WSR 98-02-030

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[Filed December 31, 1997, 11:18 a.m.]

Date of Adoption: December 31, 1997.

Purpose: Chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards, state-initiated amendments to WAC 296-62-07347 and 296-62-07354 for inorganic arsenic and to WAC 296-62-20017, 296-62-20027, and 296-62-20029 for coke oven emissions eliminate sputum cytology examinations and require annual rather than semiannual chest x-rays. On July 22, 1996, OSHA announced its intention to make these changes based on their review of the medical data (Federal Register Volume 61, pages 37849-37865). In response, the department issued WISHA Interim Interpretive Memorandum #97-2-C on February 28, 1997, which instructed staff not to enforce the requirements in question. The amendments adopted eliminate obsolete sputum cytology requirements, reduce unnecessary health risks associated with semiannual chest x-rays, and eliminate the need for separate policy guidance by accurately reflecting the current department enforcement practices in chapter 296-62 WAC. The amendments reduce compliance requirements.

amended sections


WAC 296-62-07347 Inorganic arsenic, state-initiated amendments to medical surveillance and recordkeeping:

Eliminate sputum cytology examination requirements,

Change the chest x-ray requirements from semiannually to annually for certain employees, and

Eliminate recordkeeping requirement for cytological examination slides.

WAC 296-62-07354 Appendices--Inorganic arsenic, state-initiated amendments:

Eliminate sputum cytology examination requirements,

Change the chest x-ray requirements from semiannually to annually for certain employees, and

Eliminate procedures for collecting sputum and other diagnostic medical information related to sputum cytology.

WAC 296-62-20017 Medical surveillance in Part O coke oven emissions, state-initiated amendments:

Eliminate sputum cytology examination requirements and

Change the chest x-ray requirements from semiannually to annually for certain employees.

WAC 296-62-20027 Appendix A--Coke oven emissions substances information sheet, state-initiated amendments:

Eliminate sputum cytology examination requirements and

Change the chest x-ray requirements from semiannually to annually for certain employees.

WAC 296-62-20029 Appendix B--Industrial hygiene and medical surveillance guidelines in Part O coke oven emissions, state-initiated amendments:

Eliminate sputum cytology examination requirements,

Change the chest x-ray requirements from semiannually to annually for certain employees, and

Eliminate procedures for collecting sputum and other diagnostic medical information related to sputum cytology.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending 5 [WAC 296-62-07347, 296-62-07354, 296-62-20017, 296-62-20027, and 296-62-20029].

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 97-21-040 on October 10, 1997.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, amended 5, repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's own Initiative: New 0, amended 5, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, amended 5, repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, amended 0, repealed 0.

Effective Date of Rule: Thirty-one days after filing.

December 31, 1997

Gary Moore

Director

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07347 Inorganic arsenic. (1) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.

(2) Definitions.

(a) "Action level" - a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 g/m3) averaged over any eight-hour period.

(b) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (5) of this section.

(c) "Director" - the director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her designated representative.

(d) "Inorganic arsenic" - copper aceto-arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(3) Permissible exposure limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 g/m3), averaged over any eight-hour period.

(4) Notification of use.

(a) By October 1, 1978, or within sixty days after the introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer who is required to establish a regulated area in his/her workplaces shall report in writing to the department of labor and industries for each such workplace:

(i) The address of each such workplace;

(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulated areas; and

(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and the actions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.

(b) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by subsection (4)(a) of this section, the employer shall report the changes in writing within sixty days to the department of labor and industries.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight-hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic arsenic to which employees may be exposed.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subsection (5)(d) of this section.

(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.

(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below the permissible exposure limit the employee shall repeat monitoring at least every six months.

(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in subsection (5)(d) of this section occur.

(d) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (5) of this section shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposures.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(f) Accuracy of measurement.

(i) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 g/m3.

(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5 g/m3 but less than 10 g/m3.

(6) Regulated area.

(a) Establishment. The employer shall establish regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.

(b) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.

(c) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto to enter such areas.

(d) Provision of respirators. All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (8)(b) of this section.

(e) Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that in regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsection (12) of this section. Drinking water may be consumed in the regulated area.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Controls.

(i) The employer shall institute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979, engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in accordance with subsection (8) of this section and other necessary personal protective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy before respiratory protection is instituted.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary to meet the permissible exposure limit;

(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit with engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, the employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee exposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

(i) During the time period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work practice controls;

(ii) In work operations such as maintenance and repair activities in which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) In work situations in which engineering controls and supplemental work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; or

(iv) In emergencies.

