicable:

(((i))) (a) Set up the regulated area, enclosure, or other containment;

(((ii))) (b) Ensure (by on-site inspection) the integrity of the enclosure or containment;

(((iii))) (c) Set up procedures to control entry and exit from the enclosure and/or area;

(((iv))) (d) Supervise all employee exposure monitoring required by this section and ensure that it is conducted as required by WAC 296-62-07709;

(((v))) (e) Ensure that employees working within the enclosure and/or using glovebags wear protective clothing and respirators as required by WAC 296-62-07715 and 296-62-07717;

(((vi))) (f) Ensure through on-site supervision, that employees set up and remove engineering controls, use work practices and personal protective equipment in compliance with all requirements;

(((vii))) (g) Ensure that employees use the hygiene facilities and observe the decontamination procedures specified in WAC 296-62-07719;

(((viii))) (h) Ensure that through on-site inspection engineering controls are functioning properly and employees are using proper work practices; and

(((ix))) (i) Ensure that notification requirements in WAC 296-62-07721 are met.

(((4))) (5) Training for competent person.

(a) For Class I and II asbestos work the competent person shall be trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling, including: Abatement, installation, removal and handling, the contents of this standard, the identification of asbestos, removal procedures where appropriate, and other practices for reducing the hazard. Such training shall be the certified asbestos supervisor training specified in WAC 296-65-003, 296-65-012, and 296-65-030.

(b) For Class III and IV asbestos work:

(i) The competent person shall be certified as an asbestos supervisor as prescribed in WAC 296-65-012 and 296-65-030 for Class III and IV work involving 3 square feet or 3 linear feet or more of asbestos containing material.

(ii) For Class III and IV asbestos work involving less than 3 square feet or 3 linear feet of asbestos containing material, and asbestos work exempted from certification requirements in chapter 296-65 WAC, the competent person shall be trained in aspects of asbestos handling appropriate for the nature of the work, to include procedures for setting up glove bags and mini-enclosures, practices for reducing asbestos exposures, use of wet methods, the contents of this standard, and the identification of asbestos. Such training shall include successful completion of a course equivalent in curriculum and training method to the 16-hour Operations and Maintenance course developed by EPA for maintenance and custodial workers (see (((b)(i) of this subsection)) 40 CFR 763.92 (a)(2)) or its equivalent in stringency, content and length.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07728, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97.]

REPEALER

The following section of the Washington Administrative Code is repealed:

WAC 296-62-07761 Nonasbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite.

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 89-10, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89)

WAC 296-65-001 Purpose and scope. This standard regulates asbestos removal and encapsulation, requires contractor certification, specifies minimum training for supervisors and workers on asbestos projects, requires notification of asbestos projects, and establishes a training course approval program. This standard applies to the removal or encapsulation of any ((asbestos containing material with the exception of those)) materials containing ((less)) more than one percent asbestos ((by volume)).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), 296-65-001, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89. Statutory Authority: SSB 4209, 1985 c 387. 85-21-080 (Order 85-30), 296-65-001, filed 10/22/85.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending WSR 96-05-056, filed 2/16/96, effective 4/1/96)

WAC 296-65-030 Methods of compliance. (1) Before submitting a bid or working on an asbestos abatement project, any person or individual shall obtain an asbestos contractor certificate as provided in WAC 296-65-017 and shall have in its employ at least one certified asbestos supervisor responsible for supervising all asbestos projects undertaken by the contractor.

(2) A certified asbestos supervisor will not be required on asbestos projects involving less than three square feet or three feet of asbestos-containing material unless the surface area of the pipe is greater than three square feet. A certified asbestos supervisor is required for all Class I and II asbestos work in accordance with WAC 296-62-07728 (4)(a).

(3) No employee or other individual is eligible to do work or supervise an asbestos project without being issued a certificate by the department.

(a) Employees performing Class I or Class II asbestos work shall be certified asbestos workers except when excluded in WAC 296-62-07722 (3)(b).

(b) Employees performing Class III or Class IV asbestos work as an asbestos project shall be certified asbestos workers.

Note: Exceptions to certification of asbestos work not considered to be an asbestos project are found in WAC 296-65-003 in the definition of "asbestos project," and in WAC 296-62-07722. If intact asbestos-containing materials or PACM are removed according to the required work practices, controls, respiratory protection, training and related provisions of WAC 296-62-077, certification is not required as specified in the exceptions. If asbestos-containing material or PACM is not intact, or becomes nonintact during removal, the asbestos work is considered as an asbestos project and the certification requirements of chapter 296-65 WAC apply.

(4) No person may assign any employee, contract with, or permit any individual, to remove or encapsulate asbestos in any facility without the project being performed by a certified asbestos worker and under the direct, on-site supervision of a certified asbestos supervisor.

(5) In cases in which an employer conducts an asbestos abatement project in its own facility by its own employees, supervision can be performed in the regular course of a certified asbestos supervisor's duties. Asbestos workers must have access to certified asbestos supervisors throughout the duration of the project.

(6) Any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition which was started without meeting the requirements of this section shall be halted immediately and cannot be resumed before meeting such requirements.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-05-056, 296-65-030, filed 2/16/96, effective 4/1/96. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), 296-65-030, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-65-030, filed 4/27/87. Statutory Authority: SSB 4209, 1985 c 387. 85-21-080 (Order 85-30), 296-65-030, filed 10/22/85.]

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