DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY
[Order 96-01--Filed July 16, 1997, 9:37 a.m.]
Preproposal statement of inquiry was filed as WSR 96-12-080.
Title of Rule: General Air Regulations: New source review.
Purpose: The purpose of these amendments are to clarify and streamline the review of new sources of air pollution and to identify de minimis new sources as required by the 1996 amendments to RCW 70.94.152.
Other Identifying Information: WAC 173-400-110.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 70.94.152.
Statute Being Implemented: Clean Air Act.
Summary: These rule changes identify de minimis equipment for the purposes of new source review. De minimis equipment are exempt from new source review and the requirement to install best available control technology (BACT).
Reasons Supporting Proposal: This rule will clarify and streamline the review process for new sources of air pollution saving both industry and agencies time and money. Further, the identification of de minimis new sources was required by the 1996 legislature in amendments to RCW 70.94.152.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Department of Ecology, Lacey, (360) 407-6892; Implementation and Enforcement: Ecology/local authorities, various.
Name of Proponent: Department of Ecology, governmental.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: This rule amends the new source review portion of the general air regulations to incorporate de minimis exemptions into the rule as required by the 1996 legislature. These changes will also streamline the new source review permitting process. Ecology anticipates that industry will save a substantial amount of time and money by not having to permit small air emission units. Also, ecology and those local air authorities that chose to use these exemptions will save a significant amount of staff time by not having to write permits for very small units.
Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: As WAC 173-400-110 is currently written it is not clear that there are any exemptions to new source review. These amendments will list both specific exempted equipment as well as emission thresholds that can be used to exempt other pieces of equipment. Other changes are made to WAC 173-400-110 to clarify the review process.
No small business economic impact statement has been prepared under chapter 19.85 RCW. The results of these amendments would all be positive in terms of their economic impact on small businesses. Further, because many of the exemptions created by this rule are based on emission rates (typically only small units are exempt from new source review) this rule will likely provide more exemptions to small businesses compared to larger businesses.
Section 201, chapter 403, Laws of 1995, applies to this rule adoption.
Hearing Location: On August 26, 1997, Vancouver Fire Station 88, 6701 N.E. 147, Vancouver, at 6:00 p.m.; on August 27, 1997, Department of Ecology, Northwest Regional Office, 3190 160th Avenue S.E., Room 1-C, Bellevue, at 2:00 p.m.; and on August 28, 1997, Spokane Library, West 906 Main, Spokane, at 6:00 p.m.
Assistance for Persons with Disabilities: Contact Pat Norman-Bailey by July 30, 1997, TDD (360) 407-6006, or (360) 407-6841.
Submit Written Comments to: Tony Warfield, Department of Ecology, Air Quality Program, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600, FAX (360) 407-6802, by September 5, 1997.
Date of Intended Adoption: October 24, 1997.
June 27, 1997
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 94-35, filed 9/13/96, effective
WAC 173-400-030 Definitions. Except as provided elsewhere in this chapter, the following definitions apply throughout the chapter:
(1) "Actual emissions" means the actual rate of emissions of a pollutant from an emission unit, as determined in accordance with (a) through (c) of this subsection.
(a) In general, actual emissions as of a particular date shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the emissions unit actually emitted the pollutant during a two-year period which precedes the particular date and which is representative of normal source operation. Ecology or an authority shall allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation. Actual emissions shall be calculated using the emissions unit's actual operating hours, production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period.
(b) Ecology or an authority may presume that source-specific allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual emissions of the emissions unit.
(c) For any emissions unit which has not begun normal operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal the potential to emit of the emissions unit on that date.
(2) "Adverse impact on visibility" means visibility impairment which interferes with the management, protection, preservation, or enjoyment of the visitor's visual experience of the Federal Class I area. This determination must be made on a case-by-case basis taking into account the geographic extent, intensity, duration, frequency, and time of visibility impairment, and how these factors correlate with (a) times of visitor use of the Federal Class I area, and (b) the frequency and timing of natural conditions that reduce visibility. This term does not include effects on integral vistas.
(3) "Air contaminant" means dust, fumes, mist, smoke, other particulate matter, vapor, gas, odorous substance, or any combination thereof. "Air pollutant" means the same as "air contaminant."
(4) "Air pollution" means the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more air contaminants in sufficient quantities, and of such characteristics and duration as is, or is likely to be, injurious to human health, plant or animal life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with enjoyment of life and property. For the purposes of this chapter, air pollution shall not include air contaminants emitted in compliance with chapter 17.21 RCW, the Washington Pesticide Application Act, which regulates the application and control of the use of various pesticides.
(5) "Allowable emissions" means the emission rate of a stationary source calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the stationary source (unless the stationary source is subject to federally enforceable limits which restrict the operating rate, or hours of operation, or both) and the most stringent of the following:
(a) The applicable standards as set forth in 40 CFR Part 60 or 61;
(b) Any applicable state implementation plan emissions limitation including those with a future compliance date; or
(c) The emissions rate specified as a federally enforceable permit condition, including those with a future compliance date.
(6) "Ambient air" means the surrounding outside air.
(7) "Ambient air quality standard" means an established concentration, exposure time, and frequency of occurrence of air contaminant(s) in the ambient air which shall not be exceeded.
(8) "Authority" means any air pollution control agency whose jurisdictional boundaries are coextensive with the boundaries of one or more counties.