(b) Respirator selection.

(i) Where respirators are required under this section the employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, or Table II for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vapor pressure.

(ii) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gasses such as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employee as permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filter with an appropriate gas sorbent. (See footnote in Table I)

table i

respiratory protection for inorganic arsenic particulate except for those with significant vapor pressure

Concentration of Inorganic

Arsenic (as As) or Condition

of Use Required Respirator

(i) Unknown or greater or lesser (A) Any full facepiece

than 20,000 g/m3 (20 mg/m3) self-contained or

firefighting. breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.

(ii) Not greater than 20,000 (A) Supplied air respirator

g/m3 (20 mg/m3) with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.

(iii) Not greater than 10,000 (A) Powered air-purifying

g/m3 (10 mg/m3) respirators in all inlet face coverings with high-efficiency filters.1

(B) Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode.

(iv) Not greater than 500 g/m3 (A) Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1

(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.

(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

(v) Not greater than 100 g/m3 (A) Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1

(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.



1 High-efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

table ii

respiratory protection for inorganic arsenicals (such as arsenic trichloride2 and arsenic phosphide) with significant vapor pressure

Concentration of Inorganic

Arsenic (as As) or Condition

of Use Required Respirator

(i) Unknown or greater or lesser (A) Any full facepiece

than 20,000 g/m3(20 mg/m3) contained breathing

or firefighting. apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.

(ii) Not greater than 20,000 (A) Supplied air respirator

g/m3(20 mg/m3) with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.

(iii) Not greater than 10,000 (A) Half-mask2 supplied

g/m3(10 mg/m3) air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.

(iv) Not greater than 500 g/m3 (A) Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas canister.

(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.

(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

(v) Not greater than 100 g/m3 (A) Half-mask2 air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas cartridge.

(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.



1 High efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

2 Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.

(iii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against dust, fume, and mist by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(c) Respirator usage.

(i) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.

(iii) Employers with more than twenty employees wearing respirators shall perform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I or II.

(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(d) Respirator program.

(i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(e) Commencement of respirator use.

(i) The employer's obligation to provide respirators commences on August 1, 1978, for employees exposed over 500 g/m3 of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later than October 1, 1978, for employees exposed to over 50 g/m3 of inorganic arsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978, for employees exposed between 10 and 50 g/m3 of inorganic arsenic.

(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 g/m3 of inorganic arsenic may choose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.

(iii) After December 1, 1978, any employee required to wear air purifying respirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if it will give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and in addition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for times where exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.

(9) Reserved.

(10) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use. Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;

(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye irritation, which comply with the requirements of WAC 296-24-07801 (1) - (6).

(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic trichloride.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in subsection (10)(a) of this section in a freshly laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works in areas where exposures are over 100 g/m3 of inorganic arsenic or in areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.

(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by subsection (10)(a) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful affects including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed from the workplace are labeled as follows:

Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.

(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.

(b) Cleaning floors. Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(c) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic into the workplace.

(d) Housekeeping plan. A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection equipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the director.

(e) Maintenance of equipment. Periodic cleaning of dust collection and ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.

(12) Reserved.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-24-12011.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009(3).

(c) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(d) Lavatories. The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-24-12009 (1) and (2).

(e) Vacuuming clothes. The employer shall provide facilities for employees working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds 100 g/m3 to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower rooms required by subsection (10) of this section and shall assure that such employees use such facilities.

(f) Avoidance of skin irritation. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the following employees:

(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, at least thirty days per year; and

(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without regard to respirator use, for thirty days or more per year for a total of ten years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. The determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls utilized and materials used by that employer.

(ii) Examination by physician. The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(b) Initial examinations. By December 1, 1978, for employees initially covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed over the action level at least thirty days per year, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.

(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:

(A) A 14" by 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(B) A nasal and skin examination; and

(C) ((A sputum cytology examination; and

(D))) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (14)(b)(i) and (14)(b)(ii)(A), (B) and (((D))) (C) of this section at least annually for covered employees who are under forty-five years of age with fewer than ten years of exposure over the action level without regard to respirator use.

(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (14)(b)(i) and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section at least semi-annually for other covered employees.

