WSR 99-10-071

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed May 4, 1999, 10:50 a.m. , effective September 1, 1999 ]

Date of Adoption: May 4, 1999.

Purpose: Changes improve worker protection, making the respiratory protection and methylene chloride rules as effective as OSHA by adding new OSHA requirements. Other changes make it easier to use, understand and comply with the rules by writing the rules in plain language, improving clarity and consistency, providing more descriptions, eliminating redundancy, and correcting errors.

Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Sections in chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards:

WAC Section #Title of SectionAction29 CFR amended by OSHA
WAC 296-24-07501General requirements in Part A-2 PPE.Amend
WAC 296-24-51005Definitions in Part F-2 anhydrous ammonia.Amend1910.111
WAC 296-24-51009Basic rules in Part F-2.Amend1910.111
WAC 296-24-58513Protective clothing in Part G-2 Fire protection.Amend1910.156
WAC 296-24-58515Respiratory protection devices in Part G-2.Amend1910.156
WAC 296-24-58517Appendix A--Fire brigades in Part G-2.Amend1910.156
WAC 296-24-67507Definitions in Part H-2 Abrasive Blasting.Amend1926.57
WAC 296-24-67515Personal protective equipment in Part H-2.Amend1926.57
WAC 296-24-67517Air supply and air compressors in Part H-2.Amend1926.57
WAC 296-24-71507Ventilation in confined spaces in Part I welding, cutting and brazing.Amend1910.252
WAC 296-24-71513Lead in Part I.Amend1910.252
WAC 296-24-71517Cadmium in Part I.Amend1910.252
WAC 296-24-71519Mercury in Part I.Amend1910.252

Sections in chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards:

WAC Section #Title of SectionAction29 CFR amended by OSHA
WAC 296-62-071Respiratory protection.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07101Scope.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07103Purpose.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07105Definitions.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07107Permissible practice.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07109Minimal acceptable respirator program.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07111Respirable air and oxygen for self-contained breathing apparatus and supplied air respirators.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07113Selection of respirators.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07115Use of respirators.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07117Maintenance of respirators.Amend1910.134
WAC 296-62-07119Identification of air-purifying respirator canisters.Repeal1910.134
WAC 296-62-07121Effective date.Repeal1910.134
WAC 296-62-07306Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.Amend1910.1003
WAC 296-62-07308General regulated area requirements.Amend1910.1003
WAC 296-62-07329Vinyl chloride.Amend1910.1017
WAC 296-62-07336Acrylonitrile.Amend1910.1045
WAC 296-62-07337Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for acrylonitrile.Amend1910.1045
WAC 296-62-07342 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.Amend1910.1044
WAC 296-62-07343 Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for DBCP.Amend1910.1044
WAC 296-62-07347 Inorganic arsenic.Amend1910.1018
WAC 296-62-07367 Respiratory protection and personal protective equipment.Amend1910.1047
WAC 296-62-07369Emergency situations.Amend1910.1047
WAC 296-62-07379Dates.Repeal
WAC 296-62-07383Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for ethylene oxide (nonmandatory).Amend1910.1047
WAC 296-62-07413Respirator protection.Amend1910.1027
WAC 296-62-07425 Communication of cadmium hazards to employees. Amend1910.1027
WAC 296-62-07431Dates.Repeal
WAC 296-62-07441 Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet--Cadmium.Amend1910.1027
WAC 296-62-07445Appendix C--Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures--(Fit test protocols). Repeal1910.1027
WAC 296-62-07460 Butadiene.Amend1910.1051
WAC 296-62-07470 Methylene chloride.Amend1910.1052
WAC 296-62-07521 Lead.Amend1910.1025
WAC 296-62-07523 Benzene.Amend1910.1028
WAC 296-62-07533 Appendix E Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures.Repeal1910.1028
WAC 296-62-07540 Formaldehyde.Amend1910.1048
WAC 296-62-07550 Appendix E--Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures.Repeal1910.1048
WAC 296-62-07615Respiratory protection.Amend1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07635Effective Dates.Repeal
WAC 296-62-07639 Startup dates.Repeal
WAC 296-62-07662 Appendix E to WAC 296-62-076--Qualitative and quantitative fit testing.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07664 Appendix E-1--Qualitative fit test protocols.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07666 Appendix E-1-a--Isoamyl acetate (banana oil) protocol.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07668 Appendix E-1-b--Saccharin solution aerosol protocol.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07670 Appendix E-1-c--Irritant fume protocol.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07672 Appendix E-2--Quantitative Fit test procedures.Repeal1910.1050
WAC 296-62-07715Respiratory protection.Amend1910.1001 & 1926.1101
WAC 296-62-07722Employee information and training.Amend1910.1001 & 1926.1101
WAC 296-62-07733Appendices.Amend1910.1001 & 1926.1101
WAC 296-62-07739 Appendix C--Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures--Mandatory.Repeal1910.1001 & 1926.1101
WAC 296-62-11019Spray-finishing operations.Amend1926.57
WAC 296-62-11021Open surface tanks.Amend1926.57
WAC 296-62-14533Cotton dust.Amend1910.1043
WAC 296-62-20011 Respiratory protection.Amend1910.1029
WAC 296-62-20019 Employee information and training.Amend1910.1029
WAC 296-62-20027Appendix A--Coke oven emissions substance information sheet.Amend1910.1029

Sections in Chapter 296-155 WAC, Construction work:
WAC Section #Title of SectionAction29 CFR amended by OSHA
WAC 296-155-17317Respiratory protection in Part B-1 MDA.Amend1926.60
WAC 296-155-17335Effective date in B-1.Repeal
WAC 296-155-17337Appendices in B-1.Amend
WAC 296-155-17341Appendix A to WAC 296-155-173--Substance data sheet, for 4-4'-methylenedianiline.Amend1926.60
WAC 296-155-17349Appendix E to WAC 296-155-173--Methlyenedianiline--Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-17351Appendix E-1--Qualitative protocols.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-17353Appendix E-1-a--Isoamyl acetate (banana oil) protocol.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-17355Appendix E-1-b--Saccharin solution and aerosol protocol.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-17357Appendix E-1-c--Irritant fume protocol.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-17359Appendix E-2--Quantitative fit test procedures.Repeal1926.60
WAC 296-155-174Cadmium in Part B-1.Amend1926.1127
WAC 296-155-17613Respiratory protection for lead in Part B-1.Amend1926.62
WAC 296-155-17625Employee information and training for lead inPart B-1.Amend
WAC 296-155-17635Startup dates.Repeal
WAC 296-155-17652Appendix B to WAC 296-155-176--Employee standard summary.Amend1926.62
WAC 296-155-17656Appendix D to WAC 296-155-176--Qualitative and quantitative fit test protocols.Repeal1926.62
WAC 296-155-220Respiratory Protection in Part C PPE and life saving equipment.Amend1926.103
WAC 296-155-367Masonry saws in Part G.Amend
WAC 296-155-655General protection requirements in Part N, Excavation, trenching and shoring.Amend
WAC 296-155-730Tunnels and shafts in Part Q, Underground construction.Amend1926.800

Other chapters affected:

WAC Section #Title of SectionAction29 CFR amended by OSHA
WAC 296-56-60053Hazardous atmospheres and substances.Amend
WAC 296-56-60235Welding, cutting and heating (hot work).Amend
WAC 296-78-665Sanding machines.Amend
WAC 296-78-71019Exhaust systems.Amend
WAC 296-304-03005Mechanical paint removers.Amend
WAC 296-305-02501Emergency medical protection.Amend

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 98-23-085 on [November 17, 1998, and published on] December 2, 1998, and December 16, 1998.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version:


Changes to chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards:


WAC 296-24-07501 General requirements.

•Changed the reference to respiratory protection in subsection (1)(a), making it consistent with wording in other rules and adding a reference to the general respiratory protection standard based on public comment.
•Corrected reference to the general respiratory protection in subsection (4) to be consistent with references in other rules.
WAC 296-24-58515 Respiratory protection devices. Deleted obsolete requirements in subsection (2)(c). On November 8, 1988 NIOSH certified positive pressure SCBAs (certification # TC-13-F233).


Changes to chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards:


WAC 296-62-07101 To whom does chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E apply? Added reference to personal protective equipment requirements in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2, based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07103 What are your responsibilities as an employer?
Added "written" to subsection (4) to clarify and be like OSHA's rule.


WAC 296-62-07105 Definitions.

•Changed the assigned protection factor (APF) definitions, making it consistent with the 1992 ANSI Z88.2 standard based on public comment. New definition reads: "Assigned protection factor (APF) is the expected level of workplace respiratory protection provided by a properly functioning respirator worn by properly fitted and trained individuals. It describes the ratio of the ambient concentration of an airborne substance to the concentration of the substance inside the respirator."
•Added "particulate air" and "(HEPA)" to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) definition, providing the complete name for a HEPA filter.
•Deleted the word "toxic" from the sorbent definition to improve accuracy of definition. This change is based on public comment.

WAC 296-62-07107 When is a respiratory protection program required?

•Separated requirements into two subsections, making it easier to understand and comply with both requirements.
•Deleted "required" to avoid confusion.

WAC 296-62-07111 What must be included in your written respiratory protection program?

•Changed the format of subsections from numbers to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.
•Simplified wording in first bullet to read "…the proper type of respirator for each respiratory hazard…"
•Deleted references related to issuing the proper type of respirator to avoid confusion. References included in the proposal were incomplete.
•Corrected references related to training of employees to "WAC 296-62-07188" and added more specific references in WAC 296-62-07188, making it easier to comply with the requirements.

WAC 296-62-07113 What are the requirements for a program administrator? Changed subsections to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with two conditions.


WAC 296-62-07115 Who pays for the respirators, training, medical evaluations, and fit testing? Added reference for voluntary use to make it easier to find related requirements.


WAC 296-62-07117 What must you do when employees choose to wear respirators when respirators are not required?
In Figure 1, changed "heed" to "follow" to make it easier [to] understand. Change is based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07131, What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for use in atmospheres that are not IDLH?

•The following changes make Table 1--Assigned Protection Factors consistent with the 1992 ANSI Z88.2 standard, correct errors, and make it easier to use.
•Eliminated the two columns labeled "permitted for use in oxygen-deficient atmosphere" and "permitted for use in immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health;
•Deleted two PAPR entries related to dust/mist--Full face;
•Added four major headings in the first column identifying the four major types of respirators;
•Deleted "without escape provisions" in one of the SAR entries;
•Deleted duplicate entry for SAR continuous flow or press-demand, full facepiece;
•Added "continuous flow" to two SAR entries;
•Added clarification in footnote a;
•Deleted footnote c and references to footnote c; and
•Ranked the respirators under each major heading from lowest to highest APF.
•Changed the format in subsection (4) so that proposed (a) and (b) become part of the same sentence.
•Formatted subsection (4) with two sets of bullet points, showing one requirement with multiple conditions and making it easier to understand. Two types of bullet points identify different aspects of the requirement and list the conditions employers must meet to comply with the requirement.
•Changed the format in subsection (5) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with three conditions. Changed the sentence structure in the third bullet point to be like other bullet points.
•Added a new bullet point to subsection (5) to read "for filters to be changed as required in WAC 296-62-07171(4)," helping users find related requirements.

WAC 296-62-07132 What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for use in IDLH atmospheres? Changed the format in subsection (1) to bullet points to show one citable requirement with two conditions.


WAC 296-62-07133 What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for emergency and rescue use? Added "based on the above considerations" to subsection (1).


Medical Evaluations: Changed the order of the proposed requirements in WAC 296-62-07151 through 296-62-07154 so that the requirements appear in the order that an employer would follow when complying with the medical evaluation provisions. The list provides an outline of the steps for employers to follow when complying with the requirements.


WAC 296-62-07150 What are the general requirements for medical evaluations?

•Changed the format of subsection (1) to contain the requirements as proposed in this section. Bullet points added in subsection (1) to show one requirement, including the conditions that must be met when relying on an employee's medical evaluation completed by a previous employer.
•Clarified the exemption in subsection (1).
•Added a list in subsection (2), showing the steps necessary to comply with the medical evaluation requirements in this chapter. The order of the medical evaluation in other sections is changed to be the same as this list. The list reflects the sequence that you would follow when complying with the medical requirements in this chapter.

WAC 296-62-07151 Who must perform medical evaluations?

•Changed the section title from "What are the procedures for determining if your employee is able to use a respirator?" to "Who must perform medical evaluations?".
•Moved the initial medical evaluation and follow-up evaluation provisions to WAC 296-62-07153.
•Retained the requirement about identifying a PLHCP to perform medical evaluations.
•Added "a telephone conversation," clarifying example. This change is based on public comment.

WAC 296-62-07152 What information must you provide to the PLHCP in addition to the questionnaire?

•Added new section by moving the requirements proposed from WAC 296-62-07154 to 296-62-07152.
•Changed the format from subsections to bullet points, listing the information employers must give to their PLHCP.
•Places the information about subsequent evaluations and the note after the list, clarifying requirement.
•Added the phrase "(including, but not limited to, a list of respirators as required in WAC 296-62-07111(1) and fit testing procedures as required in WAC 296-62-07111(3))," highlighting important elements of the written program. Change is based on public comment.

WAC 296-62-07153 How must the medical evaluations and the questionnaire be administered?

•Changed the title to include the initial evaluation requirement moved into this section from WAC 296-62-07151.
•Changed wording in subsection (1) to better explain requirement.
•Added more explanation about confidentiality, providing different options for administering the questionnaire.

WAC 296-62-07154 Who must review the questionnaire and determine what, if any, follow-up evaluations are needed?

•Changed the title to reflect requirements moved into this section from WAC 296-62-07151.
•Change the format by adding "you must provide for PLHCP follow-up evaluations in accordance with the following" and added bullet points, showing one citable requirement with three conditions.

WAC 296-62-07155 What must be included in the PLHCP's written recommendation?

•Change the title to better reflect the contents of this section, making it easier to find provisions about the PLHCP's written recommendation.
•Moved subsection (1) to the beginning of the section, correcting an error in proposal.
•Added "about the employee" to clarify what information employers must give their PLHCP.
•Changed the format in subsection (1) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with three conditions.
•Changed the format and wording in subsection (2), making it easier to understand the requirement.

WAC 296-62-07156 When are additional medical evaluations required? Changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.


WAC 296-62-07160 When is fit testing required?

•Changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.
•Corrected WAC references to include WAC 296-62-07162.

WAC 296-62-07162 How must fit testing be done?

•Moved "only" to clarify.
•Changed wording in subsection (2), making it easier to understand when qualitative fit testing may be used. Change is based on public comment.

WAC 296-62-07170 How must you prevent problems with the seal on tight-fitting facepieces?

•Added information clarifying the requirement related to facial hair based on public comment.
•Changed the format of subsection (1) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.

WAC 296-62-07171 How do you monitor continuing effectiveness of your employees' respirators? Changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.


WAC 296-62-07172 What are the standby procedures when respirators are used in IDLH situations?

•Combined subsections (1), (2), and (3) and changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions. Also, changed numbering of subsequent subsections.
•Added parentheses in "employee(s)" to clarify the requirement based on public comment.
•Combined the last two requirements found in subsection (8)(b) and (c) of the proposal into one requirement found in subsection (6)(b) in the final adoption, correcting an error. The phrase "or equivalent means…" relates to the appropriate retrieval equipment for removing employees and is not a separate requirement.

WAC 296-62-07175 How must respirators be cleaned and disinfected?

•Changed the last sentence to read "before being worn by a different employee," clarifying when respirators must be cleaned. This change is based on public comment.
•Changed subsection (3) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with four conditions.

WAC 296-62-07176 How must respirators be stored? Changed the wording in subsection (2), showing four stand-alone, citable requirements in subsections (2)(a), (b), (c), and (d).


WAC 296-62-07177 When must respirators be inspected?

•Changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.
•Moved requirement for monthly inspection of SCBAs from WAC 296-62-07178(2) to WAC 296-62-07177, so that it is correctly placed with other requirements about when respirators must be inspected.

WAC 296-62-07178 How must respirators be inspected?

•Changed the format in subsections (1), (2), and (3) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement in each subsection with two conditions.
•Changed the wording in subsection (2) to parallel the other subsections, making it easier to understand and comply with the requirements.
Breathing Air Quality Heading. Deleted the words "and use" to more accurately reflect provisions under this heading.


WAC 296-62-07182 What are the breathing gas requirements for atmosphere-supplying respirators?

•Changed the format in subsection (2) to show two sets of bullet points, showing one requirement with multiple conditions. Two types of bullet points are used to help identify different aspects of the requirement and provide a second list of the conditions for Grade D compressed breathing air.
•Changed the first sentence in subsections (5) and (6) to titles.
•Changed wording in subsection (6)(a), (b), (c), and (d) to complete sentences, showing separate citable requirements.
•Added "sorbent bed and filter" to subsection (6)(d), clarifying the requirements based on public comment.
•Changed the last sentence in subsection (9) for clarity.

WAC 296-62-07186 What are the general training requirements? Changed the format in subsection (1) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.


WAC 296-62-07188 How do you know if you adequately trained your employees?

•Changed the format to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.
•Added references to help users find the more specific requirements in other sections.

WAC 296-62-07190 When must your employees be trained? Changed the format in subsection (4) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.


WAC 296-62-07192 How must you evaluate the effectiveness of your respiratory protection program?

•Changed the format in subsection (3) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.
•Added the existing WISHA requirement for medical and bioassay surveillance found previously in WAC 296-62-07109(13). This change is based on public comment.

WAC 296-62-07194 What are the record-keeping requirements?

•Changed "information" to "records" in subsection (1).
•Changed "medical evaluations" to "written recommendations from the PLHCP" to clarify what type of medical records employers must keep.
•Changed the title and wording in subsection (2). The new title--"access to medical records"--and new wording clarify what records employers must make available.
•Changed the format in subsection (3) to bullet points, showing one citable requirement with multiple conditions.

WAC 296-62-07202 What are the general requirements for fit testing?
Changed wording in subsection (10) to read "if the employee's respirator fails," clarifying requirements. This change is based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07203 What are the fit test exercise requirements? Added "controlled negative pressure" to identify the "CNP" acronym. This change is based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07208 Isoamyl acetate protocol (QLFT). Change wording to clarify what must happen to particulate respirators when using this fit testing protocol.


WAC 296-62-07225 What is the irritant smoke fit testing procedure (QLFT)? Added "eyes" to subsection (2), correcting an error in the proposal.


WAC 296-62-07255 Appendix C: WISHA Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire--Mandatory. The following changes are based on public comment.

•Changed the instructions "to the employer" to emphasize that questionnaires must be administered confidentially.
•Added heading "to the employer's PLHCP" to better reflect information about the questions that will not require a medical examination.
•Changed question 11(a) to read "dust mask style, half facepiece respirators without cartridges" to be more accurate.
•Changed question 11(b) to provide a more complete list of respirators for employees to check, avoiding the need for PLHCPs to request more information following initial evaluation of the questionnaire.
•Added new Section 3 titled "SCBA or Full Facepiece Respirator Users Only" in Part A of the questionnaire. Section 3 contains question 10 through 15, clarifying when these questions must be answered.
•Added a title to Part B--"PLHCP Discretionary Questions," describing the questions that follow.
•Changed the wording in the first sentence under Part B to read "if appropriate to specific job requirements or conditions, additional questions--including but not limited to the following--may be added at the discretion of the PLHCP to clarify an employee's ability to use a respirator."
•Removed question to the employee about whether they can read, because if they cannot read they cannot answer this question.

WAC 296-62-07261 How do you classify respiratory hazards? Changed the first sentence to read "respiratory hazards are classified into the following categories" based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07265 What needs to be considered when combinations of contaminants occur in the workplace?
Moved the phrase "gas, vapor and particulates" from the title into the first sentence, making the title shorter and easier to understand. This change is based on public comment.


WAC 296-62-07267 What are the two major types of respirators? Added "or airline" to subsection (2) for clarity.


WAC 296-62-07269 What are air-purifying respirators (APRs)? The following changes are based on public comment.

•Changed "by passing ambient air through" to "by passing contaminated air through" to clarify.
•Changed "air to the respirator-inlet covering" to "air to the user" to clarify.

WAC 296-62-07271 What are the general limitations for air-purifying respirators (APRs)? The following changes are based on public comment.

•Changed "sorption" to "absorption" in subsection (1), correcting an error.
•Deleted "efficiency" in subsection (2), eliminating this word to avoid confusion.
•Deleted "inward" in subsection (3), eliminating this word to avoid confusion.

WAC 296-62-07279 What types of filters, canisters and cartridges are available for air-purifying respirators (APRs)? The following changes are based on public comment.

•Change the wording in subsection (1), making it easier to understand how particulate filters are classified.
•Added a table showing the nine types of particulate respirators by class.
•Clarified that N-100, R-100, and P-100 filters are also referred to as HEPA filters.

WAC 296-62-07283 What are the capabilities and limitations of atmosphere-supplying respirators? The following changes correct errors and are based on public comment.

•Changed "sorption" to "absorption."
•Deleted "tritium."
•Changed "organic phosphate" to "organo-phosphate."

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 67, Amended 58, Repealed 19; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 20, Amended 11, Repealed 5.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 87, Amended 46, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 87, Amended 69, Repealed 24. Effective Date of Rule: September 1, 1999.

May 4, 1999

Gary Moore

Director

OTS-2590.6


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-19, filed 7/27/81)

WAC 296-62-071
Respiratory protection.

((This section contains the requirements to be followed when establishing a respiratory protection program.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-071, filed 7/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 82-10, filed 3/30/82)

WAC 296-62-07101
((Scope.)) To whom does chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E apply?

((This standard sets forth accepted practices when respiratory protection is used in controlling employee exposures to harmful air contaminants to comply with permissible exposure limits or to protect employees in oxygen-deficient atmospheres, or when respirators are utilized for emergency or rescue use.)) Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E applies to all employers covered by WISHA. Other requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) are found in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-08-026 (Order 82-10), § 296-62-07101, filed 3/30/82.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07101, filed 7/27/81.]

PERMISSIBLE PRACTICE
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07102
When are you allowed to rely on respirators to protect employees from breathing contaminated air?

In the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, vapors, or aerosols the goal must be to prevent atmospheric contamination. You must use, if feasible, accepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, you must use respirators as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

[]

EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-19, filed 7/27/81)

WAC 296-62-07103
((Purpose.)) What are your responsibilities as an employer?

((The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum performance requirements for the selection and use of respirators and the implementation of a respirator program.)) (1) You must provide respirators, when necessary, to protect the health of your employees against recognized respiratory hazards including any exposures in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(2) You must provide NIOSH-certified respirators that are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended.

(3) You must make sure your employees use respirators when required or when otherwise necessary.

(4) You must establish and maintain a written respiratory protection program that includes the requirements outlined in WAC 296-62-07111.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07103, filed 7/27/81.]

DEFINITIONS
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)

WAC 296-62-07105
Definitions.

((Abrasive-blasting respirator.  See "respirator." A respirator designed to protect the wearer against inhalation of abrasive material and against impact and abrasion from rebounding abrasive material.

Accepted.  Reviewed and listed as satisfactory for a specified use by the director or his or her designee.

Aerodynamic diameter.  The diameter of a unit density sphere having the same settling velocity as the particle in question of whatever shape and density.)) The following definitions are important terms used in this part.

Aerosol((.  A system consisting of particles, solid or liquid, suspended in air.

Air-line respirator.  See "respirator.")) means a suspension of liquid or solid particles in air.

Air-purifying respirator((.  See "respirator."

Air-regulating valve.  An adjustable valve used to regulate, but which cannot completely shut off the airflow to the facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit of an air-line respirator.

Air-supply device.  A hand- or motor-operated blower for the hose mask, or a compressor or other source of respirable air for the air-line respirator.

Approved.  Tested and listed as satisfactory by the Bureau of Mines (BM) of the U.S. Department of Interior, or jointly by the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) of the U.S. Department of Interior and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or jointly by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) of the U.S. Department of Labor and NIOSH under the provisions of Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 11.

Bioassay.  A determination of the concentration of a substance in a human body by an analysis of urine, feces, blood, bone, or tissue.

Breathing tube.  A tube through which air or oxygen flows to the facepiece, mouthpiece, helmet, hood, or suit)) means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

Assigned protection factor (APF) is the expected level of workplace respiratory protection provided by a properly functioning respirator worn by properly fitted and trained individuals. It describes the ratio of the ambient concentration of an airborne substance to the concentration of the substance inside the respirator.

Atmosphere-supplying respirator means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from an uncontaminated source, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

Canister or cartridge (air-purifying)((.)) means a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or any combination ((thereof)) of these materials, which removes specific contaminants from the air drawn through it.

Canister (oxygen-generating)((.)) means a container filled with a chemical ((which)) that generates oxygen by chemical reaction.

((Carcinogen.  A substance known to produce cancer in some individuals following a latent period (for example: Asbestos, Chromates, radioactive particulates).

Cartridge (air-purifying).  A small canister.

Catalyst.  In respirator use, a substance which converts a toxic gas (or vapor) into a less-toxic gas (or vapor).

Ceiling concentration.  The concentration of an airborne substance that shall not be exceeded.

Chemical-cartridge respirator.  See respirator.

Contaminant.  A harmful, irritating, or nuisance material that is foreign to the normal atmosphere.

Corrective lens.  A lens ground to the wearer's individual corrective prescription to permit normal visual acuity.

Demand.  A type of self-contained breathing apparatus or type of air-line respirator which functions due to the negative pressure created by inhalation (i.e., air flow into the facepiece on "demand").

Detachable coupling.  A device which permits the respirator wearer, without using hand tools, to detach the air-supply line from that part of the respirator worn on the person.)) Demand respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when suction is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

Dust means a solid, mechanically-produced particle with sizes varying from submicroscopic to visible.  See WAC 296-62-07001(1).

((Emergency respirator use.  Wearing a respirator when a hazardous atmosphere suddenly occurs that requires immediate use of a respirator either for escape from the hazardous atmosphere or for entry into the hazardous atmosphere.

Exhalation valve.  A device that allows exhaled air to leave a respirator and prevents outside air from entering through the valve.

Eyepiece.  A gas-tight, transparent window(s) in a full facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit, through which the wearer may see.

Facepiece.  That portion of a respirator that covers the wearer's nose and mouth in quarter-mask (above the chin) or half-mask (under the chin) facepiece or that covers the nose, mouth, and eyes in a full facepiece.  It is designed to make a gas-tight or particle-tight fit with the face and includes the headbands, exhalation valve(s), and connections for an air-purifying device or respirable gas source, or both.

Face shield.  A device worn in front of the eyes and a portion of, or all of, the face, whose predominant function is protection of the eyes and the face.

Fibrosis-producing dust.  Dust which, when inhaled, deposited, and retained in the lungs, may produce findings of fibrotic growth that may cause pulmonary disease.)) Emergency situation means any occurrence that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne contaminant. Causes of emergency situations include, but are not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment.

Employee exposure means exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.

End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) means a system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection: For example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective.

Escape-only respirator means a respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit.

Filter((.  A media)) or air-purifying element means a component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid ((particles from the inspired air)) aerosols from the air when it is breathed.

((Filter respirator.  See respirator.)) Filtering facepiece (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium.

Fit factor means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio between the measured concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

Fit test means the use of an accepted protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual (see also Qualitative fit test QLFT and Quantitative fit test QNFT).

Fog((.)) means a mist of sufficient concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.

Full facepiece((.  See facepiece)) means a respirator that covers the wearer's nose, mouth, and eyes.

Fume means a solid condensation particle of extremely small particle size, generally less than one micrometer in diameter.  See WAC 296-62-07001(2).

((Gas.  An aeriform fluid which is in the gaseous state at ordinary temperature and pressure.

Gas mask.  See respirator.

Goggle.  A device, with contour-shaped eyecups with glass or plastic lenses, worn over eyes and held in place by a headband or other suitable means for the protection of the eyes and eye sockets.))

Half((-mask)) facepiece((.  See facepiece)) means a respirator that covers the wearer's nose and mouth.

((Hazardous atmosphere.  Any atmosphere, either immediately or not immediately dangerous to life or health, which is oxygen deficient or which contains a toxic or disease-producing contaminant.

Head harness.  That part of a facepiece assembly which secures the facepiece to the wearer.))

Helmet((.  That)) means the rigid portion of a respirator ((which shields the eyes, face, neck, and other parts of the head)) that also provides protection against impact or penetration.

High-efficiency particulate air filter((.)) (HEPA) means a filter ((which)) that removes from air 99.97% or more of monodisperse dioctyl phthalate (DOP) particles having a mean particle diameter of 0.3 micrometer.

Hood((.  That)) means the portion of a respirator ((which)) that completely covers the head((,)) and neck((, and portions of the shoulders)); may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

((Hose mask.  See respirator.))

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)((.  Any)) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate ((hazard to life or produces immediate irreversible debilitating effects on health.

Inhalation valve.  A device that allows respirable air to enter a respirator and prevents exhaled air from leaving the respirator through the valve.

Irrespirable.  Unfit for breathing.

Maximum use limit of filter, cartridge, or canister.  The maximum concentration of a contaminant for which an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister is approved for use)) threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.

Loose-fitting facepiece means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

Mist means a liquid condensation particle with sizes ranging from submicroscopic to visible.  See WAC 296-62-07001(4).

((Mouthpiece.  That portion of a respirator which is held in the wearer's mouth and is connected to an air-purifying device or respirable gas source, or both.  It is designed to make a gas-tight or particle-tight fit with the mouth.

MPCa.  Maximum permissible airborne concentration.  These concentrations are set by the National Committee on Radiation Protection.  They are recommended maximum average concentrations of radionuclides to which a worker may be exposed, assuming that he/she works 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, and 50 weeks a year.))

Negative pressure respirator((.  A)) means a tight-fitting respirator in which the air pressure inside the ((respiratory-inlet covering is positive during exhalation in relation to the air pressure of the outside atmosphere and negative during inhalation in relation to the air pressure of the outside atmosphere)) facepiece is lower than the ambient air pressure outside the respirator during inhalation.

Nonroutine respirator use((.))  means wearing a respirator when carrying out a special task that occurs infrequently.

((Nose clamp.  A device used with a respirator equipped with a mouthpiece that closes the nostrils of the wearer (sometimes called a nose clip).

Not immediately dangerous to life or health.  Any hazardous atmosphere which may produce physical discomfort immediately, chronic poisoning after repeated exposure, or acute adverse physiological symptoms after prolonged exposure.))

Odor threshold limit((.))  means the lowest concentration of a contaminant in air that can be detected by ((the olfactory sense)) smell.

Oxygen ((deficiency - immediately dangerous to life or health.  An atmosphere which causes an oxygen partial pressure of 95 millimeters of mercury column or less or has less than 12.5% by volume in the freshly inspired air in the upper portion of the lungs which is saturated with water vapor.

Oxygen deficiency - not immediately dangerous to life or health.  An atmosphere having an oxygen concentration below the minimum legal requirement of 19.5% by volume or has a partial pressure of oxygen of 148 millimeters of mercury for respirable air at sea-level conditions, but above that which is immediately dangerous to life or health)) deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume.

Particulate ((matter.  A suspension of fine)) means a solid or liquid ((particles in air,)) aerosol such as(()): dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke, or spray.  ((Particulate matter suspended in air is commonly known as an aerosol.))

Permissible exposure limit (PEL)((.))  means the legally established time-weighted average (TWA) concentration or ceiling concentration of a contaminant that ((shall)) must not be exceeded.

((Permit-required confined space.  See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M.

Pneumoconiosis-producing dust.  Dust which, when inhaled, deposited, and retained in the lungs, may produce signs, symptoms, and findings of pulmonary disease.)) Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (for example, license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required in WAC 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156.

Positive-pressure respirator((.))  means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the respiratory-inlet covering ((is positive in relation to the air pressure of the outside atmosphere during exhalation and inhalation)) exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

Powered air-purifying respirator((.  See respirator)) (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

Pressure demand((.  Similar to a demand type respirator but so designed to maintain positive pressure in the facepiece at all times.

Protection factor.  The ratio of the ambient concentration of an airborne substance to the concentration of the substance inside the respirator at the breathing zone of the wearer.  The protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to the wearer.  As used herein, a protection factor is synonymous with the fit factor assigned to a respirator facepiece by the use of qualitative and quantitative fitting tests.

Rescue respirator use.  Wearing a respirator for entry into a hazardous atmosphere to rescue a person(s) in the hazardous atmosphere.

Resistance.  Opposition to the flow of air, as through a canister, cartridge, particulate filter, orifice, valve, or hose)) respirator means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation or leakage.

Qualitative fit test (QLFT) means a pass/fail fit test that relies on the individual's response to the test agent to assess the adequacy of respirator fit for an individual.

Quantitative fit test (QNFT) means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit for an individual by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

Respirable((.))  means air that is suitable for breathing.

Respirator((.)) means a device designed to protect the wearer from ((the inhalation of)) breathing harmful atmospheres.

Respiratory-inlet covering((.))  means that portion of a respirator ((which connects the wearer's respiratory tract to an air-purifying device or respirable gas)) that forms the protective barrier between the user's respiratory tract and an air-purifying device or breathing air source, or both.  It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood, suit, or mouthpiece((/)) respirator with nose clamp.

((Routine respirator use.  Wearing a respirator as a normal procedure when carrying out a regular and frequently repeated task.

Sanitization.  The removal of dirt and the inhibiting of the action of agents that cause infection or disease.))

Self-contained breathing apparatus((.  See respirator)) (SCBA) means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

Service life((.))  means the period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer(( - )). For example, the period of time that an air-purifying device is effective for removing a harmful substance from ((inspired)) air when it is breathed.

Smoke((.))  means a system ((which)) that includes the products of combustion, pyrolysis, or chemical reaction of substances in the form of visible and invisible solid and liquid particles and gaseous products in air.  Smoke is usually of sufficient concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.

Sorbent((.  A)) is the material ((which is)) contained in a cartridge or canister ((and which)) that removes ((toxic)) gases and vapors from the inhaled air.

Spray((.))  means a liquid, mechanically-produced particle with sizes generally in the visible ((or macroscopic range)).

Supplied-air respirator((.  See respirator.

Supplied-air suit.  A suit that is impermeable to most particulate and gaseous contaminants and that is provided with an adequate supply of respirable air)) (SAR) or airline respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is drawn from a separate, stationary system or an uncontaminated environment.

Tight-fitting facepiece means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

Time-weighted average (TWA)((.))  means the average concentration of a contaminant in air during a specific time period.

User seal check means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.

Valve (air or oxygen)((.  A device which)) means a device that controls the pressure, direction, or rate of flow of air or oxygen.

((Vapor.  The gaseous state of a substance that is solid or liquid at ordinary temperature and pressure.

Welding helmet.  A device designed to provide protection for the eyes and face against intense radiant energy and molten metal splatter encountered in the welding and cutting of metals.))

Window indicator((.))  means a device on a cartridge or canister that visually denotes the service life of the cartridge or canister.

You means the employer or the employer’s designee except in WAC 296-62-07117(2) "Important Information About Voluntary Use of Respirators" when you refers to the employee.

Your refers to the employer or the employer’s designee except in WAC 296-62-07117(2) "Important Information About Voluntary Use of Respirators" when your refers to the employee.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  95-04-007, § 296-62-07105, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07105, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-62-07105, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-62-07105, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.  RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07105, filed 7/27/81.]

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 90-01, filed 4/10/90, effective 5/25/90)

WAC 296-62-07107
((Permissible practice.)) When is a respiratory protection program required?

(((1) In the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fumes, sprays, mists, fogs, smokes, vapors, gases, or other airborne contaminants, the primary objective shall be to prevent atmospheric contamination.  When effective administrative or engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted or evaluated, appropriate respirators shall be used pursuant to the following requirements.