(9) "Begin actual construction" means, in general, initiation of physical on-site construction activities on an emission unit which are of a permanent nature. Such activities include, but are not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying underlayment pipe work and construction of permanent storage structures. With respect to a change in method of operations, this term refers to those on-site activities other than preparatory activities which mark the initiation of the change.
(10) "Best available control technology (BACT)" means an emission limitation based on the maximum degree of reduction for each air pollutant subject to regulation under chapter 70.94 RCW emitted from or which results from any new or modified stationary source, which the permitting authority, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such source or modification through application of production processes and available methods, systems, and techniques, including fuel cleaning, clean fuels, or treatment or innovative fuel combustion techniques for control of each such pollutant. In no event shall application of the "best available control technology" result in emissions of any pollutants which will exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under 40 CFR Part 60 and Part 61, as they exist on March 1, 1996, or their later enactments as adopted by reference by the director by rule. Emissions from any source utilizing clean fuels, or any other means, to comply with this paragraph shall not be allowed to increase above levels that would have been required under the definition of BACT in the Federal Clean Air Act as it existed prior to enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
(10))) (11) "Best available retrofit technology (BART)" means an
emission limitation based on the degree of reduction achievable through
the application of the best system of continuous emission reduction for
each pollutant which is emitted by an existing stationary facility. The
emission limitation must be established, on a case-by-case basis, taking
into consideration the technology available, the costs of compliance, the
energy and nonair quality environmental impacts of compliance, any
pollution control equipment in use or in existence at the source, the
remaining useful life of the source, and the degree of improvement in
visibility which may reasonably be anticipated to result from the use of
(11))) (12) "Bubble" means a set of emission limits which allows
an increase in emissions from a given emissions unit(s) in exchange for
a decrease in emissions from another emissions unit(s), pursuant to RCW
70.94.155 and WAC 173-400-120.
(12))) (13) "Capacity factor" means the ratio of the average load
on equipment or a machine for the period of time considered, to the
manufacturer's capacity rating of the machine or equipment.
(13))) (14) "Class I area" means any area designated pursuant to
162 or 164 of the Federal Clean Air Act as a Class I area. The
following areas are the Class I areas in Washington state:
Alpine Lakes Wilderness;
Glacier Peak Wilderness;
Goat Rocks Wilderness;
Mount Adams Wilderness;
Mount Rainier National Park;
North Cascades National Park;
Olympic National Park;
Spokane Indian Reservation.
(14))) (15) "Combustion and incineration sources" means units
using combustion for waste disposal, steam production, chemical recovery
or other process requirements; but excludes open burning.
(15))) (16) "Commenced construction" means that the owner or
operator has all the necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and
(a) Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on-site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time; or
(b) Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be cancelled or modified without substantial loss to the owner or operator, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source to be completed within a reasonable time.
(16))) (17) "Concealment" means any action taken to reduce the
observed or measured concentrations of a pollutant in a gaseous effluent
while, in fact, not reducing the total amount of pollutant discharged.
(17))) (18) "Director" means director of the Washington state
department of ecology or duly authorized representative.
(18))) (19) "Dispersion technique" means a method which attempts
to affect the concentration of a pollutant in the ambient air other than
by the use of pollution abatement equipment or integral process pollution
(19))) (20) "Ecology" means the Washington state department of
(20))) (21) "Emission" means a release of air contaminants into
the ambient air.
(21))) (22) "Emission reduction credit (ERC)" means a credit
granted pursuant to WAC 173-400-131. This is a voluntary reduction in
(22))) (23) "Emission standard" and "emission limitation" means
a requirement established under the FCAA or chapter 70.94 RCW which
limits the quantity, rate, or concentration of emissions of air
contaminants on a continuous basis, including any requirement relating
to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission
reduction and any design, equipment work practice, or operational
standard promulgated under the FCAA or chapter 70.94 RCW.
(23))) (24) "Emissions unit" means any part of a stationary source
or source which emits or would have the potential to emit any pollutant
subject to regulation under the FCAA, chapter 70.94 or 70.98 RCW.
(24))) (25) "Excess emissions" means emissions of an air pollutant
in excess of any applicable emission standard.
(25))) (26) "Excess stack height" means that portion of a stack
which exceeds the greater of sixty-five meters or the calculated stack
height described in WAC 173-400-200(2).
(26))) (27) "Existing stationary facility" means a stationary
source of air pollutants which has the potential to emit two hundred
fifty tons per year or more of any air pollutant. In determining
potential to emit, fugitive emissions, to the extent quantifiable, must
be counted. For purposes of determining whether a stationary source is
an existing stationary facility the term "building, structure, facility,
or installation" means all of the pollutant-emitting activities which
belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more
contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same
person (or persons under common control). Pollutant-emitting activities
shall be considered as part of the same major group (i.e., which have the
same two digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual, 1972, as amended by the 1977 Supplement.
(27))) (28) "Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA)" means the Federal Clean
Air Act, also known as Public Law 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, December 17,
1963, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., as last amended by the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-549, November 15, 1990.
(28))) (29) "Federal land manager" means, with respect to any
lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with
authority over such lands.
(29))) (30) "Fossil fuel-fired steam generator" means a device,
furnace, or boiler used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the
primary purpose of producing steam by heat transfer.