(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified in subsection (14)(b)(i) and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section within six months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(d) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(e) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(f) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that those employees participate in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978 for employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least quarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at least annually for other covered employees thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;

(D) The purpose and a description of medical surveillance program as required by subsection (14) of this section;

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment; and

(F) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas bearing the legend:

danger

inorganic arsenic

cancer hazard

authorized personnel only

no smoking or eating

respirator required

(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Labels. The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shipping and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing inorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure to inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass.) The label shall bear the following legend:

danger

contains inorganic arsenic

cancer hazard

harmful if inhaled or

swallowed

use only with adequate

ventilation

or respiratory protection

(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (14) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;

(C) The initial x-ray;

(D) The x-rays for the most recent five years;

(E) Any x-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent x-rays; and

(F) ((The initial cytologic examination slide and written description;

(G) The cytologic examination slide and written description for the most recent five years; and

(H))) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if such atypia persists for three years, and all subsequent slides and written descriptions.

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment, plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209 and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.

(iii) The employer shall make available upon request an employee's medical records and exposure records representative of that employee's exposure required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician designated by the affected employee or former employee.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if he requests them within that period.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenic performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

(19) Effective date. This standard shall become effective thirty days after filing with the code reviser.

(20) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

(21) Startup dates.

(a) General. The startup dates of requirements of this standard shall be the effective date of this standard unless another startup date is provided for, either in other subsections of this section or in this subsection.

(b) Monitoring. Initial monitoring shall be commenced by August 1, 1978, and shall be completed by September 15, 1978.

(c) Regulated areas. Regulated areas required to be established as a result of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after the results of that monitoring is known and no later than October 1, 1978.

(d) Compliance program. The written program required by subsection (7)(b) as a result of initial monitoring shall be made available for inspection and copying as soon as possible and no later than December 1, 1978.

(e) Hygiene and lunchroom facilities. Construction plans for change-rooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed no later than December 1, 1978, and these facilities shall be constructed and in use no later than July 1, 1979. However, if as part of the compliance plan it is predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls and work practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit by December 31, 1979, for affected employees, then such facilities need not be completed until one year after the engineering controls are completed or December 31, 1980, whichever is earlier, if such controls have not in fact succeeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.

(f) Summary of startup dates set forth elsewhere in this standard.

startup dates

August 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 500 g/m3.

as soon as possible but no later than

September 15, 1978 - Completion of initial monitoring.

October 1, 1978 - Complete establishment of regulated areas. Respirator use for employees exposed above 50 g/m3. Completion of initial training. Notification of use.

December 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 10 g/m3. Completion of initial medical. Completion of compliance plan. Optional use of powered air-purifying respirators.

July 1, 1979 - Completion of lunch rooms and hygiene facilities.

December 31, 1979 - Completion of engineering controls.

All other requirements of the standard have as their startup date August 1, 1978.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-62-07347, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-62-07347, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), 296-62-07347, filed 7/27/81; 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), 296-62-07347, filed 7/31/79; 79-02-037 (Order 79-1), 296-62-07347, filed 1/23/79.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 90-14, filed 10/1/90, effective 11/15/90)

WAC 296-62-07354 Appendices--Inorganic arsenic. The information in Appendices A, B, and C is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by WAC 296-62-07347 nor detract from existing obligation.

(1) Appendix A--Inorganic arsenic substance information sheet.

(a) Substance identification.

(i) Substance. Inorganic arsenic.

(ii) Definition. Copper acetoarsenite, arsenic and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(iii) Permissible exposure limit. Ten micrograms per cubic meter of air as determined as an average over an 8 hour period. No employee may be exposed to any skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride or to skin or eye contact likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(iv) Regulated areas. Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area.

(b) Health hazard data.

(i) Comments. The health hazard of inorganic arsenic is high.

(ii) Ways in which the chemical affects your body. Exposure to airborne concentrations of inorganic arsenic may cause lung cancer, and can be a skin irritant. Inorganic arsenic may also affect your body if swallowed. One compound in particular, arsenic trichloride, is especially dangerous because it can be absorbed readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly prior to eating or smoking.

(c) Personal protective equipment and clothing.

(i) Respirators. Respirators will be provided by the employer at no cost to employees for routine use if the employer is in the process of implementing engineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or insufficient. Respirators must be worn for nonroutine activities or in emergency situations where there is likely to be exposure to levels of inorganic arsenic in excess of the permissible exposure limit. Since how well the respirator fits is very important, the employer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator seals properly when worn. These tests are simple and rapid and will be explained during training sessions.

(ii) Protective clothing. If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide at no cost to employees, and it must be worn, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment. The purpose of this equipment is to prevent the employee from taking home arsenic-contaminated dust and to protect the body from repeated skin contact with inorganic arsenic likely to cause skin irritation. This clothing shall include such items as coveralls or similar full-body clothing, gloves, shoes or coverlets, and aprons. Protective equipment should include face shields or vented goggles, where eye irritation may occur.