(2) Employer responsibility.

(a) Respirators shall be provided at no cost to an employee by the employer and the employer shall ensure the use of such equipment when such equipment is necessary to protect the health of the employee.

(b) The employer shall provide respirators which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended.

(c) The employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory protection program which shall minimally include the general requirements outlined in WAC 296-62-07109.

(3) Employee responsibility.  The employee shall use the provided respiratory protection in accordance with instructions and training received.  The employee shall notify a responsible person of any defect.)) (1) In any workplace where respirators are necessary to protect the health of the employee or whenever you require respirator use, you must develop and implement a written respiratory protection program with worksite-specific procedures and specifications for required respirator use.

(2) Upon request, you must provide the director’s representative a copy of your written respiratory protection program.

Note:OSHA’s Small Entity Compliance Guide contains criteria for the selection of a program administrator and a sample program that meets the requirements of this paragraph. Copies of the Small Entity Compliance Guide will be available from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Office of Publications, Room N 3101, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20210.

[Statutory Authority: Chapters 49.17 RCW.  90-09-026 (Order 90-01), § 296-62-07107, filed 4/10/90, effective 5/25/90.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-03-023 (Order 82-1), § 296-62-07107, filed 1/15/82.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07107, filed 7/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 82-22, filed 6/11/82)

WAC 296-62-07109
((Minimal acceptable respirator program.)) When must you update your written respiratory protection program?

(((1) Standard operating procedures.  Written standard operating procedures covering a complete respirator program shall be established and implemented in conformance with subsections (2) through (15) of this section.  The employer shall, upon request, submit a copy of the written standard operating procedures to the director.

(2) Program administration.  Responsibility and authority for the respirator program shall be assigned to a single person.  This program administrator shall have sufficient knowledge of respiratory protection to properly supervise the respirator program.

(3) Physiological and psychological limitations for respirator wearers.  The respirator program administrator or his or her designee, using guidelines established by a physician, shall determine whether or not a person may be assigned to a task requiring the use of a respirator.  Persons with physical disabilities such as, but not limited to, respiratory impairments, or claustrophobia when wearing a respirator, shall not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been determined by a qualified physician that they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment.  All respirator user's medical status should be reviewed annually.

(4) Approved or accepted respirators shall be used.  Any modification of an approved respirator that is not authorized by the approving agencies voids the approval.

(5) Respirator selection.  Respirators shall be selected on the basis of the hazards to which the worker is exposed.  (See WAC 296-62-07113)

(6) Training.  Each worker required to wear a respirator shall be given training such that he or she is knowledgeable and proficient with respect to the respirator to be worn.  Refresher training shall be given at least annually.

(7) Respirator fit.  Each respirator wearer shall be fitted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07113.  Each wearer of a respirator equipped with a facepiece shall check the seal of the respirator by appropriate means.  This may be done by using procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer.

(8) Facial hair, contact lenses, and eye and face protective devices.  A negative pressure respirator, any self-contained breathing apparatus, or any respirator which is used in an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH), equipped with a facepiece shall not be worn if facial hair comes between the sealing periphery of the facepiece and the face or if facial hair interferes with valve function.  The wearer of a respirator shall not be allowed to wear contact lenses if the risk of eye damage is increased by their use.  If a spectacle, goggle, face shield, or welding helmet must be worn with a facepiece, it shall be worn so as not to adversely affect the seal of the facepiece to the face.  (See WAC 296-62-07115(3).)

(9) Issue of respirators.  The proper type of respirator for each respiratory hazard shall be listed in the written standard operating procedures.

(10) Respirator inspection.  The respirator shall be inspected by the wearer prior to each use to ensure that it is in proper working condition.  Each respirator stored for emergency or rescue use shall be inspected at least once a month.  (See WAC 296-62-07115 and 296-62-07117.)

(11) Monitoring respirator use.  Supervisory personnel shall periodically monitor the use of respirators to ensure that they are worn properly.  (See WAC 296-62-07115(7).)

(12) Evaluating respiratory hazard.  Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or stress shall be maintained.  (See WAC 296-62-07115(8).)

(13) Medical and bioassay surveillance.  When appropriate, medical surveillance, including bioassay, shall be carried out to determine if respirator wearers are receiving adequate respiratory protection.  A physician shall determine the requirements of the surveillance program.

(14) Respirator maintenance.  Respirator maintenance shall be performed regularly.  Maintenance shall be carried out on a schedule which ensures that each respirator wearer is provided with a respirator that is clean and in good operating condition.  Maintenance shall include: (a) Washing, sanitizing, rinsing, and drying, (b) inspection for defects, (c) replacement of worn or deteriorated parts, (d) repair if necessary, and (e) storage to protect against dust, sunlight, excessive heat, extreme cold, excessive moisture, damaging chemicals, and physical damage.  (See WAC 296-62-07117.)

(15) Respirator program evaluation.  An appraisal of the effectiveness of the respirator program shall be carried out at least annually.  Action shall be taken to correct defects found in the program.)) The program must be updated as necessary to reflect those changes in workplace conditions that may affect respirator use.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-62-07109, filed 6/11/82; 82-03-023 (Order 82-1), § 296-62-07109, filed 1/15/82.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07109, filed 7/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-19, filed 7/27/81)

WAC 296-62-07111
((Respirable air and oxygen for self-contained breathing apparatus and supplied air respirators.)) What must be included in your written respiratory protection program?

((Compressed gaseous air, compressed gaseous oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen used for respiration shall be of high purity.  Compressed gaseous or liquid oxygen shall meet the requirements of the United States Pharmacopeia for medical or breathing oxygen.  Chemically generated oxygen shall meet the requirements of U.S. Department of Defense Military Specification MIL-E-83252 or Military Specification MIL-O-15633c.  Compressed gaseous air shall meet at least the requirements of the specification for Type I - Grade D breathing air, and liquid air shall meet at least the requirements for Type II - Grade B breathing air as described in American National Standard Commodity Specification for Air, ANSI Z86.1-1973 (Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1, 1973).

(1) Compressed gaseous air may contain low concentrations of oil.  If high-pressure oxygen passes through an oil- or grease-coated orifice, an explosion or fire may occur.  Therefore, compressed gaseous oxygen shall not be used in supplied-air respirators or in open-circuit-type self-contained breathing apparatus that have previously used compressed air.

(2) Breathing air may be supplied to respirators from cylinders or air compressors.  Cylinders shall be tested and maintained in accordance with applicable department of transportation specifications for shipping containers (Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 173, General Requirements for Shipments and Packagings, and Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications).  A compressor shall be constructed and situated so as to avoid entry of contaminated air into the air-supply system and shall be equipped with a suitable in-line particulate filter followed by a bed of activated charcoal and, if necessary, a moisture adsorber to further assure breathing air quality.  These filters should be placed before any receiver and after the discharge in the compressor.  If an oil-lubricated compressor is used, it shall be equipped with a carbon monoxide alarm or an equally as effective alternative if approved by the department.

(a) If a carbon monoxide alarm is used, it shall be calibrated to activate at or below 20 parts per million carbon monoxide at least once per month.  A calibration and maintenance log shall be kept and shall be available for review and copying by the director or his or her designee.  The log shall identify the test method, date, time of test, results, and the name of the person performing the test.  The log shall be retained for at least one year from the date of the test.

(b) If the use of an alarm at the compressor will not effectively provide warning to the respirator wearer of a carbon monoxide problem, a remote alarm or other means of warning the wearer shall be used.

(3) Breathing air couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for nonrespirable plant air or other gas systems to prevent inadvertent servicing of air-line respirators with nonrespirable gases.

(4) Breathing gas containers shall be marked in accordance with American National Standard Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained, ANSI Z48.1-1954 (R1971); Federal Specification BB-A-1034a, June 21, 1968, Air, Compressed for Breathing Purposes; or Interim Federal Specification GG-B-675d, September 23, 1976, Breathing Apparatus, Self-Contained.  Further details on sources of compressed air and its safe use will be found in Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G-7, 1976, Compressed Air for Human Respiration.)) Include the following provision in your written program, as applicable:

• Procedures for selecting respirators for use in the workplace and a list identifying the proper type of respirator for each respiratory hazard (see WAC 296-62-07130 through 296-62-07133);

• Medical evaluations of employees required to use respirators (see WAC 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156);

• Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting respirators (see WAC 296-62-07160 through 296-62-07162, and WAC 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07248, Appendices A-1, A-2, and A-3);

• Procedures for proper use of respirators in routine tasks, nonroutine tasks, reasonably foreseeable emergency and rescue situations (see WAC 296-62-07170 through 296-62-07172);

• Procedures for issuing the proper type of respirator based on the respiratory hazards for each employee;

• Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, discarding, and otherwise maintaining respirators (see WAC 296-62-07175 through 296-62-07179 and WAC 296-62-07253);

• Procedures to make sure adequate air quality, quantity, and flow of breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators (see WAC 296-62-07182);

• Training of employees in the respiratory hazards to which they are potentially exposed during routine, nonroutine, and unforeseeable emergency and rescue situations (see WAC 296-62-07188);

• Training of employees in the proper use of respirators, including putting on and removing them, any limitations on their use, and their maintenance (see WAC 296-62-07188); and

• Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program (see WAC 296-62-07192).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07111, filed 7/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-19-014, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97)

WAC 296-62-07113
((Selection of respirators.)) What are the requirements for a program administrator?

(((1) General considerations.  Proper selection of respirators shall be made in accordance with the classification, capabilities, and limitations listed in tables I through IV of this section.  Additional guidance may be obtained by referring to American National Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection Z88.2 - 1980.

(2) Respirator protection factor (PF).  Respirators shall be selected according to the characteristics of the hazards involved, the capabilities and limitations of the respirators, and the ability of each respirator wearer to obtain a satisfactory fit with a respirator.  Taking into account the capabilities and limitations of respirators and the results of respirator-fitting tests, a table of respirator protection factors has been prepared (see Table V).  A respirator protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to a wearer.  Multiplying either (a) the permissible time-weighted average concentration or the permissible ceiling concentration, whichever is applicable, for a toxic substance, or (b) the maximum permissible airborne concentration for a radionuclide by a protection factor assigned to a respirator gives the maximum concentration of the hazardous substance in which the respirator can be used.  Limitations of filters, cartridges, and canisters also shall be considered (see Table V).

(3) Respirator-fitting tests.  A qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test shall be used to determine the ability of each individual respirator wearer to obtain a satisfactory fit with a negative-pressure respirator.  The results of qualitative or quantitative respirator fitting-tests shall be used to select specific types, makes, and models of negative-pressure respirators for use by individual respirator wearers.  A respirator-fitting test shall be carried out for each wearer of a negative-pressure respirator equipped with a facepiece.  Respirator-fitting tests shall not be required for positive-pressure respirators or for mouthpiece respirators.

(a) Qualitative respirator-fitting test - A person wearing a respirator is exposed to an irritant smoke, an odorous vapor, or other suitable test agent.  An air-purifying respirator must be equipped with an air-purifying element(s) which effectively removes the test agent from inspired air.  If the respirator wearer is unable to detect penetration of the test agent into the respirator, the respirator wearer has achieved a satisfactory fit with the respirator.

(b) Quantitative respirator-fitting test - A person wears a respirator in a test atmosphere containing a test agent in the form of an aerosol, vapor, or gas.  Instrumentation, which samples the test atmosphere and the air inside the respiratory-inlet covering of the respirator, is used to measure quantitatively the penetration of the test agent into the respiratory-inlet covering.

(c) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test, the respirator wearer shall carry out a series of exercises which simulate work movements.

(d) When carrying out respirator-fitting tests, it shall be an acceptable procedure to make the following modifications to respirators provided that such modifications do not affect the seal of the respirators to wearers.

(i) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test which uses an aerosol as the test agent, it shall be acceptable procedure to equip an air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency filter.

(ii) When carrying out a qualitative or quantitative respirator-fitting test which uses a vapor or gas as the test agent, it shall be acceptable procedure to equip an air-purifying respirator with an appropriate cartridge or canister which removes the vapor or gas from air.

(iii) When carrying out a quantitative respirator-fitting test, it shall be acceptable procedure to attach a sampling probe to the respirator which is connected by flexible tubing to an instrument which measures the penetration of the test agent into the respirator.

(e) If a qualitative respirator-fitting test has been used in respirator selection, a person shall be allowed to use only the specific make(s) and model(s) of respirator(s) for which the person obtained a satisfactory fit, and the respirator protection factor listed under "qualitative test" in Table V shall apply.  Under no circumstances shall a person be allowed to use any respirator for which the results of the qualitative respirator fitting test indicate that the person is unable to obtain a satisfactory fit.

(f) If a quantitative respirator-fitting test has been used in selecting a respirator, the test results shall be used to assign a respirator protection factor to each person for each specific make and model of respirator tested.  The assigned respirator protection factor shall be applied when the person wears the specific respirator in a hazardous atmosphere, but it shall not exceed the respirator protection factor listed under "quantitative test" in table V for the particular type of respirator.

(4) Respirator-fitting test records.  Records of respirator-fitting tests shall be kept for at least the duration of employment.  These records shall include the following information:

(a) Type of respirator-fitting test used;

(b) Specific make and model of respirator tested;

(c) Name of person tested;

(d) Name of test operator;

(e) Date of test;

(f) Results of respirator-fitting tests;

(i) Success or failure of person to obtain satisfactory fit if a qualitative respirator-fitting test was carried out.

(ii) Respirator protection factor based upon test results if a quantitative respirator-fitting test was carried out.

(5) Face dimensions and facepiece sizes.  The wide range of face dimensions may require more than a single size of respirator facepiece to provide a proper fit to all respirator users.  Therefore, respirator facepieces of more than one size should be available in any respirator-selection program involving respirators equipped with facepieces.


Table 1

Classification of Respiratory Hazards According to Their Biological Effect

Oxygen DeficiencyGas and Vapor ContaminantsParticulate Contaminants

(Dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke, and spray)

Minimum legal requirements: 19.5% by volume for respirable air at-sea-level conditions. (See Note 1.)Asphyxiants: Interfere with utilization of oxygen in the body.Relatively inert: May cause discomfort and minor irritation, but generally without injury at reasonable concentrations (for example: marble, gypsum).
Occurrence: Confined or unventilated cellars, wells, mines, ship holds, tanks, burning buildings, and enclosures containing inert atmospheres.Simple asphyxiants: Physiologically inert substances that dilute oxygen in the air (for example: nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, methane). See Oxygen Deficiency, Column 1.
Pulmonary-fibrosis-producing: produce nodulation and fibrosis in the lung, possibly leading to complications (for example: quartz, asbestos).
Atmospheric oxygen content (percent by volume) versus expected conditions:Chemical asphyxiants: Low concentrations interfere with supply or utilization of oxygen in the body (for example: carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, and nitriles).Carcinogens: Produce cancer in some individuals after latent period (for example: asbestos, chromates, radioactive particulates).
20.9%: Oxygen content of normal air at sea-level conditions.Chemical irritants: Produce irritation, inflammation, and ulceration in the upper respiratory tract (for example: acidic mists, alkalies).
Oxygen

Volume

Percent

at Sea

LevelPhysiological Effects

Irritants: Corrosive in action. May cause irritation and inflammation of parts of the respiratory system (also skin and eyes) and pulmonary edema (for example: ammonia hydrogen chloride, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, ozone, nitrogen dioxide,

phosgene, and arsenic trichloride).

Systemic poisons: Produce pathologic reactions in various systems of the body (for example: lead, manganese, cadmium).
16%-12% Loss of peripheral vision, increased breathing volume, accelerated heartbeat, impaired attention and thinking, impaired coordination.
Allergy-producing: Produce reactions such as

itching, sneezing, and asthmas (for example:

pollens, spices, and animal fur).

12%-10% Very faulty judgment, very poor muscular coordination, muscular exertion causes fatigue that may cause permanent heart damage, intermittent respiration
Anesthetics: Causes loss of feeling and sensation with unconsciousness and death possible (for example: nitrous oxide, hydro-carbons and ethers). Some anesthetics injure body organs (for example: carbon tetrachloride (liver and kidneys), chloroform (liver and heart), benzene (bone marrow),and carbon disulfide (nervous system)).
Febrile-reaction-producing: Produce chills followed by fever (for example: fumes of zinc

and copper).

10%-6% Nausea, vomiting, inability to perform vigorous movement, unconsciousness followed by death.
Less

than 6% Spasmatic breathing, convulsive movements, death in minutes.

Sensitizers: Cause increased probability of physiological reactions (for example: isocyanates, epoxy resin systems).
Systemic poisons: Damage organs and systems in the body (for example: mercury (nervous system and various organs),

phosphorus (bone), hydrogen sulfide (respiratory paralysis), and arsine (red blood cells and liver)).

Carcinogens: produce cancer in some individuals after a latent period (for example: vinyl chloride, benzene).
Combination of Gas, Vapor, and Particulate Contaminants
Combinations of contaminants may occur simultaneously in the atmosphere. Contaminants may be entirely different substances (dusts and gases from blasting) or the particulate and vapor forms of the same substance. Synergistic effects (joint action of two or more agents that results in an effect which is greater than the sum of their individual effects) may occur. Such effects may require extraordinary protective measures.

NOTE 1:See definition in WAC 296-62-07105 for "oxygen deficiency - not immediately dangerous to life or health" and "oxygen deficiency - immediately dangerous to life or health."

Table 2

Classification of Respiratory Hazards According to

Their Properties Which Influence Respirator Selection


Gas and Vapor Contaminants
Particulate Contaminants
Inert: Substances that do not react with other substances under most conditions, but create a respiratory hazard by displacing air and producing oxygen deficiency (for example: helium, neon, argon).Particles are produced by mechanical means by disintegration processes such as grinding, crushing, blasting, and spraying; or by physio-chemical reactions such as combustion, vaporization, distillation, sublimation, calcination, and condensation. Particles are classified as follows:
Acidic: Substances that are acids or that react with water to produce an acid. In water, they produce positively charged hydrogen ions (H+1) and a pH of less than 7. They taste sour, and many are corrosive to tissues (for example: hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, fluorine, nitrogen dioxide, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide).
Dust: A solid, mechanically produced particle with sizes varying from

submicroscopic to visible or macroscopic. Spray: A liquid, mechanically produced particle with sizes generally in the visible or macroscopic range.

Alkaline: Substances that are alkalies or that react with water to produce an alkali. In water, they result in the production of negatively charged hydroxyl ions (OH-1) and a pH greater than 7. They taste bitter, and many are corrosive to tissues (for example: ammonia, amines, phospine, arsine, and stibine).
Fume: A solid condensation particle of extremely small particle size,

generally less than one micrometer in diameter.

Mist: A liquid condensation particle with sizes ranging from submicroscopic to visible or macroscoic.
Organic: The components of carbon. Examples are saturated hydro-carbons (methane, ethane, butane) unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene, acetylene) alcohols (methyl ether, ethyl ether) aldehydes (formaldehyde), ketones (methyl ketone), organic acids (formic acid, acetic acid), halides (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride), amides (formamide, acetamide), nitriles (acetonitrile), isocyanates (toluene diisocyanate), amines (methylamine), epoxies (epoxyethane, propylene oxide), and aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene).
Fog: A mist of sufficient concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.
Smoke: A system which includes the products of combustion, pyrolysis, or chemical reaction of substances in the form of visible and invisible solid and liquid particles and gaseous products in air. Smoke is usually of sufficient concentration to perceptibly obscure vision.
Organometallic: Compounds in which metals are chemically bonded to organic groups (for example: ethyl silicate, tetraethyl lead, and organic phosphate).
Hydrides: Compounds in which hydrogen is chemically bonded to metals and certain other elements (for example: diborane and tetraborane).


Table 3

Classification and Description of Respirators by Mode of Operation

Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators
Air-Purifying
A respirable atmosphere independent of the ambient air is supplied to the wearer.
Ambient air, prior to being inhaled, is passed through a filter, cartridge, or canister which removes particles, vapors, gases, or a combination of these contaminants. The breathing action of the wearer operates the nonpowered type of respirator. The powered type contains a blower-stationary or carried by the wearer - which passes ambient air through an air-purifying component and then supplies purified air to the respirator-inlet covering. The nonpowered type is equipped with a facepiece or mouth-piece and nose clamp. The powered type is equipped with a facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit.
Self-Contained Breathing

Apparatus (SCBA)

Supplied-Air Respirators

A supply of air, oxygen, or oxygen-generated material is carried by the wearer. Normally equipped with full facepiece, but may be equipped with a quarter-mask facepiece, half-mask facepiece, helmet, hood or mouthpiece and nose clamp.(1) Hose Mask
Equipped with a facepiece, breathing tube, rugged safety harness, and large-diameter heavy-duty non-kinking air-supply hose. The breathing tube and air-supply hose are securely attached to the harness. The facepiece is equipped with an exhalation valve. The harness has provision for attaching a safety line.
Vapor-and-Gas-Removing RespiratorsParticulate-Removing Respirators
Equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) remove a single vapor or gas (for example: chlorine gas), a single class of vapors or gases (for example: organic vapors), or a combination of two or more classes of vapors or gases (for example: organic vapors and acidic gases) from air.Equipped with filter(s) to remove a single type of particulate matter (for example: dust) or a combination of two or more types of particulate matter (for example: dust and fume) from air. Filter may be a replaceable part or a permanent part of the respirator. Filter may be of the single-use or the reusable type.
(1) Closed-Circuit SCBA (oxygen only, negative pressurea or positive pressureb).(a) Hose mask with blower. Air is supplied by a motor-driven or hand-operated blower. The wearer can continue to inhale through the hose if the blower fails. Up to 300 feet (91 meters) of hose length is permissible.

(a) Compressed liquid oxygen type. Equipped with a facepiece or mouth-piece and nose clamp. High-pressure oxygen from a gas cylinder passes through a high-pressure reducing valve, and in some designs, through a low-pressure admission valve to a breathing bag or container. Liquid oxygen is converted to low-pressure gaseous oxygen and delivered to the breathing bag. The wearer inhales from the bag through a corrugated tube connected to a mouthpiece or facepiece and a one-way check valve. Exhaled air passes through another check valve and tube into a container of carbon-dioxide removing chemical and reenters the breathing bag. Make-up oxygen enters the bag continuously or as the bag deflates sufficiently to actuate an admission valve. A pressure-relief system is provided, and a manual bypass and saliva trap may be provided depending upon the design.
Combination Particulate-and Vapor-and Gas-Removing Respirators

Equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) to remove particulate matter, vapors and gases from air. The filter may be a permanent part or a replaceable part of a cartridge or canister.


(b) Hose mask without blower. The wearer provides motivating force to pull air through the hose. The hose inlet is anchored and fitted with a funnel or like object covered with a fine mesh screen to prevent entrance of course particulate matter. Up to 75 feet (23 meters) of hose length is permissible.
(2) Air-Line Respirator Respirable air is supplied through a small-diameter hose from a compressor or compressed-air cylinder(s). The hose is attached to the wearer by a belt or other suitable means and can be detached rapidly in an emergency. A flow-control valve or orifice is provided to govern the rate of air flow to the wearer. Exhaled air passes to the ambient atmosphere through a valve(s) or opening(s) in the enclosure (facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit). Up to 300 feet (91 meters) of hose length is permissible.
(b) Oxygen-generating type. Equipped with a facepiece or mouth-piece and nose clamp. Water vapor in the exhaled breath reacts with chemical in the canister to release oxygen to the breathing bag. The wearer inhales from the bag through a corrugated tube and one-way check valve at the facepiece.
Exhaled air passes through a second check valve/breathing tube assembly into the canister. The oxygen-release rate is governed by the volume of exhaled air. Carbon dioxide in the exhaled breath is removed by the canister fill.
(a) Continuous-flow class. Equipped with a facepiece, hood, helmet, or suit. At least 115 liters (four cubic feet) of air per minute to tight-fitting facepieces and 170 liters (six cubic feet) of air per minute to loose fitting helmets, hoods and suits is required. Air is supplied to a suit through a system of internal tubes to the head, trunk and extremities through valves located in appropriate parts of the suit.
(2) Open-Circuit (SCBA) (compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, liquid oxygen). A bypass system is provided in case of regulator failure except on escape-type units.
(a) Demand-type.c Equipped with a facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp. The demand valve permits oxygen or air flow only during inhalation. Exhaled breath passes to ambient atmosphere through a valve(s) in the facepiece.
(b) Demand type.c Equipped with a facepiece only. The demand valve permits flow of air only during inhalation.
(b) Pressure-demand type.d Equipped with a facepiece only. Positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece. The apparatus may have provision for the wearer to select the demand or pressure-demand mode of operation, in which case the demand mode should be used only when donning or removing the apparatus.
(c) Pressure-demand type.d Equipped with a facepiece only. A positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece.
Combination Air-Line Respirators with Auxiliary Self-Contained Air Supply
Includes an air-line respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply.

To escape from a hazardous atmosphere in the event the primary air supply

falls to operate, the wearer switches to the auxiliary self-contained air

supply. Devices approved for both entry into and escape from dangerous

atmospheres have a low-pressure warning alarm and contain at least a 15-

minute self-contained air supply.

Combination Atmosphere-Supplying and Air-Purifying Respirators
Provide the wearer with the option of using either of two different modes of operation: (1) an atmosphere-supplying respirator with an auxiliary air-purifying attachment which provides protection in the event the air supply fails or (2) an air-purifying respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply which is used when the atmosphere may exceed safe conditions for use of an air-purifying respirator.
aDevice produces negative pressure in respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation.
bDevice produces positive pressure in respiratory-inlet covering during both inhalation and exhalation.
cEquipped with a demand valve that is activated on initiation of inhalation and permits the flow of breathing atmosphere to the facepiece. On exhalation, pressure in the facepiece becomes positive and the demand valve is deactivated.
dA positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece by a spring-loaded or balanced regulator and exhalation valve.

Table 4

Capabilities and Limitations of Respirators


Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators
Air-Purifying Respirators
(See WAC 296-62-07111 for specifications on respirable atmospheres.)
General limitations: Air-purifying respirators do not protect against oxygen-deficient atmospheres nor against skin irritation by, or sorption through the skin of airborne contaminants.
Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide protection against oxygen deficiency and toxic atmospheres. The breathing atmosphere is independent of ambient atmospheric conditions.
General limitations: Except for some air-line suits, no protection is provided against skin irritation by materials such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride, or against sorption of materials such as hydrogen cyanide, tritium, or organic phosphate pesticides through the skin. Facepieces present special problems to individuals required to wear prescription lenses. Use of atmosphere-supplying respirators in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health is limited to specific devices under specified conditions (see Table 5.)
The maximum contaminant concentration against which an air-purifying respirator will protect is determined by the design efficiency and capacity of the cartridge, canister, or filter and the facepiece-to-face seal on the user. For gases and vapors, the maximum concentration for which the air-purifying element is designed is specified by the manufacturer or is listed on labels of cartridges and canisters.
Self-Contained Breathing

Apparatus (SCBA)

Supplied-Air Respirators

Nonpowered air-purifying respirators will not provide the maximum design protection specified unless the facepiece or mouthpiece/nose clamp is carefully fitted to the wearer's face to prevent inward leakage (WAC 296-62-07115(4). The time period over which protection is provided is dependent on canister, cartridge, or filter type; concentration of contaminant; humidity levels in the ambient atmosphere; and the wearer's respiratory rate.
The wearer carries his own breathing atmosphere.
The respirable air supply is not limited to the quantity the individual can carry, and the devices are lightweight and simple.
Limitations: The period over which the device will provide protection is limited by the amount of air or oxygen in the apparatus, the ambient atmospheric pressure (service life of open-circuit devices is cut in half by a doubling of the atmospheric pressure), and the type of work being performed. Some SCBA devices have a short service life (less than 15 minutes) and are suitable only for escape (self-rescue) from an irreparable atmosphere.
Limitations: Limited to use in

atmospheres from which the wearer can escape unharmed without the aid of the respirator.

The proper type of canister, cartridge, or filter must be selected for the particular atmosphere and conditions. Nonpowered air-purifying

respirators may cause discomfort due to a noticeable resistance to

inhalation. This problem is minimized in powered respirators. Respirator facepieces present special problems to individuals required to wear prescription lenses. These devices do have the advantage of being small, light, and simple in operation.

The wearer is restricted in movement by the hose and must return to a respirable atmosphere by retracing his route of entry. The hose is subject to being served or pinched off.
Use of air-purifying respirators in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health is limited to specific devices under specified conditions (See Table 5).
Chief limitations of SCBA devices are their weight or bulk, or both, limited service life, and the training requirements for their maintenance and safe use.(1) Hose Mask.

The hose inlet or blower must be located and secured in a respirable atmosphere.

Vapor and Gas-Removing Respirators
Particulate-Removing Respirators
Limitations: No protection is provided against particulate contaminants. A rise in canister or cartridge temperature indicates that a gas or vapor is being removed from the inspired air.
Limitations: Protection against non-volatile particles only. No protection against gases and vapors. Not for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health unless the device is a powered-type respirator with escape provisions (see Table 5).
(1) Closed-Circuit SCBA The closed-circuit operation conserves oxygen and permits longer service life at reduced weight.(a) Hose mask with blower. If the blower fails, the unit still provides protection, although a negative pressure exists in the facepiece during inhalation.
An uncomfortably high temperature indicates a high concentration of gas or vapor and requires an immediate return to fresh air.
The negative-pressure type produces a negative pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation, and this may permit inward leakage of contaminants; whereas the positive-pressure type always maintains a positive pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering and is less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants.(b) Hose mask without blower. Maximum hose length may restrict application of device.
(2) Air-Line Respirator (Continuous Flow, Demand and Pressure-Demand Types).
Use should be avoided in atmospheres where the contaminant(s) lack sufficient warning properties (that is: odor, taste, or irritation at a concentration in air at or above the permissible exposure limit). Vapor-and gas-removing respirators are not approved for contaminants that lack adequate warning properties.(1) Full Facepiece Respirator.
The demand type produces a negative pressure in the facepiece on inhalation, whereas continuous-flow and pressure-demand types maintain a positive-pressure in the respirator-inlet covering and are less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants.
Provides protection against eye irritation in addition to respiratory protection.
(2) Open Circuit SCBA.
Air-line suits may protect against atmospheres that irritate the skin or that may be absorbed through the unbroken skin.(2) Quarter-Mask and Half-Mask Facepiece Respirator. A fabric covering (facelet) available from some manufacturers shall not used unless approved for use with respirator.
The demand type produces a negative pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation, whereas the pressure-demand type maintains a positive pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation and is less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants.Not for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health unless the device is a powered-type respirator with escape provisions (see Table 5).
(3) Mouthpiece Respirator.
Shall be used only for escape applications. Mouth breathing prevents detection of contaminant by odor. Nose clamp must be securely in place to prevent nasal breathing.
(1) Full Facepiece Respirator.
Provides protection against eye

irritation in addition to respiratory protection.

Limitations: Air-line respirators provide no protection if the air supply fails. Some contaminants, such as tritium, may penetrate the material of an air-line suit and limit its effectiveness.
(2) Quarter-Mask and Half-Mask Face-piece Respirator. A fabric covering (facelet) available from some manufacturers shall not be used.
A small, lightweight device that

can be donned quickly.

Other contaminants, such as fluorine, may react chemically with the material of an air-line suit and damage it.
(3) Mouthpiece Respirator. Shall be used only for escape application. Mouth breathing prevents detection of contaminant by odor. iNose clamp must be securely in place to prevent nasal breathing.
Combination Airline Respirators with Auxiliary SCBA Air Supply
The auxiliary self-contained air supply on this type of device allows the wearer to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. This device with auxiliary self-contained air supply is approved for escape and may be used for entry when it contains at least 15-minute auxiliary self-contained air supply. (See Table 5).
A small lightweight device that can be donned quickly.
Combination Particulate-and-Vapor-and Gas-Removing Respirators
The advantages and disadvantages of the component sections of the

combination respirator as described above apply.

Combination Atmosphere-Supplying and Air-Purifying Respirators
The advantages and disadvantages, expressed above, of the mode of operation being used will govern. The mode with the greater limitations (air-purifying mode) will mainly determine the overall capabilities and limitations of the respirator, since the wearer may for some reason fail to change the mode of operation even though conditions would require such a change.

Table 5

Respirator Protection Factorsa


Type of Respirator

Permitted for Use

in Oxygen-Deficient

Atmosphere

Permitted for Use in

Immediately-Dangerous-to Life-or-Health Atmospheref

Qualitative Test

Quantitative Test

Particulate-filter

quarter-mask or half-

mask facepieceb,c

NoNo 10As measured on each person with

maximum of 100.

Vapor- or gas-removing, quarter-mask or half-mask facepiececNoNo10, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gas, which-ever is lessAs measured on each person with maximum of 100, or maximum use

limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gasi,j, whichever is less.