(30))) (31) "Fugitive dust" means a particulate emission made
airborne by forces of wind, man's activity, or both. Unpaved roads,
construction sites, and tilled land are examples of areas that originate
fugitive dust. Fugitive dust is a type of fugitive emission.
(31))) (32) "Fugitive emissions" means emissions which do not pass
and which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or
other functionally equivalent opening.
(32))) (33) "General process unit" means an emissions unit using
a procedure or a combination of procedures for the purpose of causing a
change in material by either chemical or physical means, excluding
(33))) (34) "Good engineering practice (GEP)" refers to a
calculated stack height based on the equation specified in WAC 173-400-200 (2)(a)(ii).
(34))) (35) "Incinerator" means a furnace used primarily for the
thermal destruction of waste.
(35))) (36) "In operation" means engaged in activity related to
the primary design function of the source.
(36))) (37) "Integral vista" means a view perceived from within
a mandatory Class I federal area of a specific landmark or panorama
located outside the boundary of the mandatory Class I federal area.
(37))) (38) "Lowest achievable emission rate (LAER)" means for any
source that rate of emissions which reflects the more stringent of:
(a) The most stringent emission limitation which is contained in the implementation plan of any state for such class or category of source, unless the owner or operator of the proposed new or modified source demonstrates that such limitations are not achievable; or
(b) The most stringent emission limitation which is achieved in practice by such class or category of source.
In no event shall the application of this term permit a proposed new or modified source to emit any pollutant in excess of the amount allowable under applicable new source performance standards.
(38))) (39) "Mandatory Class I federal area" means any area
defined in Section 162(a) of the FCAA. The mandatory Class I federal
areas in Washington state are as follows:
Alpine Lakes Wilderness;
Glacier Peak Wilderness;
Goat Rocks Wilderness;
Mount Adams Wilderness;
Mount Rainier National Park;
North Cascades National Park;
Olympic National Park;
(39))) (40) "Major modification" means any physical change in or
change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would
result in a significant net emissions increase of any pollutant subject
to regulation under the FCAA. Any net emissions increase that is
considered significant for volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides
shall be considered significant for ozone. A physical change or change
in the method of operation shall not include:
(a) Routine maintenance, repair, and replacement;
(b) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of an order under Sections 2(a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Supply Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act;
(c) Use of an alternative fuel by reason of an order or rule under section 125 of the FCAA, 42 U.S.C. 7425;
(d) Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste;
(e) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source which:
(i) The stationary source was capable of accommodating before December 21, 1976, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 12, 1976, in a prevention of significant deterioration permit or notice of construction approval; or
(ii) The stationary source is approved to use under any federally-enforceable notice of construction approval or a PSD permit issued by the environmental protection agency;
(f) An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless such change is prohibited under any federally enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976, in a prevention of significant deterioration permit or a notice of construction approval;
(g) Any change in ownership at a stationary source.
(40))) (41) "Major stationary source" means:
(a) Any stationary source which:
(i) Emits or has the potential to emit one hundred tons per year or more of any air contaminant regulated by the state or Federal Clean Air Acts; or
(ii) Is located in a "marginal" or "moderate" ozone nonattainment area and which emits or has the potential to emit one hundred tons per year or more of volatile organic compounds or oxides of nitrogen.
(b) Any stationary source (or group of stationary sources) which:
(i) Is located in a "serious" carbon monoxide nonattainment area where stationary sources contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels and which emits or has the potential to emit fifty tons per year or more of carbon monoxide; or
(ii) Is located in a "serious" particulate matter (PM10) nonattainment area and which emits or has the potential to emit seventy tons per year or more of PM10 emissions.
(c) Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not qualifying under (a) or (b) of this subsection as a major stationary source, if the change would constitute a major stationary source by itself;
(d) A major stationary source that is major for VOCs or NOx shall be considered major for ozone;
(e) The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be included in determining whether it is a major stationary source, unless the stationary source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources or the source is a major stationary source due to (b) of this subsection:
(i) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers);
(ii) Kraft pulp mills;
(iii) Portland cements plants;
(iv) Primary zinc smelters;
(v) Iron and steel mills;
(vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;
(vii) Primary copper smelters;
(viii) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than two hundred fifty tons of refuse per day;
(ix) Hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants;
(x) Petroleum refineries;
(xi) Lime plants;
(xii) Phosphate rock processing plants;
(xiii) Coke oven batteries;
(xiv) Sulfur recovery plants;
(xv) Carbon black plants (furnace process);
(xvi) Primary lead smelters;
(xvii) Fuel conversion plants;
(xviii) Sintering plants;
(xix) Secondary metal production plants;
(xx) Chemical process plants;
(xxi) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than two hundred fifty million British thermal units per hour heat input;
(xxii) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding three hundred thousand barrels;
(xxiii) Taconite ore processing plants;
(xxiv) Glass fiber processing plants;
(xxv) Charcoal production plants;
(xxvi) Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than two hundred fifty million British thermal units per hour heat input; and
(xxvii) Any other stationary source category which, as of August 7, 1980, was being regulated under sections 111 or 112 of the Federal Clean Air Act.
(f) For purposes of determining whether a stationary source is a major stationary source, the term "building, structure, facility, or installation" means all the pollutant-emitting activities which belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control). Pollutant-emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they belong to the same major group (i.e., which have the same two digit code) as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, as amended by the 1977 Supplement.