(d) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(i) The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide lunchrooms or other areas for these purposes.

(ii) If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. The employer shall ensure that employees wash faces and hands before eating and shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of change rooms without the employer's permission. The employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of the protective clothing.

(e) Signs and labels. The employer is required to post warning signs and labels for employee protection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn that a cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter the area, and that no smoking or eating is allowed, and that respirators must be worn.

(f) Medical examinations. If exposure to arsenic is over the action level (5 g/m3) (including all persons working in regulated areas) at least 30 days per year, or employees have been exposed to arsenic for more than 10 years over the action level, the employer is required to provide employees with a medical examination. The examination shall be every 6 months for employees over 45 years old or with more than 10 years exposure over the action level and annually for other covered employees. The medical examination must include a medical history; a chest x-ray (annual requirement only); skin examination; and nasal examination((, and sputum cytology exam for the early detection of lung cancer. The cytology exams are only included in the initial exam and examinations given after employees are either 45 years or older or have 10 or more years employment over the action level)). The examining physician will provide a written opinion to the employer containing the results of the medical exams. Employees should also receive a copy of this opinion. The physician must not tell the employer any conditions he detects unrelated to occupational exposure to arsenic but must tell employees those conditions.

(g) Observation of monitoring. The employer is required to monitor employee exposure to arsenic and employees or their representatives are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. Employees are entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, employees must also be provided with and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.

(h) Access to records. Employees or their representatives are entitled to records of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic upon request to the employer. Employee medical examination records can be furnished to employees' physician if employees request the employer to provide them.

(i) Training and notification. Additional information on all of these items plus training as to hazards of exposure to inorganic arsenic and the engineering and work practice controls associated with employees' jobs will also be provided by the employer. If employees are exposed over the permissible exposure limit, the employer must inform employees of that fact and the actions to be taken to reduce employee exposure.

(2) Appendix B--Substance technical guidelines. Arsenic, arsenic trioxide, arsenic trichloride (3 examples)

(a) Physical and chemical properties

(i) Arsenic (metal)

(A) Formula: As

(B) Appearance: Gray metal

(C) Melting point: Sublimes without melting at 613C

(D) Specific gravity: (H20=1):5.73.

(E) Solubility in water: Insoluble

(ii) Arsenic trioxide

(A) Formula: As203, (As406).

(B) Appearance: White powder

(C) Melting point: 315C

(D) Specific gravity: (H20=1):3.74

(E) Solubility in water: 3.7 grams in 100cc of water at 20C

(iii) Arsenic trichloride (liquid)(Trichloride)

(A) Formula: AsCL3

(B) Appearance: Colorless or pale yellow liquid

(C) Melting point: -8.5C

(D) Boiling point: 130.2C

(E) Specific gravity (1120=1)2:16 at 20C

(F) Vapor Pressure: 10mm Hg at 23.5C.

(G) Solubility in water: Decomposes in water.

(b) Fire, explosion, and reactivity data.

(i) Fire: Arsenic trioxide and arsenic trichloride are nonflammable.

(ii) Reactivity:

(A) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat.

(B) Incompatibility: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.

(c) Monitoring and measurement procedures.

(i) Samples collected should be full shift (at least 7 hours) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size membrane filter (37mm diameter). Volatile arsenicals such as arsenic trichloride can be most easily collected in a midget bubbler filled with 15 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH.

(ii) The method of sampling and analysis should have an accuracy of not less than 25 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 g/m3) and 35 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for concentrations of inorganic arsenic between 5 and 10 g/m3.

(3) Appendix C--Medical surveillance guidelines.

(a) General.

(i) Medical examinations are to be provided for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic above the action level (5 g/m3) for at least 30 days per year (which would include among others, all employees, who work in regulated areas). Examinations are also to be provided to all employees who have had 10 years or more exposure above the action level for more than 30 days per year while working for the present or predecessor employer though they may no longer be exposed above the level.

(ii) An initial medical examination is to be provided to all such employees by December 1, 1978. In addition, an initial medical examination is to be provided to all employees who are first assigned to areas in which worker exposure will probably exceed 5 g/m3 (after the effective date of this standard) at the time of initial assignment. In addition to its immediate diagnostic usefulness the initial examination will provide a baseline for comparing future test results. The initial examination must include as a minimum the following elements:

(A) A work and medical history, including a smoking history, and presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;

(B) A 14-inch by 17-inch posterior-anterior chest x-ray and an International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(C) A nasal and skin examination; and

(D) ((A sputum cytology examination; and

(E))) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

(iii) Periodic examinations are also to be provided to the employees listed above. The periodic examinations shall be given annually for those covered employees 45 years of age or less with fewer than 10 years employment in areas where employee exposure exceeds the action level (5 g/m3). Periodic examinations need ((not)) to include ((sputum cytology and only an updated medical history is required)) an updated work history and medical history; chest x-ray; nasal and skin examinations; and other examinations which the physician believes appropriate.