Combination particulate-filter and vapor-or gas-removing, quarter-mask or half-mask facepieceb,cNoNo10, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gas, which-ever is lessAs measured on each person with maximum of 100, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gasi,j, whichever is less.
Particulate-filter, full

facepieceb

NoNo 100As measured on each person with maximum of 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is used or maximum of 1,000 if high-efficiency filter is used.
Vapor- or gas-removing, full facepieceNoNo100, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gas, which-ever is lessAs measured on each person with maximum of 1000, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gasi,j, whichever is less.
Combination particulate-filter and vapor-or gas-removing, full facepiecebNoNo100, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gas, which-ever is lessAs measured on each person with maximum of 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is used and maximum of 1,000 if high-efficiency filter is used, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor or gasi,j, which-ever is less.
Powered particulate-filter,

any respiratory-inlet

coveringb,c,d

NoNo (yes, if escape

provisions are providedd)

NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is used and 3,000 if high-efficiency filter is used.
Powered vapor- or gas-

removing, any respiratory-

inlet coveringc,d

NoNo (yes, if escape provisions are providedd) NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 3,000 or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor of gasi,j, whichever is less.
Powered combination particulate-filter and vapor-or gas-removing, any respirator-inlet coveringb,c,dNoNo (yes, if escape provisions are providedd) NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 100 if dust, fume, or mist filter is used and 3,000 if high-efficiency filter is used, or maximum use limit of cartridge or canister for vapor of gas i,j, whichever is less.
Air-line, demand, quarter-

mask or half-mask facepiece,

with or without escape

provisionsc,e

YesfNo 10As measured on each person, but limited to the use of the respirator in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.
Air-line, demand, full face-piece, with or without escape provisionseYesfNo 100As measured on each person but limited to the use of the respirators in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.
Air-line, continuous-flow or pressure-demand type, any facepiece without escape provisionscYesfNo NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The protection factor provided by the respirator is limited to the use of the respirator in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.
Air-line, continuous-flow or pressure-demand type, any facepiece with escape provisionsc,eYesgYes NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.
Air-line, continuous flow, helmet, hood, or suit, without escape provisionsYesfNo NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The protection factor provided by the respirator is limited to the use of the respirator in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or-health (IDLH) values.
Air-line, continuous flow, helmet, hood, or suit, with escape provisionseYesgNo NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.
Hose mask, with or without blower, full facepieceYesfNo 10As measured on each person, but limited to the use of the respirators in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or health (IDLH) values.
Self-contained breathing apparatus, demand-type open-circuit, or negative-pressure-type closed-circuit quarter-mask or half-mask facepiececYesfNo 10As measured on each person, but limited to the use of the respirators in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or health (IDLH) values.
Self-contained breathing apparatus, demand-type open-circuit, or negative-pressure-type closed-circuit, full facepiece or mouthpiece/nose clampcYesf (Yesg, if respirator is used for mine rescue and mine recovery operations.)No (Yes if respirator is used for mine rescue and mine recovery operations.) 100As measured on each person, but limited to the use of the respirators in concentrations of contaminants below the immediately-dangerous-to-life-or health (IDLH) values, except when the respirator is used for mine rescue and mine recovery operations.
Self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure-demand type open-circuit, or positive-pressure-type closed-circuit quarter-mask or half-mask facepiece or mouthpiece/nose clampcYesgYes NA NA
No tests are required due to positive-pressure operation of respirator. The maximum protection factor is 10,000 plush.
Combination respirators. The type and mode of operation having the lowest respirator protection factor shall be applied to the Combination Respirator not listed.
N/Ameans not applicable since a respirator-fitting test is not carried out.
aA respirator protection factor is a measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to a respirator wearer. Multiplying the permissible time-weighted average concentration or the permissible ceiling concentration, whichever is applicable, for a toxic substance, or the maximum permissible airborne concentration for a radionuclide, by a protection factor assigned to a respirator gives the maximum concentration of the hazardous substance for which the respirator can be used. Limitations of filters, cartridges, and canisters used in air-purifying respirators shall be considered in determining protection factors.
bWhen the respirator is used for protection against airborne particulate matter having a permissible time-weighted average concentration less than 0.05 milligram particulate matter per cubic meter of air or less than 2 million particles per cubic foot of air, or for protection against airborne radionuclide particulate matter, the respirator shall be equipped with a high-efficiency filter(s).
cIf the air contaminant causes eye irritation, the wearer of a respirator equipped with a quarter-mask or half-mask facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp shall be permitted to use a protective goggle or to use a respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Mouthpiece and nose clamp respirators are approved by NIOSH only for escape from IDLH atmospheres.
dIf the powered air-purifying respirator is equipped with a facepiece, the escape provision means that the wearer is able to breathe through the filter, cartridge, or canister and through the pump. If the powered air-purifying respirator is equipped with a helmet, hood, or suit, the escape provision shall be an auxiliary self-contained supply of respirable air.
eThe escape provision shall be an auxiliary self-contained supply of respirable air.
fFor definition of "oxygen deficiency-not immediately dangerous to life or health" see WAC 296-62-07105.
gFor definition of "oxygen deficiency-immediately dangerous to life or health" see WAC 296-62-07105.
hThe protection factor measurement exceeds the limit of sensitivity of the test apparatus. Therefore, the respirator has been classified for use in atmospheres having unknown concentrations of contaminants.
iThe service life of a vapor-or-gas removing cartridge canister depends on the specific vapor or gas, the concentration of the vapor or gas in air, the temperature and humidity of the air, the type and quantity of the sorbent in the cartridge or canister, and the activity of the respirator wearer. Cartridges and canisters may provide only very short service lives for certain vapors and gases. Vapor/gas service life testing is recommended to ensure that cartridges and canisters provide adequate service lines. Reference should be made to published reports which give vapor/gas life data for cartridges and canisters.
jVapor-and-gas removing respirators are not approved for contaminants that lack adequate warning properties of odor, irritation, or taste at concentrations in air at or above the permissible exposure limits.

Note:Respirator protection factors for air-purifying-type respirators equipped with a mouthpiece/nose clamp form of respirator-inlet covering are not given, since such respirators are approved only for escape purposes.))

You must designate a program administrator qualified by training or experience appropriate to the needs of your program to:

• Oversee the respiratory protection program; and

• Conduct the required evaluations of program effectiveness.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060.  97-19-014, § 296-62-07113, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-62-07113, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-62-07113, filed 7/6/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07113, filed 7/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 88-11, filed 7/6/88)

WAC 296-62-07115
((Use of respirators.)) Who pays for the respirators, training, medical evaluations, and fit testing?

(((1) Standard operating procedures.  Written standard operating procedures shall cover a complete respirator program and shall include information necessary for the proper use of respirators, including training of respirator wearers, respirator sealing tests, issuance of respirators, inspection of respirators prior to use, monitoring respirator use, monitoring respiratory hazard, and planning for routine, nonroutine, emergency, and rescue uses of respirators.

(a) The written standard operating procedures shall include plans necessary to ensure the safe routine use and nonroutine use of respirators.  Emergency and rescue uses of respirators shall be anticipated, and the written standard operating procedures shall include plans necessary to ensure the safe emergency and rescue uses of respirators.  Persons who wear respirators routinely, who wear respirators nonroutinely, and who may be required to wear respirators for emergency and rescue work shall be given adequate information concerning plans covering these respirator uses to ensure the safe use of respirators.

(b) Standard operating procedures for emergency and rescue use of respirators.  It is recognized that it is not possible to foresee every emergency and rescue use of respirators for every kind of operation.  Nevertheless, a wide variety of possible conditions requiring the emergency or rescue use of respirators can be envisioned and an adequate emergency and rescue respirator-response capability can be achieved through a serious effort to anticipate the worst possible consequences of particular malfunctions or mishaps.

The written standard operating procedures governing the emergency and rescue uses of respirators shall be developed in the following manner:

(i) An analysis of the emergency and rescue uses of respirators that may occur in each operation shall be made by careful consideration of materials, equipment, processes, and personnel involved.  Such an analysis shall be reviewed by the person who is thoroughly familiar with the particular operation.  Consideration shall be given to past occurrences requiring emergency or rescue uses of respirators as well as conditions which resulted in such respirator applications.  The possible consequences of equipment or power failures, uncontrolled chemical reactions, fire, explosion, or human error shall be given consideration.  All potential hazards which may result in emergency or rescue use of respirators shall be listed.

(ii) Based upon the analysis, appropriate types of respirators shall be selected, an adequate number shall be provided for each area where they may be needed for emergency or rescue use, and these respirators shall be maintained and stored so that they are readily accessible and operational when needed.

(iii) In areas where the wearer, with failure of the respirator, could be overcome by a toxic or oxygen-deficient atmosphere, at least one additional person shall be present.  Communications (visual, voice, or signal line) shall be maintained between both or all individuals present.  Planning shall be such that one individual will be unaffected by any likely incident and have the proper rescue equipment to be able to assist the other(s) in case of emergency.

(iv) When self-contained breathing apparatus or airline respirators with an escape provision are used in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health, standby workers must be present at the nearest fresh air base with suitable rescue equipment.

(v) Persons using air line respirators in atmospheres immediately hazardous to life or health shall be equipped with safety harnesses and safety lines for lifting or removing persons from hazardous atmospheres or other and equivalent provisions for the rescue of persons from hazardous atmospheres shall be used.  A standby worker or workers with suitable self-contained breathing apparatus shall be at the nearest fresh air base for emergency rescue.

(2) Training.  The supervisor, the person issuing respirators, and the respirator wearers shall be given adequate training by a qualified person(s) to ensure the proper use of respirators.  Written records shall be kept of the names of the persons trained and the dates when training occurred.

(a) Training of supervisor.  A supervisor - that is, a person who has the responsibility of overseeing the work activities of one or more persons who must wear respirators - shall be given adequate training to ensure the proper use of respirators.

(b) Training of person issuing respirators.  A person assigned the task of issuing respirators to persons who must wear respirators for protection against harmful atmospheres shall be given adequate training to ensure that the correct respirator is issued for each application in accordance with written standard operating procedures.

(c) Training of respirator wearer.  To ensure the proper and safe use of a respirator, the minimum training of each respirator wearer shall include the following elements:

(i) The reasons for the need of respiratory protection.

(ii) The nature, extent, and effects of respiratory hazards to which the person may be exposed.

(iii) An explanation of why engineering controls are not being applied or are not adequate and of what effort is being made to reduce or eliminate the need for respirators.

(iv) An explanation of why a particular type of respirator has been selected for a specific respiratory hazard.

(v) An explanation of the operation, and the capabilities and limitations, of the respirator selected.

(vi) Instruction in inspecting, donning, checking the fit of, and wearing the respirator.

(vii) An opportunity for each respirator wearer to handle the respirator, learn how to don and wear it properly, check its seals, wear it in a safe atmosphere, and wear it in a test atmosphere.

(viii) An explanation of how maintenance and storage of the respirator is carried out.

(ix) Instructions in how to recognize and cope with emergency situations.

(x) Instructions as needed for special respirator use.

(xi) Regulations concerning respirator use.

(A) Wearing instructions and training.  Wearing instructions and training, including practice demonstrations, shall be given to each respirator wearer and shall cover:

(I) Donning, wearing, and removing the respirator.

(II) Adjusting the respirator so that its respiratory-inlet covering is properly fitted on the wearer and so that the respirator causes a minimum of discomfort to the wearer.

(III) Allowing the respirator wearer to wear the respirator in a safe atmosphere for an adequate period of time to ensure that the wearer is familiar with the operational characteristics of the respirator.

(IV) Providing the respirator wearer an opportunity to wear the respirator in a test atmosphere to demonstrate that the respirator provides protection to the wearer.  A test atmosphere is any atmosphere in which the wearer can carry out activities simulating work movements and respirator leakage or respirator malfunction can be detected by the wearer.

(B) Retraining.  Each respirator wearer shall be retrained as necessary to assure effective respirator use.  Refresher training shall be given at least annually and shall include the provisions of (c)(vii) through (xi)(A)(III) of this subsection.

(3) Respirator sealing problems.  Respirators shall not be worn when conditions prevent a seal of the respirator to the wearer.

(a) A person who has hair (stubble, moustache, sideburns, beard, low hairline, bangs) which passes between the face and the sealing surface of the facepiece of the respirator shall not be permitted to wear such a respirator.

(b) A person who has hair (moustache, beard) which interferes with the function of a respirator valve(s) shall not be permitted to wear the respirator.

(c) A spectacle which has temple bars or straps which pass between the sealing surface of a respirator full facepiece and the wearer's face shall not be used.

(d) A head covering which passes between the sealing surface of a respirator facepiece and the wearer's face shall not be used.

(e) The wearing of a spectacle, a goggle, a faceshield, a welding helmet, or other eye and face protective device which interferes with the seal of a respirator to the wearer shall not be allowed.

(f) If scars, hollow temples, excessively protruding cheekbones, deep creases in facial skin, the absence of teeth or dentures, or unusual facial configurations prevent a seal of a respirator facepiece to a wearer's face, the person shall not be permitted to wear the respirator.

(g) If missing teeth or dentures prevent a seal of a respirator mouthpiece in a person's mouth, the person shall not be allowed to wear a respirator equipped with a mouthpiece.

(h) If a person has a nose of a shape or size which prevents the closing of the nose by the nose clamp of a mouthpiece/nose-clamp type of respirator, the person shall not be permitted to wear this type of respirator.

(4) Respirator sealing tests.  To ensure proper protection, the wearer of a respirator equipped with a facepiece shall check the seal of the facepiece prior to each entry into a hazardous atmosphere.  This may be done using procedures recommended by respirator manufacturers or by approved field tests.

(5) Issuance of respirators.  The proper respirator shall be specified for each application and shall be listed in the written standard operating procedures.  If a respirator is marked for the worker to whom it is assigned or for other identification purposes, the markings shall not affect the respirator performance in any way.

(6) Respirator inspection prior to use.  Each person issued a respirator for routine, nonroutine, emergency, or rescue use shall inspect the respirator prior to its use to ensure that it is in good operating condition.

(7) Monitoring respirator use.  The use of respirators on a routine or nonroutine basis shall be monitored to ensure that the correct respirators are being used, that the respirators are being worn properly and that the respirators being used are in good working condition.

(8) Evaluation of respiratory hazard during use.  The level of the respiratory hazard in the workplace to which a person wearing a respirator is exposed shall be evaluated periodically.

(9) Leaving a hazardous area.  A respirator wearer shall be permitted to leave the hazardous area for any respirator-related cause.  Reasons which may cause a respirator wearer to leave a hazardous area include, but are not limited to, the following:

(a) Failure of the respirator to provide adequate protection.

(b) Malfunction of the respirator.

(c) Detection of leakage of air contaminant into the respirator.

(d) Increase in resistance of respirator to breathing.

(e) Severe discomfort in wearing the respirator.

(f) Illness of respirator wearer, including: Sensation of dizziness, nausea, weakness, breathing difficulty, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, fever, and chills.)) When respirators are required, you must provide respirators, training, medical evaluations, and fit testing at no cost to your employees (including expenses such as wages and travel). For voluntary use, see WAC 296-62-07117(3).

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-62-07115, filed 7/6/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-62-07115, filed 11/30/83; 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), § 296-62-07115, filed 3/30/82.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07115, filed 7/27/81.]

VOLUNTARY USE OF RESPIRATORS
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-19, filed 7/27/81)

WAC 296-62-07117
((Maintenance of respirators.)) What must you do when employees choose to wear respirators when respirators are not required?

(((1) General.  A program for the maintenance of respirators shall be adjusted to the type of plant, working conditions, hazards involved, and shall include the following:

(a) Cleaning and sanitizing.

(b) Inspection for defects.

(c) Repair.

(d) Storage.

Each respirator shall be properly maintained to retain its original shape and effectiveness.

(2) Cleaning and sanitizing.  Each respirator shall be cleaned and sanitized to ensure that the respirator wearer is provided with a clean and sanitized respirator at all times.  A respirator issued for other than continuous personal use by a particular worker, such as with routine, nonroutine, emergency, or rescue use, shall be cleaned and sanitized after each use.

(3) Inspection.  Each respirator shall be inspected routinely before and after use.  A respirator shall be inspected by the user immediately prior to each use to ensure that it is in proper working condition.

(a) After cleaning and sanitizing, each respirator shall be inspected to determine if it is in proper working condition, if it needs replacement of parts or repairs, or if it should be discarded.  Each respirator stored for emergency or rescue use shall be inspected at least monthly.  Respirator inspection shall include a check for tightness of connections; for the condition of the respiratory-inlet covering, head harness, valves, connecting tubes, harness assemblies, filters, cartridges, canisters, end-of-service-life indicator, and shelf life date(s); and for the proper function of regulators, alarms, and other warning systems.

(b) Each rubber or other elastomeric part shall be inspected for pliability and signs of deterioration.  Each air and oxygen cylinder shall be inspected to ensure that it is fully charged according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(c) A record of inspection dates, findings, and remedial actions shall be kept for each respirator maintained for emergency or rescue use.

(4) Part replacement and repair.  Replacement of parts or repairs shall be done only by persons trained in proper respirator assembly and correction of possible respirator malfunctions and defects.  Replacement parts shall be only those designed for the specific respirator being repaired.  Reducing or admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be returned to the manufacturer or to a trained technician for repair or adjustment.  Instrumentation for valve, regulator, and alarm adjustments and tests must be approved by the valve, regulator, or alarm manufacturer.

(5) Storage.  Respirators shall be stored in a manner that will protect them against dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive moisture, or damaging chemicals.  Respirators shall be stored to prevent distortion of rubber or other elastomeric parts.  Respirators shall not be stored in such places as lockers and tool boxes unless they are protected from contamination, distortion, and damage.  Emergency and rescue-use respirators that are placed in work areas shall be quickly accessible at all times, and the storage cabinet or container in which they are stored shall be clearly marked.)) (1) You may provide respirators at the request of employees or permit employees to use their own respirators, if you determine that such respirator use will not in itself create a hazard.

(2) If you determine that any voluntary respirator use is permissible, you must provide the respirator users with the following information:


Figure 1 Important Information About Voluntary Use of Respirators
Note: "You" and "your" mean the employee in the following information.
Respirators protect against airborne contaminants when properly selected and worn. Respirator use is encouraged, even when exposure to contaminants are below the exposure limit(s), to provide an additional level of comfort and protection for workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly or not kept clean, the respirator itself can become a hazard to you. Sometimes, workers may wear respirators to avoid exposures to hazards, even if the amount of hazardous contaminants (chemical biological) does not exceed the limits set by WISHA standards. If your employer provides respirators for your voluntary use, or if you are allowed to provide your own respirator, you need to take certain precautions to be sure that the respirator itself does not present a hazard.
You should do the following:
1. Read and follow all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use, maintenance, cleaning and care, and warnings regarding the respirators limitations.
2. Choose respirators certified for use to protect against the contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, certifies respirators. A label or statement of certification should appear on the respirator or respirator packaging. It will tell you what the respirator is designed for and how much it will protect you.
3. Do not wear your respirator into atmospheres containing contaminants for which your respirator is not designed to protect against. For example, a respirator designed to filter dust particles will not protect you against solvent vapor or smoke (since smoke particles are much smaller than dust particles).
4. Keep track of your respirator so that you do not mistakenly use someone else's respirator.


(3) In addition, you must establish, implement, and pay for those elements of a written respiratory protection program necessary to make sure that:


•Any employee using a respirator voluntarily is medically able to use that respirator, and that
•The respirator is cleaned, stored, and maintained so that its use does not present a health hazard to the user.

Exception:You are not required to include in a written respiratory protection program those employees whose only use of respirators involves the voluntary use of filtering facepieces (for example, dust masks).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-016 (Order 81-19), § 296-62-07117, filed 7/27/81.]

RESPIRATOR SELECTION
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07130
What must be considered when selecting any respirator?

(1) You must identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace. This evaluation must reasonably estimate employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and identify the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. Where you cannot identify or reasonably estimate the employee exposure, you must consider the atmosphere to be IDLH.

(2) You must identify relevant factors pertaining to the workplace and respirator user that affect respirator performance and reliability.

(3) You must select and provide the appropriate respirators based on the respiratory hazards and the relevant factors related to the workplace and user.

(4) You must select a NIOSH-certified respirator. The respirator must be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.

(5) You must select respirators from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07131
What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for use in atmospheres that are not IDLH?

(1) You must provide a respirator that is adequate to protect the health of the employee and ensure compliance with all other WISHA statutory and regulatory requirements for routine, nonroutine, and reasonably foreseeable emergency and rescue situations.

(2) You must use the assigned protection factors (APFs) in Table 1 when selecting respirators.

Table 1--Assigned Protection Factors


Type of Respirator

Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)

Assigned Protection Factora
Half-facepieceb for:

• Particulate-filter

• Vapor- or gas-removing

• Combination particulate-filter and vapor- or gas-removing

10
Full facepiece for:

• Particulate-filter;

• Vapor- or gas-removing;

• Combination particulate-filter and vapor- or gas-removing


Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)

100
Powered air-purifying, loose fitting facepiece25
Powered air-purifying , half facepiece50
Powered air-purifying, full facepiece, equipped with HEPA filters1000
Powered air-purifying, hood or helmet equipped with HEPA filters


Supplied-Air (Airline) Respirators

1000
Supplied-air, demand, half facepiece10
Supplied-air, continuous-flow, loose fitting facepiece25
Supplied-air, continuous-flow or pressure-demand type, half facepiece50
Supplied-air, demand, full facepiece100
Supplied-air, continuous-flow or pressure-demand type, full facepiece1000
Supplied-air, continuous-flow, helmet or hood


Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs)

1000
Self-contained breathing apparatus, demand-type, half facepieceb10
Self-contained breathing apparatus, demand-type, full facepiece100
Self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure-demand type, full facepiece10,000
Combination respirators. For combination respirators (such as, airline respirators with an air-purifying filter), the type and mode of operation having the lowest respirator protection factor must be applied to the combination respirator not listed.

a An assigned protection factor is a numeric rating given to respirators, which tells how much protection the respirator can provide.

b If the air contaminant causes eye irritation, the wearer of a respirator equipped with a quarter-mask or half-mask facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp must be permitted to use a protective goggle or to use a respirator equipped with a full facepiece. Mouthpiece and nose clamp respirators are approved by NIOSH only for escape from IDLH atmospheres.


(3) The respirator selected must be appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.

(4) For protection against gases and vapors, you must provide an atmosphere-supplying respirator or an air-purifying respirator, provided that:

• The respirator is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contaminant; or

• If there is no ESLI appropriate for the conditions in your workplace, you must implement a change schedule for canisters and cartridges that is based on objective information or data that will make sure that canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life. Your respirator program must describe:

The information and data relied upon; and
The basis for the canister and cartridge change schedule; and
The basis for reliance on the data.
(5) For protection against particulates, you must provide:

• An atmosphere-supplying respirator; or

• An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR Part 11 as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified for particulates by NIOSH under 42 CFR Part 84; or

• An air-purifying respirator equipped with any filter certified for particulates by NIOSH for contaminants consisting primarily of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of at least 2 micrometers; or

• For filters to be changed as required in WAC 296-62-07171(4).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07132
What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for use in IDLH atmospheres?

(1) You must provide the following respirators for your employees to use in IDLH atmospheres:

• A full facepiece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes; or

• A combination full facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

(2) Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres must be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.

(3) All oxygen-deficient atmospheres must be considered IDLH unless you demonstrate that, under all foreseeable conditions, the oxygen concentration can be maintained within the ranges specified in Table 2 of this section (i.e., for the altitudes set out in the table). In such cases, any atmosphere-supplying respirator may be used.


Table 2 Altitudes for Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres


Altitude (ft.)Oxygen deficient atmospheres (%O2) for which the employer may rely on any atmosphere-supplying respirator
Less than 3,00116.0 - 19.5
3,001 - 4,00016.4 - 19.5
4,001 - 5,00017.1 - 19.5
5,001 - 6,00017.8 - 19.5
6,001 - 8,00019.3 - 19.5

1Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen-enriched breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07133
What else must you consider when selecting a respirator for emergency and rescue use?

(1) You must analyze emergency and rescue uses of respirators that may occur in each operation by carefully considering materials, equipment, processes, and personnel involved in each operation. The person who is thoroughly familiar with the particular operation must review the analysis. As part of your analysis, you must:


•Consider past occurrences requiring emergency or rescue use of respirators as well as conditions that resulted in such respirator applications;
•Consider the possible consequences of equipment or power failures, uncontrolled chemical reactions, fire, explosion, or human error; and
•Based on the above considerations, list potential hazards that may result in emergency or rescue use of respirators.

(2) Based upon the analysis, you must:


•Select the appropriate types of respirators;
•Provide an adequate number of respirators for each area where they may be needed for emergency or rescue use; and
•Maintain and store the respirators so that they are readily accessible and operational when needed.

[]

MEDICAL EVALUATIONS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07150
What are the general requirements for medical evaluations?

Before an employee is fit tested or required to use a respirator in the workplace, you must provide a medical evaluation to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator. You may rely upon a previous employer's medical evaluation, if you can show that:

• You have been provided with a copy of the written recommendation as required in WAC 296-62-07155 from the PLHCP approving the employee to use the respirator chosen; and

• The previous working conditions, which required respirator use as detailed in WAC 296-62-07154(1), are substantially similar to yours.

Exception: If an employee uses no other respirator than an escape-only respirator, medical evaluations are not required. This exception does not apply to respirators with tight-fitting facepieces (such as, gas masks).

Steps necessary for completing a medical evaluation:

• You identify a PLHCP (WAC 296-62-07151);

• You provide information to the PLHCP (WAC 296-62-07152);

• PLHCP reviews information and determines what additional questions, if any, to add to Part A of the questionnaire (WAC 296-62-07153(1));

• You administer the questionnaire confidentially (WAC 296-62-07153(2));

• PLHCP reviews and evaluates the questionnaire (WAC 296-62-07154);

• PLHCP completes any follow-up medical evaluations with employees (WAC 296-62-07154);

• PLHCP completes the written recommendation and sends it to the employee and you (WAC 296-62-07155 (1) and (2));

• You respond appropriately to written recommendations (WAC 296-62-07155) and maintain records (WAC 296-62-07194);

• You provide additional medical evaluations when required by your PLHCP (WAC 296-62-07156).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07151
Who must perform medical evaluations?

You must identify a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to perform medical evaluations.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07152
What information must you provide to the PLHCP in addition to the questionnaire?

You must provide the following information to the PLHCP before the PLHCP makes a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to use a respirator:

• The questionnaire found in WAC 296-62-07255, Appendix C;

• The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee;

• The duration and frequency of respirator use (including use for rescue and escape);

• The expected physical work effort;

• Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn;

• Temperature and humidity extremes that may be encountered;

• A copy of your written respiratory protection program (including, but not limited to, a list of respirators as required in WAC 296-62-07111(1) and fit testing procedures as required in WAC 296-62-07111(3)); and

• A copy of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection.

When an employee needs a subsequent medical evaluation, you do not have to provide any information previously given to the PLHCP if the information and the PLHCP remain the same.


Note:When you change your PLHCP, you must make sure that the new PLHCP obtains this information, either by providing the documents directly to the PLHCP or having the documents transferred from the former PLHCP to the new PLHCP. WISHA does not expect you to have employees medically reevaluated solely because a new PLHCP has been selected.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07153
How must the medical evaluations and the questionnaire be administered?

(1) An initial evaluation must be completed. You may use the questionnaire in WAC 296-62-07255. It is not necessary to have an initial medical examination. However, an initial medical examination may be substituted for the questionnaire if it obtains the same information. Questions in Section 1 and 2 of Part A must be answered by all respirator users, while questions in Section 3 must be answered by SCBA and full facepiece respirator users. The PLHCP determines what additional questions must be used in the questionnaire from Part B in WAC 296-62-07255.

(2) The medical questionnaire and examinations must be administered confidentially during the employee's normal working hours or at a time and place convenient to the employee.

Confidentiality. The medical questionnaire must be administered in a way that makes sure that the employee understands its content. To ensure confidentiality, you must not review an employee's questionnaire at any time. This includes looking at the completed questions or any other interaction that may be considered a breach of confidentiality.

The following are different options that may be used to administer questionnaires confidentially:

• You may administer the questionnaire and arrange for employee access to a PLHCP if there are any questions. For example, you may provide employees a copy of the questionnaire, ask them to fill it out, and place it in a sealed envelope that is sent to the PLHCP.

• Your PLHCP may administer the questionnaire.

• You may hire a third party to confidentially administer the questionnaire.

(3) You must provide the employee with an opportunity to discuss the questionnaire and examination results with the PLHCP.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07154
Who must review the questionnaire and determine what, if any, follow-up evaluations are needed?

You must provide for the following PLHCP evaluations.

• For the initial medical evaluation, the PLHCP must review the information obtained by the questionnaire in WAC 296-62-07255.

• The PLHCP must provide a follow-up medical evaluation for any employee who gives a positive response to any one of questions 1 through 8 in Section 2 of Part A in WAC 296-62-07255 or whose initial medical evaluation demonstrates the need for follow-up evaluation.

• The follow-up medical evaluation must include any consultations (for example, a telephone conversation to evaluate positive responses on the questionnaire), medical tests, or diagnostic procedures that the PLHCP deems necessary to make a final determination.


Note:When you replace a PLHCP, you must make sure that the new PLHCP obtains this information, either by providing the documents directly to the PLHCP or having the documents transferred from the former PLHCP to the new PLHCP. However, WISHA does not expect you to have employees medically reevaluated solely because a new PLHCP has been selected.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07155
What must be included in the PLHCP's written recommendation?

(1) In determining the employee's ability to use a respirator, you must obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use the respirator from the PLHCP. The recommendation must provide only the following information about the employee:

• Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical condition of the employee, or relating to the workplace conditions in which the respirator will be used, including whether or not the employee is medically able to use the respirator;

• The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations; and

• A statement that the PLHCP has provided the employee with a copy of the PLHCP's written recommendation.

(2) You must provide a PAPR, if:

• The respirator is a negative pressure respirator and the PLHCP finds a medical condition that may place the employee's health at increased risk if the respirator is used;

• The PLHCP's medical evaluation finds that the employee can use such a respirator. You no longer must provide a PAPR, if a subsequent medical evaluation finds that the employee is medically able to use a negative pressure.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07156
When are additional medical evaluations required?

At a minimum, you must provide additional medical evaluations that comply with the requirements in WAC 296-62-07151 through 296-62-07155 if:

• An employee reports medical signs or symptoms related to his or her ability to use a respirator;

• A PLHCP, supervisor, or the respirator program administrator informs you that an employee needs to be reevaluated;

• Information from the respiratory protection program, including observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need for employee reevaluation; or

• A change occurs in workplace conditions (for example, physical work effort, protective clothing, temperature) that may result in a substantial increase in the physiological burden placed on an employee.

You may discontinue an employee's medical evaluations when the employee is no longer required to use a respirator.

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FIT TESTING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07160
When is fit testing required?

You must make sure that employees using a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece respirator pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test (QNFT). Fit testing must occur:

• Prior to initial use of the respirator;

• Whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used;

• At least annually thereafter; and

• Whenever the employee reports to you or your PLHCP observes changes in the employee's physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight.

You may rely on a current fit test completed by a previous employer for the same employee if you obtain written documentation of the fit test and all other applicable requirements in WAC 296-62-07160 through 296-62-07162 have been satisfied.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07161
What is required when an employee finds the respirator's fit unacceptable?

If after passing a qualitative fit test or a quantitative fit test, your employee subsequently notifies you or your PLHCP that the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, you must give the employee a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and to be retested.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07162
How must fit testing be done?

(1) The fit test must be administered using WISHA-accepted quantitative or qualitative protocol. These protocols are contained in WAC 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07248 (Appendices A-1, A-2 and A-3 of this part).

(2) Qualitative fit testing may be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying respirators only when they will be used in atmospheres where the concentration is less than 10 times the PEL. For respirator use in higher concentrations, quantitative fit testing must be used.

(3) If the fit factor, as determined through WISHA-accepted quantitative fit testing protocol, is equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half facepieces, or equal to or greater than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the employee passed the quantitative fit test for that respirator.

(4) Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators must be accomplished by performing quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratory protection.

(a) Qualitative fit testing of these respirators must be accomplished by temporarily converting the respirator user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the atmosphere-supplying or powered air-purifying respirator facepiece.

(b) Quantitative fit testing of these respirators must be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement must be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece, or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece.

(c) Any modifications to the respirator facepiece for fit testing must be completely removed, and the facepiece restored to NIOSH-approved configuration, before that facepiece can be used in the workplace.

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USE OF RESPIRATORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07170
How must you prevent problems with the seal on tight-fitting facepieces?

(1) You must not permit respirators with tight-fitting facepieces to be worn during fit testing and respirator use by employees who have:

• Any facial hair that is visibly projecting above the skin (stubble, moustache, sideburns, portions of a beard, low hairline, bangs) that comes between the sealing surface of the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve function; or

• Any other condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function.

(2) If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective equipment, you must make sure that such equipment is worn in a manner that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece.

(3) For all tight-fitting respirators, you must make sure that employees perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator using the procedures in Appendix B-1 or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer that you demonstrate are as effective as those in Appendix B-1 of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07171
How do you monitor continuing effectiveness of your employees' respirators?

(1) You must maintain appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or stress.

(2) When there is a change in work area conditions or degree of employee exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, you must reevaluate the continued effectiveness of the respirator.

(3) You must make sure that employees leave the respirator use area:

• To wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary to prevent eye or skin irritation associated with respirator use; or

• If they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece; or

• To replace the respirator or the filter, cartridge, or canister elements; or

• If the employee experiences severe discomfort in wearing the respirator; or

• If the employee becomes ill or experiences sensations of dizziness, nausea, weakness, breathing difficulty, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, fever, and chills.

(4) If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece, you must replace or repair the respirator before allowing the employee to return to the work area.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07172
What are the standby procedures when respirators are used in IDLH situations?

(1) You must provide standby employees when employees are working in IDLH atmospheres.

In certain IDLH situations, one standby employee is permitted when the IDLH atmosphere is well characterized and you can show that one employee can adequately:

• Monitor the employee(s) in the IDLH atmosphere;

• Implement communication activities; and

• Initiate rescue duties.

For all other IDLH situations, you must have at least two employees located outside the IDLH atmosphere.

(2) Visual, voice, or signal line communication must be maintained between the employee(s) in the IDLH atmosphere and the employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere.

(3) The employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere must be trained and equipped to provide effective emergency rescue.

(4) You or your designee must be notified before the employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere enter the IDLH atmosphere to provide emergency rescue.

(5) You or your designee, once notified, must provide necessary assistance appropriate to the situation.

(6) Standby employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmospheres must be equipped with:

(a) Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, or a pressure demand or other positive pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and either

(b) Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the employee(s) who enter(s) these hazardous atmospheres where retrieval equipment would contribute to the rescue of the employee(s) and would not increase the overall risk resulting from entry; or equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required.

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MAINTENANCE AND CARE OF RESPIRATORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07175
How must respirators be cleaned and disinfected?

(1) You must provide each respirator user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary, and in good working order.

(2) You must make sure that respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the procedures in WAC 296-62-07253, Appendix B-2, or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer, provided that such procedures are as effective.

(3) The respirators must be cleaned and disinfected as follows:

• Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an employee must be cleaned and disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition;

• Respirators issued to more than one employee must be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by different individuals;

• Respirators maintained for emergency use must be cleaned and disinfected after each use; and

• Respirators used in fit testing and training must be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by a different employee.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07176
How must respirators be stored?

(1) You must make sure that all respirators are stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals. You must also make sure that they are packed or stored to prevent deformation of the facepiece and exhalation valve.

(2) When storing emergency respirators.

(a) You must keep respirators accessible to the work area.

(b) You must store respirators in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing emergency respirators.

(c) You must store respirators in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.

(d) You must provide an adequate number of respirators for each work area where they may be needed.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07177
When must respirators be inspected?

You must make sure that:

• All respirators used in routine situations are inspected before each use and during cleaning;

• All respirators maintained for use in emergency situations are inspected at least monthly and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and are checked for proper function before and after each use;

• Emergency escape-only respirators are inspected before being carried into the workplace for use; and

• Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBAs) must be inspected monthly.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07178
How must respirators be inspected and maintained?

(1) You must make sure that respirator inspections include:

• A check of respirator function, tightness of connections, and the condition of the various parts including, but not limited to, the facepiece, head straps, valves, connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or filters; and

• A check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs of deterioration.

(2) For self-contained breathing apparatus you must:

• Maintain air and oxygen cylinders in a fully charged state and recharge the cylinders when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's recommended pressure level; and

• Determine that the regulator and warning devices function properly.

(3) For respirators maintained for emergency use, you must:

• Certify the respirator by documenting the date the inspection was performed, the name (or signature) of the person who made the inspection, the findings, required remedial action, and a serial number or other means of identifying the inspected respirator; and

• Provide this information on a tag or label that is attached to the storage compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included in inspection reports stored as paper or electronic files. This information must be maintained until replaced following a subsequent certification.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07179
How must respirators be repaired and adjusted?

(1) You must make sure that respirators that fail an inspection or are otherwise found to be defective are no longer used until they are repaired or adjusted properly;

(2) Repairs or adjustments to respirators must be made only by persons appropriately trained to perform such operations, who must use only the respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-approved parts designed for the respirator;

(3) Repairs must be made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for the type and extent of repairs to be performed; and

(4) Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms must be adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer.

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BREATHING AIR QUALITY
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07182
What are the breathing gas requirements for atmosphere-supplying respirators?

(1) You must provide employees using atmosphere-supplying respirators (supplied-air and SCBA) with breathing gases of high purity.

(2) You must make sure that compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen used for respiration accords with the following specifications:

• Compressed and liquid oxygen must meet the United States Pharmacopoeia requirements for medical or breathing oxygen; and

• Compressed breathing air must meet at least the requirements for Grade D breathing air described in ANSI/Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1-1989, to include:

⧫ Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%;

⧫ Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air or less;

⧫ Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less;

⧫ Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and

⧫ Lack of noticeable odor.

(3) You must make sure that compressed oxygen is not used in atmosphere-supplying respirators that have previously used compressed air.

(4) You must make sure that oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5% are used only in equipment designed for oxygen service or distribution.

(5) Cylinders used to supply breathing air to respirators.

(a) Cylinders must be tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR Part 173 and Part 178);

(b) Cylinders of purchased breathing air must have a certificate of analysis from the supplier that the breathing air meets the requirements for Grade D breathing air; and

(c) The moisture content in the cylinder must not exceed a dew point of -50°F (-45.6°C) at 1 atmosphere pressure.