(41))) (42) "Masking" means the mixing of a chemically nonreactive
control agent with a malodorous gaseous effluent to change the perceived
(42))) (43) "Materials handling" means the handling, transporting,
loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of materials with no
significant chemical or physical alteration.
(43))) (44) "Modification" means any physical change in, or change
in the method of operation of, a stationary source that increases the
amount of any air contaminant emitted by such source or that results in
the emissions of any air contaminant not previously emitted. The term
modification shall be construed consistent with the definitions of
modification in Section 7411, Title 42, United States Code, and with
rules implementing that section.
(44))) (45) "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAPS)" means the federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR
Parts 61 and 63.
(45))) (46) "Natural conditions" means naturally occurring
phenomena that reduce visibility as measured in terms of visual range,
contrast, or coloration.
(46))) (47) "Net emissions increase" means:
(a) The amount by which the sum of the following exceeds zero:
(i) Any increase in actual emissions from a particular change or change in method of operation at a source; and
(ii) Any other increases and decreases in actual emissions at the source that are contemporaneous with the particular change and are otherwise creditable.
(b) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if it occurs between the date ten years before construction on the particular change commences and the date that the increase from the particular change occurs.
(c) An increase or decrease in actual emissions is creditable only if:
(i) It occurred no more than one year prior to the date of submittal of a complete notice of construction application for the particular change, or it has been documented by an emission reduction credit, in which case the credit shall expire ten years after the date of original issue of the ERC. Any emissions increases occurring between the date of issuance of the ERC and the date when a particular change becomes operational shall be counted against the ERC.
(ii) Ecology or the authority has not relied on it in issuing any permit or order of approval for the source under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51 Subpart I or the EPA has not relied on it in issuing a PSD permit pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21, which order or permit is in effect when the increase in actual emissions from the particular change occurs.
(d) An increase in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that the new level of actual emissions exceeds the old level.
(e) A decrease in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that:
(i) The old level of actual emissions or the old level of allowable emissions, whichever is lower, exceeds the new level of actual emissions;
(ii) It is federally enforceable at and after the time that actual construction on the particular change begins;
(iii) It has approximately the same qualitative significance for public health and welfare as that attributed to the increase from the particular change; and
(iv) Ecology or the authority has not relied on it in issuing any permit or order of approval under regulations approved pursuant to 40 CFR 51 Subpart I, the EPA has not relied on it in issuing a PSD permit pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21, or ecology or the authority has not relied on it in demonstrating attainment or reasonable further progress.
(f) An increase that results from a physical change at a source occurs when the emission unit on which construction occurred becomes operational and begins to emit a particular pollutant. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown becomes operational only after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed one hundred eighty days.
(47))) (48) "New source" means:
(a) The construction or modification of a stationary source that increases the amount of any air contaminant emitted by such source or that results in the emission of any air contaminant not previously emitted; and
(b) Any other project that constitutes a new source under the Federal Clean Air Act.
(48))) (49) "New source performance standards (NSPS)" means the
federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR Part 60.
(49))) (50) "Nonattainment area" means a clearly delineated
geographic area which has been designated by EPA promulgation as
exceeding a national ambient air quality standard or standards for one
or more of the criteria pollutants.
(50))) (51) "Notice of construction application" means a written
application to permit construction of a new source, modification of an
existing stationary source or replacement or substantial alteration of
control technology at an existing stationary source.
(51))) (52) "Opacity" means the degree to which an object seen
through a plume is obscured, stated as a percentage.
(52))) (53) "Open burning" means the combustion of material in an
open fire or in an outdoor container, without providing for the control
of combustion or the control of the emissions from the combustion. Wood
waste disposal in wigwam burners is not considered open burning.
(53))) (54) "Order" means any order issued by ecology or a local
air authority pursuant to chapter 70.94 RCW, including, but not limited
to RCW 70.94.332, 70.94.152, 70.94.153, and 70.94.141(3), and includes,
where used in the generic sense, the terms order, corrective action
order, order of approval, and regulatory order.
(54))) (55) "Order of approval" or "approval order" means a
regulatory order issued by ecology or the authority to approve the notice
of construction application for a proposed new source or modification,
or the replacement or substantial alteration of control technology at an
existing stationary source.
(55))) (56) "Particulate matter" or "particulates" means any
airborne finely divided solid or liquid material with an aerodynamic
diameter smaller than 100 micrometers.
(56))) (57) "Particulate matter emissions" means all finely
divided solid or liquid material, other than uncombined water, emitted
to the ambient air as measured by applicable reference methods, or an
equivalent or alternative method specified in 40 CFR Part 60 or by a test
method specified in the Washington state implementation plan.
(57))) (58) "Parts per million (ppm)" means parts of a contaminant
per million parts of gas, by volume, exclusive of water or particulates.
(58))) (59) "Person" means an individual, firm, public or private
corporation, association, partnership, political subdivision,
municipality, or government agency.
(59))) (60) "PM-10" means particulate matter with an aerodynamic
diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers as measured by
a reference method based on 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix J and designated in
accordance with 40 CFR Part 53 or by an equivalent method designated in
accordance with 40 CFR Part 53.