(iv) Periodic examinations for other covered employees, shall be provided every 6 months. These examinations shall include ((all tests required in the initial examination, except that the)) an updated work history and medical history ((need only be updated)); nasal and skin examinations; and other examinations which the physician believes appropriate.

(v) The examination contents are minimum requirements. Additional tests such as lateral and oblique x-rays or pulmonary function tests may be useful. For workers exposed to 3 arsenicals, copper acetoarsenite, potassium arsenite, or sodium arsenite, which are associated with lymphatic cancer, the examination should also include palpation of superficial lymph nodes and complete blood count.

(b) Noncarcinogenic effects.

(i) The WISHA standard is based on minimizing risk of exposed workers dying of lung cancer from exposure to inorganic arsenic. It will also minimize skin cancer from such exposures.

(ii) The following three sections quoted from "Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition," Revised Edition, June 1977, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is included to provide information on the nonneoplastic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Such effects should not occur if the WISHA standards are followed.

(A) Local--Trivalent arsenic compounds are corrosive to the skin. Brief contact has no effect but prolonged contact results in a local hyperemia and later vesicular or pustular eruption. The moist mucous membranes are most sensitive to the irritant action. Conjunctiva, moist and macerated areas of skin, the eyelids, the angles of the ears, nose, mouth, and respiratory mucosa are also vulnerable to the irritant effects. The wrists are common sites of dermatitis, as are the genitalia if personal hygiene is poor. Perforations of the nasal septum may occur. Arsenic trioxide and pentoxide are capable of producing skin sensitization and contact dermatitis. Arsenic is also capable of producing keratoses, especially of the palms and soles.

(B) Systemic.

(I) The acute toxic effects of arsenic are generally seen following ingestion of inorganic arsenial compounds. This rarely occurs in an industrial setting. Symptoms develop within 1/2 to 4 hours following ingestion and are usually characterized by constriction of the throat followed by dysphagia, epigastric pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Blood may appear in vomitus and stools. If the amount ingested is sufficiently high, shock may develop due to severe fluid loss, and death may ensue in 24 hours. If the acute effects are survived, exfoliative dermatitis and peripheral neuritis may develop.

(II) Cases of acute arsenical poisoning due to inhalation are exceedingly rare in industry. When it does occur, respiratory tract symptoms - cough, chest pain, dyspnea - giddiness, headache, and extreme general weakness precede gastrointestinal symptoms. The acute toxic symptoms of trivalent arsenical poisoning are due to severe inflammation of the mucous membranes and greatly increased permeability of the blood capillaries.

(III) Chronic arsenical poisoning due to ingestion is rare and generally confined to patients taking prescribed medications. However, it can be a concomitant of inhaled inorganic arsenic from swallowed sputum and improper eating habits. Symptoms are weight loss, nausea and diarrhea alternating with constipation, pigmentation and eruption of the skin, loss of hair, and peripheral neuritis. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis have been described. Polyneuritis may be the salient feature, but more frequently there are numbness and parasthenias of "glove and stocking" distribution. The skin lesions are usually melanotic and keratotic and may occasionally take the form of an intradermal cancer of the squamous cell type, but without infiltrative properties. Horizontal white lines (striations) on the fingernails and toenails are commonly seen in chronic arsenical poisoning and are considered to be a diagnostic accompaniment of arsenical polyneuritis.

(IV) Inhalation of inorganic arsenic compounds is the most common cause of chronic poisoning in the industrial situation. This condition is divided into three phases based on signs and symptoms.

(V) First phase: The worker complains of weakness, loss of appetite, some nausea, occasional vomiting, a sense of heaviness in the stomach, and some diarrhea.

(VI) Second phase: The worker complains of conjunctivitis, a catarrhal state of the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, and respiratory passage. Coryza, hoarseness, and mild tracheobronchitis may occur. Perforation of the nasal septum is common, and is probably the most typical lesion of the upper respiratory tract in occupational exposure to arsenical dust. Skin lesions, eczematoid and allergic in type, are common.