(6) Compressors used to supply breathing air to respirators.

(a) Compressors must be constructed and situated so as to prevent entry of contaminated air into the air-supply system.

(b) Compressors must minimize moisture content so that the dew point at 1 atmosphere pressure is 10°F (5.56°C) below the ambient temperature.

(c) Compressors must have suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and filters to further make sure that the supplied-air is breathing air quality. Sorbent beds and filters must be maintained and replaced or refurbished periodically following the manufacturer's instructions.

(d) Compressors must have a tag containing the most recent sorbent bed and filter change date and the signature of the person authorized by the employer to perform the change. The tag must be maintained at the compressor.

(7) For compressors that are not oil-lubricated, you must make sure that carbon monoxide levels in the breathing air do not exceed 10 ppm.

(8) For oil-lubricated compressors, you must use a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or both, to monitor carbon monoxide levels. If only high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply must be monitored at intervals sufficient to make sure the concentration of carbon monoxide in the breathing air does not exceed 10 ppm.

(9) You must make sure that breathing air couplings are incompatible with outlets for nonrespirable worksite air or other gas systems. Asphyxiating substances must not be introduced into breathing air lines.

(10) You must use breathing gas containers marked in accordance with the NIOSH respirator certification standard, 42 CFR Part 84.

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IDENTIFICATION OF FILTERS, CARTRIDGES AND CANISTERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07184
How must filters, cartridges and canisters be labeled?

You must make sure that all filters, cartridges and canisters used in the workplace are labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label. The label must not be removed and must remain legible. Table 3 provides information about color coding for air-purifying respirator filters, cartridges, and canisters.


TABLE 3 -- Color Coding of Respirator Filters, Cartridges and Canisters


Atmospheric Contaminants to be

Protected Against

Colors Assigned*
Acid gasesWhite.
Hydrocyanic acid gasWhite with 1/2 - inch green stripe completely around the canister near the bottom.
Chlorine gasWhite with 1/2 - inch yellow stripe completely around the canister near the bottom.
Organic vaporsBlack.
Ammonia gasGreen.
Acid gases and

ammonia gas

Green with 1/2 - inch white stripe

completely around the canister near the bottom.

Carbon monoxideBlue.
Acid gases and organic vaporsYellow.
Hydrocyanic acid gas and chloropicrin vaporYellow with 1/2 - inch blue stripe completely around the canister near the bottom.
Acid gases, organic vapors, and ammonia gasesBrown.
Radioactive materials, excepting tritium and noble gasesPurple (Magenta).
Particulates (dusts, fumes, mists, fogs, or smokes) in combination with any of the above cases or vaporsCanister color for contaminant, as designated above, with 1/2 - inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top.
All of the above atmospheric contaminantsRed with 1/2 - inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top.
*Gray must not be assigned as the main color for a canister designed to remove acids or vapors.
Note: Orange must be used as a complete body, or stripe color to represent gases not included in this table. The user will need to refer to the canister label to determine the degree of protection the canister will afford

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TRAINING AND INFORMATION
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07186
What are the general training requirements?

(1) You must provide effective training to:

• Employees required to use respirators;

• Supervisors; and

• Any person issuing respirators.

(2) The training must be done so your employees understand it.

(3) The training must be provided by qualified persons.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07188
How do you know if you adequately trained your employees?

At a minimum, you must make certain that each employee can demonstrate:

• Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, use, or maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator;

• What the respirator is capable of doing and what its limitations are;

• How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including situations in which the respirator malfunctions;

• How to inspect (see WAC 296-62-07178), put on and remove, use (see WAC 296-62-07170 through 296-62-07172), and check the seals (see WAC 296-62-07251) of the respirator;

• The procedures for maintaining (see WAC 296-62-07175 through 296-62-07179, 296-62-07182(5) and 296-62-07253) and storing (see WAC 296-62-07176) of the respirator;

• How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators; and

• The general requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07190
When must your employees be trained?

(1) You must train employees before they are required to use a respirator in the workplace.

(2) If you are able to demonstrate that a new employee has received training within the last 12 months that addresses the elements specified in WAC 296-62-07132 and 296-62-07186, then you are not required to repeat the training provided that the employee can demonstrate knowledge of the element(s) required in WAC 296-62-07188.

(3) If you do not repeat initial training for an employee, then you must provide retraining no later than 12 months from the date of the employee's previous training.

(4) Retraining must be completed annually, and when the following situations occur:

• Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous training obsolete or incomplete;

• The employee's knowledge or use of the respirator indicates that the employee has not retained the understanding or skill as required in WAC 296-62-07188 above; or

• Any other situation arises when retraining appears to be necessary to make sure respirators are used safely.

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PROGRAM EVALUATION
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07192
How must you evaluate the effectiveness of your respiratory protection program?

(1) You must evaluate the workplace as necessary to make sure that the requirements of the current written program are being effectively carried out and that the program continues to be effective.

(2) Evaluation must include periodic monitoring by the supervisor to make sure respirators are properly worn.

(3) You must regularly ask employees required to use respirators their views on the program's effectiveness and use their input to identify any problems. Any problems identified must be corrected. At a minimum, you must evaluate the following factors:

• Respirator fit (including the employee's ability to use the respirator without interfering with effective workplace performance);

• Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to which the employee is exposed;

• Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions the employee encounters; and

• Proper respirator maintenance.

(4) Medical and bioassay surveillance. When appropriate, medical surveillance, including bioassays, must be carried out to determine if employees using respirators are receiving adequate respiratory protection. A physician must determine the requirements of the surveillance program.

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RECORDKEEPING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07194
What are the recordkeeping requirements?

(1) General. You must keep written records of the following:

•Written recommendations from the PLHCP;
•Fit testing;
•The respirator program; and
•Training.
(2) Access to medical records. You must make the written recommendations from the PLHCP and any other medical records you are maintaining available as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.

(3) Fit testing. You must keep a record of any qualitative and quantitative fit tests completed for each employee. The record must include:

• The name or identification of the employee tested;

• Type of fit test performed;

• Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator tested;

• Date of test; and

• The pass/fail results for QLFTs or the fit factor and strip chart recording or other recording of the test results for QNFTs.

Fit test records must be retained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.

(4) You must keep a written copy of the current respirator program.

(5) You must keep written training records that include:

•Names of the employees trained; and
•The dates when the employees were trained.
(6) Written materials required by this part must be made available upon request for examination and copying to affected employees and to the director or the director's designee.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07201
Appendix A-1: General Fit Testing Requirements for Respiratory Protection--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, which includes WAC 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07203.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07202
What are the general requirements for fit testing?

(1) You must conduct fit testing using the procedures found in appendices A-1 through A-3. The requirements in these appendices apply to all WISHA-accepted qualitative (QLFT) and quantitative (QNFT) fit test methods.

(2) You must allow your employees to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.

(3) Prior to selecting a respirator, you must show your employees how to:

•Put on a respirator;
•Positioned the respirator on the face;
•Set strap tension; and
•Determine an acceptable fit.
(4) You must provide a mirror for your employees to use when evaluating the fit and positioning of the respirator. This instruction does not constitute your employees' formal training on respirator use, because it is only a review.

(5) You must inform your employees that:

•They are being asked to select the respirator that provides the most acceptable fit;
•Each respirator represents a different size and shape; and
•If fitted and used properly, each respirator will provide adequate protection.
(6) You must have your employees hold each chosen facepiece up to their face and eliminate those that obviously do not give an acceptable fit.

(7) You must note the more acceptable facepieces in case the one selected proves unacceptable. The most comfortable mask must be put on and worn at least five minutes to make sure it is comfortable. You must help your employee assess comfort by discussing the points in subsection (8) of this section. If the employee is not familiar with using a particular respirator, have the employee put on the mask several times and adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps.

(8) You must review how to assess the comfort of a respirator by reviewing the following points with the employee and allowing the employee enough time to check the comfort of the respirator chosen:

(a) Position of the mask on the nose;

(b) Room for eye protection;

(c) Room to talk;

(d) Position of mask on face and cheeks.

(9) You must use the following criteria to determine if the respirator adequately fits each employee:

(a) Chin properly placed;

(b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened;

(c) Fit across nose bridge;

(d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin;

(e) Tendency of respirator to slip;

(f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

(10) The employees must complete a user seal check. They must use either the negative and positive pressure seal checks described in WAC 296-62-07251, Appendix B-1 or those recommended by the respirator manufacturer that provide equivalent protection to the procedures in WAC 296-62-07251, Appendix B-1. Before conducting the negative and positive pressure checks, the employee must be told to seat the mask on the face by moving the head from side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in a few slow deep breaths. Another facepiece must be selected and retested if the employee's respirator fails the user seal check tests.

(11) You must not conduct the fit test if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, mustache or sideburns that cross the respirator sealing surface. Any type of apparel that interferes with a satisfactory fit must be altered or removed.

(12) If the employee has difficulty in breathing during the tests, you must refer the employee to a physician or other licensed health care professional, as appropriate, to determine whether the employee can wear respirators while performing the employee's duties.

(13) If the employee finds the fit of the respirator unacceptable, you must give the employee the opportunity to select a different respirator and the employee must be retested.

(14) Prior to starting the fit test, you must describe the:

•Fit test to the employee;
•Employee's responsibilities during the test procedure; and
•Test exercises that the employee will be performing.

(15) The employee must wear the respirator at least 5 minutes before starting the fit test.

(16) When performing the fit test, you must have your employee wear any applicable safety equipment that may be worn during actual respirator use that could interfere with respirator fit.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07203
What are the fit test exercise requirements?

(1) You must have your employees perform the following test exercises for all fit testing methods required in the appendices for Respiratory Protection Part E, except for the controlled negative pressure (CNP) testing. The CNP protocol contains a different fit testing exercise regimen. The employee must perform exercises, in the test environment, in the following ways:

(a) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the employee must breathe normally.

(b) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the employee must breathe slowly and deeply, taking caution so as not to hyperventilate.

(c) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the employees must slowly turn their heads from side to side between the extreme positions on each side, holding their heads at each extreme momentarily so they can inhale at each side.

(d) Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the employees must slowly move their heads up and down, inhaling in the up position (when looking toward the ceiling).

(e) Talking. The employee must talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The employee can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song.


Rainbow Passage

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.


(f) Grimace. The employee must grimace by smiling or frowning (this applies only to QNFT testing; it is not performed for QLFT).

(g) Bending over. Employees must bend at their waist as if they were touching their toes. Jogging in place must be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT or QLFT units that do not permit bending over at the waist.

(h) Normal breathing. Repeat exercise (a) for normal breathing.

(2) Each test exercise must be performed for one minute except for the grimace exercise, which must be performed for 15 seconds.

(3) You must question the employee about the comfort of the respirator after completing the test exercises. If the respirator has become unacceptable, you must try another model of respirator.

(4) Any adjustments during fit testing will void the test, making it necessary to begin again.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07205
Appendix A-2: Qualitative Fit Testing (QLFT) Protocols for Respiratory Protection--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, which includes WAC 296-62-07205 through 296-62-07225.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07206
What are the general qualitative fit testing (QLFT) protocols?

(1) You must make sure the person who administers QLFT is able to:

•Prepare test solutions;
•Calibrate equipment and perform tests properly;
•Recognize invalid tests; and
•Make sure that test equipment is in proper working order.
(2) You must make sure that QLFT equipment is kept clean and well maintained so it operates within the parameters for which it was designed.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07208
Isoamyl acetate protocol (a QLFT).


Note:

You must equip particulate respirators with an organic vapor cartridge or canister when using the isoamyl acetate protocol for fit testing.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07209
What are the odor threshold screening procedures for isoamyl acetate (QLFT)?

(1) Why use odor threshold screening?

Odor threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, determines if the employee tested can detect the odor of isoamyl acetate at low levels.

(2) How are the test solutions for odor threshold screening prepared?

(a) Use three 1 liter glass jars with metal lids.

(b) Use odor-free water (for example, distilled or spring water) at approximately 25°C (77°F) for preparing the solutions.

(c) Stock solution: Prepare the isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known at isopentyl acetate) stock solution by:

•Adding 1 ml of pure IAA to 800 ml of odor-free water in a 1 liter jar;
•Closing the lid; and
•Shaking for 30 seconds.
A new stock solution must be prepared at least weekly.

(d) Daily test solution: Prepare the daily odor test solution in a second jar by placing 0.4 ml of the IAA stock solution into 500 ml of odor-free water using a clean dropper or pipette. Shake the solution for 30 seconds and allow it to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium. The daily test solution must be used for only one day.

(e) Prepare a test blank in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor-free water.

(f) Clearly label and identify the daily odor test solution and test blank jar lids (for example, 1 and 2). Place the labels on the lids so that they can be peeled off periodically and switched to maintain the integrity of the test.

(g) Prepare the solutions used in the IAA odor detection test in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory (smelling) fatigue in the employee.

(3) What are the odor threshold screening procedures?

(a) Conduct the screening test in a different room from the one used for actual fit testing. The two rooms must be well-ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evident in the general room air where testing takes place.

(b) Type the following instructions on a card and place them on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e., 1 and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration. The two bottles in front of you contain water. One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil."

(c) If the employee is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, do not perform the IAA qualitative fit test.

(d) If the employee correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the employee may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07210
What are the isoamyl acetate fit testing procedures (QLFT)?

(1) The fit test chamber must be a clear 55-gallon drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot diameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the employee's head. If no drum liner is available, construct a similar chamber using plastic sheeting.

(2) Attach a small hook to the inside top center of the chamber.

(3) Equip each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors.

(4) After selecting, putting on, and properly adjusting a respirator, the employee must wear it to the fit testing room.

(5) This room used for fit testing must be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection. It must be well-ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination.

(6) A copy of the test exercises and any prepared text from which the employee is to read must be taped to the inside of the test chamber.

(7) Upon entering the test chamber, give the employee a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single-ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 ml of pure IAA.

(8) Have the employee hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber. An IAA test swab or ampule may be substituted for the IAA wetted paper towel provided it has been demonstrated that the alternative IAA source will generate an IAA test atmosphere with a concentration equal to that generated by the paper towel method.

(9) Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to stabilize before starting the fit test exercises. This would be an appropriate time to talk with the employee; to explain the fit test, the importance of the employee's cooperation in the fit test, and the purpose for the test exercises; or to demonstrate some of the exercises.

(10) If at any time during the test, the employee detects the banana-like odor of IAA, the test is failed. The employee must quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory (smelling) fatigue.

(11) If the test is failed, the employee must return to the selection room and remove the respirator. The employee must:

•Repeat the odor sensitivity test;
•Select and put on another respirator;
•Return to the test area; and
•Again begin the fit test procedure described in subsections (1) through (8) of this section.
The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found.

(12) Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the employee must wait at least 5 minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time.

(13) If the employee passes the test, the efficiency of the test procedure must be demonstrated by having the employee break the respirator face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber.

(14) When the employee leaves the chamber, the employee must remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so that there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the chamber during subsequent tests.

(15) The used towels must be kept in a self-sealing plastic bag to keep the test area from being contaminated.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07212
Saccharin solution aerosol protocol (QLFT).

The entire screening and testing procedure must be explained to the employee prior to conducting the screening test.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07213
What are the taste threshold screening procedures for saccharin (QLFT)?

(1) Why use saccharin taste threshold screening?

The saccharin taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the employee being tested can detect the taste of saccharin.

(2) What are the saccharin solution aerosol procedures?

(a) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, the employee must wear an enclosure over the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that allows free movements of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts #FT 14 and #FT 15 combined, is adequate.

(b) The test enclosure must have a 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the employee's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(c) Have the employee put on the test enclosure.

(d) Throughout the threshold screening test, the employee must breathe through a slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(e) Instruct the employees to report when they detect a sweet taste.

(f) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. The nozzle is directed away from the nose and mouth of the person. This nebulizer must be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(g) Saccharin threshold check solution. Prepare the threshold check solution by dissolving 0.83 gram of sodium saccharin USP in 100 ml of warm water. It can be prepared by putting 1 ml of the fit test solution in 100 ml of distilled water.

(h) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then released and allowed to fully expand.

(i) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the employee is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted. If the employee tastes a sweet taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(j) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the employee is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the employee tastes a sweet taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(k) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the employee is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the employee tastes a sweet taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(l) Note the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(m) If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step k), the employee is unable to taste saccharin and must not perform the saccharin fit test.


Note:If employees eat or drink something sweet before the screening test, they may be unable to taste the weak saccharin solution.

(n) If a taste response is elicited, ask the employee to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(o) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(p) The nebulizer must be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07214
What is the saccharin solution aerosol fit testing procedure (QLFT)?

(1) The employee must not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure described in WAC 296-62-07210.

(3) Have the employee put on the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in WAC 296-62-07202. The respirator must be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter(s).

(4) Use a second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. Clearly mark this nebulizer to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) Prepare the fit test solution adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm water.

(6) As before, the employees must breathe through a slightly open mouth with tongue extended, and report if they taste the sweet taste of saccharin.

(7) Insert the nebulizer into the hole in the front of the enclosure and spray an initial concentration of saccharin fit test solution into the enclosure.

(8) Use the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response as noted during the screening test. A minimum of 10 squeezes is required.

(9) After generating the aerosol, instruct the employee to perform the exercises in WAC 296-62-07202.

(10) Replenish the aerosol concentration every 30 seconds using one half the original number of squeezes used initially (for example, 5, 10 or 15).

(11) Instruct the employees to tell you if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected. If the employee does not detect tasting the saccharin, the test is passed.

(12) If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator must be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing).

(13) Since the nebulizer has a tendency to clog during use, periodically check the nebulizer to make sure that it is not clogged. If the nebulizer is clogged at the end of the test session, the test is invalid.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07217
BitrexTM (denatonium benzoate) solution aerosol qualitative fit testing (QLFT) protocol.

General information. The BitrexTM (denatonium benzoate) solution aerosol QLFT protocol uses the published saccharin test protocol because that protocol is widely accepted. BitrexTM is routinely used as a taste aversion agent in household liquids that children should not be drinking and is endorsed by the American Medical Association, the National Safety Council, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The entire screening and testing procedure must be explained to the employee prior to the conduct of the screening test.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07218
What is the taste threshold screening procedure for BitrexTM (QLFT)?

(1) Why use odor threshold screening?

The BitrexTM taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the employee being tested can detect the taste of BitrexTM.

(2) What are the taste threshold screening procedures for BitrexTM (QLFT)?

(a) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, employees must wear an enclosure over the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches (30.5 cm) in diameter by 14 inches (35.6 cm) tall. The front portion of the enclosure must be clear from the respirator and allow free movement of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts #14 and #15 combined, is adequate.

(b) The test enclosure must have a 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the employee's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(c) Have the employee put on the test enclosure.

(d) Throughout the threshold screening test, the employees must breathe through a slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(e) Instruct the employees to tell you when they detect a bitter taste.

(f) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. Clearly mark this nebulizer to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(g) Prepare the threshold check solution by adding 13.5 milligrams of BitrexTM to 100 ml of 5% salt (NaCl) solution in distilled water.

(h) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that the bulb collapses completely, and is then released and allowed to fully expand.

(i) Rapidly repeat an initial ten squeezes and then ask the employee if the BitrexTM can be tasted. If the employee reports tasting the bitter taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. Note the taste threshold as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(j) If the first response is negative, rapidly repeat ten more squeezes and ask the employee if the BitrexTM is tasted. If the employee reports tasting the bitter taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. Note the taste threshold as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(k) If the second response is negative, rapidly repeat ten more squeezes and ask the employee if the BitrexTM is tasted. If the employee reports tasting the bitter taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. Note the taste threshold as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(l) Note the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(m) If the BitrexTM is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step k), the employee is unable to taste BitrexTM and must not perform the BitrexTM fit test.

(n) If a taste response is elicited, ask the employee to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(o) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(p) The nebulizer must be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken to dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07219
What is the BitrexTM solution aerosol fit testing procedure (QLFT)?

(1) The employee must not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure as that described in WAC 296-62-07210.

(3) Have the employee put on the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected according to WAC 296-62-07202. The respirator must be properly adjusted and equipped with any type particulate filter(s).

(4) Use a second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. Clearly mark this nebulizer to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) Prepare the fit test solution by adding 337.5 mg of BitrexTM to 200 ml of a 5% salt (NaCl) solution in warm water.

(6) As before, the employees must breathe through a slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(7) Instruct the employees to tell you when they detect the bitter taste of BitrexTM.

(8) Insert the nebulizer into the hole in the front of the enclosure. Spray an initial concentration of the fit test solution into the enclosure. Use the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required for the employee to taste the bitter tastes as noted during the screening test.

(9) After generating the aerosol, instruct the employee to perform the exercises in WAC 296-62-07203.

(10) Replenish the aerosol concentration every 30 seconds using one half the number of squeezes used initially (for example, 5, 10 or 15).

(11) Have the employees tell you if at any time during the fit test they taste the bitter taste of BitrexTM. If the employee does not detect tasting the BitrexTM, the test is passed.

(12) If the taste of BitrexTM is tasted, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator must be tried and the entire test procedures must be repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing).

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07222
Irritant smoke (stannic chloride) protocol (QLFT).

This qualitative fit test uses a person's response to the irritating chemicals released in the "smoke" produced by a stannic chloride ventilation smoke tube to detect leakage into the respirator.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07223
What are the general requirements and precautions for irritant smoke fit testing (QLFT)?

(1) The respirator to be tested must be equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter(s).

(2) Use only stannic chloride smoke tubes for this protocol.

(3) Do not use any form of a test enclosure or hood.

(4) The smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages. Take precautions to minimize the employee's exposure to irritant smoke. Sensitivity varies, and certain employees may respond to a greater degree to irritant smoke. Care must be taken when performing the sensitivity screening checks to use only the minimum amount of smoke necessary to elicit a response from the employee. Sensitivity screening checks determine whether the employee can detect the irritant smoke.

(5) The fit test must be performed in an area with adequate ventilation to prevent exposure of the person conducting the fit test or the build-up of irritant smoke in the general atmosphere.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07224
What is the sensitivity screening check protocol for irritant smoke (QLFT)?

(1) Why use irritant smoke sensitivity screening checks?

Employees must be tested to see if they can detect a weak concentration of the irritant smoke.

(2) What are the sensitivity screening check procedures?

(a) Break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chloride, and attach one end of the smoke tube to a low flow air pump set to deliver 200 milliliters per minute, or an aspirator squeeze bulb.

(b) Cover the other end of the smoke tube with a short piece of tubing to prevent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube.

(c) Advise the employees that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages and instruct them to keep their eyes closed while the test is performed.

(d) Allow the employee to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before putting on a respirator to become familiar with its irritating properties and determine if they can detect the irritating properties of the smoke.

(e) Carefully direct a small amount of the irritant smoke toward the employees being tested to see if they can detect it.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07225
What is the irritant smoke fit testing procedure (QLFT)?

(1) Have the employee put on the respirator without assistance, and perform the required user seal check(s).

(2) Instruct the employees to keep their eyes closed.

(3) Direct the stream of irritant smoke from the smoke tube toward the face seal area of the employee, using the low flow pump or the squeeze bulb. Begin at least 12 inches from the facepiece and move the smoke stream around the whole perimeter of the mask. Gradually make two more passes around the perimeter of the mask, moving to within six inches of the respirator.

(4) If the person being tested has not had an involuntary response and/or detected the irritant smoke, proceed with the test exercises.

(5) Have the employee perform the exercises required in WAC 296-62-07203 while the respirator seal is being continually challenged by the smoke. Direct the smoke around the perimeter of the respirator at a distance of six inches.

(6) If the employee being fit tested detects the irritant smoke at any time, the test is failed. An employee being retested must repeat the entire sensitivity check and fit test procedures.

(7) Have the employee remove the respirator.

(8) Give employees passing the irritant smoke test without evidence of a response (involuntary cough, irritation) a second sensitivity screening check, with the smoke from the same smoke tube used during the fit test to determine if they still react to the smoke. The fit test is void if an employee does not respond to the smoke.

(9) If the employee responds to the second sensitivity check, then the fit test is passed.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07230
Appendix A-3: Quantitative Fit Testing (QNFT) Protocols for Respiratory Protection--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, which includes WAC 296-62-07230 through 296-62-07248.

The following quantitative fit testing procedures are acceptable protocols:

•Nonhazardous test aerosol (such as corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS], or sodium chloride) generated in a test chamber, and employing instrumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator;
•Ambient aerosol as the test agent and appropriate instrumentation (condensation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit;
•Controlled negative pressure and appropriate instrumentation to measure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify the respirator fit.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07231
What are the general requirements for quantitative fit testing (QNFT)?

(1) You must make sure that persons administering QNFT are able to:

•Calibrate equipment and perform tests properly;
•Recognize invalid tests;
•Calculate fit factors properly; and
•Make sure that test equipment is in proper working order.
(2) You must make sure that QNFT equipment is kept clean, and is maintained and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions so as to operate at the parameters for which it was designed.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07233
Generated aerosol quantitative fit testing protocol (QNFT).

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07234
What equipment is required for generated aerosol fit testing (QNFT)?

(1) Instrumentation. Use aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems using particulates (corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS] or sodium chloride) as test aerosols for quantitative fit testing.

(2) Test chamber.

(a) The test chamber must be large enough to permit all employees to perform freely all required exercises without disturbing the test agent concentration or the measurement apparatus.

(b) The test chamber must be equipped and constructed so that the test agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber.

(3) When testing air-purifying respirators, replace the normal filter or cartridge element with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter supplied by the same manufacturer.

(4) Select the sampling instrument so that a computer record or strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of the test agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000. Integrators or computers that integrate the amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used provided a record of the readings is made.

(5) Do not expose the employee to any combination of substitute air-purifying elements, test agent and test agent concentration in excess of an established exposure limit for the test agent at any time during the testing process. Base the employee's exposure on the length of the exposure and the exposure limit duration.

(6) Construct the sampling port and place it on the test specimen respirator so that:

•No leaks occurs around the port (for example, where the respirator is probed);
•A free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times; and
•There is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator.
The in-mask sampling device (probe) must be designed and used so that the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone of the employee, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4-inch.

(7) The person administering the fit test must be able to observe the employee inside the chamber during the test.

(8) The equipment generating the test atmosphere must maintain the concentration of test agent constant to within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.

(9) Keep the time lag (interval between an event and the recording of the event on the strip chart or computer or integrator) to a minimum. You must be able to clearly see when an event occurs and when it is recorded on the strip chart or computer.

(10) The sampling line tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port must be:

•Equal in diameter;
•Made of the same material; and
•Equal in length.
(11) The exhaust flow from the test chamber must pass through an appropriate filter (i.e., high efficiency particulate filter) before release.

(12) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber must not exceed 50 percent.

(13) Take into account the limitations of instrument detection when determining the fit factor.

(14) Test respirators must be maintained in proper working order and be inspected regularly for deficiencies such as cracks or missing valves and gaskets.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07235
What are the procedures for generated aerosol quantitative fit testing (QNFT)?

(1) When performing the initial user seal check using a positive or negative pressure check, crimp the sampling line in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of these pressure checks.

(2) Using an abbreviated screening QLFT test is optional. You may use a QLFT screening test to quickly identify poor fitting respirators that passed the positive and/or negative pressure test and reduce the amount of QNFT time. Another option is to use the CNC QNFT instrument in the count mode to obtain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fitting respirators before going on to perform a full QNFT.

(3) A reasonably stable test agent concentration must be measured in the test chamber prior to testing. For canopy or shower curtain types of test units, determine the test agent's stability after the employee has entered the test environment.

(4) Immediately after the employee enters the test chamber, measure the test agent concentration inside the respirator to make sure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half-mask or 1 percent for a full facepiece respirator.

(5) Obtain a stable test agent concentration prior to the actual start of testing.

(6) Do not over-tighten respirator restraining straps for testing. Have the employee adjust the straps, without assistance, to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use.

(7) Do not adjust the respirator once the fit test exercises begin.

(8) Stop the test whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half-masks and 1 percent for full facepiece respirators. The employee must be refitted and retested.

(9) Do not permit the employee to wear a half-mask or quarter facepiece respirator unless:

•A minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained; or
•A full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained.
(10) Filters used for quantitative fit testing must be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07236
How are fit factors calculated (QNFT)?

(1) Determine the fit factor for the quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the concentration measured inside the respirator for each test exercise except the grimace exercise.

(2) Calculate the average test chamber concentration using one of the following:

•Arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each test (i.e., 7 exercises); or
•Arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each exercise; or
•True average measured continuously during the respirator sample.
(3) Determine the concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator by one of the following methods:

(a) Average peak penetration method. Average peak penetration method determines how much test agent penetrates into the respirator using a strip chart recorder, integrator, or computer. Determine the agent penetration averaging the peak heights on the graph or by computer integration, for each exercise except the grimace exercise. Integrators or computers that calculate the actual test agent penetration into the respirator for each exercise also will meet the requirements of the average peak penetration method.

(b) Maximum peak penetration. Maximum peak penetration method determines how much test agent penetrates into the respirator using a strip chart recordings of the test. The highest peak penetration for a given exercise represents the average penetration into the respirator for that exercise.

(c) Area under the peaks. Integrate the area under the individual peak for each exercise except the grimace exercise using computerized integration or other appropriate calculations.

(d) Overall fit factor. Calculate the overall fit factor using individual exercise fit factors.

•Convert the exercise fit factors to the penetration values.
•Determine the average.
•Then convert the average result back to a fit factor.
Use the following equation to calculate overall fit factor:

Overall Fit Factor

=

Number of exercises
1/ff1 + 1/ff2 + 1/ff3 + 1/ff4 + 1/ff5 + 1/ff6 + 1/ff7 + 1/ff8
Where ff1, ff2, ff3, etc. are the fit factors for exercises 1, 2, 3, etc.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07238
Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07239
General information about ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) protocol (QNFT).

(1) The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing (PortacountTM) protocol uses a probe to quantitatively fit tests respirators. A probed respirator has a special sampling device, installed on the respirator, that allows the probe to sample the air from inside the mask.

(2) The probed respirator is only used for quantitative fit tests.

(3) A probed respirator is required for each make, style, model, and size that the employer uses and can be obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distributor.

(4) The CNC instrument manufacturer, TSI Inc., also provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) that permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07240
What are the general requirements for ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) protocol (QNFT)?

(1) A minimum fit factor pass level of at least 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator.

(2) A minimum fit factor pass level of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece negative pressure respirator.

(3) The entire screening and testing procedure must be explained to the employee prior to the conduct of the screening test.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07242
What are the Portacount fit testing procedures?

(1) Check the respirator to make sure the:

•Sampling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece; and
•Respirator is fitted with a particulate filter capable of preventing significant penetration by the ambient particles used for the fit test (for example, NIOSH 42 CFR 82 series 100, series 99, or series 95 particulate filter) per manufacturer's instruction.
(2) Instruct the employee to put on the respirator for five minutes before the fit test starts. This purges the ambient particles trapped inside the respirator and permits the employee to make certain the respirator is comfortable. Before fit testing, train the employee on how to wear the respirator properly.

(3) Check the following conditions for the adequacy of the respirator fit:

•Chin properly placed;
•Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened;
•Fit across nose bridge;
•Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin;
•Tendency of the respirator to slip;
•Self-observation in a mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.
(4) Have the employee do a user seal check. If leakage is detected, determine the cause. If leakage is from a poorly fitting facepiece, try another size of the same model respirator, or another model of respirator.

(5) Follow the manufacturer's instructions for operating the Portacount and begin the test.

(6) Have the employee perform the exercises in WAC 296-62-07203.

(7) After the test exercises, ask the employee about comfort of the respirator. If the respirator is unacceptable, try another model of respirator.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07243
How is the Portacount test instrument used?

(1) The Portacount will automatically stop and calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of exercises. The overall fit factor is what counts. The pass or fail message will indicate whether or not the test was successful. If the test was a pass, the fit test is over.

(2) Since the pass or fail criterion of the Portacount is user programmable, you must make sure that the pass or fail criterion meets the requirements for minimum respirator performance in WAC 296-62-07235.

(3) Keep a record of successful fit tests on file. The record must contain:

•The employee's name;
•Overall fit factor;
•Make, model, style, and size of respirator used; and
•Date tested.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07245
Controlled negative pressure (CNP) quantitative fit testing protocol (QNFT).

The CNP protocol provides an alternative to aerosol fit test methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07246
How does controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing work (QNFT)?

(1) The CNP fit test method technology is based on exhausting air from a temporarily sealed respirator facepiece to generate and then maintain a constant negative pressure inside the facepiece. The rate of air exhaust is controlled so that a constant negative pressure is maintained in the respirator during the fit test. The level of pressure is selected to replicate the mean inspiratory pressure that causes leakage into the respirator under normal use conditions. With pressure held constant, air flow out of the respirator is equal to air flow into the respirator. Therefore, measurement of the exhaust stream that is required to hold the pressure in the temporarily sealed respirator constant yields a direct measure of leakage air flow into the respirator.

(2) The CNP fit test method measures leak rates through the facepiece as a method for determining the facepiece fit for negative pressure respirators.

(3) Manufacturer attachments. The CNP instrument manufacturer Dynatech Nevada also provides attachments (sampling manifolds) that replace the filter cartridges to permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator.

(4) Performing the test. To perform the test, the employees close their mouths and hold their breath, after which an air pump removes air from the respirator facepiece at a preselected constant pressure.

(5) Facepiece fit. The facepiece fit is expressed as the leak rate through the facepiece, expressed as milliliters per minute.

(6) The quality and validity of the CNP fit tests are determined by the degree to which the in-mask pressure tracks the test pressure during the system measurement time of approximately five seconds. Instantaneous feedback in the form of a real-time pressure trace of the in-mask pressure is provided and used to determine test validity and quality.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07247
What are the controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing requirements and procedures (QNFT)?

(1) Fit factor.

•A minimum fit factor pass level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator.
•A minimum fit factor of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece respirator.
(2) The entire screening and testing procedure must be explained to the employee prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(3) The instrument must have a nonadjustable test pressure of 15.0 mm water pressure.

(4) When performing fit tests, set the CNP system defaults at:

•15 mm of water (-0.58 inches of water) test pressure and
•53.8 liters per minute for the modeled inspiratory flow rate.

Note:CNP systems have built-in capability to conduct fit testing that is specific to unique work rate, mask, and gender situations that might apply in a specific workplace. Use of system default values, which were selected to represent respirator wear with medium cartridge resistance at a low-moderate work rate, will allow inter-test comparison of the respirator fit.

(5) The person conducting the CNP fit testing must be thoroughly trained to perform the test.

(6) Replace the respirator filter or cartridge with the CNP test manifold. Temporarily remove or prop open the inhalation valve downstream from the manifold.

(7) Train employees to hold their breath for at least 20 seconds.

(8) Have the employee put on the test respirator without any assistance from the individual who conducts the CNP fit test.

(9) The QNFT protocol must be followed according to WAC 296-62-07231 with an exception for the CNP test.

(10) The test instrument must have an effective audio warning device when the employee fails to hold his or her breath during the test.

(11) Stop the test whenever the employees fail to hold their breath. The employees must be refitted and retested.

(12) A record of the test must be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the employee's name; overall fit factor; make, model, style and size of respirator used; and date tested.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07248
What test exercises are required for controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit testing (QNFT)?

(1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the employees must breathe normally for 1 minute. After the normal breathing exercise, the employees must hold their head straight ahead and hold their breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the employees must breathe slowly and deeply for 1 minute, being careful not to hyperventilate. After the deep breathing exercise, the employees must hold their head straight ahead and hold their breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.