(60))) (61) "PM-10 emissions" means finely divided solid or liquid
material, including condensible particulate matter, with an aerodynamic
diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers emitted to the
ambient air as measured by an applicable reference method, or an
equivalent or alternate method, specified in Appendix M of 40 CFR Part
51 or by a test method specified in the Washington state implementation
(61))) (62) "Potential to emit" means the maximum capacity of a
stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational
design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the
source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and
restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material
combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design
only if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is
federally enforceable. Secondary emissions do not count in determining
the potential to emit of a stationary source.
(62))) (63) "Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD)" means
the program set forth in WAC 173-400-141.
(63))) (64) "Projected width" means that dimension of a structure
determined from the frontal area of the structure, projected onto a plane
perpendicular to a line between the center of the stack and the center
of the building.
(64))) (65) "Reasonably attributable" means attributable by visual
observation or any other technique the state deems appropriate.
(65))) (66) "Reasonably available control technology (RACT)" means
the lowest emission limit that a particular source or source category is
capable of meeting by the application of control technology that is
reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility.
RACT is determined on a case-by-case basis for an individual source or
source category taking into account the impact of the source upon air
quality, the availability of additional controls, the emission reduction
to be achieved by additional controls, the impact of additional controls
on air quality, and the capital and operating costs of the additional
controls. RACT requirements for any source or source category shall be
adopted only after notice and opportunity for comment are afforded.
(66))) (67) "Regulatory order" means an order issued by ecology
or an authority to an air contaminant source which applies to that
source, any applicable provision of chapter 70.94 RCW, or the rules
adopted thereunder, or, for sources regulated by a local air authority,
the regulations of that authority.
(67))) (68) "Significant" means, in reference to a net emissions
increase or the potential of a source to emit any of the following
pollutants, a rate of emission equal to or greater than any one of the
Carbon monoxide 100
Nitrogen oxides 40
Sulfur dioxide 40
Particulate matter (PM) 25
Fine particulate matter (PM10) 15
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) 40
Sulfuric acid mist 7
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 10
Total reduced sulfur (including H2S) 10
Municipal waste combustor organics 0.0000035
(measured as total tetra-through octa-chlorinated
dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
Municipal waste combustor metals (measured as PM) 15
Municipal waste combustor acid gases (measured as
SO2 and hydrogen chloride) 40
(68))) (69) "Significant visibility impairment" means visibility
impairment which interferes with the management, protection,
preservation, or enjoyment of visitor visual experience of the Class I
area. The determination must be made on a case-by-case basis, taking
into account the geographic extent, intensity, duration, frequency, and
time of the visibility impairment, and how these factors correlate with
the time of visitor use of the Class I area and frequency and timing of
natural conditions that reduce visibility.
(69))) (70) "Source" means all of the emissions unit(s) including
quantifiable fugitive emissions, that are located on one or more
contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same
person or persons under common control, whose activities are ancillary
to the production of a single product or functionally related groups of
products. Activities shall be considered ancillary to the production of
a single product or functionally related group of products if they belong
to the same major group (i.e., which have the same two digit code) as
described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, as
amended by the 1977 Supplement.
(70))) (71) "Source category" means all sources of the same type
(71))) (72) "Stack" means any point in a source designed to emit
solids, liquids, or gases into the air, including a pipe or duct.
(72))) (73) "Stack height" means the height of an emission point
measured from the ground-level elevation at the base of the stack.
(73))) (74) "Standard conditions" means a temperature of 20C
(68F) and a pressure of 760 mm (29.92 inches) of mercury.
(74))) (75) "Stationary source" means any building, structure,
facility, or installation which emits or may emit any contaminant. This
term does not include emissions resulting directly from an internal
combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a nonroad engine
or nonroad vehicle as defined in Section 216 of the FCAA.
(75))) (76) "Sulfuric acid plant" means any facility producing
sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur,
alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acid sludge.
(76))) (77) "Synthetic minor" means any source whose potential to
emit has been limited below applicable thresholds by means of a federally
enforceable order, rule, or permit condition.
(77))) (78) "Total reduced sulfur (TRS)" means the sum of the
sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl
disulfide, and any other organic sulfides emitted and measured by EPA
method 16 or an approved equivalent method and expressed as hydrogen
(78))) (79) "Total suspended particulate" means particulate matter
as measured by the method described in 40 CFR Part 50 Appendix B as in
effect on October 17, 1996.
(79))) (80) "Toxic air pollutant (TAP)" or "toxic air contaminant"
means any Class A or B toxic air pollutant listed in WAC 173-460-150 and
173-460-160. The term toxic air pollutant may include particulate matter
and volatile organic compounds if an individual substance or a group of
substances within either of these classes is listed in WAC 173-460-150
and/or 173-460-160. The term toxic air pollutant does not include
particulate matter and volatile organic compounds as generic classes of
(80))) (81) "United States Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA)" shall be referred to as EPA.
(81))) (82) "Visibility impairment" means any perceptible
degradation in visibility (visual range, contrast, coloration) not caused
by natural conditions.
(82))) (83) "Visibility impairment of Class I areas" means
visibility impairment within the area and visibility impairment of any
formally designated integral vista associated with the area.