(VII) Third phase: The worker complains of symptoms of peripheral neuritis, initially of hands and feet, which is essentially sensory. In more severe cases, motor paralyses occur; the first muscles affected are usually the toe extensors and the peronei. In only the most severe cases will paralysis of flexor muscles of the feet or of the extensor muscles of hands occur.

(VIII) Liver damage from chronic arsenical poisoning is still debated, and as yet the question is unanswered. In cases of chronic and acute arsenical poisoning, toxic effects to the myocardium have been reported based on EKG changes. These findings, however, are now largely discounted and the EKG changes are ascribed to electrolyte disturbances concomitant with arsenicalism. Inhalation of arsenic trioxide and other inorganic arsenical dusts does not give rise to radiological evidence or pneumoconiosis. Arsenic does have a depressant effect upon the bone marrow, with disturbances of both erythropoiesis and myclopoiesis.

(4) Bibliography:

Dinman, B. D. 1960. Arsenic; Chronic Human Intoxication. Journal Occupational Medicine 2:137.

Elkins, H.B. 1959. The Chemistry of Industrial Toxicology, Second Edition. John Wiley and sons, New York.

Holquist, L. 1951. Occupational Arsenical Dermatitis; A Study Among Employees at a Copper-Ore Smelting Works Including Investigations of Skin Reactions to Contact with Arsenic Compounds. Acta. Derm. Venereol. (Supplement 26) 31:1.

Pinto, S. S., and C. M. McGill. 1953. Arsenic Trioxide Exposure in Industry. Ind. Med. Surg. 22:281.

Pinto, S. S., and K. W. Nelson. 1976. Arsenic Toxicology and Industrial Exposure, Annu. Rev. Paramacol. Toxicol. 16:95.

Vallee, B. L., Ulmer, D. D., and W. E. C. Wacker. 1960. Arsenic Toxicology and Biochemistry. AMA Arch. Indust. Health 21:132.

(((5) Sputum cytology.

(a) Sputum can be collected by aerosol inhalation during the medical exam or by spontaneous early morning cough at home. Sputum is induced by transoral inhalation of an aerosolized solution of 8 percent sodium chloride in water. After inhaling as few as 3 to 5 breaths, the subject usually yields an adequate sputum. All sputum should be collected directly into 60 percent alcohol.

(b) Scientific evidence suggests that chest x-rays and sputum cytology should be used together as screening tests for lung tests for lung cancer in high risk populations such as workers exposed to inorganic arsenic. The tests are to be performed every 6 months on workers who are 45 years of age or older or have worked in the regulated area for 10 or more years. Since the tests seem to be complementary, it may be advantageous to alternate the test procedures. For instance, chest x-rays could be obtained in June and December and sputum cytologies could be obtained in March and September. Facilities for providing necessary diagnostic investigation should be readily available as well as chest physicians, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, and immunotherapists to provide any necessary treatment services.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 90-20-091 (Order 90-14), 296-62-07354, filed 10/1/90, effective 11/15/90.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 77-14, filed 7/25/77)

WAC 296-62-20017 Medical surveillance. (1) General requirements.

(a) Each employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are employed in the regulated areas at least 30 days per year.

(b) This program shall provide each employee covered under subsection (1)(a) of this section with an opportunity for medical examinations in accordance with this section.

(c) The employer shall inform any employee who refuses any required medical examination of the possible health consequences of such refusal and shall obtain a signed statement from the employee indicating that the employee understands the risk involved in the refusal to be examined.

(d) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and are provided without cost to the employee.

(2) Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment to a regulated area or upon the institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide a medical examination including at least the following elements:

(a) A work history and medical history which shall include smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms, such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;

(b) A 14" x 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and International Labour Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(c) Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV 1.0) with recording of type of equipment used;

(d) Weight;

(e) A skin examination;

(f) Urinalysis for sugar, albumin, and hematuria; and

(g) ((A sputum cytology examination; and

(h))) A urinary cytology examination.

(3) Periodic examinations.

(a) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (2)(a)-(f) of this section at least annually for employees covered under subsection (1)(a) of this section.

(b) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsection (2)(a)((-(h))) and (c)-(g) of this section at least semi-annually for employees 45 years of age or older or with five or more years employment in the regulated area.

(c) Whenever an employee who is 45 years of age or older or with five or more years employment in the regulated area transfers or is transferred from employment in a regulated area, the employer shall continue to provide the examinations specified in subsections (2)(a)((-(h))) and (c)-(g) of this section semi-annually, as long as that employee is employed by the same employer or a successor employer.