(3) Turning head side to side.

•Standing in place, the employees must slowly turn their heads from side to side between the extreme positions on each side for 1 minute, holding their heads each extreme momentarily so they can inhale at each side.
•After the turning head side to side exercise, have the employees hold their heads full left and hold their breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.
•Next, have the employees need to hold their head full right and hold their breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.
(4) Moving head up and down.

•Standing in place, the employees must slowly move their heads up and down for 1 minute.
•Instruct the employee to inhale in the up position (when looking toward the ceiling).
•After the moving head up and down exercise, the employees must hold their heads full up and hold their breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.
•Next, the employees must hold their heads full down and hold their breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.
(5) Talking. The employee must talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The employee can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song for 1 minute. After the talking exercise, the employee must hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(6) Grimace. The employee must grimace by smiling or frowning for 15 seconds.

(7) Bending over. Employees must bend at the waist as if they were touching their toes for 1 minute. Jogging in place must be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud-type QNFT units that prohibit bending at the waist. After the bending over exercise, the employees must hold their head straight ahead and hold their breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(8) Normal Breathing.

•The employee must remove and put on the respirator again within a one-minute period.
•Then, in a normal standing position, without talking, the employee must breathe normally for 1 minute.
•After the normal breathing exercise, the employee must hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.
(9) After the test exercises, question the employee about the comfort of the respirator. If the respirator has become unacceptable, another model of a respirator must be tried.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07251
Appendix B-1: User Seal Check Procedures--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

The individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator must perform a user seal check to make sure that the respirator makes an adequate seal each time it is put on. Either the positive and negative pressure checks listed in this appendix, or the respirator manufacturer's recommended user seal check method must be used. User seal checks are not substitutes for qualitative or quantitative fit tests.

(1) Facepiece positive and/or negative pressure checks.

(a) Positive pressure check. Close off the exhalation valve and exhale gently into the facepiece. For most respirators this method of leak testing requires the wearer to first remove the exhalation valve cover before closing off the exhalation valve. The face fit is considered adequate if a slight positive pressure (inflation) can be built up inside the facepiece without any evidence of outward leakage of air at the seal. Carefully replace the exhalation valve cover, if it was removed, after the test.

(b) Negative pressure check. Close off the inlet opening of the canister or cartridge(s) by covering with the palm of the hand(s) or by replacing the filter seal(s), inhale gently so that the facepiece collapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. If the design of the inlet opening of the cartridges cannot be effectively covered with the palm of the hand, cover the inlet opening of the cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the facepiece remains in its slightly collapsed condition and no inward leakage of air is detected, the tightness of the respirator is considered satisfactory.

(2) Manufacturer's recommended user seal check procedures. The respirator manufacturer's recommended procedures for performing a user seal check may be used instead of the positive and/or negative pressure check procedures describe above provided that you demonstrate that the manufacturer's procedures are equally effective.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07253
Appendix B-2: Respirator Cleaning Procedures--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(1) These procedures are provided for you to use when cleaning respirators. They are general in nature, and as an alternative you may use the cleaning recommendations provided by the manufacturer of the respirators used by your employees, if the manufacturer's procedures are as effective as those listed here in Appendix B-2. Procedures are as effective when they meet the requirements in Appendix B-2, i.e., that must make sure that the respirator is properly cleaned and disinfected so that the respirator is not damaged and does no harm to the user.

(2) Procedures for cleaning respirators.

(a) Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Remove speaking diaphragms, demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, hoses, or any components recommended by the manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts.

(b) Wash components in warm (43°C [110°F] maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used to facilitate the removal of dirt.

(c) Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43°C [110°F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain.

(d) When the cleaner used does not contain a disinfecting agent, respirator components should be immersed for two minutes in one of the following:

(i) Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm of chlorine) made by adding approximately one milliliter of laundry bleach to one liter of water at 43°C (110°F); or,

(ii) Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters of tincture of iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium iodide/100 cc of 45% alcohol) to one liter of water at 43°C (110°F); or,

(iii) Other commercially available cleansers of equivalent disinfectant quality when used as directed, if their use is recommended or approved by the respirator manufacturer.

(e) Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43°C [110°F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain. The importance of thorough rinsing cannot be overemphasized. Detergents or disinfectants that dry on facepieces may result in dermatitis. In addition, some disinfectants may cause deterioration of rubber or corrosion of metal parts if not completely removed.

(f) Components should be hand-dried with a clean lint-free cloth or air-dried.

(g) Reassemble facepiece, replacing filters, cartridges, and canisters where necessary.

(h) Test the respirator to make sure that all components work properly.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07255
Appendix C: WISHA Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire--Mandatory.

This is a mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.


To the employer:


You must not review employee questionnaires.


To the employer's PLHCP:


Answers to questions in Section 1 and question 9 in Section 2 of Part A do not require further medical evaluations.


To the employee:


Your employer must allow you to answer this questionnaire during normal working hours, or at a time and place that is convenient to you. To maintain your confidentiality, your employer or supervisor must not look at or review your answers, and your employer must tell you how to deliver or send this questionnaire to the health care professional who will review it.


Part A. Section 1. Mandatory


The following information must be provided by every employee who has been selected to use any type of respirator (please print).


1. Today's date:

2. Your name:

3. Your age (to nearest year):

4. Sex (circle one): Male/Female

5. Your height: ft. in.

6. Your weight: lbs.

7. Your job title:

8. A phone number where you can be reached by the health care professional who reviews this questionnaire (include the Area Code):

9. The best time to phone you at this number:

10. Has your employer told you how to contact the health care professional who will review this questionnaire (circle one): Yes/No

11. Check the type of respirator you will use (you can check more than one category):

a. N, R, or P disposable respirator (dust mask style, half facepiece respirators without cartridges).

b. Check all that apply.

Half mask Full facepiece

mask

Helmet hood Escape
Nonpowered cartridge or canister
Powered air-purifying cartridge respirator (PAPR)
Supplied-air or Air-line
Disposable filtering facepiece (for example N-95)
Self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA):

Demand or

Pressure demand

Other:
12. Have you worn a respirator (circle one): Yes/No

If "yes," what type(s):


Part A. Section 2. Mandatory


Questions 1 through 9 below must be answered by every employee who has been selected to use any type of respirator (please circle "yes" or "no").


1. Do you currently smoke tobacco, or have you smoked tobacco in the last month: Yes/No


2. Have you ever had any of the following conditions?

a. Seizures (fits): Yes/No

b. Diabetes (sugar disease): Yes/No

c. Allergic reactions that interfere with your breathing: Yes/No

d. Claustrophobia (fear of closed-in places): Yes/No

e. Trouble smelling odors: Yes/No


3. Have you ever had any of the following pulmonary or lung problems?

a. Asbestosis: Yes/No

b. Asthma: Yes/No

c. Chronic bronchitis: Yes/No

d. Emphysema: Yes/No

e. Pneumonia: Yes/No

f. Tuberculosis: Yes/No

g. Silicosis: Yes/No

h. Pneumothorax (collapsed lung): Yes/No

i. Lung cancer: Yes/No

j. Broken ribs: Yes/No

k. Any chest injuries or surgeries: Yes/No

l. Any other lung problem that you've been told about: Yes/No


4. Do you currently have any of the following symptoms of pulmonary or lung illness?

a. Shortness of breath: Yes/No

b. Shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or walking up a slight hill or incline: Yes/No

c. Shortness of breath when walking with other people at an ordinary pace on level ground: Yes/No

d. Have to stop for breath when walking at your own pace on level ground: Yes/No

e. Shortness of breath when washing or dressing yourself: Yes/No

f. Shortness of breath that interferes with your job: Yes/No

g. Coughing that produces phlegm (thick sputum): Yes/No

h. Coughing that wakes you early in the morning: Yes/No

i. Coughing that occurs mostly when you are lying down: Yes/No

j. Coughing up blood in the last month: Yes/No

k. Wheezing: Yes/No

l. Wheezing that interferes with your job: Yes/No

m. Chest pain when you breathe deeply: Yes/No

n. Any other symptoms that you think may be related to lung problems: Yes/No


5. Have you ever had any of the following cardiovascular or heart problems?

a. Heart attack: Yes/No

b. Stroke: Yes/No

c. Angina: Yes/No

d. Heart failure: Yes/No

e. Swelling in your legs or feet (not caused by walking): Yes/No

f. Heart arrhythmia (heart beating irregularly): Yes/No

g. High blood pressure: Yes/No

h. Any other heart problem that you've been told about: Yes/No


6. Have you ever had any of the following cardiovascular or heart symptoms?

a. Frequent pain or tightness in your chest: Yes/No

b. Pain or tightness in your chest during physical activity: Yes/No

c. Pain or tightness in your chest that interferes with your job: Yes/No

d. In the past two years, have you noticed your heart skipping or missing a beat: Yes/No

e. Heartburn or indigestion that is not related to eating: Yes/ No

f. Any other symptoms that you think may be related to heart or circulation problems: Yes/No


7. Do you currently take medication for any of the following problems?

a. Breathing or lung problems: Yes/No

b. Heart trouble: Yes/No

c. Blood pressure: Yes/No

d. Seizures (fits): Yes/No


8. If you've used a respirator, have you ever had any of the following problems? (If you've never used a respirator, check the following space and go to question 9:)

a. Eye irritation: Yes/No

b. Skin allergies or rashes: Yes/No

c. Anxiety: Yes/No

d. General weakness or fatigue: Yes/No

e. Any other problem that interferes with your use of a respirator: Yes/No


9. Would you like to talk to the health care professional who will review this questionnaire about your answers to this questionnaire: Yes/No


Part A. Section 3. Mandatory for SCBA or Full Facepiece Respirator Users


Questions 10 to 15 below must be answered by every employee who has been selected to use either a full-facepiece respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). For employees who have been selected to use other types of respirators, answering these questions is voluntary.


10. Have you ever lost vision in either eye (temporarily or permanently): Yes/No


11. Do you currently have any of the following vision problems?

a. Wear contact lenses: Yes/No

b. Wear glasses: Yes/No

c. Color blind: Yes/No

d. Any other eye or vision problem: Yes/No


12. Have you ever had an injury to your ears, including a broken ear drum: Yes/No


13. Do you currently have any of the following hearing problems?

a. Difficulty hearing: Yes/No

b. Wear a hearing aid: Yes/No

c. Any other hearing or ear problem: Yes/No


14. Have you ever had a back injury: Yes/No


15. Do you currently have any of the following musculoskeletal problems?

a. Weakness in any of your arms, hands, legs, or feet: Yes/No

b. Back pain: Yes/No

c. Difficulty fully moving your arms and legs: Yes/No

d. Pain or stiffness when you lean forward or backward at the waist: Yes/No

e. Difficulty fully moving your head up or down: Yes/No

f. Difficulty fully moving your head side to side: Yes/No

g. Difficulty bending at your knees: Yes/No

h. Difficulty squatting to the ground: Yes/No

i. Climbing a flight of stairs or a ladder carrying more than 25 lbs: Yes/No

j. Any other muscle or skeletal problem that interferes with using a respirator: Yes/No


Part B: PLHCP Discretionary Questions


If appropriate to specific job requirements or conditions, additional questions - including but not limited to the following - may be added at the discretion of the health care professional to clarify an employee's ability to use a respirator.


1. In your present job, are you working at high altitudes (over 5,000 feet) or in a place that has lower than normal amounts of oxygen: Yes/No


If "yes," do you have feelings of dizziness, shortness of breath, pounding in your chest, or other symptoms when you're working under these conditions: Yes/No


2. At work or at home, have you ever been exposed to hazardous solvents, hazardous airborne chemicals (for example, gases, fumes, or dust), or have you come into skin contact with hazardous chemicals: Yes/No


If "yes," name the chemicals if you know them:


3. Have you ever worked with any of the materials, or under any of the conditions, listed below:


a. Asbestos: Yes/No

b. Silica (for example, in sandblasting): Yes/No

c. Tungsten/cobalt (for example, grinding or welding this material): Yes/No

d. Beryllium: Yes/No

e. Aluminum: Yes/No

f. Coal (for example, mining): Yes/No

g. Iron: Yes/No

h. Tin: Yes/No

i. Dusty environments: Yes/No

j. Any other hazardous exposures: Yes/No


If "yes," describe these exposures:


4. List any second jobs or side businesses you have:


5. List your previous occupations:


6. List your current and previous hobbies:


7. Have you been in the military services? Yes/No


If "yes," were you exposed to biological or chemical agents (either in training or combat): Yes/No


8. Have you ever worked on a HAZMAT team? Yes/No


9. Other than medications for breathing and lung problems, heart trouble, blood pressure, and seizures mentioned earlier in this questionnaire, are you taking any other medications for any reason (including over-the-counter medications): Yes/No


If "yes," name the medications if you know them:


10. Will you be using any of the following items with your respirator(s)?


a. HEPA Filters: Yes/No

b. Canisters (for example, gas masks): Yes/No

c. Cartridges: Yes/No


11. How often are you expected to use the respirator(s) (circle "yes" or "no" for all answers that apply to you)?:


a. Escape only (no rescue): Yes/No

b. Emergency rescue only: Yes/No

c. Less than 5 hours per week: Yes/No

d. Less than 2 hours per day: Yes/No

e. 2 to 4 hours per day: Yes/No

f. Over 4 hours per day: Yes/No


12. During the period you are using the respirator(s), is your work effort:


a. Light (less than 200 kcal per hour): Yes/No


If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:hrs.mins.


Examples of a light work effort are sitting while writing, typing, drafting, or performing light assembly work; or standing while operating a drill press (1-3 lbs.) or controlling machines.


b. Moderate (200 to 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No


If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:hrs.mins.


Examples of moderate work effort are sitting while nailing or filing; driving a truck or bus in urban traffic; standing while drilling, nailing, performing assembly work, or transferring a moderate load (about 35 lbs.) at trunk level; walking on a level surface about 2 mph or down a 5-degree grade about 3 mph; or pushing a wheelbarrow with a heavy load (about 100 lbs.) on a level surface.


c. Heavy (above 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No


If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:hrs.mins.


Examples of heavy work are lifting a heavy load (about 50 lbs.) from the floor to your waist or shoulder; working on a loading dock; shoveling; standing while bricklaying or chipping castings; walking up an 8-degree grade about 2 mph; climbing stairs with a heavy load (about 50 lbs.).


13. Will you be wearing protective clothing and/or equipment (other than the respirator) when you're using your respirator: Yes/No

If "yes," describe this protective clothing and/or equipment:


14. Will you be working under hot conditions (temperature exceeding 77°F): Yes/No


15. Will you be working under humid conditions: Yes/No


16. Describe the work you'll be doing while you're using your respirator(s):


17. Describe any special or hazardous conditions you might encounter when you're using your respirator(s) (for example, confined spaces, life-threatening gases):


18. Provide the following information, if you know it, for each toxic substance that you'll be exposed to when you're using your respirator(s):


Name of the first toxic substance:

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:

Duration of exposure per shift


Name of the second toxic substance:

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:

Duration of exposure per shift:


Name of the third toxic substance:

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:

Duration of exposure per shift:


The name of any other toxic substances that you'll be exposed to while using your respirator:


19. Describe any special responsibilities you'll have while using your respirator(s) that may affect the safety and well-being of others (for example, rescue, security):

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07257
Appendix D: Health Care Provider Respirator Recommendation Form--Non-mandatory

This is a non-mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.


This form is for the use of PLHCPs who are providing recommendations to employers regarding employee clearance for respirator use. Completion of this form satisfies the requirement for PLHCP's recommendations as detailed in WAC 296-62-07155. The following information is purposely limited in order to maintain employee confidentiality.


Employee Name:Health Care Professional Name:
Employer Name:
Address:


Address:
Phone:Phone:


Type of Respirator This Individual is Medically Cleared to Use

Check all that apply.

&lhlsqbul; Half-mask&lhlsqbul; Full facepiece mask&lhlsqbul; Helmet Hood&lhlsqbul; Escape
&lhlsqbul; Non-powered cartridge or canister&lhlsqbul; Powered air-purifying cartridge respirator (PAPR)
&lhlsqbul; Supplied-air or Air-line&lhlsqbul; Disposable filtering facepiece (for example N-95)

Self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA):

&lhlsqbul; Demand or&lhlsqbul; Pressure demand
Other:

Respirator Clearance

Under the conditions described in the supplemental information provided by the employer, this individual: (please check one)

is medically cleared for use of the respirator(s) without limitations.

is medically cleared for use of the respirator(s) with the following limitations:

is not medically cleared for use of a respirator.


Workload Limitations

&lhlsqbul; unrestricted &lhlsqbul; heavy &lhlsqbul; medium &lhlsqbul; light


Follow-up Medical Evaluations

This individual will/will not (circle one) require additional follow-up medical evaluation(s). The recommended schedule for follow-up medical evaluations, if necessary, is as follows:


Employee Notification

I certify that the above named individual for whom this respirator clearance form is provided has received a copy of this recommendation.


Signature Date

(Physician or other Licensed Health Care Professional)

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07260
Appendix E: Additional Information Regarding Respirator Selection--Non-Mandatory.

This is a non-mandatory appendix to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, which includes WAC 296-62-07260 through 296-62-07295.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07261
How do you classify respiratory hazards?

Respiratory hazards are classified into the following categories:

•Oxygen deficient;
•Physical properties (gas, vapor, biological aerosols, and particulate contaminants, which include dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke, and spray);
•Physiological effects on the body (for example, asphyxiant, carcinogenic, or toxic);
•Concentration of toxic material or radioactivity level;
•Established exposure limits; and
•Established immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations.
When selecting a respirator, you must determine which of the categories listed above apply to your workplace.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07263
What are oxygen deficient respiratory hazards?

(1) The oxygen content of normal air at sea-level conditions is 20.9%.

(2) Minimum legal requirements: An oxygen deficient atmosphere is one that has 19.5% or less oxygen by volume for respirable air at sea-level conditions.

(3) They commonly occur in confined or unventilated cellars, wells, mines, ship holds, tanks, burning buildings, and enclosures containing inert atmospheres.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07265
What needs to be considered when combinations of contaminants occur in the workplace?

Combinations of contaminants (gas, vapor and particulate) may occur simultaneously in the atmosphere. Contaminants may be entirely different substances (dusts and gases from blasting) or the particulate and vapor forms of the same substance. Synergistic effects (joint action of two or more agents that results in an effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects) may occur. Such effects may require extraordinary protective measures.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07267
What are the two major types of respirators?

Respirators are classified into the following categories:

(1) Air-purifying respirators. The following types of air-purifying respirators are available:

•Particulate-removing;
•Gas- and vapor-removing; and
•Combination particulate- and either gas- or vapor-removing.
(2) Atmosphere-supplying respirators. The following types of atmosphere-supplying respirators are available:

•Supplied-air or airline;
•Combination supplied-air and air-purifying;
•Combination supplied-air with auxiliary self-contained air supply; and
•Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

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AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS (APRS)
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07269
What are air-purifying respirators (APRs)?

(1) Air-purifying respirators remove particles, vapors, gases, or a combination of these contaminants by passing contaminated air through a filter, cartridge, or canister. The breathing action of the wearer operates the nonpowered type of respirator. The powered type contains a blower (usually carried by the wearer), that pulls contaminated air through air-purifying media and then blows the purified air to the respirator user. The nonpowered type is equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece or without one (for example, mouthpiece/nose clamp types). The powered type is equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit.

(2) Air-purifying respirators are classified into the following categories:

•Particulate-removing respirators;
•Vapor- and gas-removing respirators; and
•Combinations of the above.
(3) Air-purifying respirators (APRs) are available as nonpowered, tight-fitting respirators, powered-air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and mouthpiece respirators.

(4) A variety of tight-fitting APR styles are available ranging from half facepiece to full facepiece masks, including PAPRs. PAPRs are also available in loose-fitting styles, featuring a hood or helmet instead of a tight-fitting facepiece. Gas masks are only available in the full-facepiece style and some are classified as PAPRs.

(5) Mouthpiece respirators do not provide for a mask-to-face seal and are designed to be worn with a mouth bit and nose clamp.

(6) The most commonly used type of APR is a nonpowered, tight-fitting half-mask. The facepieces available for this type of respirator may be composed of silicone or other elastomeric materials if a cartridge type respirator is needed. Noncartridge types are called filtering facepiece respirators and are primarily composed of fibrous materials.

(7) Disposable options are available for either elastomeric or filtering facepiece type half-masks. Some disposables may last for only a brief period of use while others are designed for prolonged use (designed to have nonreplaceable parts), sometimes referred to as low maintenance respirators. Disposables are generally less expensive than nondisposable type half-masks.

(8) In addition, special cartridge-type half facepiece models may also be available with features designed for specific work operations. For example, low profile type half-masks are available to be worn under welding hoods.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07271
What are the general limitations for air-purifying respirators (APRs)?

(1) Air-purifying respirators do not protect against oxygen-deficient atmospheres nor against skin irritation by, or absorption through the skin of, airborne contaminants.

(2) The maximum contaminant concentration against which an air-purifying respirator will protect is determined by the design and capacity of the cartridge, canister, or filter and the facepiece-to-face seal on the user. For gases and vapors, the maximum concentration for which the air-purifying element is designed is specified by the manufacturer or is listed on labels of cartridges and canisters.

(3) Nonpowered air-purifying respirators may not provide the assigned level of protection specified unless the facepiece is carefully fitted to the wearer's face to prevent leakage. The time period over which protection is provided is dependent on:

•Canister, cartridge, or filter capacity;
•Concentration of contaminant(s);
•Humidity levels in the ambient atmosphere; and
•The wearer's respiratory rate.
(4) The proper type of canister, cartridge, or filter must be selected for the particular atmosphere and conditions. Nonpowered air-purifying respirators may cause discomfort due to a noticeable resistance to inhalation. This problem is minimized with use of powered respirators. Respirator facepieces present special problems to individuals required to wear prescription lenses (spectacle kits are available from some manufacturers). These devices do have the advantage of being small, light, and simple in operation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07273
What are particulate-removing respirators?

Particulate-removing respirators are equipped with filter(s) to remove a single type of particulate matter (for example, dust) or a combination of two or more types of particulate matter (for example, dust and fume) from air. The filter may be a replaceable part or a permanent part of the respirator. It may also be a single-use or reusable type of filter.

(1) General limitations. Particulate-removing respirators provide protection against nonvolatile particles only. They do not protect against gases and vapors. They are not for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health (see WAC 296-62-07132).

(2) Full facepiece particulate respirators provide protection against eye irritation in addition to respiratory protection.

(3) Mouthpiece respirators must be used only for escape. Mouth breathing prevents detection of contaminant by odor. The nose clamp must be securely in place to prevent nasal breathing. A small, lightweight device that can be donned quickly.

(4) In environments with oil aerosols, you must not use "N" type particulate respirators.

(5) Combination particulate- and vapor- and gas-removing respirators are subject to the advantages and disadvantages of the component sections of the combination respirator as described above.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07275
What are vapor- and gas-removing respirators?

Vapor- and gas-removing respirators are equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) to remove a single vapor or gas (for example, chlorine gas); a single class of vapors or gases (for example, organic vapors); or a combination of two or more classes or gases (for example, organic vapors, and acidic gases) from air.

(1) General limitations. Vapor and gas removing respirators do not provide protection against particulate contaminants. A rise in canister or cartridge temperature indicates that a gas or vapor is being removed from the inspired air. An uncomfortably high temperature indicates a high concentration of gas or vapor and requires immediate return to fresh air. Use must be avoided unless an ESLI or a change out schedule is available. They are not for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health.

(2) Full facepiece vapor- and gas-removing respirators provide protection against eye irritation in addition to respiratory protection.

(3) Mouthpiece respirators must be used only for escape. Mouth breathing prevents detection of contaminant by odor. The nose clamp must be securely in place to prevent nasal breathing. These are small lightweight devices that can be put on quickly.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07277
What are combination particulate- and vapor-and gas-removing respirators?

Combination particulate- and vapor-and gas-removing respirators are equipped with cartridge(s) or canister(s) to remove particulate matter, vapors and gases from air. The filter may be a permanent part or a replaceable part of a cartridge or canister.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07279
What types of filters, canisters and cartridges are available for air-purifying respirators (APRs)?

(1) Filters. Filters currently available for use against particulate contaminants are appropriate for solid particulates such as dusts or fumes, as well as being appropriate for nonvolatile, liquid particles such as sprays, mists and fogs.

(a) Cartridges or canister filters are available in addition to separate filter pads that can be added to some manufacturers' cartridges. They also may be formed into a filtering facepiece mask or as a wafer-like attachment. Regardless of how they are constructed, particulate filters are classified by physical limitations as "N," "R," and "P". Within each class, manufacturers may supply three different types of filters that reflect the efficiency rating (see below).


ClassEfficiency Rating
N9599100
R9599100
P9599100

(i) Filters that are classified as N-100, R-100, and P-100 are also referred to as HEPA filters. New particulate filters are more effective than older types of filters referred to as:

•Dust;
•Dust/mist; or
•Dust/fume/mist filters.
These older types of filters have highly variable efficiencies. They are no longer being manufactured and sold.

(ii) Any filter designated with "N" is appropriate for use in environments that do not contain oil. If you have oil aerosols, "R" or "P" designated filters are appropriate for use.

(b) Combination filters. Some vapor and gas cartridges and canisters have an added filter component for particulates. These are available as combination cartridges and will have a separate certification number listed on the respirator, packaging or in the operations manual for each type of contaminant.

(2) Canisters. Gas mask canisters are available for specific contaminants including ammonia, carbon monoxide, chlorine, phosphine and sulfur dioxide. Canisters are also available for general categories of chemical contaminants including acid gases, organic vapors, and pesticides. Canisters attachment options available are chin-, belt- or chest-mounted and a variety of canister sizes are available.

(3) Cartridges (nongas mask canisters). Cartridges are available for protection against specific contaminants and combinations of specific contaminants, including ammonia, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, methylamine, sulfur dioxide and vinyl chloride. Cartridges are also available for protection against general categories of chemical contaminants, including organic vapors, paints/lacquers/enamels and pesticides. Cartridge attachment options available include face-, chin-, belt- or helmet-mounted.

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ATMOSPHERE-SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07281
How do atmosphere-supplying respirators work?

(1) Atmosphere-supplying respirators supply a respirable atmosphere to the wearer.

(2) The two types of atmosphere-supplying respirators are:

•Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA); and
•Supplied-air respirators.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07283
What are the capabilities and limitations of atmosphere-supplying respirators?

See WAC 296-62-07180 for the requirements on breathing gases used with atmosphere-supplying respirators.

(1) Capabilities. Atmosphere-supplying respirators provide protection against oxygen deficient and toxic atmospheres. The breathing atmosphere is independent of contaminated atmospheric conditions.

(2) General limitations. Except for some supplied-air suits, no protection is provided against skin irritation by materials such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride, or against absorption of materials such as hydrogen cyanide or organo-phosphate pesticides through the skin. Facepieces present special problems to individuals required to wear prescription lenses. Use of atmosphere-supplying respirators in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health is limited to specific devices under specified conditions (see WAC 296-62-07132).

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07285
What is a supplied-air respirator?

A supplied-air (or air-line) respirator provides respirable air through a small-diameter hose from a compressor or compressed-air cylinder(s). The hose is attached to the wearer by a belt or other suitable means and can be detached rapidly in an emergency. A flow-control valve or orifice is provided to govern the rate of air flow to the wearer. Exhaled air passes to the ambient atmosphere through a valve(s) or opening(s) in the enclosure (facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit). Up to 300 feet (91 meters) of hose length is permissible. Hose supplied by the manufacturer and recommended operating pressures and hose lengths must be used.

Supplied-air respirators are classified in the following ways:

(1) Continuous-flow respirators, which are equipped with a facepiece, hood, helmet, or suit. At least 115 liters (four cubic feet) of air per minute to tight-fitting facepieces and 170 liters (six cubic feet) of air per minute to loose fitting helmets, hoods and suits are required. Air is supplied to a suit through a system of internal tubes to the head, trunk and extremities through valves located in appropriate parts of the suit.

(2) Demand type (negative pressure) respirators, which are only equipped with a facepiece. The demand valve permits flow of air only during inhalation.

(3) Pressure-demand type (positive pressure) respirators, which are only equipped with a facepiece. A positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07287
What are the general capabilities and limitations of supplied-air respirators?

(1) Capabilities. The respirable air supply is not limited to the quantity the individual can carry, and the devices are lightweight and simple. The demand type produces a negative pressure in the facepiece on inhalation, whereas continuous-flow and pressure-demand types maintain a positive-pressure in the respirator-inlet covering and are less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants. Supplied-air suits may protect against atmospheres that irritate the skin or that may be absorbed through the unbroken skin.

(2) Limitations. Employees are restricted in movement by the hose and must return to a respirable atmosphere by retracing their route of entry. The hose may be severed or pinched off. Supplied-air respirators provide no protection if the air supply fails. Some contaminants, such as tritium, may penetrate the material of an supplied-air suit and limit its effectiveness. Other contaminants, such as fluorine, may react chemically with the material of a supplied-air suit and damage it.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07289
What are combination supplied-air and air-purifying respirators?

Combination supplied-air and air-purifying respirators provide the wearer with the option of using either of two different modes of operation:

(1) A supplied-air respirator with an auxiliary air-purifying attachment which provides protection in the event the air supply fails; or

(2) The advantages and disadvantages previously described for supplied-air and air-purifying respirators apply when these respirators are used in combination. The mode with the greater limitations (air-purifying mode) will generally determine the overall capabilities and limitations of the respirator, since the wearer may for some reason fail to change the mode of operation even though conditions require such a change.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07291
What are combination supplied-air respirators with auxiliary self-contained air supply?

Some combination supplied-air respirators have an auxiliary self-contained air supply. To escape from a hazardous atmosphere in the event the primary air supply fails to operate, the wearer switches to the auxiliary self-contained air supply. Devices approved for both entry into and escape from dangerous atmospheres have a low-pressure warning alarm and contain at least a 5-minute self-contained air supply. The auxiliary self-contained air supply on this type of device allows the wearer to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. This device with auxiliary self-contained air supply is approved for escape and may be used for entry when it contains at least a 15-minute auxiliary self-contained air supply and not more than 20 percent of the rated self-contained air supply is used during entry (see WAC 296-62-07132).

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07293
What is a self-contained breathing apparatus respirator (SCBA)?

SCBAs are respirators designed so that the supply of air, oxygen, or oxygen-generated material is carried by the wearer. They are normally equipped with a full facepiece, but may be equipped with a half-mask facepiece, helmet, hood or mouthpiece and nose clamp.

SCBAs are classified in the following ways:

(1) Closed-circuit SCBA (oxygen only, negative pressure or positive pressure). There are two types of closed-circuit SCBAs. They are:

(a) Compressed liquid oxygen respirators, which are equipped with a facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp. High-pressure oxygen from a gas cylinder passes through a high-pressure reducing valve and, in some designs, through a low-pressure admission valve to a breathing bag or container. Liquid oxygen is converted to low-pressure gaseous oxygen and delivered to the breathing bag. The wearer inhales from the bag through a corrugated tube connected to a mouthpiece or facepiece and a one-way check valve. Exhaled air passes through another check valve and tube into a container of carbon-dioxide removing chemical and reenters the breathing bag. Make-up oxygen enters the bag continuously or as the bag deflates sufficiently to actuate an admission valve. A pressure-relief system is provided, and a manual bypass and saliva trap may be provided depending upon the design.

(b) Oxygen-generating respirators, which are equipped with a facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp. Water vapor in the exhaled breath reacts with the chemical in the canister to release oxygen to the breathing bag. The wearer inhales from the bag through a corrugated tube and one-way check valve at the facepiece. Exhaled air passes through a second check valve/breathing tube assembly into the canister. The oxygen-release rate is governed by the volume of exhaled air. Carbon dioxide in the exhaled breath is removed by the canister fill.

(2) Open-circuit (SCBA) (compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, liquid oxygen). A bypass system is provided in case of regulator failure except on escape-type units. There are two types of open-circuit SCBAs. They are:

(a) Demand-type respirators, which are equipped with a facepiece or mouthpiece and nose clamp. The demand valve permits oxygen or air flow only during inhalation. Exhaled breath passes to ambient atmosphere through a valve(s) in the facepiece.

(b) Pressure-demand type respirators, which are equipped with a facepiece only. Positive pressure is maintained in the facepiece. The apparatus may have provision for the wearer to select the demand or pressure-demand mode of operation, in which case only the demand mode must be used when putting on or removing the apparatus.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-62-07295
What are the limitations for self-contained breathing apparatus respirators (SCBA)?

(1) The period over which the SCBAs will provide protection is limited by the amount of air or oxygen in the apparatus, the ambient atmospheric pressure (service life of open-circuit devices is cut in half by a doubling of the atmospheric pressure), and the type of work being performed. Some SCBA devices have a short service life (less than 15 minutes) and are suitable only for escape (self-rescue) from an irreparable atmosphere. Chief limitations of SCBA devices are their weight, bulk, limited service life, and the training requirements for their maintenance and safe use.

(2) What are the limitations for closed-circuit SCBAs?

The closed-circuit operation conserves oxygen and permits longer service life at reduced weight. The negative-pressure type produces a negative pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation, and this may permit inward leakage of contaminants; the positive-pressure type always maintains a positive pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering and is less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants.

(3) What are the limitations for open circuit SCBAs?

The demand type produces a negative pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation, whereas the pressure-demand type maintains a positive pressure in the respiratory-inlet covering during inhalation and is less apt to permit inward leakage of contaminants.

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REPEALER

     The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 296-62-07119Identification of air-purifying respirator canisters.
WAC 296-62-07121Effective date.

OTS-2524.3


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-16, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94)

WAC 296-24-07501
General requirements.

(1) Application.

(a) Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory ((devices)) protection according to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

(b) Employee owned equipment.  Where employees provide their own protective equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure its adequacy, including proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment.

(c) Design.  All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed.  Protectors shall be durable, fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with the movements of the wearer.

(2) Hazard assessment and equipment selection.  This subsection does not apply to WAC 296-24-092, Electrical protective devices, and ((WAC 296-62-071 through 296-62-07121)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection.

(a) The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).  If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer shall:

(i) Select, and have each affected employee use, the types of PPE that will protect the affected employee from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment;

(ii) Communicate selection decisions to each affected employee; and

(iii) Select PPE that properly fits each affected employee.


Note:Nonmandatory Appendix B contains an example of procedures that would comply with the requirement for a hazard assessment.


(b) The employer shall verify that the required workplace hazard assessment has been performed through a written certification that identifies the workplace evaluated; the person certifying that the evaluation has been performed; the date(s) of the hazard assessment; and, which identifies the document as a certification of hazard assessment.

(3) Defective and damaged equipment.  Defective or damaged personal protective equipment shall not be used.

(4) Training.  This subsection does not apply to WAC 296-24-092, Electrical protective devices, and ((WAC 296-62-071 through 296-62-07121)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection.

(a) The employer shall provide training to each employee who is required by this section to use PPE.  Each such employee shall be trained to know at least the following:

(i) When PPE is necessary;

(ii) What PPE is necessary;

(iii) How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE;

(iv) The limitations of the PPE; and

(v) The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.

(b) Each affected employee shall demonstrate an understanding of the training specified in (a) of this subsection, and the ability to use PPE properly, before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE.

(c) When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required by (b) of this subsection, the employer shall retrain each such employee.  Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:

(i) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or

(ii) Changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete; or

(iii) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of assigned PPE indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.

(d) The employer shall verify that each affected employee has received and understood the required training through a written certification that contains the name of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and that identifies the subject of the certification.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-24-07501, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-07501, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-07501, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-51005
Definitions.