(83))) (84) "Volatile organic compound (VOC)" means any compound
of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid,
metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which
participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. This includes:
(a) Any such organic compound other than the following, which has been determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity: Methane; ethane; methylene chloride (dichloromethane); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform); 1,1,2-trichloro 1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113); trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11); dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12); chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22); trifluoromethane (HFC-23); 1,2-dichloro 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114); chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115); 1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a); 1,1-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b); 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); 2-chloro 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124); pentafluoroethane (HFC-125); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a); parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF); cyclic, branched, or linear completely methylated siloxanes; acetones perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene); and perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes:
(i) Cyclic, branched, or linear completely fluorinated alkanes;
(ii) Cyclic, branched, or linear completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations; and
(iii) Sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine.
(b) For the purpose of determining compliance with emission limits, VOC will be measured by the appropriate methods in 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A. Where such a method also measures compounds with negligible photochemical reactivity, these negligibly-reactive compounds may be excluded as VOC if the amount of such compounds is accurately quantified, and such exclusion is approved by ecology or the authority.
(c) As a precondition to excluding these negligibly-reactive
compounds as VOC or at any time thereafter, ecology or the authority may
require an owner or operator to provide monitoring or testing methods and
results demonstrating, to the satisfaction of ecology or the authority,
the amount of negligibly-reactive compounds in the source's emissions.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 96-19-054 (Order 94-35), 173-400-030, filed 9/13/96, effective 10/14/96; 95-07-126 (Order 93-40), 173-400-030, filed 3/22/95, effective 4/22/95; 93-18-007 (Order 93-03), 173-400-030, filed 8/20/93, effective 9/20/93; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), 173-400-030, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331, 70.94.395 and 70.94.510. 85-06-046 (Order 84-48), 173-400-030, filed 3/6/85. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), 173-400-030, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), 173-400-030, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), 173-400-030, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, 173-400-030, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-030.]
AMENDATORY SECTION (Amending Order 93-03, filed 8/20/93, effective
WAC 173-400-110 New source review (NSR). (1) Applicability. This section, WAC 173-400-112 and 173-400-113 apply state-wide except where an authority has adopted its own new source review regulation and those regulations are incorporated into the state implementation plan. This exemption is subject to the provisions of WAC 173-400-020.
(a))) (2) Projects subject to NSR. A notice of construction
application must be filed by the owner or operator and an order of
approval issued by ecology or an authority prior to the establishment of
any new source (( or emission unit or modification which is listed in WAC
173-400-100 or required to obtain a permit under RCW 70.94.161)), except
for those sources exempt under subsection (4) or (5) of this section.
(b) Ecology or the authority may require that a notice of
construction application be filed by the owner or operator of a proposed
new source or modification and an order of approval issued by ecology or
an authority prior to the establishment of any new source or emission
unit or modification, other than a single family or a duplex dwelling.
(c))) For purposes of this section "establishment" shall mean to
begin actual construction, as that term is defined in WAC 173-400-030(9),
and "new source" shall include any modification to an existing stationary
source, as defined in WAC 173-400-030(43). Notwithstanding any other
subsection of this section, a notice of construction application must be
filed and an order of approval issued by ecology or an authority prior
to establishment of any of the following new sources:
(a) Any project that qualifies as construction, reconstruction or modification of an affected facility, within the meaning of 40 CFR Part 60 (New Source Performance Standards) (except Part AAA, Wood stoves);
(b) Any project that qualifies as a new or modified source within the meaning of 40 CFR 61.02 (except for asbestos demolition and renovation projects subject to 40 CFR 61.145);
(c) Any project that qualifies as a new source within the meaning of 40 CFR 63.2 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants);
(d) Any project that qualifies as a major stationary source, as defined in WAC 173-400-030(41), or a major modification, as defined in WAC 173-400-040(40);
(e) Any project that requires an increase in a plant-wide cap or unit specific emission limit.
(3) New source review of a modification shall be limited to the emission unit or units proposed to be added to an existing source or modified and the air contaminants whose emissions would increase as a result of the modification.
(2))) (4) Emission unit and activity exemptions.
Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, establishment of a new emission unit that falls within one of the categories listed below is exempt from new source review. Modification of any emission unit listed below is exempt from new source review, provided that the modified unit continues to fall within one of the listed categories. The installation or modification of a unit exempt under this subsection does not require the filing of a Notice of Construction Application.
(i) Cleaning and sweeping of streets and paved surfaces;
(ii) Concrete application, and installation;
(iii) Dredging wet spoils handling and placement;
(iv) Paving application and maintenance, excluding asphalt plants;
(v) Plant maintenance and upkeep activities (grounds keeping, general repairs, routine house keeping, routine plant painting, welding, cutting, brazing, soldering, plumbing, retarring roofs, etc.);
(vi) Plumbing installation, protective coating application and maintenance activities;
(vii) Roofing application;
(viii) Insulation application and maintenance, excluding products for resale;
(ix) Janitorial services and consumer use of janitorial products.
(b) Storage tanks:
(i) Lubricating oil storage tanks except those facilities that are wholesale or retail distributors of lubricating oils;
(ii) Polymer tanks and storage devices and associated pumping and handling equipment, used for solids dewatering and flocculation;
(iii) Storage tanks, reservoirs, pumping and handling equipment of any size containing soaps, vegetable oil, grease, animal fat, and nonvolatile aqueous salt solutions;
(iv) Process and white water storage tanks;
(v) Operation, loading and unloading of storage tanks and storage vessels, with lids or other appropriate closure and less than 260 gallon capacity (35 cft);
(vi) Operation, loading and unloading of storage tanks, 1100 gallon capacity, with lids or other appropriate closure, not for use with materials containing toxic air pollutants, as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC, max. VP 550 mm Hg @21C;
(vii) Operation, loading and unloading storage of butane, propane, or liquefied petroleum gas with a vessel capacity less than 40,000 gallons;
(viii) Tanks, vessels and pumping equipment, with lids or other appropriate closure for storage or dispensing of aqueous solutions of inorganic salts, bases and acids.