(d) Whenever an employee has not taken the examination specified in subsections (3)(a)-(c) of this section within the six months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(4) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(a) A copy of this regulation and its Appendixes;

(b) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(c) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(d) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(e) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(5) Physician's written opinion.

(a) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(i) The results of the medical examinations;

(ii) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to coke oven emissions;

(iii) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to coke oven emissions or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and

(iv) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further explanation or treatment.

(b) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(c) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

[Order 77-14, 296-62-20017, filed 7/25/77.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 77-14, filed 7/25/77)

WAC 296-62-20027 Appendix A--Coke oven emissions substance information sheet.

appendix a

coke oven emissions

substance information sheet

i. substance identification

(1) Substance: Coke oven emissions

(2) Definition: The benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter present during the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal for the production of coke.

(3) Permissible exposure limit: 150 micrograms per cubic meter of air determined as an average over an 8-hour period.

(4) Regulated areas: Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area. The employer is required to designate the following areas as regulated areas: the coke oven battery, including topside and its machinery, pushside and its machinery, and the screening station; and the wharf, the beehive ovens and machinery.

ii. health hazard data

Exposure to coke oven emissions is a cause of lung cancer, and possibly kidney cancer, in humans. Although it does not have an excess number of skin cancer cases in humans, repeated skin contact with coke oven emissions should be avoided.

iii. protective clothing and equipment

(1) Respirators: Respirators will be provided by your employer for routine use if your employer is in the process of implementing engineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or insufficient. You must wear respirators for nonroutine activities or in emergency situations where you are likely to be exposed to levels of coke oven emissions in excess of the permissible exposure limit. Until January 20, 1978, the routine wearing of respirators is voluntary. Until that date, if you choose not to wear a respirator you do not have to do so. You must still have your respirator with you and you must still wear it if you are near visible emissions. Since how well your respirator fits your face is very important, your employer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator seals properly when you wear it. These tests are simple and rapid and will be explained to you during your training sessions.

(2) Protective clothing: Your employer is required to provide, and you must wear, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment to protect your body from repeated skin contact with coke oven emissions and from the heat generated during the coking process. This clothing should include such items as jacket and pants and flame resistant gloves. Protective equipment should include face shield or vented goggles, protective helmets and safety shoes, insulated from hot surfaces where appropriate.

iv. hygiene facilities and practices

You must not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. Your employer is required to provide lunchrooms and other areas for these purposes.

Your employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. If you work in a regulated area, you must wash your face, and hands before eating. You must shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of the change rooms without your employer's permission. Your employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of your protective clothing.

v. signs and labels

Your employer is required to post warning signs and labels for your protection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn that a cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter the area, and that no smoking or eating is allowed. In regulated areas where coke oven emissions are above the permissible exposure limit, the signs should also warn that respirators must be worn.

vi. medical examinations

If you work in a regulated area at least 30 days per year, your employer is required to provide you with a medical examination every year. The medical examination must include a medical history, a chest x-ray; pulmonary function test; weight comparison; skin examination; a urinalysis and a urine ((and sputum)) cytology exam for the early detection of urinary or lung cancer. ((The cytology exams are only included in the initial exam until you are either 45 years or older or have 5 or more years employment in the regulated areas when the medical exams including these tests are to be given every 6 months.)) When you are either 45 years or older or have 5 or more years employment in the regulated areas, medical examinations are required every 6 months and include an updated work history; an updated medical history; pulmonary function test; weight comparison; skin examination; a urinalysis; and a urine cytology exam. The examining physician will provide a written opinion to your employer containing the results of the medical exams. You should also receive a copy of this opinion.

vii. observation of monitoring

Your employer is required to monitor your exposure to coke oven emissions and you are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you must also be provided with and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.

viii. access to records

You or your representative are entitled to records of your exposure to coke oven emissions upon request to your employer. Your medical examination records can be furnished to your physician upon request to your employer.

ix. training and education

Additional information on all of these items plus training as to hazards of coke oven emissions and the engineering and work practice controls associated with your job will also be provided by your employer.

[Order 77-14, Appendix A (codified as WAC 296-62-20027), filed 7/25/77.]

AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 77-14, filed 7/25/77)

WAC 296-62-20029 Appendix B--Industrial hygiene and medical surveillance guidelines.

appendix b

industrial hygiene and medical

surveillance guidelines

i. industrial hygiene guidelines

(1) Sampling. (Benzene-Soluble Fraction Total Particulate Matter.)