The following definitions are applicable to all sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-24-510 in the section number and shall be construed to have the meanings below.

(1) "Approved" as used in these standards means:

(a) Listed by a recognized testing laboratory, or

(b) Recommended by the manufacturer as suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and so marked, or

(c) Accepted by the authority having jurisdiction.

(2) "Appurtenance" refers to all devices such as pumps, compressors, safety relief devices, liquid-level gaging devices, valves and pressure gages.

(3) "Capacity" refers to the total volume of the container measured in U.S. gallons, unless otherwise specified.

(4) "Cylinder" means a container of 1000 pounds water capacity or less constructed in accordance with United States Department of Transportation Specifications.

(5) The "code" refers to the Unfired Pressure Vessel Code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Section VIII of the ASME Boiler Construction Code), 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1968 and 1971 editions, the joint code of the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (API-ASME Code) 1951 edition, and subsequent amendments to or later editions of the same, as adopted.

(6) "Container" includes all vessels, tanks, cylinders or spheres used for transportation, storage or application of anhydrous ammonia.

(7) "Design pressure" is identical to the term "maximum allowable working pressure" used in the code.

(8) An "implement of husbandry" is a farm wagon-type tank vehicle of not over 3000 gallons capacity, used as a field storage "nurse tank" supplying the fertilizer to a field applicator and moved on highways only for bringing the fertilizer from a local source of supply to farms or fields or from one farm or field to another.

(9) "Filling density" means the per cent ratio of the weight of the gas in a container to the weight of water at 60°F that the container will hold.  One lb. H2O= 27.737 cu. in. at 60°F.  For determining the weight capacity of the tank in pounds, the weight of a gallon (231 cubic inches) of water at 60°F in air shall be 8.32828 pounds.

(10) "Gas" refers to anhydrous ammonia in either the gaseous or liquefied state.

(11) "Gas mask" refers to gas masks approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ((See American National Standards Institute for Respiratory Protection, Z88.2.  (See Appendix C for availability.)))

(12) "DOT regulations" refer to hazardous materials regulations of the department of transportation (Title 49--Transportation, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 171 to 190), including Specifications for Shipping Containers.

(13) "Systems" as used in these standards refers to an assembly of equipment consisting essentially of the container or containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors, and interconnecting piping.

(14) The abbreviations "psig" and "psia" refer to pounds per square inch gage and pounds per square inch absolute, respectively.

(15) The terms "charging" and "filling" are used interchangeably and have the same meaning.

(16) "Trailer" as used in these standards refers to every vehicle designed for carrying property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight except the towing device rests upon the towing vehicle.

(17) "Tank motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle designed or used for the transportation of anhydrous ammonia in any tank designed to be permanently attached to any motor vehicle or any container not permanently attached to any motor vehicle which by reason of its size, construction or attachment to any motor vehicle must be loaded and/or unloaded without being removed from the motor vehicle.

(18) "Semitrailer" refers to every vehicle designed for carrying property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon or is carried by another vehicle.

(19) "Safety relief valve" refers to an automatic spring loaded or equivalent type pressure activated device for gas or vapor service characterized by pop action upon opening, sometimes referred to as a pop valve.  (Refer to American National Standards Institute, Terminology for Pressure Relief Devices, B95.1.)

(20) "Hydrostatic relief valve" refers to an automatic pressure activated valve for liquid service characterized by throttle or slow weep opening (nonpop action).  (Refer to American National Standards Institute, Terminology for Pressure Relief Devices, B95.1.)

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-51005, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-27, § 296-24-51005, filed 5/7/74; Order 73-5, § 296-24-51005, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-51005, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 91-07, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91)

WAC 296-24-51009
Basic rules.

This section applies to all sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-24-510 in the section number unless otherwise noted.

(1) Approval of equipment and systems.  Each appurtenance shall be approved in accordance with (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection.

(a) It was installed before February 8, 1973 and was approved and tested, and installed in accordance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or

(b) It is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or

(c) It is a type which no nationally recognized testing laboratory does, or will undertake to accept, certify, list, label, or determine to be safe; and such equipment is inspected or tested by any federal, state, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of a federal, state, municipal or other local law, code, or regulation pertaining to the storage, handling, transport, and use of anhydrous ammonia, and found to be in compliance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or

(d) It is a custom-designed and custom-built unit, which no nationally recognized testing laboratory, or federal, state, municipal or local authority responsible for the enforcement of a federal, state, municipal, or local law, code or regulation pertaining to the storage, transportation and use of anhydrous ammonia is willing to undertake to accept, certify, list, label or determine to be safe, and the employer has on file a document attesting to its safe condition following the conduct of appropriate tests.  The document shall be signed by a registered professional engineer or other person having special training or experience sufficient to permit him/her to form an opinion as to safety of the unit involved.  The document shall set forth the test bases, test data and results, and also the qualifications of the certifying person.

(e) For the purposes of this section the word "listed" means that equipment is of a kind mentioned in a list which is published by a nationally recognized laboratory which makes periodic inspection of the production of such equipment, and states such equipment meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found safe for use in a specified manner.  "Labeled" means there is attached to it a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory which makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner.  "Certified" means it has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards or to be safe for use in a specified manner, or is of a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and it bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.

(f) For purposes of this section, refer to federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(2) Requirements for construction, original test and requalification of not-refrigerated containers.

(a) Containers used with systems covered in WAC 296-24-51011 and 296-24-51017 through 296-24-51021 shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the code except that construction under Table UW - 12 at a basic joint efficiency of under eighty percent is not authorized.

Containers built according to the code do not have to comply with paragraphs UG-125 to UG-128, inclusive, and paragraphs UG-132 and UG-133 of the code.

(b) Containers exceeding thirty-six inches in diameter or two hundred fifty gallons water capacity shall be constructed to comply with one or more of the following:

(i) Containers shall be stress relieved after fabrication in accordance with the code, or

(ii) Cold-formed heads, when used, shall be stress relieved, or((,))

(iii) Hot-formed heads shall be used.

(c) Welding to the shell, head, or any other part of the container subject to internal pressure shall be done in compliance with WAC 296-24-51005(5).  Other welding is permitted only on saddle plates, lugs, or brackets attached to the container by the container manufacturer.

(d) Containers used with systems covered by subsection (3)(b)(iv) of this section shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the DOT specifications.

(e) The provisions of (a) of this subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the continued use or reinstallation of containers constructed and maintained in accordance with the 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965 and 1968 editions of the Unfired Pressure Vessel Code of the ASME or any revisions thereof in effect at the time of fabrication.

(3) Markings on nonrefrigerated containers and systems other than DOT containers.

(a) System nameplates, when required, shall be permanently attached to the system so as to be readily accessible for inspection and shall include markings as prescribed in (b) of this subsection.

(b) Each container or system covered in WAC 296-24-51011, 296-24-51017, 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021 shall be marked as specified in the following:

(i) With a marking identifying compliance with the rules of the code under which the container is constructed.

(ii) With a notation on the container and system nameplate when the system is designed for underground installation.

(iii) With the name and address of the supplier of the container or the trade name of the container and with the date of fabrication.

(iv) With the water capacity of the container in pounds at 60°F or gallons, United States standard.

(v) With the design pressure in pounds per square inch gage.

(vi) With the wall thickness of the shell and heads.

(vii) With marking indicating the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid anhydrous ammonia at temperatures between 20°F and 100°F except on containers provided with fixed maximum level indicators, such as fixed length dip tubes, or containers that are filled by weight.  Markings shall be in increments of not more than 20°F.

(viii) With the outside surface area in square feet.

(ix) With minimum temperature in Fahrenheit for which the container is designed.

(x) Marking specified on container shall be on the container itself or on a nameplate permanently affixed thereto.

(c) All main operating valves on permanently installed containers having a capacity of over three thousand water gallons shall be identified to show whether the valve is in liquid or vapor service.  The recommended method of identification may be legend or color code as specified in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection:

(i) Legend: The legend liquid (or liquid valve), vapor (or vapor valve), as appropriate, shall be placed on or within twelve inches of the valve by means of a stencil tag, or decal.

(ii) Color code: Liquid valves shall be painted orange and vapor valves shall be painted yellow.  The legend orange-liquid, yellow-vapor shall be displayed in one or more conspicuous places at each permanent storage location.  The legend shall have letters at least two inches high and shall be placed against a contrasting background.  This is in accordance with American National Standard A13.1 "Schemes for Identification of Piping Systems"--1956, Page 5.

(4) Marking refrigerated containers.  (See WAC 296-24-51013(3).  Marking refrigerated containers.)

(5) Location of containers.

(a) Consideration shall be given to the physiological effects of ammonia as well as to adjacent fire hazards in selecting the location for a storage container.  Containers shall be located outside of buildings or in buildings or sections thereof especially approved for this purpose.

(b) Containers shall be located at least fifty feet from a dug well or other sources of potable water supply, unless the container is a part of a water treatment installation.

(c) The location of permanent storage containers shall be outside densely populated areas.

(d) Container locations shall comply with the following table:


Minimum Distances (feet)

from Container to:


Nominal Capacity

of Container


Line of Adjoining Property Which may be Built upon, Highways & Mainline of Railroad

Place of Public Assembly

Institution Occupancy


Over

500

to

2,000

25

150

250
Over2,000to30,00050300500
Over30,000to100,00050450750
Over100,000506001,000

(e) Storage areas shall be kept free of readily ignitable materials such as waste, weeds and long dry grass.

(6) Container appurtenances.

(a) All appurtenances shall be designed for not less than the maximum working pressure of that portion of the system on which they are installed.  All appurtenances shall be fabricated from materials proved suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.

(b) All connections to containers except safety relief devices, gaging devices, or those fitted with a No. 54 drill size orifice shall have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable.

(c) Excess flow valves where required by these standards shall close automatically at the rated flows of vapor or liquid as specified by the manufacturer.  The connections and line including valves and fittings being protected by an excess flow valve shall have a greater capacity than the rated flow of the excess flow valve.

(d) Liquid level gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere and which are so constructed that outward flow will not exceed that passed by a No. 54 drill size opening need not be equipped with excess flow valves.

(e) Openings from container or through fittings attached directly on container to which pressure gage connections are made need not be equipped with excess flow valves if such openings are not larger than No. 54 drill size.

(f) Excess flow and back pressure check valves where required by these standards shall be located inside of the container or at a point outside as close as practicable to where the line enters the container.  In the latter case, installation shall be made in such manner that any undue stress beyond the excess flow or back pressure check valve will not cause breakage between the container and the valve.

(g) Excess flow valves shall be designed with a bypass, not to exceed a No. 60 drill size opening to allow equalization of pressures.

(h) Shutoff valves provided with an excess flow valve shall be designed for proper installation in a container connection so that the excess flow valve will close should the shutoff valve break.

(i) All excess flow valves shall be plainly and permanently marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the catalog number, and the rated capacity.

(7) Piping, tubing and fittings.

(a) All piping, tubing and fittings shall be made of material suitable for anhydrous ammonia service.

(b) All piping, tubing and fittings shall be designed for a pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which they may be subjected in service.

(c) All piping shall be well supported and provision shall be made for expansion and contraction.  All refrigeration system piping shall conform to the Refrigeration Piping Code (ANSI B31.5 1966 addenda B31.1a-1968), a section of the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping, as it applies to ammonia.

(d) Piping used on nonrefrigerated systems shall be at least ASTM A-53-1969 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe or equal.  Such pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 when joints are welded, or welded and flanged.  Such pipe shall be at least Schedule 80 when joints are threaded.  Brass, copper, or galvanized steel pipe or tubing shall not be used.

(e) All metal flexible connections for permanent installations shall have a minimum working pressure of 250 p.s.i.g. (safety factor of 4).  For temporary installations, hose meeting the requirement of subsection (8) of this section may be used.

(f) Cast iron fittings shall not be used but this shall not prohibit the use of fittings made specially for ammonia service of malleable or nodular iron such as Specification ASTM A47 or ASTM A395.

(g) Provisions shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring, vibration, and for settling.

(h) Adequate provisions shall be made to protect all exposed piping from physical damage that might result from moving machinery, the presence of automobiles or trucks, or any other undue strain that may be placed upon the piping.

(i) Joint compounds shall be resistant to ammonia.

(j) After assembly, all piping and tubing shall be tested and proved to be free from leaks at a pressure not less than the normal operating pressure of the system.

(8) Hose specification.

(a) Hose used in ammonia service and subject to container pressure shall conform to the joint Rubber Manufacturers Association and the Fertilizer Institute "Hose Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia" (see Appendix B).

(b) Hose subject to container pressure shall be designed for a minimum working pressure of 350 p.s.i.g. and a minimum burst pressure of 1750 p.s.i.g.  Hose assemblies, when made up, shall be capable of withstanding a test pressure of 500 p.s.i.g.

(c) Hose and hose connections located on the low pressure side of flow control or pressure reducing valves on devices discharging to atmospheric pressure shall be designed for the maximum low side working pressure.  All connections shall be designed, constructed, and installed so that there will be no leakage when connected.

(d) Where liquid transfer hose is not drained of liquid upon completion of transfer operations, such hose shall be equipped with an approved shutoff valve at the discharge end.  Provision shall be made to prevent excessive hydrostatic pressure in the hose.  (See subsection (9)(j) of this section.)

(e) On all hose one-half inch O.D. and larger, used for the transfer of anhydrous ammonia liquid or vapor, there shall be etched, cast, or impressed at five-foot intervals the following information:

"Anhydrous Ammonia"

xxx p.s.i.g. (Maximum working pressure)

Manufacturer's Name or Trademark

Year of Manufacture



(9) Safety relief devices.

(a) Every container used in systems covered by WAC 296-24-51011, 296-24-51017, 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021 shall be provided with one or more safety relief valves of the spring-loaded or equivalent type.  The discharge from safety relief valves shall be vented away from the container, upward and unobstructed to the atmosphere.  All safety relief valve discharge openings shall have suitable raincaps that will allow free discharge of the vapor and prevent the entrance of water.  Provision shall be made for draining condensate which may accumulate.  The rate of the discharge shall be in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A.

(b) Container safety relief valves shall be set to start-to-discharge as follows, with relations to the design pressure of the container.
Containers
Minimum
Maximum*
ASME U-68, U-69110%125%
ASME U-200, U-20195%100%
ASME 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962,
1965, 1968 or 197195%100%
API-ASME95%100%
U.S. Coast Guard
(As required by USCG regulations)
DOT(As required by DOT regulations)

*Note:A relief valve manufacturer's tolerance of plus ten percent is permitted.

(c) Safety relief devices used in systems covered by WAC 296-24-51011, 296-24-51017, 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021 shall be constructed to discharge at not less than the rates required in (a) of this subsection before the pressure is in excess of one hundred twenty percent (not including the ten percent tolerance referred to in (b) of this subsection) of the maximum permitted start-to-discharge pressure setting of the device.

(d) Safety relief valves shall be so arranged that the possibility of tampering will be minimized.  If the pressure setting adjustment is external, the relief valves shall be provided with means for sealing the adjustment.

(e) Shutoff valves shall not be installed between the safety relief valves and the containers or systems described in WAC 296-24-51011, 296-24-51017, 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021, except that a shutoff valve may be used where the arrangement of this valve is such as always to afford required capacity flow through the relief valves.

Note:The above exception is made to cover such cases as a three-way valve installed under two safety relief valves, each of which has the required rate of discharge and is so installed as to allow either of the safety relief valves to be closed off, but does not allow both safety valves to be closed off at the same time. Another exception to this may be where two separate relief valves are installed with individual shutoff valves. In this case, the two shutoff valve stems shall be mechanically interconnected in a manner which will allow full required flow of one safety relief valve at all times. Still another exception is a safety relief valve manifold which allows one valve of two, three, four or more to be closed off and the remaining valve or valves will provide not less than the rate of discharge shown on the manifold nameplate.


(f) Safety relief valves shall have direct communication with the vapor space of the container.

(g) Each safety relief valve used with systems described in WAC 296-24-51011, 296-24-51017, 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021 shall be plainly and permanently marked as follows:

(i) With the letters "AA" or the symbol "NH3."

(ii) The pressure in pounds per square inch gage (p.s.i.g.) at which the valve is set to start-to-discharge.

(iii) The rate of discharge of the valve in cubic feet per minute of air at 60°F and atmospheric pressure (14.7 p.s.i.a.).

(iv) The manufacturer's name and catalog number.

For example, a safety relief valve marked AA-250-4200 (air) would mean that this valve is suitable for use on an anhydrous ammonia container; that it is set to start-to-discharge at 250 p.s.i.g.; and that its rate of discharge (see subsection (8)(a) through (c) of this section) is four thousand two hundred cubic feet per minute of air.

(h) The flow capacity of the safety relief valve shall not be restricted by any connection to it on either the upstream or downstream side.

(i) The manufacturer or supplier of a safety relief valve manifold shall publish complete data showing the flow rating through the combined assembly of the manifold with safety relief valves installed.  The manifold flow rating shall be determined by testing the manifold with all but one valve discharging.  If one or more openings have restrictions not present in the remaining openings, the restricted opening or openings or those having the lowest flow shall be used to establish the flow rate marked on the manifold nameplate.  The marking shall be similar to that required in (g) of this subsection for individual valves.

(j) A hydrostatic relief valve shall be installed between each pair of valves in the liquid ammonia piping or hose where liquid may be trapped so as to relieve into the atmosphere at a safe location.

(k) Discharge from safety relief devices shall not terminate in or beneath any building.

(10) Safety.  See CGA Pamphlet G-2, TFI Operational Safety Manual M-2 and MCA Safety Data Sheet SD-8 (see Appendix C for availability).

(a) Personnel required to handle ammonia shall be trained in safe operating practices and the proper action to take in the event of emergencies.  Personnel shall be instructed to use the equipment listed in (c) of this subsection in the event of an emergency.  (Rev. 1-22-76)

(b) If a leak occurs in an ammonia system, the personnel trained for and designated to act in such emergencies shall:

(i) See that persons not required to deal with an emergency are evacuated from the contaminated area.

(ii) Put on a suitable gas mask.

(iii) Wear gauntlet type plastic or rubber gloves and wear plastic or rubber suits in heavily contaminated atmospheres.

(iv) Shut off the appropriate valves.

(c) All stationary storage ((systems)) installations shall have ((on hand, as a minimum, the following equipment for emergency and rescue purposes)) at least:

((*))(i) ((One full face gas mask with anhydrous ammonia refill canisters.)) Two suitable gas masks in readily accessible locations. Full face masks with ammonia canisters as certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR Part 84, are suitable for emergency action for most leaks, particularly those that occur outdoors. For protection in concentrated ammonia atmospheres self-contained breathing apparatus is required.

((**))(ii) One pair of protective gloves made of rubber or other material impervious to ammonia.

((**))(iii) One pair of protective boots made of rubber or other material impervious to ammonia.

((**))(iv) One protective slicker and/or protective pants and jacket made of rubber or other material impervious to ammonia.

(v) Easily accessible shower and/or at least fifty gallons of clean water in an open top container.

(vi) Tight fitting vented goggles or one full face shield.


(())
*An ammonia canister is effective for short periods of time in light concentrations of ammonia vapor, generally fifteen minutes in concentrations of three percent and will not protect breathing in heavier concentrations.  If ammonia vapors are detected when mask is applied the concentration is too high for safety.  The life of a canister in service is controlled by the percentage of vapors to which it is exposed.  Canisters must not be opened until ready for use and should be discarded after use.  Unopened canisters may be guaranteed for as long as three years.  All should be dated when received because of this limited life.  In addition to this protection, an independently supplied air mask of the type used by fire departments may be used for severe emergencies.
**Gloves, boots, slickers, jackets and pants shall be made of rubber or other material impervious to ammonia.

(d) Where several persons are usually present, additional safety equipment may be desirable.

(e) Each tank motor vehicle transporting anhydrous ammonia, except farm applicator vehicles, shall carry a container of at least five gallons of water and shall be equipped with a full face gas mask, a pair of tight-fitting goggles or one full face shield.  The driver shall be instructed in their use and the proper action to take to provide for his/her safety.

(f) If a leak occurs in transportation equipment and it is not practical to stop the leak, the driver should move the vehicle to an isolated location away from populated communities or heavily traveled highways.

(g) If liquid ammonia contacts the skin or eyes, the affected area should be promptly and thoroughly flushed with water.  Do not use neutralizing solutions or ointments on affected areas.  A physician shall treat all cases of eye exposure to liquid ammonia.

(11) Filling densities.  (See WAC 296-24-51005(9).)

(a) The filling densities for nonrefrigerated containers shall not exceed the following:


Aboveground
Underground
(i) Uninsulated56%*58%
(ii) Insulated57%
(iii)DOT containers shall be filled in accordance with DOT regulations.
*This corresponds to 82% by volume at -28°F, 85% by volume at 5°F, 87.5% by volume at 30°F, and 90.6% by volume at 60°F.

(b) The filling density for refrigerated storage tanks temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure at the start-to-discharge pressure setting of the safety relief valve.

(c) If containers are to be filled according to liquid level by any gaging method other than a fixed length dip tube gage, each container should have a thermometer well so that the internal liquid temperature can be easily determined and the amount of liquid and vapor in the container corrected to a 60°F basis.

(12) Transfer of liquids.

(a) Anhydrous ammonia shall always be at a temperature suitable for the material of construction and design of the receiving containers.  Ordinary steels are not suitable for refrigerated ammonia.  See Appendix R of API Standard 620 "Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded Low-Pressure Storage Tanks" for materials for low temperature service.

(b) At least one attendant shall supervise the transfer of liquids from the time the connections are first made until they are finally disconnected.

(c) Flammable gases or gases which will react with ammonia (such as air) shall not be used to unload tank cars or transport trucks.

(d) Containers shall be charged or used only upon authorization of the owner.

(e) Containers shall be gaged and charged only in the open atmosphere or in buildings approved for that purpose.

(f) Pumps used for transferring ammonia shall be recommended and labeled for ammonia service by the manufacturer.

(i) Pumps shall be designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. working pressure.

(ii) Positive displacement pumps shall have installed, off the discharge port, a constant differential relief valve discharging into the suction port of the pump through a line of sufficient size to carry the full capacity of the pump at relief valve setting, which setting and installation shall be according to pump manufacturer's recommendations.

(iii) On the discharge side of the pump, before the relief valve line, there shall be installed a pressure gage graduated from 0 to 400 p.s.i.g.

(iv) Plant piping shall contain shutoff valves located as close as practical to pump connections.

(g) Compressors used for transferring or refrigerating ammonia shall be recommended and labeled for ammonia service by the manufacturer.

(i) Compressors, except those used for refrigeration, shall be designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. working pressure.  Crank cases of compressors not designed to withstand system pressure shall be protected with a suitable safety relief valve.

(ii) Plant piping shall contain shutoff valves located as close as practical to compressor connections.

(iii) A safety relief valve large enough to discharge the full capacity of the compressor shall be connected to the discharge before any shutoff valve.

(iv) Compressors shall have pressure gages at suction and discharge graduated to at least one and one-half times the maximum pressure that can be developed.

(v) Adequate means, such as drainable liquid trap, may be provided on the compressor suction to minimize the entry of liquid into the compressor.

(vi) Where necessary to prevent contamination, an oil separator shall be provided on the discharge side of the compressor.

(h) Loading and unloading systems shall be protected by suitable devices to prevent emptying of the storage container or the container being loaded or unloaded in the event of severance of the hose.  Backflow check valves or properly sized excess flow valves shall be installed where necessary to provide such protection.  In the event that such valves are not practical, remotely operated shutoff valves may be installed.

(i) Meters used for the measurement of liquid anhydrous ammonia shall be recommended and labeled for ammonia service by the manufacturer.

(i) Liquid meters shall be designed for a minimum working pressure of 250 p.s.i.g.

(ii) The metering system shall incorporate devices that will prevent the inadvertent measurement of vapor.

(13) Tank car unloading points and operations.

(a) Provisions for unloading tank cars shall conform to the regulations of the department of transportation.

(b) Unloading operations shall be performed by reliable persons properly instructed and made responsible for careful compliance with all applicable procedures.

(c) Caution signs shall be so placed on the track or car as to give necessary warning to persons approaching car from open end or ends of siding and shall be left up until after car is unloaded and disconnected from discharge connections.  Signs shall be of metal or other suitable material, at least twelve by fifteen inches in size and bear the words "STOP--Tank car connected" or "STOP--Men at work" the word "STOP," being in letters at least four inches high and the other words in letters at least two inches high.  The letters shall be white on a blue background.

(d) The track of a tank car siding shall be substantially level.

(e) Brakes shall be set and wheels blocked on all cars being unloaded.

(f) Tank cars of anhydrous ammonia shall be unloaded only at approved locations meeting the requirements of subsections (9)(c) and (12)(h) of this section.

(14) Liquid level gaging device.

(a) Each container except those filled by weight shall be equipped with an approved liquid level gaging device.

(b) All gaging devices shall be arranged so that the maximum liquid level to which the container is filled is readily determined.  (See subsection (4)(b)(vii) of this section.)

(c) Gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere such as the rotary tube, fixed tube, and slip tube devices, shall be designed so that the maximum opening of the bleed valve is not larger than No. 54 drill size unless provided with an excess flow valve.  (This requirement does not apply to farm vehicles used for the application of ammonia as covered in WAC 296-24-51021.)

(d) Gaging devices shall have a design pressure equal to or greater than the design pressure of the container on which they are installed.

(e) Fixed liquid level gages shall be so designed that the maximum volume of the container filled by liquid shall not exceed eighty-five percent of its water capacity.  The coupling into which the fixed liquid level gage is threaded must be placed at the eighty-five percent level of the container.  If located elsewhere, the dip tube of this gage must be installed in such a manner that it cannot be readily removed.

Note:This does not apply to refrigerated storage.


(f) Gage glasses of the columnar type shall be restricted to stationary storage installation.  They shall be equipped with shutoff valves having metallic handwheels, with excess-flow valves, and with extra heavy glass adequately protected with a metal housing applied by the gage manufacturer.  They shall be shielded against the direct rays of the sun.

(15) Painting of containers.  Aboveground uninsulated containers should have a reflective surface maintained in good condition.  White is recommended for painted surfaces, but other light reflecting colors are acceptable.

(16) Electrical equipment and wiring.

(a) Electrical equipment and wiring for use in ammonia installations shall be general purpose or weather resistant as appropriate.

(b) Where concentrations of ammonia in air in excess of sixteen percent by volume are likely to be encountered, electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, for Class I, Group D locations.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-24-51009, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-24-51009, filed 11/14/88.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW.  80-17-015 (Order 80-21), § 296-24-51009, filed 11/13/80; Order 76-6, § 296-24-51009, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-27, § 296-24-51009, filed 5/7/74; Order 73-5, § 296-24-51009, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-51009, filed 5/7/73.]

OTS-2545.2


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-58513
Protective clothing.

The following requirements apply to those employees who perform interior structural fire fighting.  The requirements do not apply to employees who use fire extinguishers or standpipe systems to control or extinguish fires only in the incipient stage.

(1) General.

(a) The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of protective clothing which complies with the requirements of this section.  The employer shall assure that protective clothing ordered or purchased after January 1, 1982, meets the requirements contained in this section.  As the new equipment is provided, the employer shall assure that all fire brigade members wear the equipment when performing interior structural fire fighting.  After July 1, 1985, the employer shall assure that all fire brigade members wear protective clothing meeting the requirements of this section when performing interior structural fire fighting.

(b) The employer shall assure that protective clothing protects the head, body, and extremities, and consists of at least the following components: Foot and leg protection; hand protection; body protection; eye, face and head protection.

(2) Foot and leg protection.

(a) Foot and leg protection shall meet the requirements of (b) and (c) of this subsection, and may be achieved by either of the following methods:

(i) Fully extended boots which provide protection for the legs; or

(ii) Protective shoes or boots worn in combination with protective trousers that meet the requirements of subsection (3) of this section.

(b) Protective footwear shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-088 for Class 75 footwear.  In addition, protective footwear shall be water-resistant for at least five inches (12.7 cm) above the bottom of the heel and shall be equipped with slip-resistant outer soles.

(c) Protective footwear shall be tested in accordance with WAC 296-24-63599(1) Appendix E, and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsole by a size 8D common nail when at least 300 pounds (1330 N) of static force is applied to the nail.

(3) Body protection.

(a) Body protection shall be coordinated with foot and leg protection to ensure full body protection for the wearer.  This shall be achieved by one of the following methods:

(i) Wearing of a fire-resistive coat meeting the requirements of (b) of this subsection, in combination with fully extended boots meeting the requirements of subsection (2)(b) and (c) of this section; or

(ii) Wearing of fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers both of which meet the requirements of (b) of this subsection.

(b) The performance, construction, and testing of fire-resistive coats and protective trousers shall be at least equivalent to the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard NFPA No. 1971-1975, "Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting," (see WAC 296-24-63499, Appendix D) with the following permissible variations from those requirements:

(i) Tearing strength of the outer shell shall be a minimum of eight pounds (35.6 N) in any direction when tested in accordance with WAC 296-24-63599(2), Appendix E; and

(ii) The outer shell may discolor but shall not separate or melt when placed in a forced air laboratory oven at a temperature of 500°F (260°C) for a period of five minutes.  After cooling to ambient temperature and using the test method specified in WAC 296-24-63599(3) Appendix E, char length shall not exceed 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) and after-flame shall not exceed 2.0 seconds.

(4) Hand protection.

(a) Hand protection shall consist of protective gloves or glove system which will provide protection against cut, puncture, and heat penetration.  Gloves or glove system shall be tested in accordance with the test methods contained in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 1976 publication, "The Development of Criteria for Fire Fighter's Gloves; Vol. II, Part II: Test Methods," (see WAC 296-24-63499, Appendix D--Availability of publications incorporated by references in WAC 296-24-58505--Fire brigades) and shall meet the following criteria for cut, puncture, and heat penetration:

(i) Materials used for gloves shall resist surface cut by a blade with an edge having a 60 degree included angle and a .001 inch (.0025 cm.) radius, under an applied force of 16 lbf (72N) and at a slicing velocity of greater or equal to 60 in/min. (2.5 cm/sec);

(ii) Materials used for the palm and palm side of the fingers shall resist puncture by a penetrometer (simulating a 4d lath nail), under an applied force of 13.2 lbf (60N) and at a velocity greater or equal to 20 in/min. (.85 cm/sec); and

(iii) The temperature inside the palm and gripping surface of the fingers of gloves shall not exceed 135°F (57°C) when gloves or glove system are exposed to 932°F (500°C) for five seconds at 4 psi (28 kPa) pressure.

(b) Exterior materials of gloves shall be flame resistant and shall be tested in accordance with WAC 296-24-63599(3) Appendix E.  Maximum allowable after-flame shall be 2.0 seconds, and the maximum char length shall be 4.0 inches (10.2 cm).

(c) When design of the fire-resistive coat does not otherwise provide protection for the wrists, protective gloves shall have wristlets of at least 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) in length to protect the wrist area when the arms are extended upward and outward from the body.

(5) Head, eye and face protection.

(a) Head protection shall consist of a protective head device with ear flaps and chin strap which meet the performance, construction, and testing requirements of the National Fire Safety and Research Office of the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, United States Department of Commerce (now known as the United States Fire Administration), which are contained in, "Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire Fighters' Helmets," (August 1977) (see WAC 296-24-63499, Appendix D).

(b) Protective eye and face devices which comply with WAC 296-24-078 shall be used by fire brigade members when performing operations where the hazards of flying or falling materials which may cause eye and face injuries are present.  Protective eye and face devices provided as accessories to protective head devices (face shields) are permitted when such devices meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-078.

(c) Full facepieces, helmets, or hoods of breathing apparatus which meet the requirements of ((WAC 296-62-071)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and 296-24-58515, shall be acceptable as meeting the eye and face protection requirements of (b) of this subsection.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-58513, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 92-23-017 (Order 92-13), § 296-24-58513, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/18/92; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), § 296-24-58513, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-24-58513, filed 7/6/88; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-24-58513, filed 11/30/87.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-02-003 (Order 81-32), § 296-24-58513, filed 12/24/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-58515
Respiratory protection devices.

(1) General requirements.

(a) The employer shall ((provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements of this section.  The employer shall assure that respiratory protective devices worn by brigade members meet the requirements contained in WAC 296-62-071, and the requirements contained in this section, and are certified under 30 CFR Part II)) ensure that respirators are provided to, and used by, fire brigade members, and that the respirators meet the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and this section.

(b) ((Approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full-facepiece, or with approved helmet or hood configuration, shall be provided to and worn by fire brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic products of combustion or an oxygen deficiency may be present.  Such apparatus shall also be worn during emergency situations involving toxic substances.)) The employer must ensure that all employees engaged in interior structural fire fighting use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBAs).

(c) Approved self-contained breathing apparatus may be equipped with either a "buddy-breathing" device or a quick disconnect valve, even if these devices are not certified by NIOSH.  If these accessories are used, they shall not cause damage to the apparatus, or restrict the air flow of the apparatus, or obstruct the normal operation of the apparatus.

(d) Approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used with approved cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity and pressure rating.  All compressed air cylinders used with self-contained breathing apparatus shall meet DOT and NIOSH criteria.

(e) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall have a minimum service life rating of ((thirty)) 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements ((of the mine safety and health administration (MSHA) and)) specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, except for escape self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA) used only for emergency escape purposes.

(f) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided with an indicator which automatically sounds an audible alarm when the remaining service life of the apparatus is reduced to within a range of twenty to twenty-five percent of its rated service time.

(2) Positive-pressure breathing apparatus.

(a) The employer shall assure that self-contained breathing apparatus ordered or purchased after January 1, 1982, for use by fire brigade members performing interior structural fire fighting operations, are of the pressure-demand or other positive-pressure type.  Effective July 1, 1983, only pressure-demand or other positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be worn by fire brigade members performing interior structural fire fighting.

(b) This section does not prohibit the use of a self-contained breathing apparatus where the apparatus can be switched from a demand to a positive-pressure mode.  However, such apparatus shall be in the positive-pressure mode when fire brigade members are performing interior structural fire fighting operations.

(((c) Negative-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with a rated service life of more than two hours and which have a minimum protection factor of 5,000, as determined by an acceptable quantitative fit test performed on each individual, is acceptable for use only during those interior structural fire fighting situations for which the employer demonstrates that long duration breathing apparatus is necessary.  Quantitative fit test procedures shall be available for inspection by the director or authorized representative.  Such negative-pressure breathing apparatus will continue to be acceptable for eighteen months after a positive-pressure breathing apparatus with the same or longer rated service life is certified by NIOSH.  After this eighteen-month period, all self-contained breathing apparatus used for these long duration situations shall be of the positive-pressure type.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-58515, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-02-003 (Order 81-32), § 296-24-58515, filed 12/24/81.]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-24-58516
Procedures for interior structural fire fighting.

In addition to the requirements in WAC 296-62-07172, in interior structural fires, the employer must ensure that:

(1) At least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in visual or voice contact with one another at all times; and

(2) At least two employees are located outside the IDLH atmosphere.


Note 1:One of the two individuals located outside the IDLH atmosphere may be assigned to an additional role, such as incident commander in charge of the emergency or safety officer, so long as this individual is able to perform assistance or rescue activities without jeopardizing the safety or health of any fire fighter working at the incident.
Note 2:Nothing in this section is meant to preclude fire fighters from performing emergency rescue activities before an entire team has assembled.

[]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-58517
Appendix A--Fire brigades.

(1) Scope.  This section does not require an employer to organize a fire brigade.  However, if an employer does decide to organize a fire brigade, the requirements of this section apply.