(c) A project with combined combustion units, all of the following:
(i) 500,000 Btu/hr using coal with 0.5% sulfur or other fuels with 0.5% sulfur;
(ii) 500,000 Btu/hr used oil, per the requirements of RCW 70.94.610;
(iii) 400,000 Btu/hr wood waste or paper;
(iv) < 1,000,000 Btu/hr using kerosene, #1, or #2 fuel oil and with 0.05% sulfur;
(v) 4,000,000 Btu/hr using natural gas, propane, or LPG.
(d) Material handling:
(i) Continuous digester chip feeders;
(ii) Grain elevators not licensed as warehouses or dealers by either the Washington state department of agriculture or the U.S. Department of Agriculture;
(iii) Storage and handling of water based lubricants for metal working where organic content of the lubricant is 10%;
(iv) Equipment used exclusively to pump, load, unload, or store high boiling point organic material, material with initial atmospheric boiling point not less than 150C or vapor pressure not more than 5 mm Hg @21C, with lids or other appropriate closure.
(e) Water treatment:
(i) Septic sewer systems, not including active wastewater treatment facilities;
(ii) NPDES permitted ponds and lagoons used solely for the purpose of settling suspended solids and skimming of oil and grease;
(iii) De-aeration (oxygen scavenging) of water where toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC are not emitted;
(iv) Process water filtration system and demineralizer vents;
(v) Sewer manholes, junction boxes, sumps and lift stations associated with wastewater treatment systems;
(vi) Demineralizer tanks;
(vii) Alum tanks;
(viii) Clean water condensate tanks.
(f) Environmental chambers and laboratory equipment:
(i) Environmental chambers and humidity chambers not using toxic air pollutant gases, as regulated under chapter 173-460 WAC;
(ii) Gas cabinets using only gases that are not toxic air pollutants regulated under chapter 173-460 WAC;
(iii) Installation or modification of a single laboratory fume hood;
(iv) Laboratory calibration and maintenance equipment.
(g) Monitoring/quality assurance/testing:
(i) Equipment and instrumentation used for quality control/assurance or inspection purpose;
(ii) Hydraulic and hydrostatic testing equipment;
(iii) Sample gathering, preparation and management;
(iv) Vents from continuous emission monitors and other analyzers.
(i) Single-family residences and duplexes;
(ii) Plastic pipe welding;
(iii) Primary agricultural production activities including soil preparation, planting, fertilizing, weed and pest control, and harvesting;
(iv) Comfort air conditioning;
(v) Flares used to indicate danger to the public;
(vi) Natural and forced air vents and stacks for bathroom/toilet activities;
(vii) Personal care activities;
(viii) Recreational fireplaces including the use of barbecues, campfires, and ceremonial fires;
(ix) Tobacco smoking rooms and areas;
(x) Noncommercial smokehouses;
(xi) Blacksmith forges for single forges;
(xii) Vehicle maintenance activities, not including vehicle surface coating;
(xiii) Vehicle or equipment washing (see (c) of this subsection for threshold for boilers);
(xiv) Wax application;
(xv) Oxygen, nitrogen, or rare gas extraction and liquefaction equipment not including internal and external combustion equipment;
(xvi) Ozone generators and ozonation equipment;
(xvii) Solar simulators;
(xviii) Ultraviolet curing processes, to the extent that toxic air pollutant gases as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC are not emitted;
(xix) Electrical circuit breakers, transformers, or switching equipment installation or operation;
(xx) Pulse capacitors;
(xxi) Pneumatically operated equipment, including tools hand held applicator equipment for hot melt adhesives;
(xxii) Fire suppression equipment;
(xxiii) Recovery boiler blow-down tank;
(xxiv) Screw press vents;
(xxv) Drop hammers or hydraulic presses for forging or metal working;
(xxvi) Production of foundry sand molds, unheated and using binders less than 0.25% free phenol by sand weight;
(xxvii) Kraft lime mud storage tanks and process vessels;
(xxviii) Lime grits washers, filters and handling;
(xxix) Lime mud filtrate tanks;
(xxx) Lime mud water;
(xxxi) Stock cleaning and pressurized pulp washing;
(xxxii) Natural gas pressure regulator vents, excluding venting at oil and gas production facilities and transportation marketing facilities;
(xxxiii) Nontoxic air pollutant, as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC, solvent cleaners less than 10 square feet air-vapor interface with solvent vapor pressure not more than 30 mm Hg @21C;
(xxxiv) Surface coating, aqueous solution or suspension containing 1% (by weight) VOCs, and/or toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC;
(xxxv) Cleaning and stripping activities and equipment using solutions having 1% VOCs (by weight); on metallic substances, acid solutions are not exempt;
(xxxvi) Dip coating operations, using materials less than 1% VOCs (by weight) and/or toxic air pollutants as defined in chapter 173-460 WAC.