Samples collected should be full shift (8-hour) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump with pulsation damper at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size silver membrane filters (37 mm diameter) preceded by Gelman glass fiber type A filters encased in three-piece plastic (polystyrene) field monitor cassettes. The cassette face cap should be on and the plug removed. The rotameter should be checked every hour to ensure that proper flow rates are maintained.

A minimum of three full-shift samples should be collected for each job classification on each battery, at least one during and the night. If disparate results are obtained for particular job classification, sampling should be repeated. It is advisable to sample each shift on more than one day to account for environmental variables (wind, precipitation, etc.) which may affect sampling. Differences in exposures among different work shifts may indicate a need to improve work practices on a particular shift. Sampling results from different shifts for each job classification should not be averaged. Multiple samples from same shift may be used to calculate an average exposure for a particular job classification.

(2) Analysis.

(a) All extraction glassware is cleaned with dichromic acid cleaning solution, rinsed with tap water, then dionized water, acetone, and allowed to dry completely. The glassware is rinsed with nanograde benzene before use. The Teflon cups are cleaned with benzene then with acetone.

(b) Pre-weigh the 2 ml Perkin-Elmer Teflon cups to one hundredth of a milligram on a Perkin-Elmer autobalance AD 2 Tare weight of the cups is about 50 mg.

(c) Place the silver membrane filter and glass fiber filter into a 15 ml test tube.

(d) Extract with 5 ml of benzene for five minutes in an ultrasonic cleaner.

(e) Filter the extract in 15 ml medium glass fritted funnels.

(f) Rinse test tube and filters with two 1.5 ml aliquots of benzene and filter through the fritted glass funnel.

(g) Collect the extract and two rinses in a 10 ml Kontes graduated evaporative concentrator.

(h) Evaporate down to a 1 ml while rinsing the sides with benzene.

(i) Pipet 0.5 ml into the Teflon cup and evaporate to dryness in a vacuum oven at 40 C for 3 hours.

(j) Weight the Teflon cup and the weight gain is due to the benzene soluble residue in half the sample.

ii. medical surveillance guidelines

(1) General.

The minimum requirements for the medical examination for coke oven workers are given in WAC 296-62-20017.

The initial examination is to be provided to all coke oven workers at the time of the initial assignment to a job in the regulated area. The examination includes a 14" x 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and a ILO/UC rating to assure some standardization of x-ray reading, pulmonary function tests (FVC and FEV 1.0), weight, urinalysis, skin examination and a sputum and urinary cytologic examination. These tests are to serve as the baseline for comparing the employee's future test results. Periodic exams ((include all the elements of the initial exams except that the cytologic tests)) are to be performed semiannually only on those employees who are 45 years of age or older or who have worked for 5 or more years in the regulated area((; periodic exams are to be performed semi-annually for this group instead of annually)) and include an updated work history; an updated medical history; pulmonary function test; weight comparison; skin examination; a urinalysis; and a urine cytology exam. The examination contents are minimum requirements, additional tests such as lateral and oblique x-rays or additional pulmonary function tests may be performed if deemed necessary.

(2) Pulmonary function tests.

Pulmonary function tests should be performed in a manner which minimizes subject and operator bias. There has been shown to be learning effects with regard to the results obtained from certain tests, such as FEV 1.0. Best results can be obtained by multiple trials for each subject. The best of three trials or the average of the last three of five trials may be used in obtaining reliable results. The type of equipment used (manufacturer, model, etc.) should be recorded with the results as reliability and accuracy varies and such information may be important in the evaluation of test results. Care should be exercised to obtain the best possible testing equipment.

(((3) Sputum cytology.

Sputum can be collected by aerosol inhalation during the medical exam or by spontaneous early morning cough at home. Sputum is induced by transoral inhalation of an aerosolized solution of eight per cent sodium chloride in water. After inhaling as few as three to five breaths the subject usually yields an adequate sputum specimen. A minimum of three samples should be collected by the subject at home. All sputum should be collected directly into sixty percent alcohol.

Scientific evidence suggests that chest x-rays and sputum cytology should be used together as screening tests for lung cancer in high risk populations, such as coke oven workers. The tests are to be performed every six months on workers who are 45 years of age or older or have worked in the regulated area for 5 or more years. Since the tests seem to be complementary, it may be advantageous to alternate the test procedures. For instance, chest x-rays could be obtained in June and December and sputum cytologys could be obtained in March and September. Facilities for providing necessary diagnostic investigation should be readily available as well as chest physicians, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, and immunotherapists to provide any necessary treatment services.))

[Order 77-14, Appendix B (codified as WAC 296-62-20029), filed 7/25/77.]

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