(2) Prefire planning.  It is suggested that prefire planning be conducted by the local fire department and/or the workplace fire brigade in order for them to be familiar with the workplace and process hazards.  Involvement with the local fire department or fire prevention bureau is encouraged to facilitate coordination and cooperation between members of the fire brigade and those who might be called upon for assistance during a fire emergency.

(3) Organizational statement.  In addition to the information required in the organizational statement, WAC 296-24-58507(1), it is suggested that the organizational statement also contain the following information: A description of the duties that the fire brigade members are expected to perform; the line authority of each fire brigade officer; the number of the fire brigade officers and number of training instructors; and a list and description of the types of awards or recognition that brigade members may be eligible to receive.

(4) Physical capability.  The physical capability requirement applies only to those fire brigade members who perform interior structural fire fighting.  Employees who cannot meet the physical capability requirement may still be members of the fire brigade as long as such employees do not perform interior structural fire fighting.  It is suggested that fire brigade members who are unable to perform interior structural fire fighting be assigned less stressful and physically demanding fire brigade duties, e.g., certain types of training, recordkeeping, fire prevention inspection and maintenance, and fire pump operations.

Physically capable can be defined as being able to perform those duties specified in the training requirements of WAC 296-24-58509.  Physically capable can also be determined by physical performance tests or by a physical examination when the examining physician is aware of the duties that the fire brigade member is expected to perform.

It is also recommended that fire brigade members participate in a physical fitness program.  There are many benefits which can be attributed to being physically fit.  It is believed that physical fitness may help to reduce the number of sprain and strain injuries as well as contributing to the improvement of the cardiovascular system.

(5) Training and education.  The section on training and education does not contain specific training and education requirements because the type, amount, and frequency of training and education will be as varied as are the purposes for which fire brigades are organized.  However, the section does require that training and education be commensurate with those functions that the fire brigade is expected to perform; i.e., those functions specified in the organizational statement.  Such a performance requirement provides the necessary flexibility to design a training program which meets the needs of individual fire brigades.

At a minimum, hands-on training is required to be conducted annually for all fire brigade members.  However, for those fire brigade members who are expected to perform interior structural fire fighting, some type of training or education session must be provided at least quarterly.

In addition to the required hands-on training, it is strongly recommended that fire brigade members receive other types of training and education such as: Classroom instruction, review of emergency action procedures, prefire planning, review of special hazards in the workplace, and practice in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus.

It is not necessary for the employer to duplicate the same training or education that a fire brigade member receives as a member of a community volunteer fire department, rescue squad, or similar organization.  However, such training or education must have been provided to the fire brigade member within the past year and it must be documented that the fire brigade member has received the training or education.  For example: There is no need for a fire brigade member to receive another training class in the use of positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus if the fire brigade member has recently completed such training as a member of a community fire department.  Instead, the fire brigade member should receive training or education covering other important equipment or duties of the fire brigade as they relate to the workplace hazards, facilities and processes.

It is generally recognized that the effectiveness of fire brigade training and education depends upon the expertise of those providing the training and education as well as the motivation of the fire brigade members.  Fire brigade training instructors must receive a higher level of training and education than the fire brigade members they will be teaching.  This includes being more knowledgeable about the functions to be performed by the fire brigade and the hazards involved.  The instructors should be qualified to train fire brigade members and demonstrate skills in communication, methods of teaching, and motivation.  It is important for instructors and fire brigade members alike to be motivated toward the goal of the fire brigade and be aware of the importance of the service that they are providing for the protection of other employees and the workplace.

It is suggested that publications from the International Fire Service Training Association, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA-1041), the International Society of Fire Service Instructors and other fire training sources be consulted for recommended qualifications of fire brigade training instructors.

In order to be effective, fire brigades must have competent leadership and supervision.  It is important for those who supervise the fire brigade during emergency situations, e.g., fire brigade chiefs, leaders, etc., to receive the necessary training and education for supervising fire brigade activities during these hazardous and stressful situations.  These fire brigade members with leadership responsibilities should demonstrate skills in strategy and tactics, fire suppression and prevention techniques, leadership principles, prefire planning, and safety practices.  It is again suggested that fire service training sources be consulted for determining the kinds of training and education which are necessary for those with fire brigade leadership responsibilities.

It is further suggested that fire brigade leaders and fire brigade instructors receive more formalized training and education on a continuing basis by attending classes provided by such training sources as universities and university fire extension services.

The following recommendations should not be considered to be all of the necessary elements of a complete comprehensive training program, but the information may be helpful as a guide in developing a fire brigade training program.

All fire brigade members should be familiar with exit facilities and their location, emergency escape routes for handicapped workers, and the workplace "emergency action plan."

In addition, fire brigade members who are expected to control and extinguish fires in the incipient stage should, at a minimum, be trained in the use of fire extinguishers, standpipes, and other fire equipment they are assigned to use.  They should also be aware of first aid medical procedures and procedures for dealing with special hazards to which they may be exposed.  Training and education should include both classroom instruction and actual operation of the equipment under simulated emergency conditions.  Hands-on type training must be conducted at least annually but some functions should be reviewed more often.

In addition to the above training, fire brigade members who are expected to perform emergency rescue and interior structural fire fighting should, at a minimum, be familiar with the proper techniques in rescue and fire suppression procedures.  Training and education should include fire protection courses, classroom training, simulated fire situations including "wet drills" and, when feasible, extinguishment of actual mock fires.  Frequency of training or education must be at least quarterly, but some drills or classroom training should be conducted as often as monthly or even weekly to maintain the proficiency of fire brigade members.

There are many excellent sources of training and education that the employer may want to use in developing a training program for the workplace fire brigade.  These sources include publications, seminars, and courses offered by universities.

There are also excellent fire school courses by such facilities as Texas A and M University, Delaware State Fire School, Lamar University, and Reno Fire School, that deal with those unique hazards which may be encountered by fire brigades in the oil and chemical industry.  These schools, and others, also offer excellent training courses which would be beneficial to fire brigades in other types of industries.  These courses should be a continuing part of the training program, and employers are strongly encouraged to take advantage of these excellent resources.

It is also important that fire brigade members be informed about special hazards to which they may be exposed during fire and other emergencies.  Such hazards as storage and use areas of flammable liquids and gases, toxic chemicals, water-reactive substances, etc., can pose difficult problems.  There must be written procedures developed that describe the actions to be taken in situations involving special hazards.  Fire brigade members must be trained in handling these special hazards as well as keeping abreast of any changes that occur in relation to these special hazards.

(6) Fire fighting equipment.  It is important that fire fighting equipment that is in damaged or unserviceable condition be removed from service and replaced.  This will prevent fire brigade members from using unsafe equipment by mistake.

Fire fighting equipment, except portable fire extinguishers and respirators, must be inspected at least annually.  Portable fire extinguishers and respirators are required to be inspected at least monthly.

(7) Protective clothing.

(a) General.  WAC 296-24-58513 does not require all fire brigade members to wear protective clothing.  It is not the intention of these standards to require employers to provide a full ensemble of protective clothing for every fire brigade member without consideration given to the types of hazardous environments to which the fire brigade member might be exposed.  It is the intention of these standards to require adequate protection for those fire brigade members who might be exposed to fires in an advanced stage, smoke, toxic gases, and high temperatures.  Therefore, the protective clothing requirements only apply to those fire brigade members who perform interior structural fire fighting operations.

Additionally, the protective clothing requirements do not apply to the protective clothing worn during outside fire fighting operations (brush and forest fires, crash crew operations) or other special fire fighting activities.  It is important that the protective clothing to be worn during these types of fire fighting operations reflect the hazards which are expected to be encountered by fire brigade members.

(b) Foot and leg protection.  WAC 296-24-58513 permits an option to achieve foot and leg protection.

The section recognizes the interdependence of protective clothing to cover one or more parts of the body.  Therefore, an option is given so that fire brigade members may meet the foot and leg requirements by either wearing long fire-resistive coats in combination with fully extended boots, or by wearing shorter fire-resistive coats in combination with protective trousers and protective shoes or shorter boots.

(c) Body protection.  WAC 296-24-58513(3) provides an option for fire brigade members to achieve body protection.  Fire brigade members may wear a fire-resistive coat in combination with fully extended boots, or they may wear a fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers.

Fire-resistive coats and protective trousers meeting all of the requirements contained in NFPA 1971-1975, "Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighters," are acceptable as meeting the requirements of this standard.

The lining is required to be permanently attached to the outer shell.  However, it is permissible to attach the lining to the outer shell material by stitching in one area such as at the neck.  Fastener tape or snap fasteners may be used to secure the rest of the lining to the outer shell to facilitate cleaning.  Reference to permanent lining does not refer to a winter liner which is a detachable extra lining used to give added protection to the wearer against the effects of cold weather and wind.

(d) Hand protection.  The requirements of WAC 296-24-58513(4) on hand protection may be met by protective gloves or a glove system.  A glove system consists of a combination of different gloves.  The usual components of a glove system consist of a pair of gloves, which provide thermal insulation to the hand, worn in combination with a second pair of gloves which provide protection against flame, cut and puncture.

It is suggested that protective gloves provide dexterity and a sense of feel for objects.  Criteria and test methods for dexterity are contained in the NIOSH publications, "The Development of Criteria for Firefighters' Gloves; Vol. I: Glove Requirements," and "Vol. II: Glove Criteria and Test Methods." These NIOSH publications also contain a permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (WAC 296-24-63599(3) Appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance.

(e) Head, eye and face protection.  Head protective devices which meet the requirements contained in NFPA No. 1972 are acceptable as meeting the requirements of this standard for head protection.

Head protective devices are required to be provided with ear flaps so that the ear flaps will be available if needed.  It is recommended that ear protection always be used while fighting interior structural fires.

Many head protective devices are equipped with face shields to protect the eyes and face.  These face shields are permissible as meeting the eye and face protection requirements of this section as long as such face shields meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-078 of the general safety and health standards.

Additionally, full facepieces, helmets or hoods of approved breathing apparatus which meet the requirements of WAC 296-62-071 and 296-24-58515 are also acceptable as meeting the eye and face protection requirements.

It is recommended that a flame resistant protective head covering such as a hood or snood, which will not adversely affect the seal of a respirator facepiece, be worn during interior structural fire fighting operations to protect the sides of the face and hair.

(8) Respiratory protective devices.  Respiratory protection is required to be worn by fire brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic products of combustion or an oxygen deficiency is likely to be present; respirators are also to be worn during emergency situations involving toxic substances.  When fire brigade members respond to emergency situations, they may be exposed to unknown contaminants in unknown concentrations.  Therefore, it is imperative that fire brigade members wear proper respiratory protective devices during these situations.  Additionally, there are many instances where toxic products of combustion are still present during mop-up and overhaul operations.  Therefore, fire brigade members should continue to wear respirators during these types of operations.

Self-contained breathing apparatus are not required to be equipped with either buddy-breathing device or a quick disconnect valve.  However, these accessories may be very useful and are acceptable as long as such accessories do not cause damage to the apparatus, restrict the air flow of the apparatus, or obstruct the normal operation of the apparatus.

Buddy-breathing devices are useful for emergency situations where a victim or another fire brigade member can share the same air supply with the wearer of the apparatus for emergency escape purposes.

The employer is encouraged to provide fire brigade members with an alternative means of respiratory protection to be used only for emergency escape purposes if the self-contained breathing apparatus becomes inoperative.  Such alternative means of respiratory protection may be either a buddy-breathing device or an escape self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA).  The ESCBA is a short-duration respiratory protective device which is approved for only emergency escape purposes.  It is suggested that if ESCBA units are used, that they be of at least five minutes service life.

Quick disconnect valves are devices which start the flow of air by insertion of the hose (which leads to the facepiece) into the regulator of self-contained breathing apparatus, and stop the flow of air by disconnecting the hose from the regulator.  These devices are particularly useful for those positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus which do not have the capability of being switched from the demand to the positive-pressure mode.

The use of a self-contained breathing apparatus where the apparatus can be switched from a demand to a positive-pressure mode is acceptable as long as the apparatus is in the positive-pressure mode when performing interior structural fire fighting operations.  Also acceptable are approved respiratory protective devices which have been converted to the positive-pressure type when such modification is accomplished by trained and experienced persons using kits or parts approved by NIOSH and provided by the manufacturer and by following the manufacturer's instructions.

There are situations which require the use of respirators which have a duration of two hours or more.  Presently, there are no approved positive-pressure apparatus with a rated service life of more than two hours.  Consequently, negative-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with a rated service life of more than two hours and which have a minimum protection factor of 5,000 as determined by an acceptable quantitative fit test performed on each individual, will be acceptable for use during situations which require long duration apparatus.  Long duration apparatus may be needed in such instances as working in tunnels, subway systems, etc.  Such negative-pressure breathing apparatus will continue to be acceptable for a maximum of eighteen months after a positive-pressure apparatus with the same or longer rated service life of more than two hours is certified by NIOSH/MSHA.  After this eighteen-month phase-in period, all self-contained breathing apparatus used for these long duration situations will have to be of the positive-pressure type.

((Protection factor (sometimes called fit factor) is defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentrations outside of the respirator to the contaminant concentrations inside the facepiece of the respirator.

PF=


Concentration outside respirator


Concentration inside facepiece

Protection factors are determined by quantitative fit tests.  An acceptable quantitative fit test should include the following elements:

(a) A fire brigade member who is physically and medically capable of wearing respirators, and who is trained in the use of respirators, dons a self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with a device that will monitor the concentration of a contaminant inside the facepiece.

(b) The fire brigade member then performs a qualitative fit test to assure the best face-to-facepiece seal as possible.  A qualitative fit test can consist of a negative-pressure test, positive-pressure test, isoamyl acetate vapor (banana oil) test, or an irritant smoke test.  For more details on respirator fitting see the NIOSH booklet entitled, "A Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection," June 1976, and HHS publication No. (NIOSH) 76-189.

(c) The wearer should then perform physical activity which reflects the level of work activity which would be expected during fire fighting activities.  The physical activity should include simulated fire-ground work activity or physical exercise such as running-in-place, a step test, etc.

(d) Without readjusting the apparatus, the wearer is placed in a test atmosphere containing a nontoxic contaminant with a known, constant concentration.

The protection factor is then determined by dividing the known concentration of the contaminant in the test atmosphere by the concentration of the contaminant inside the facepiece when the following exercises are performed:

(i) Normal breathing with head motionless for one minute;

(ii) Deep breathing with head motionless for thirty seconds;

(iii) Turning head slowly from side to side while breathing normally, pausing for at least two breaths before changing direction.  Continue for at least one minute;

(iv) Moving head slowly up and down while breathing normally, pausing for at least two breaths before changing direction.  Continue for at least two minutes;

(v) Reading from a prepared text, slowly and clearly, and loudly enough to be heard and understood.  Continue for one minute; and

(vi) Normal breathing with head motionless for at least one minute.

The protection factor which is determined must be at least 5,000.  The quantitative fit test should be conducted at least three times.  It is acceptable to conduct all three tests on the same day.  However, there should be at least one hour between tests to reflect the protection afforded by the apparatus during different times of the day.

The above elements are not meant to be a comprehensive, technical description of a quantitative fit test protocol.  However, quantitative fit test procedures which include these elements are acceptable for determining protection factors.  Procedures for a quantitative fit test are required to be available for inspection by the director or authorized representative.

Organizations such as Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, NIOSH, and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) are excellent sources for additional information concerning qualitative and quantitative fit testing.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-58517, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  82-02-003 (Order 81-32), § 296-24-58517, filed 12/24/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-02-006, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98)

WAC 296-24-67507
Definitions.

(1) Abrasive.  A solid granular substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(2) Abrasive blasting.  The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(3) Abrasive-blasting respirator.  A ((continuous flow airline respirator or pressure-demand supplied-air)) respirator ((made)) constructed so that it ((will)) covers the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders ((and provide protection)) to protect the wearer from rebounding abrasive.

(4) Air-line respirator.  A device consisting of a face-piece, helmet, or hood to which clean air is supplied to the wearer through a small-diameter hose from a compressed air source.

(5) Blast cleaning barrel.  A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.

(6) Blast cleaning room.  A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(7) Blasting cabinet.  An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(8) Clean air.  Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(9) Dust collector.  A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(10) Exhaust ventilation system.  A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements; (a) enclosure or hood, (b) duct work, (c) dust collecting equipment, (d) exhauster, and (e) discharge stack.

(11) Particulate-filter respirator.  An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust ((or a fume)) respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.

(12) Respirable dust.  Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(13) Rotary blast cleaning table.  An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-02-006, § 296-24-67507, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-67507, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-67507, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-67507, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-02-006, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98)

WAC 296-24-67515
Personal protective equipment.

(1) ((Respiratory protective equipment approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) must be used for protection of personnel against dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.)) Employers must use only respirators certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protecting employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.

(2) Abrasive-blasting respirators.  Abrasive-blasting respirators must be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators in the following situations: (a) When working inside of blast cleaning rooms, or (b) when using silica sand in manual blasting operations except where the nozzle and blast are physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or (c) where concentrations of toxic dusts dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in ((WAC 296-62-075 through 296-62-07515)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E except where the nozzle and blast are physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(3) Particulate-filter respirators.

(a) Properly fitted particulate ((or dust))-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as clean-up, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point((,)) when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means.

(b) Dust-filter respirators may also be used to protect the operator of outside (outdoor) abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicity.

Note:The selection of a dust-filter respirator depends on the amount of dust in the breathing zone of the user.  See WAC 296-62-07113 - Table 5.


(c) Dust-filter respirators used must be certified by NIOSH((-approved)) under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(d) Dust-filter respirators must be properly fitted as required in ((WAC 296-62-071)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(e) Dust-filter respirators must not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or when toxic materials are blasted.

(4) A respiratory protection program as required in ((WAC 296-62-071)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E must be established wherever it is necessary to use respirators.

(5) Personal protective clothing.

(a) Operators must be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives.

(b) Safety shoes must be worn where there is a hazard of foot injury.

(c) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face must be supplied to the operator and to other personnel working near abrasive blasting operations when the respirator design does not provide such protection.

(6) Personal protective clothing, equipment and their use must comply with WAC 296-24-075 (Part A2).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-02-006, § 296-24-67515, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-67515, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-67515, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-67515, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-02-006, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98)

WAC 296-24-67517
Air supply and air compressors.

(((1))) Clean air supply.  The air for abrasive-blasting respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and ((shall)) must meet the requirements for ((air purity set forth in American National Standard Z 86.1-1973)) supplied-air quality and use as specified in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.


((Note:It is preferable to provide air for an abrasive-blasting respirator with low pressure blowers or compressors which need no internal organic lubricants and are used solely for that purpose, as long as they provide sufficient air flow to each user as specified in Table 3 of the respirator standard, WAC 296-62-071.

(2) When air from the regular compressed air line of the plant is used for the abrasive-blasting respirator the following are required:

(a) A trap and carbon filter must be installed and regularly maintained, to remove oil, water, scale, and odor;

(b) A pressure reducing diaphragm or valve must be installed to reduce the pressure down to requirements of the particular type of abrasive-blasting respirator;

(c) An automatic control must be provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor in case of over-heating.


Note:See also WAC 296-62-07111.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  98-02-006, § 296-24-67517, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 73-5, § 296-24-67517, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-67517, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-71507
Ventilation in confined spaces.

(1) Air replacement.  All welding and cutting operations carried on in confined spaces shall be adequately ventilated to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials or possible oxygen deficiency.  This applies not only to the welder but also to helpers and other personnel in the immediate vicinity.  All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable.

(2) Airline respirators.  In such circumstances where it is impossible to provide such ventilation, airline respirators or hose masks approved ((by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and)) for this purpose by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ((for this purpose shall)) under 42 CFR part 84 must be used.

(3) Self-contained units.  In areas immediately hazardous to life, ((hose masks with blowers or self-contained breathing equipment shall be used.  The breathing equipment shall be approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH))) a full-facepiece, pressure-demand, self-contained breathing apparatus or a combination full-facepiece, pressure-demand supplied-air respirator with an auxiliary, self-contained air supply certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 must be used.

(4) Outside helper.  Where welding operations are carried on in confined spaces and where welders and helpers are provided with hose masks, hose masks with blowers or self-contained breathing equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a worker shall be stationed on the outside of such confined spaces to insure the safety of those working within.

(5) Oxygen for ventilation.  Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-71507, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-71507, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-71507, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-71513
Lead.

(1) Confined spaces.  In confined spaces, welding involving lead-base metals (erroneously called lead-burning) shall be done in accordance with WAC 296-24-71507 (1) through (5).

(2) Indoors.  Indoors, welding involving lead-base metals shall be done in accordance with WAC 296-24-71505 (1) and (2).

(3) Local ventilation.  In confined spaces or indoors, welding or cutting operations involving metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or involving metals coated with lead-bearing materials, including paint ((shall)) must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators.  ((Outdoors such operations shall)) Such operations, when done outdoors, must be done using ((respiratory protective equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes)) respirators, certified for this purpose by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84.  In all cases, workers in the immediate vicinity of the cutting operation ((shall)) must be protected as necessary by local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators.

Note:See chapter 296-62 WAC for additional requirements on lead.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-71513, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-71513, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-71513, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-71517
Cadmium.

(1) General.  In confined spaces or indoors, welding or cutting ((indoors or in confined spaces)) operations involving cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals ((shall)) must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions ((have established that the workers')) show that employee exposure is within the acceptable concentrations ((defined)) specified by chapter 296-62 WAC.  ((Outdoors)) Such operations ((shall)), when done outdoors, must be done using ((respiratory protective equipment)) respirators, such as fume respirators ((approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes)), certified for this purpose by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84.

(2) Confined space.  Welding (brazing) involving cadmium-bearing filler metals shall be done using ventilation as prescribed in WAC 296-24-71505 or 296-24-71507 if the work is to be done in a confined space.

Note:See chapter 296-62 WAC for additional requirements on cadmium.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-71517, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-71517, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-71517, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-24-71519
Mercury.

In confined spaces or indoors, welding or cutting ((indoors or in a confined space)) operations involving metals coated with mercury-bearing materials, including paint, ((shall)) must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions ((have established that the workers')) show that employee exposure is within the acceptable concentrations ((defined)) specified by chapter 296-62 WAC.  ((Outdoors)) Such operations ((shall)), when done outdoors, must be done using ((respiratory protective equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes)) respirators certified for this purpose by NIOSH under 24 CFR part 84.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-71519, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 73-5, § 296-24-71519, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-71519, filed 5/7/73.]

OTS-2522.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)

WAC 296-56-60053
Hazardous atmospheres and substances.

(1) Purpose and scope.  This section covers areas where a hazardous atmosphere or substance may exist, except where one or more of the following sections apply: WAC 296-56-60049 Hazardous cargo; WAC 296-56-60051 Handling explosives or hazardous materials; WAC 296-56-60055 Carbon monoxide; WAC 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives; WAC 296-56-60107 Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish; WAC 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work); and WAC 296-56-60237 Spray painting.

(2) Determination of hazard.

(a) Whenever a room, building, vehicle, railcar or other space contains or has contained a hazardous atmosphere, a designated and appropriately equipped person shall test the atmosphere before entry to determine whether a hazardous atmosphere exists.

(b) Records of results of any tests required by this section shall be maintained for at least thirty days.

(3) Testing during ventilation. When mechanical ventilation is used to maintain a safe atmosphere, tests shall be made by a designated person to ensure that the atmosphere is not hazardous.

(4) Entry into hazardous atmospheres.  Only designated persons shall enter hazardous atmospheres.  The following provisions shall apply:

(a) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be protected by respiratory and emergency protective equipment meeting the requirements of ((WAC 296-62-071 through 296-62-07121)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(b) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be instructed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective and emergency equipment.  Standby observers, similarly equipped and instructed, shall continuously monitor the activity of employees within such space; and

(c) Except for emergency or rescue operations, employees shall not enter into any atmosphere which has been identified as flammable or oxygen deficient (less than nineteen and one-half percent oxygen).  Persons who may be required to enter flammable or oxygen deficient atmospheres in emergency operations shall be instructed in the dangers attendant to those atmospheres and instructed in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, which shall be utilized.

(d) To prevent inadvertent employee entry into spaces that have been identified as having hazardous, flammable or oxygen deficient atmospheres, appropriate warning signs or equivalent means shall be posted at all means of access to those spaces.

(5) When the packaging of asbestos cargo leaks, spillage shall be cleaned up by designated employees protected from the harmful effects of asbestos as required by WAC 296-62-07517 and chapter 296-65 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60053, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60053, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60053, filed 12/11/84.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-04-007, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95)

WAC 296-56-60235
Welding, cutting and heating (hot work).

(1) Definition.  "Hot work" means riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation.

(2) Hot work in confined spaces.  Hot work shall not be performed in a confined space until all requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M, are met.

(3) Fire protection.

(a) To the extent possible, hot work shall be performed in designated locations that are free of fire hazards.

(b) When hot work must be performed in a location that is not free of fire hazards, all necessary precautions shall be taken to confine heat, sparks, and slag so that they cannot contact flammable or combustible material.

(c) Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for the location shall be immediately available and shall be maintained in readiness for use at all times.

(d) When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire hazard remains.  The employer shall instruct all employees involved in hot work operations as to potential fire hazards and the use of fire fighting equipment.

(e) Drums and containers which contain or have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept closed.  Empty containers shall be removed from the hot work area.

(f) When openings or cracks in flooring cannot be closed, precautions shall be taken to ensure that no employees or flammable or combustible materials are exposed to sparks dropping through the floor.  Similar precautions shall be taken regarding cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows.

(g) Hot work shall not be performed:

(i) In flammable or potentially flammable atmospheres;

(ii) On or in equipment or tanks that have contained flammable gas or liquid or combustible liquid or dust-producing material, until a designated person has tested the atmosphere inside the equipment or tanks and determined that it is not hazardous; or

(iii) Near any area in which exposed readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper or cotton are stored.  Bulk sulphur is excluded from this prohibition if suitable precautions are followed, the person in charge is knowledgeable and the person performing the work has been instructed in preventing and extinguishing sulphur fires.

(h)(i) Drums, containers or hollow structures that have contained flammable or combustible substances shall either be filled with water or cleaned, and shall then be ventilated.  A designated person shall test the atmosphere and determine that it is not hazardous before hot work is performed on or in such structures.

(ii) Before heat is applied to a drum, container or hollow structure, an opening to release built-up pressure during heat application shall be provided.

(4) Gas welding and cutting.

(a) Compressed gas cylinders:

(i) Shall have valve protection caps in place except when in use, hooked up or secured for movement.  Oil shall not be used to lubricate caps;

(ii) Shall be hoisted only while secured, as on a cradle or pallet, and shall not be hoisted by magnet, choker sling or cylinder caps;

(iii) Shall be moved only by tilting or rolling on their bottom edges;

(iv) Shall be secured when moved by vehicle;

(v) Shall be secured while in use;

(vi) Shall have valves closed when cylinders are empty, being moved or stored;

(vii) Shall be secured upright except when hoisted or carried;

(viii) Shall not be freed when frozen by prying the valves or caps with bars or by hitting the valve with a tool;

(ix) Shall not be thawed by boiling water;

(x) Shall not be exposed to sparks, hot slag, or flame;

(xi) Shall not be permitted to become part of electrical circuits or have electrodes struck against them to strike arcs;

(xii) Shall not be used as rollers or supports;

(xiii) Shall not have contents used for purposes not authorized by the supplier;

(xiv) Shall not be used if damaged or defective;

(xv) Shall not have gases mixed within, except by gas suppliers;

(xvi) Shall be stored so that oxygen cylinders are separated from fuel gas cylinders and combustible materials by either a minimum distance of twenty feet (6 m) or a barrier having a fire-resistance rating of thirty minutes; and

(xvii) Shall not have objects that might either damage the safety device or obstruct the valve placed on top of the cylinder when in use.

(b) Use of fuel gas.  Fuel gas shall be used only as follows:

(i) Before regulators are connected to cylinder valves, the valves shall be opened slightly (cracked) and closed immediately to clear away dust or dirt. Valves shall not be cracked if gas could reach possible sources of ignition;

(ii) Cylinder valves shall be opened slowly to prevent regulator damage and shall not be opened more than one and one-half turns.  Any special wrench required for emergency closing shall be positioned on the valve stem during cylinder use.  For manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one wrench shall be immediately available.  Nothing shall be placed on top of a cylinder or associated parts when the cylinder is in use;

(iii) Pressure-reducing regulators shall be attached to cylinder valves when cylinders are supplying torches or devices equipped with shut-off valves;

(iv) Cylinder valves shall be closed and gas released from the regulator or manifold before regulators are removed;

(v) Leaking fuel gas cylinder valves shall be closed and the gland nut tightened.  If the leak continues, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.  If a regulator attached to a valve stops a leak, the cylinder need not be removed from the workplace but shall be tagged and may not be used again before it is repaired; and

(vi) If a plug or safety device leaks, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.

(c) Hose.

(i) Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be easily distinguishable from each other by color or sense of touch.  Oxygen and fuel hoses shall not be interchangeable.  Hoses having more than one gas passage shall not be used.

(ii) When oxygen and fuel gas hoses are taped together, not more than four of each twelve inches (10.2 cm of each 30.5 cm) shall be taped.

(iii) Hose shall be inspected before use.  Hose subjected to flashback or showing evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal working pressure but not less than two hundred p.s.i. (1378.96 kPa) before re-use.  Defective hose shall not be used.

(iv) Hose couplings shall not unlock or disconnect without rotary motion.

(v) Hose connections shall be clamped or securely fastened to withstand twice the normal working pressure but not less than three hundred p.s.i. (2068.44 kPa) without leaking.

(vi) Gas hose storage boxes shall be ventilated.

(d) Torches.

(i) Torch tip openings shall only be cleaned with devices designed for that purpose.

(ii) Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections.  Torches with such defects shall not be used.

(iii) Torches shall not be lighted from matches, cigarette lighters, other flames or hot work.

(e) Pressure regulators.  Pressure regulators, including associated gauges, shall be maintained in safe working order.

(f) Operational precaution.  Gas welding equipment shall be maintained free of oil and grease.

(5) Arc welding and cutting.

(a) Manual electrode holders.

(i) The employer shall ensure that only manual electrode holders intended for arc welding and cutting and capable of handling the maximum current required for such welding or cutting shall be used.

(ii) Current-carrying parts passing through those portions of the holder gripped by the user and through the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be insulated against the maximum voltage to ground.

(b) Welding cables and connectors.

(i) Arc welding and cutting cables shall be insulated, flexible and capable of handling the maximum current required by the operation, taking into account the duty cycles.

(ii) Only cable free from repair or splice for ten feet (3 m) from the electrode holder shall be used unless insulated connectors or splices with insulating quality equal to that of the cable are provided.

(iii) When a cable other than the lead mentioned in (b)(ii) of this subsection wears and exposes bare conductors, the portion exposed shall not be used until it is protected by insulation equivalent in performance capacity to the original.

(iv) Insulated connectors of equivalent capacity shall be used for connecting or splicing cable.  Cable lugs, where used as connectors, shall provide electrical contact.  Exposed metal parts shall be insulated.

(c) Ground returns and machine grounding.

(i) Ground return cables shall have current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.

(ii) Structures or pipelines, other than those containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used in the ground return circuit if their current-carrying capacity equals or exceeds the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.

(iii) Structures or pipelines forming a temporary ground return circuit shall have electrical contact at all joints.  Arcs, sparks or heat at any point in the circuit shall cause rejection as a ground circuit.

(iv) Structures or pipelines acting continuously as ground return circuits shall have joints bonded and maintained to ensure that no electrolysis or fire hazard exists.

(v) Arc welding and cutting machine frames shall be grounded, either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire at the source of the current.  Grounding circuits shall have resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.

(vi) Ground connections shall be mechanically and electrically adequate to carry the current.

(d) When electrode holders are left unattended, electrodes shall be removed and holders placed to prevent employee injury.

(e) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water.

(f) The employer shall ensure that when arc welders or cutters leave or stop work or when machines are moved, the power supply switch is kept in the off position.

(g) Arc welding or cutting equipment having a functional defect shall not be used.

(h)(i) Arc welding and cutting operations shall be separated from other operations by shields, screens, or curtains to protect employees in the vicinity from the direct rays and sparks of the arc.

(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with subsection (8) of this section.  When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, they shall wear filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(i) The control apparatus of arc welding machines shall be enclosed, except for operating wheels, levers, and handles.

(j) Input power terminals, top change devices and live metal parts connected to input circuits shall be enclosed and accessible only by means of insulated tools.

(k) When arc welding is performed in wet or high-humidity conditions, employees shall use additional protection, such as rubber pads or boots, against electric shock.

(6) Ventilation and employee protection in welding, cutting and heating.

(a) Mechanical ventilation requirements.  The employer shall ensure that general mechanical ventilation or local exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:

(i) General mechanical ventilation shall maintain vapors, fumes and smoke below a hazardous level;

(ii) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of movable hoods positioned close to the work and shall be of such capacity and arrangement as to keep breathing zone concentrations below hazardous levels;

(iii) Exhausts from working spaces shall be discharged into the open air, clear of intake air sources;

(iv) Replacement air shall be clean and respirable; and

(v) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation, cooling or cleaning clothing or work areas.

(b) Hot work in confined spaces.  Except as specified in (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection, when hot work is performed in a confined space the employer shall, in addition to the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M, ensure that:

(i) General mechanical or local exhaust ventilations shall be provided; or

(ii) Employees in the space shall wear ((supplied air)) respirators in accordance with ((WAC 296-62-071 et seq. and a standby observer on the outside shall maintain communication with employees inside the space and shall be equipped and prepared to provide emergency aid)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(c) Welding, cutting or heating of toxic metals.

(i) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation that ensures that employees are not exposed to hazardous levels of fumes:

(A) Lead base metals;

(B) Cadmium-bearing filler materials; and

(C) Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.

(ii) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of this subsection or by employees wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(A) Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials;

(B) Metals containing lead other than as an impurity, or coated with lead-bearing materials;

(C) Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; and

(D) Metals coated with mercury-bearing materials.

(iii) Employees performing hot work in confined or enclosed spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by local exhaust ventilation and wear supplied air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees performing hot work in the open air that involves any of the metals listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and those working on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by supplied air respirators, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(v) Any employee exposed to the same atmosphere as the welder or burner shall be protected by the same type of respiratory and other protective equipment as that worn by the welder or burner.

(d) Inert-gas metal-arc welding. Employees shall not engage in and shall not be exposed to the inert-gas metal-arc welding process unless the following precautions are taken:

(i) Chlorinated solvents shall not be used within two hundred feet (61 m) of the exposed arc.  Surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is performed on them.

(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.  When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section shall be worn to protect against flashes and radiant energy.

(iii) Employees exposed to radiation shall have their skin covered completely to prevent ultraviolet burns and damage.  Helmets and hand shields shall not have leaks, openings or highly reflective surfaces.

(iv) Inert-gas metal-arc welding on stainless steel shall not be performed unless exposed employees are protected either by local exhaust ventilation or by wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(7) Welding, cutting and heating on preservative coatings.

(a) Before hot work is commenced on surfaces covered by a preservative coating of unknown flammability, a test shall be made by a designated person to determine the coating's flammability.  Preservative coatings shall be considered highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.

(b) Appropriate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings.  Highly flammable coatings shall be stripped from the area to be heated.  An uncoiled fire hose with fog nozzle, under pressure, shall be immediately available in the hot work area.

(c) Surfaces covered with preservative coatings shall be stripped for at least four inches (10.2 cm) from the area of heat application or employees shall be protected by supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC.

(8) Protection against radiant energy.

(a) Employees shall be protected from radiant energy eye hazards by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields or face shields with filter lenses complying with the requirements of this subsection.