(5) Exemptions based on emissions thresholds.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section and in this subsection:
(i) A new emissions unit that has a potential to emit below each of the threshold levels listed in the table contained in (c) of this subsection is exempt from new source review provided that the conditions of (b) of this subsection are met.
(ii) A modification to an existing emissions unit that increases the unit's actual emissions by less than each of the threshold levels listed in the table contained in (c) of this subsection is exempt from new source review provided that the conditions of (b) of this subsection are met.
(b) The owner or operator seeking to exempt a project from new source review under this section shall notify, and upon request, file a brief project summary with ecology or the authority prior to beginning actual construction on the project. If ecology or the authority determine that the project will have more than a de Minimus impact on air quality, ecology or the authority may require the filing of a notice of construction application. Ecology or the authority may require the owner or operator to demonstrate that the emissions increase from the new emissions unit is smaller than all of the thresholds listed below.
(c) Exemption threshold table:
pollutant threshold level
(tons per year)
(a) PM10 0.75
(b) Sulfur Oxides 2.0
(c) Nitrogen Oxides 2.0
(d) Volatile Organic Compounds, total 2.0
(e) Carbon Monoxide 5.0
(f) Lead 0.005
(g) Ozone Depleting Substances in Ag- 1.0
gregate (the sum of Class I and/or Class
II substances as defined in FCAA Title
VI and 40 CFR Part 82)
(h) Toxic Air Pollutants As specified
(6) Completeness determination. Within thirty days of receipt of a notice of construction application, ecology or the authority shall either notify the applicant in writing that the application is complete or notify the applicant in writing of all additional information necessary, based upon review of information already supplied, to complete the application. For a project subject to PSD review under WAC 173-400-141 a completeness determination includes a determination that the application provides all information required to conduct PSD review.
(3))) (7) Final determination.
(a) Within sixty days of receipt of a complete application, ecology or the authority shall either issue a final decision on the application or, for those projects subject to public notice, initiate notice and comment procedures under WAC 173-400-171 on a proposed decision, followed as promptly as possible by a final decision.
(b) A person seeking approval to construct or modify a source that requires an operating permit may elect to integrate review of the operating permit application or amendment required under RCW 70.94.161 and the notice of construction application required by this section. A notice of construction application designated for integrated review shall be processed in accordance with operating permit program procedures and deadlines.
(b))) (c) Every final determination on a notice of construction
application shall be reviewed and signed prior to issuance by a
professional engineer or staff under the direct supervision of a
professional engineer in the employ of ecology or the authority.
(c))) (d) If the new source is a major stationary source or the
change is a major modification, ecology or the authority shall submit any
control technology determination included in a final order of approval
to the RACT/BACT/LAER clearinghouse maintained by EPA.
(4))) (8) Appeals. An order of approval, any conditions contained
in an order of approval, or the denial of a notice of construction
application may be appealed to the pollution control hearings board as
provided in chapter 43.21B RCW. Ecology or the authority shall promptly
mail copies of each order approving or denying a notice of construction
application to the applicant and to any other party who submitted timely
comments on the application, along with a notice advising parties of
their rights of appeal to the Pollution Control Hearings Board and, where
applicable, to the EPA Environmental Appeals Board.
(5))) (9) Portable sources. For portable sources which locate
temporarily at particular sites, the owner(s) or operator(s) shall be
allowed to operate at the temporary location without filing a notice of
construction application, providing that the owner(s) or operator(s)
notifies ecology or the authority of intent to operate at the new
location at least thirty days prior to starting the operation, and
supplies sufficient information to enable ecology or the authority to
determine that the operation will comply with the emission standards for
a new source, and will not cause a violation of applicable ambient air
quality standards and, if in a nonattainment area, will not interfere
with scheduled attainment of ambient standards. The permission to
operate shall be for a limited period of time (one year or less) and
ecology or the authority may set specific conditions for operation during
that period. A temporary source shall be required to comply with all
applicable emission standards.
(6))) (10) Construction time limitations. Approval to construct
or modify a stationary source shall become invalid if construction is not
commenced within eighteen months after receipt of such approval, if
construction is discontinued for a period of eighteen months or more, or
if construction is not completed within a reasonable time. Ecology or
the authority may extend the eighteen-month period upon a satisfactory
showing that an extension is justified. This provision does not apply
to the time period between construction of the approved phases of a
phased construction project(( ;)). Each phase must commence construction
within eighteen months of the projected and approved commencement date.
(11) Change of conditions.
(a) The owner or operator may request, at any time, a change in conditions of an approval order and ecology or the authority may approve such a request provided ecology or the authority finds that:
(i) The change in conditions will not cause the air contaminant source to exceed an emissions standard;
(ii) No ambient air quality standard or PSD increment will be exceeded as a result of the change;
(iii) The change will not adversely impact the ability of ecology or the authority to determine compliance with an emissions standard; and
(iv) The revised order will continue to require BACT for each new source approved by the order except where the Federal Clean Air Act requires LAER.
(b) Actions taken under this subsection are subject to the public
involvement provisions of WAC 173-400-171.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. 93-18-007 (Order 93-03), 173-400-110, filed 8/20/93, effective 9/20/93; 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), 173-400-110, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), 173-400-110, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331, 70.94.510, and 70.94.785. 81-03-002 (Order DE 80-53), 173-400-110, filed 1/8/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), 173-400-110, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), 173-400-110, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, 173-400-110, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-110.]