(b) Filter lenses shall have an appropriate shade number, as indicated in Table G-1, for the work performed. Variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.

(c) If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under the helmet, the shade numbers of both lenses equals the value shown in Table G-1 for the operation.


Table G-1.--Filter Lenses for Protection

Against Radiant Energy


Operation

Shade No.

Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
Torch Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 or 4
Light cutting, up to 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 or 4
Medium cutting, 1-6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 or 5
Heavy cutting, over 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 or 6
Light gas welding, up to 1/8 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 or 5
Medium gas welding, 1/8-1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 or 6
Heavy gas welding, over 1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 or 8
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1/16 to

5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .

10
Inert gas Metal-Arc Welding (non-ferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding:
3/16 to 1/4-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5/16 and 3/8-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .
14

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  95-04-007, § 296-56-60235, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.  92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60235, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60235, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60235, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60235, filed 12/11/84.]

OTS-2525.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-665
Sanding machines.

(1) Each belt sanding machine shall have both pulleys enclosed in such a manner as to guard the points where the belt runs onto the pulleys.  The edges of the unused run of belt shall be enclosed or otherwise guarded from contact by employees.

(2) Each drum sanding machine shall be provided with a guard so arranged as to completely enclose the revolving drum except such portion required for the application of the material to be finished.  Guards with hinges to facilitate the insertion of sandpaper may be installed.  The exhaust hood may form part or all of this guard.  When so used, the hood shall conform to the specifications as given under exhaust systems in WAC 296-78-710.

(3) All standard stationary sanding machines shall be provided with exhaust systems in conformity with the section of this code dealing with exhaust systems.

(4) All portable sanding machines shall be provided with means of removing excessive dust, or employees using equipment shall be provided with such necessary respiratory protective equipment as will conform to the requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(5) The requirements of WAC 296-24-16533, general safety and health standards, shall be applicable to sanding machines.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  96-17-056, § 296-78-665, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-665, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-71019
Exhaust systems.

(1) Air requirements in buildings, where persons are habitually employed, shall meet the requirements of the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-100 through 296-62-11013.

(2) Where the natural ventilation is not sufficient to remove dust, fumes or vapors that create or constitute a hazard, additional means of removal shall be provided.

(3) All mills containing one or more machines whose operations create dust, shavings, chips or slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than one-fourth of the working day or shift, shall be equipped with a collecting system either continuous or automatic in action and of sufficient strength and capacity to thoroughly remove such refuse from the points of operation of the machines and the work areas.

(4) Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.

(5) Blower, collecting and exhaust systems shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1 - 1961 (for the installation of blower and exhaust systems for dust, stock and vapor removal or conveying) and Z12.2 - 1962 (R1969) (code for the prevention of dust explosions in woodworking and wood flour manufacturing plants).

(6) Fans used for ventilating shall be of ample capacity, as evidenced by the performance schedules of the manufacturers, and shall be guarded when exposed to contact.  Hoods, dust conveyors, dust collectors and other accessary equipment shall be large enough to insure free intake and discharge.

(7) The outlet or discharge of all ventilating equipment shall be so arranged that at no time will the dust, vapors, gases or other air borne impurities discharged, create or constitute a hazard.

(8) Where a hood is used to form a part or all of the guard required on a given machine, it shall be constructed of not less than ten U.S. gauge sheet metal, or if of cast iron it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inches in thickness.

(9) All exhaust pipes shall be of such construction and internal dimensions as to minimize the possibility of clogging.  They shall be readily accessible for cleaning.

(10) All exhaust pipes shall empty into settling or dust chambers which shall effectively prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area.  Such settling or dust chambers shall be so designed and operated as to reduce to a minimum the danger of fire or dust explosions.

(11) In lieu of a general ventilating system, exhaust or blower units may be installed on the dust or fume producing machine, provided the required protection is secured thereby.

(12) When proper ventilation is not provided, and temporary hazardous conditions are therefore encountered, the employer shall furnish approved respiratory and visual equipment: Provided, however, That the exposure to such hazard shall not be for more than two hours duration.  Protective measures and equipment shall meet the requirements of the general occupational health standard, ((WAC 296-62-070 through 296-62-09001)) chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and the requirements of the general safety and health standard, WAC 296-24-081 through 296-24-08113.

(13) Provisions for the daily removal of refuse shall be made in all operations not required to have an exhaust system, or having refuse too heavy, or bulky, or otherwise unsuitable to be handled by an exhaust system.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-71019, filed 8/27/81.]

OTS-2555.5


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-09-030, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96)

WAC 296-62-07306
Requirements for areas containing carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.

(1) A regulated area shall be established by an employer where listed carcinogens are manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored.

(2) All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(a) Isolated systems.  Employees working with carcinogens within an isolated system such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(b) Closed system operation.  Within regulated areas where carcinogens are stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system including piping systems with any sample ports or openings closed while carcinogens are contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.

(c) Open vessel system operations.  Open vessel system operations as defined in WAC 296-62-07304(12) are prohibited.

(d) Transfer from a closed system.  Charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening a closed system.  In operations involving "laboratory-type hoods," or in locations where a carcinogen is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this section shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.  Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated.  Clean makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in ((operations)) handling operations involving the following carcinogens ((shall)) must be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied-air respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type ((in accordance with WAC 296-62-071)) as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E:


•Methyl Chloromethyl Ether;
•bis-Chloromethyl Ether;
•Ethylenemine;
•beta-Propiolactone;
•4-Amino Diphenyl.

(v) Employees engaged in ((operations)) handling ((the following carcinogens shall be provided with and required to wear and use (not less than) a half-face, filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes in accordance with WAC 296-62-071)) operations involving:

((4-Nitrobiphenyl; Alpha-Naphthylamine; 4,4'Methylene bis (2-Chloroaniline); 3,3'Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); Beta-Naphthylamine; Benzidine; 2-Acetylamino Fluroene; 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; N-Nitrosodimethylamine.))


•4-nitrobiphenyl;
•alpha-naphthylamine;
•4-4'methylene bis(2-chloroaniline);
•3-3'dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
•beta-naphthylamine;
•benzidine;
•2-acetylamino fluroene;
•4-dimethylaminobenzene;
•n-nitrosodimethylamine
must be provided with, and required to wear and use, a half-face, filter-type respirator certified for solid or liquid particulates with minimum efficiency rating of 95% as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.

(vi) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal.  The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(vii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(viii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(ix) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(e) Maintenance and decontamination activities.  In clean up of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work in an area where direct contact with carcinogens could result, each authorized employee entering the area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear, clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with chapter 296-24 WAC, the general safety and health standards, and respiratory protective equipment required by this chapter 296-62 WAC;

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(f) Laboratory activities.  The requirements of this subdivision shall apply to research and quality control activities involving the use of carcinogens listed in WAC 296-62-07302.

(i) Mechanical pipetting aids shall be used for all pipetting procedures.

(ii) Experiments, procedures and equipment which could produce aerosols shall be confined to laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.

(iii) Surfaces on which carcinogens are handled shall be protected from contamination.

(iv) Contaminated wastes and animal carcasses shall be collected in impervious containers which are closed and decontaminated prior to removal from the work area.  Such wastes and carcasses shall be incinerated in such a manner that no carcinogenic products are released.

(v) All other forms of listed carcinogens shall be inactivated prior to disposal.

(vi) Laboratory vacuum systems shall be protected with high efficiency scrubbers or with disposable absolute filters.

(vii) Employees engaged in animal support activities shall be:

(A) Provided with, and required to wear, a complete protective clothing change, clean each day, including coveralls or pants and shirt, foot covers, head covers, gloves, and appropriate respiratory protective equipment or devices; and

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal.  The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities; and

(D) Required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Employees, other than those engaged only in animal support activities, each day shall be:

(A) Provided with and required to wear a clean change of appropriate laboratory clothing, such as a solid front gown, surgical scrub suit, or fully buttoned laboratory coat.

(B) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal.  The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified as required under WAC 296-62-07310 (2), (3) and (4).

(C) Required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.

(ix) Air pressure in laboratory areas and animal rooms where carcinogens are handled and bioassay studies are performed shall be negative in relation to the pressure in surrounding areas.  Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated.

(x) There shall be no connection between regulated areas and any other areas through the ventilation system.

(xi) A current inventory of the carcinogens shall be maintained.

(xii) Ventilated apparatus such as laboratory-type hoods, shall be tested at least semi-annually or immediately after ventilation modification or maintenance operations, by personnel fully qualified to certify correct containment and operation.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  96-09-030, § 296-62-07306, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  86-16-009 (Order 86-28), § 296-62-07306, filed 7/25/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-62-07306, filed 4/19/85.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-16-015 (Order 81-20), § 296-62-07306, filed 7/27/81.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.  80-17-014 (Order 80-20), § 296-62-07306, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 83-34, filed 11/30/83)

WAC 296-62-07308
General regulated area requirements.

(1) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130 (1) and (5) and 296-62-07131).

(2) Emergencies.  In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this subsection shall be implemented.

(a) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.

(b) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.

(c) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within twenty-four hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency.  A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with WAC 296-62-07312(2).

(d) Where an employee has a known contact with a listed carcinogen, such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(e) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in WAC 296-62-07312(2).

(((2))) (3) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Storage or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(b) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing facilities shall be provided in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009, of the general safety and health standards.

(c) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower facilities shall be provided.

(i) One shower shall be provided for each ten employees of each sex, or numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.

(ii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to the showers shall be provided as specified in WAC 296-24-12009, of the general safety and health standards.

(iii) Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line.

(iv) Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual clean towels.

(d) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change rooms shall be provided and shall be equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing for the number of such employees required to change clothes.

(e) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.

(((3))) (4) Contamination control.

(a) Regulated areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to nonregulated areas.  Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this requirement.  Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(b) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(c) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to remove carcinogens from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the decontamination facility.

(d) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-62-07308, filed 11/30/83.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW.  80-17-014 (Order 80-20), § 296-62-07308, filed 11/13/80.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07329
Vinyl chloride.

(1) Scope and application.

(a) This section includes requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(b) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride.

(c) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the department of transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(2) Definitions.

(a) "Action level" means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.

(b) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require him/her to enter a regulated area or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures.

(c) "Director" means the director of department of labor and industries or his/her designated representative.

(d) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(e) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(f) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(g) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(h) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer.

(3) Permissible exposure limit.

(a) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and

(b) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(c) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with liquid vinyl chloride.

(4) Monitoring.

(a) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(b) Where a determination conducted under subdivision (a) of this subsection shows any employee exposures without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such employee shall be established.  Such a program:

(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than 5 working days apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(c) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of the action level, a determination of employee exposure under subdivision (a) of this subsection shall be performed.

(d) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 50 percent from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus 35 percent from over 0.5 ppm through 1.0 ppm, plus or minus 25 percent over 1.0 ppm, (methods meeting these accuracy requirements are available from the director).

(e) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by this subsection.

(5) Regulated area.

(a) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted, repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(6) Methods of compliance.  Employee exposures to vinyl chloride shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in subsection (3) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows:

(a) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(b) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by respiratory protection in accordance with subsection (7) of this section.  A program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible, solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as feasible.

(c) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director.  Such plans shall be updated at least every six months.

(7) Respiratory protection.  ((Where respiratory protection is required under this section:))

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer ((shall)) must provide ((a)) respirators ((which meets)) that comply with the requirements of this ((subdivision and shall assure that the employee uses such respirator)) section.

(b) ((Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.


Note:The Department of Interior published an article in Federal Register in April 1976 which extended time requirement for respirators used for protection against vinyl chloride to have a cartridge or canister with an end-of-service-life indicator. The indicator is an additional safety feature but does not adversely affect the effectiveness of currently approved respirator cartridges or canisters. Until approved end-of-service-life indicators are available, the respirators, cartridges, or canisters presently approved are considered to meet requirements for vinyl chloride when used per manufacturer's instructions.

))


Respirator program. The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1), 296-62-07131 (4)(b)(i) and (ii), and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-17156).

(c) ((A respiratory protection program meeting the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC shall be established and maintained.

(d) Selection of respirators for vinyl chloride shall be as follows:


Atmospheric

concentration of

Vinyl Chloride

Required Apparatus
(i)Unknown, or above

3,600 ppm ——————

Open-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type, with full facepiece.

(ii)Not over 3,600 ppm ——Combination Type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply.
(iii)Not over 250 ppm ——— Type C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet or hood.
(iv)Not over 100 ppm ———Supplied air respirator demand type, with full facepiece.
(v)Not over 25 ppm ——— (A) A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm, or (B) Gas mask, front or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm.
(vi)Not over 10 ppm ———Any chemical cartridge respirator with a vinyl chloride cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 ppm.

(e)(i) Entry into unknown concentrations or concentrations greater than 36,000 ppm (lower explosive limit) may be made only for purposes of life rescue; and

(ii) Entry into concentrations of less than 36,000 ppm, but greater than 3,600 ppm may be made only for purposes of life rescue, fire fighting, or securing equipment so as to prevent a greater hazard from release of vinyl chloride.

(f))) Respirator selection. Respirators must be selected from the following table.


Atmospheric

concentration of

Vinyl Chloride

Apparatus

(i)Not over 10 ppmAny chemical cartridge respirator with a vinyl chloride cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 ppm.
(ii)Not over 25 ppm(A) A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm, or

(B) Gas mask, front or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm.

(iii)Not over 100 ppmSupplied air respirator demand type, with full facepiece.
(iv)Not over 250 ppmType C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet or hood.
(v)Not over 3,600 ppmCombination Type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece and auxiliary self-contained air supply.
(vi)Unknown, or above 3,600 ppmOpen-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type, with full facepiece.

(d) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges ((shall)) must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and

(ii) A continuous monitoring and alarm system ((shall)) must be provided ((where)) when concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.  Such system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use((.)), and

(((g) Apparatus prescribed)) (iii) Respirators specified for higher concentrations may be used for ((any)) lower concentration.

(8) Hazardous operations.

(a) Employees engaged in hazardous operations, including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

(i) Respiratory protection in accordance with subsections (3) and (7) of this section; and

(ii) Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls.  The protective garments shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(b) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use.

(c) Emergency situations.  A written operational plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas.  Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.  The plan shall specifically provide that:

(i) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection;

(ii) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return until conditions are controlled by the methods required in subsection (6) of this section and the emergency is abated.

(9) Training.  Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(a) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures:

(A) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(B) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(b) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to the director.

(10) Medical surveillance.  A program of medical surveillance shall be instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level.  The program shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.  All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(a) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed with specific attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective tissues and the pulmonary system (see Appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:

(A) Alcohol intake,

(B) Past history of hepatitis,

(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals,

(D) Past history of blood transfusions, and

(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and determinations made of:

(A) Total bilirubin,

(B) Alkaline phosphatase,

(C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT),

(D) Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and

(E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(b) Examinations provided in accordance with this subdivision shall be performed at least:

(i) Every 6 months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for 10 years or longer; and

(ii) Annually for all other employees.

(c) Each employee exposed to an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(d) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination.  A copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(e) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl chloride.

(f) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical examinations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR Part 74.

(g) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical examinations to those required by subdivision (a) of this subsection will provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative examinations as meeting the requirements of subdivision (a) of this subsection, if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution.  This statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the director.

(11) Signs and labels.

(a) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(b) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currently exists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(c) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other waste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(d) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME) CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(e) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:

VINYL CHLORIDE EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


(or)
(f) In accordance with 49 CFR Part 173, Subpart H, with the additional legends:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT


Applied near the label or placard.

(g) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(12) Records.

(a) All records maintained in accordance with this section shall include the name and social security number of each employee where relevant.

(b) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209; and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.  These records shall be provided upon request to the director.  Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(c) In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor to receive and retain his/her records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the director, and each employee individually notified in writing of this transfer.  The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(d) Employees or their designated representatives shall be provided access to examine and copy records of required monitoring and measuring.

(e) Former employees shall be provided access to examine and copy required monitoring and measuring records reflecting their own exposures.

(f) Upon written request of any employee, a copy of the medical record of that employee shall be furnished to any physician designated by the employee.

(13) Reports.

(a) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a regulated area, the following information shall be reported to the director.  Any changes to such information shall be reported within 15 days.

(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more regulated areas; and

(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal operations, including maintenance.

(b) Emergencies and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within 24 hours to the director.  Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of similar nature.

(c) Within 10 working days following any monitoring and measuring which discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee shall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible exposure limit.

(14) ((Effective January 1, 1975, the provisions set forth in WAC 296-62-07329 shall apply.)) Appendix A supplementary medical information.

When required tests under subsection (10)(a) of this section show abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable, preferably within 3 to 4 weeks.  If tests remain abnormal, consideration should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.

Additional tests which may be useful:

(A) For kidney dysfunction: Urine examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal cells.

(B) Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 x 17 inches).

(C) Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

(D) For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests: Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07329, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-62-07329, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.  86-16-009 (Order 86-28), § 296-62-07329, filed 7/25/86; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-62-07329, filed 6/11/82.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-62-07329, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), § 296-62-07329, filed 7/27/81; Order 75-41, § 296-62-07329, filed 12/19/75.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 88-04, filed 5/11/88)

WAC 296-62-07336
Acrylonitrile.

(1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (AN), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 000107131, except as provided in (b) and (c) of this subsection.

(b) This section does not apply to exposures which result solely from the processing, use, and handling of the following materials:

(i) ABS resins, SAN resins, nitrile barrier resins, solid nitrile elastomers, and acrylic and modacrylic fibers, when these listed materials are in the form of finished polymers, and products fabricated from such finished polymers;

(ii) Materials made from and/or containing AN for which objective data is reasonably relied upon to demonstrate that the material is not capable of releasing AN in airborne concentrations in excess of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average, under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and

(iii) Solid materials made from and/or containing AN which will not be heated above 170°F during handling, use, or processing.

(c) An employer relying upon exemption under (1)(b)(ii) shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption, and of the basis of the employer's reliance on the data as provided in subsection (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions, as applicable to this section:

(a) "Acrylonitrile" or "AN" - acrylonitrile monomer, chemical formula CH2=CHCN.

(b) "Action level" - a concentration of AN of 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(c) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the opportunity to observe monitoring procedures under subsection (18) of this section.

(d) "Decontamination" means treatment of materials and surfaces by water washdown, ventilation, or other means, to assure that the materials will not expose employees to airborne concentrations of AN above 1 ppm as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(e) "Director" - the director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(f) "Emergency" - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which is likely to, or does, result in unexpected exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit.

(g) "Liquid AN" means AN monomer in liquid form, and liquid or semiliquid polymer intermediates, including slurries, suspensions, emulsions, and solutions, produced during the polymerization of AN.

(h) "Polyacrylonitrile" or "PAN" - polyacrylonitrile homopolymers or copolymers, except for materials as exempted under subsection (1)(b) of this section.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA).  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of two parts acrylonitrile per million parts of air (2 ppm), as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of acrylonitrile in excess of 10 ppm as averaged over any fifteen-minute period during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin contact or eye contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(4) Notification of use and emergencies.

(a) Use.  Within ten days of the effective date of this standard, or within fifteen days following the introduction of AN into the workplace, every employer shall report, unless he has done so pursuant to the emergency temporary standard, the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(i) The address and location of each workplace in which AN is present;

(ii) A brief description of each process of operation which may result in employee exposure to AN;

(iii) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to AN and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs; and

(iv) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to AN.  Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by this subsection, the employer shall promptly amend such information previously provided to the director.

(b) Emergencies and remedial action.  Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported within 24 hours of the initial occurrence to the director.  Upon request of the director, the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future emergencies of a similar nature.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to AN over an eight-hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(b) Initial monitoring.  Each employer who has a place of employment in which AN is present shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of AN to which employees may be exposed.  Such monitoring may be done on a representative basis, provided that the employer can demonstrate that the determinations are representative of employee exposures.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee.  The employer shall continue these quarterly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level, and thereafter the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least quarterly.

(iii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly.  The employer shall continue these monthly measurements until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limits, and thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional monitoring.  Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to AN, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to AN, additional monitoring which complies with this subsection shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limits were exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement.  The method of measurement of employee exposures shall be accurate, to a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of AN at or above the permissible exposure limits, and plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of AN between the action level and the permissible exposure limits.

(g) Weekly survey of operations involving liquid AN.  In addition to monitoring of employee exposures to AN as otherwise required by this subsection, the employer shall survey areas of operations involving liquid AN at least weekly to detect points where AN liquid or vapor are being released into the workplace.  The survey shall employ an infra-red gas analyzer calibrated for AN, a multipoint gas chromatographic monitor, or comparable system for detection of AN.  A listing of levels detected and areas of AN release, as determined from the survey, shall be posted prominently in the workplace, and shall remain posted until the next survey is completed.

(6) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish regulated areas where AN concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(b) Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace, in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to AN.

(c) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.

(d) The employer shall assure that in the regulated area, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, (except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsections (13)(a)-(13)(c) of this section.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work practice controls.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering or work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to AN, to or below the permissible exposure limits, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limits solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (7)(a) of this section.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation or process resulting in employee exposure to AN above the permissible exposure limits;

(B) Engineering plans and other studies used to determine the controls for each process;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limits;

(D) A detailed schedule for the implementation of engineering or work practice controls; and

(E) Other relevant information.

(iii) The employer shall complete the steps set forth in the compliance program by the dates in the schedule.

(iv) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, or any affected employee or representative.

(v) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General.  ((The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required pursuant to this section to reduce employee exposure to within the permissible exposure limits and in emergencies.  Compliance with the permissible exposure limits may not be achieved by the use of respirators except)) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) ((During the time period)) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls; ((or))

(ii) ((In)) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities ((in)) or reactor cleaning, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible; ((or))

(iii) ((In work situations where)) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits; ((or))

(iv) In emergencies.

(b) Respirator ((selection)) program.

(((i) Where respiratory protection is required under this section, the employer shall select and provide at no cost to the employee, the appropriate type of respirator from Table I and shall assure that the employee wears the respirator provided.))

The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1) and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table I of this subsection.


TABLE I

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

Concentration of AN or

Condition of Use

Respirator Type
(a)Less than or equal to

25 x permissible exposure limits.

(i)Any Type C supplied

air respirator.

(b)Less than or equal to

100 x permissible

exposure limits.

(i)Any supplied air

respirator with full

facepiece; or

(ii)Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.
(c)Less than or equal to

250 x permissible

exposure limits

(i)Supplied air respirator

in positive pressure

mode with full facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit.

(d)Greater than 250 x

permissible exposure

limits.

(i)Supplied air respirator

with full facepiece

and an auxiliary self-contained air supply, operated in pressure demand mode; or

(ii)Open circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive pressure mode.
(e)Emergency entry into

unknown concentration or firefighting

(i)Any self-contained

breathing apparatus

with full facepiece in positive pressure mode.

(f)Escape.(i)Any organic vapor gas mask; or
(ii)Any self-contained breathing.

(((ii) The employer shall select respirators from those approved for use with AN by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of WAC 296-62-071.

(c) Respirator program.

(i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(ii) Testing.  Fit testing of respirators shall be performed to assure that the respirator selected provides the protection required by Table I.

(A) Qualitative fit.  The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semiannually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators.

(B) Quantitative fit.  Each employer with more than ten employees wearing negative pressure respirators shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least semiannually thereafter for each such employee.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to wash their faces and respirator facepieces to prevent potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.))

(9) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace where AN is present.  Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(ii) The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (8) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(b) Alerting employees.

(i) Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to AN in excess of the ceiling limit due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(ii) Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be evacuated from the area and shall not be permitted to return until the emergency is abated.

(10) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use.  Where eye or skin contact with liquid AN or PAN may occur, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with WAC 296-24-07501 and 296-24-07801 to protect any area of the body which may come in contact with liquid AN or PAN.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection, as needed to maintain their effectiveness.  In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(ii) The employer shall assure that impermeable protective clothing which contacts or is likely to have contacted liquid AN shall be decontaminated before being removed by the employee.

(iii) The employer shall assure that AN- or PAN-contaminated protective clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closable containers which prevent dispersion of the AN or PAN outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall assure that an employee whose nonimpermeable clothing becomes wetted with liquid AN shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower.  The clothing shall be decontaminated before it is removed from the regulated area.

(v) The employer shall assure that no employee removes AN-or PAN-contaminated protective equipment or clothing from the change room, except for those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(vi) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans AN-or PAN-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to AN.

(vii) The employer shall assure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section, and that such labels remain affixed when such containers leave the employer's workplace.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of liquid AN and of PAN.

(b) For operations involving liquid AN, the employer shall institute a program for detecting leaks and spills of liquid AN, including regular visual inspections.

(c) Where spills of liquid AN are detected, the employer shall assure that surfaces contacted by the liquid AN are decontaminated.  Employees not engaged in decontamination activities shall leave the area of the spill, and shall not be permitted in the area until decontamination is completed.

(d) Liquids.  Where AN is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing AN shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use, with adequate provision made to avoid any resulting potential explosion hazard.

(e) Surfaces.

(i) Dry sweeping and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where AN and PAN are found is prohibited.

(ii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that AN is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect AN may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(iii) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(12) Waste disposal.  AN and PAN waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed of in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of AN outside the container, and labeled as prescribed in subsection (16)(c)(ii) of this section.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.  Where employees are exposed to airborne concentrations of AN above the permissible exposure limits, or where employees are required to wear protective clothing or equipment pursuant to subsection (11) of this section, or where otherwise found to be appropriate, the facilities required by WAC 296-24-12009 shall be provided by the employer for the use of those employees, and the employer shall assure that the employees use the facilities provided.  In addition, the following facilities or requirements are mandated.

(a) Change rooms.  The employer shall provide clean change rooms in accordance with WAC 296-24-12011.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009(3).

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to liquid AN and PAN shower at the end of the work shift.

(iii) The employer shall assure that, in the event of skin or eye exposure to liquid AN, the affected employee shall shower immediately to minimize the danger of skin absorption.

(c) Lunchrooms.

(i) Whenever food or beverages are consumed in the workplace, the employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits.

(ii) In addition, the employer shall also assure that employees exposed to AN above the permissible exposure limits wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed to AN above the action level.  The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Initial examinations.  At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and medical history with special attention to skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, and those non-specific symptoms, such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, or other central nervous system dysfunctions that may be associated with acute or chronic exposure to AN.

(ii) A physical examination giving particular attention to central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, skin and thyroid.

(iii) A 14" x 17" posteroanterior chest x-ray.

(iv) Further tests of the intestinal tract, including fecal occult blood screening, and proctosigmoidoscopy, for all workers 40 years of age or older, and for any other affected employees for whom, in the opinion of the physician, such testing is appropriate.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide examinations specified in this subsection at least annually for all employees specified in subsection (14)(a) of this section.

(ii) If an employee has not had the examinations prescribed in subsection (14)(b) of this section within six months of termination of employment, the employer shall make such examination available to the employee upon such termination.

(d) Additional examinations.  If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to AN, the employer shall provide appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(e) Information provided to the physician.  The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level;

(iv) The employee's anticipated or estimated exposure level (for preplacement examinations or in cases of exposure due to an emergency);

(v) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(vi) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee, which is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(f) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and test performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to AN;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to AN or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to AN.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees where there is occupational exposure to AN and shall assure their participation in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided at the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of the training program, and at least annually thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of AN and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to AN, as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section;

(E) The emergency procedures developed, as required by subsection (9) of this section; and

(F) The engineering and work practice controls, their function and the employee's relationship thereto; and

(G) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label, required by this subsection, which contradicts or detracts from such effects of the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all workplaces where AN concentrations exceed the permissible exposure limits.  The signs shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED



(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of AN, and to containers of PAN and products fabricated from PAN, except for those materials for which objective data is provided as to the conditions specified in subsection (1)(b) of this section.  The employer shall assure that the labels remain affixed when the AN or PAN are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible.  The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

CONTAINS ACRYLONITRILE (AN)

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exempted operations.

(i) Where the processing, use, and handling of products fabricated from PAN are exempted pursuant to subsection (1)(b) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include the following information:

(A) The relevant condition in subsection (1)(b) upon which exemption is based;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of AN;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data supports the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, and processing covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and the data relied upon to establish that the methods used meet the accuracy and precision requirements of subsection (5)(f) of this section;

(C) Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any; and

(D) Name, social security number and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 40 years or the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) A copy of the physicians' written opinions;

(B) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to AN;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (14)(f) of this section; and

(D) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall assure that this record be maintained for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by subdivisions (a) through (c) of this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209 and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.  Records required by subdivision (a) of this section shall be provided in the same manner as exposure monitoring records.

(iii) The employer shall assure that employee medical records required to be maintained by this section, be made available, upon request, for examination and copying, to the affected employee or former employee, or to a physician designated by the affected employee, former employee, or designated representative.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained pursuant to this section, the employer shall transmit these records to the director.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation.  The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to AN conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to AN requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled:

(A) To receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) To observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of AN performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) To record the results obtained.

(19) ((Effective date.  This standard will become effective July 28, 1978.

(20))) Appendices.  The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligation not otherwise imposed, or to detract from any obligation.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-62-07336, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07337
Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for acrylonitrile.

(1) Substance identification.

(a) Substance: Acrylonitrile (CH2 CHCN).

(b) Synonyms: Propenenitrile; vinyl cyanide; cyanoethylene; AN; VCN; acylon; carbacryl; fumigrian; ventox.

(c) Acrylonitrile can be found as a liquid or vapor, and can also be found in polymer resins, rubbers, plastics, polyols, and other polymers having acrylonitrile as a raw or intermediate material.

(d) AN is used in the manufacture of acrylic and modiacrylic fibers, acrylic plastics and resins, speciality polymers, nitrile rubbers, and other organic chemicals.  It has also been used as a fumigant.

(e) Appearance and odor: Colorless to pale yellow liquid with a pungent odor which can only be detected at concentrations above the permissible exposure level, in a range of 13-19 parts AN per million parts of air (13-19 ppm).

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed either:

(i) Two parts AN per million parts of air (2 ppm) averaged over the eight-hour workday; or

(ii) Ten parts AN per million parts of air (10 ppm) averaged over any fifteen-minute period in the workday.

(iii) In addition, skin and eye contact with liquid AN is prohibited.

(2) Health hazard data.

(a) Acrylonitrile can affect your body if you inhale the vapor (breathing), if it comes in contact with your eyes or skin, or if you swallow it.  It may enter your body through your skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure:

(i) Short-term exposure: Acrylonitrile can cause eye irritation, nausea, vomiting, headache, sneezing, weakness, and light-headedness.  At high concentrations, the effects of exposure may go on to loss of consciousness and death.  When acrylonitrile is held in contact with the skin after being absorbed into shoe leather or clothing, it may produce blisters following several hours of no apparent effect.  Unless the shoes or clothing are removed immediately and the area washed, blistering will occur.  Usually there is no pain or inflammation associated with blister formation.

(ii) Long-term exposure: Acrylonitrile has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals and has been associated with higher incidences of cancer in humans.  Repeated or prolonged exposure of the skin to acrylonitrile may produce irritation and dermatitis.

(iii) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your employer if you develop any signs or symptoms and suspect they are caused by exposure to acrylonitrile.

(3) Emergency first aid procedures.

(a) Eye exposure: If acrylonitrile gets into your eyes, wash your eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  Get medical attention immediately.  Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

(b) Skin exposure: If acrylonitrile gets on your skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with water.  If acrylonitrile soaks through your clothing, especially your shoes, remove the clothing immediately and wash the skin with water.  If symptoms occur after washing, get medical attention immediately.  Thoroughly wash the clothing before reusing.  Contaminated leather shoes or other leather articles should be discarded.

(c) Inhalation: If you or any other person breathes in large amounts of acrylonitrile, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as possible.

(d) Swallowing: When acrylonitrile has been swallowed, give the person large quantities of water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention immediately.

(e) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure.  If the exposed person has been overcome, notify someone else and put into effect the established emergency procedures.  Do not become a casualty yourself.  Understand your emergency rescue procedures and know the location of the emergency equipment before the need arises.

(f) Special first aid procedures: First aid kits containing an adequate supply (at least two dozen) of amyl nitrite pearls, each containing 0.3 ml, should be maintained at each site where acrylonitrile is used.  When a person is suspected of receiving an overexposure to acrylonitrile, immediately remove that person from the contaminated area using established rescue procedures.  Contaminated clothing must be removed and the acrylonitrile washed from the skin immediately.  Artificial respiration should be started at once if breathing has stopped.  If the person is unconscious, amyl nitrite may be used as an antidote by a properly trained individual in accordance with established emergency procedures.  Medical aid should be obtained immediately.

(4) Respirators and protective clothing.

(a) Respirators: (((i))) You may be required to wear a respirator for nonroutine activities, in emergencies, while your employer is in the process of reducing acrylonitrile exposures through engineering controls, and in areas where engineering controls are not feasible.  If respirators are worn, they must have a ((Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA or MESA) or National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) label of approval)) label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with organic vapors.  (((Older respirators may have a Bureau of Mines approval label.))) For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly.  Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

(((ii) Acrylonitrile does not have a detectable odor except at levels above the permissible exposure limits.  Do not depend on odor to warn you when a respirator cartridge or canister is exhausted.  Cartridges or canisters must be changed daily or before the end-of-service-life, whichever comes first.  Reuse of these may allow acrylonitrile to gradually filter through the cartridge and cause exposures which you cannot detect by odor.  If you can smell acrylonitrile while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air.  If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.))

(b) Supplied-air suits: In some work situations, the wearing of supplied-air suits may be necessary.  Your employer must instruct you in their proper use and operation.

(c) Protective clothing:

(i) You must wear impervious clothing, gloves, face shield, or other appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin contact with liquid acrylonitrile.  Where protective clothing is required, your employer is required to provide clean garments to you as necessary to assume that the clothing protects you adequately.

(ii) Replace or repair impervious clothing that has developed leaks.

(iii) Acrylonitrile should never be allowed to remain on the skin.  Clothing and shoes which are not impervious to acrylonitrile should not be allowed to become contaminated with acrylonitrile, and if they do the clothing and shoes should be promptly removed and decontaminated.  The clothing should be laundered or discarded after the AN is removed.  Once acrylonitrile penetrates shoes or other leather articles, they should not be worn again.

(d) Eye protection: You must wear splashproof safety goggles in areas where liquid acrylonitrile may contact your eyes.  In addition, contact lenses should not be worn in areas where eye contact with acrylonitrile can occur.

(5) Precautions for safe use, handling, and storage.

(a) Acrylonitrile is a flammable liquid, and its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures in air.

(b) Acrylonitrile must be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area, away from heat, sparks, flames, strong oxidizers (especially bromine), strong bases, copper, copper alloys, ammonia, and amines.

(c) Sources of ignition such as smoking and open flames are prohibited wherever acrylonitrile is handled, used, or stored in a manner that could create a potential fire or explosion hazard.

(d) You should use nonsparking tools when opening or closing metal containers of acrylonitrile, and containers must be bonded and grounded when pouring or transferring liquid acrylonitrile.

(e) You must immediately remove any nonimpervious clothing that becomes wetted with acrylonitrile, and this clothing must not be reworn until the acrylonitrile is removed from the clothing.

(f) Impervious clothing wet with liquid acrylonitrile can be easily ignited.  This clothing must be washed down with water before you remove it.

(g) If your skin becomes wet with liquid acrylonitrile, you must promptly and thoroughly wash or shower with soap or mild detergent to remove any acrylonitrile from your skin.

(h) You must not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials, nor are you permitted to eat or smoke in regulated areas where acrylonitrile concentrations are above the permissible exposure limits.

(i) If you contact liquid acrylonitrile, you must wash your hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.

(j) Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(k) Ask your supervisor where acrylonitrile is used in your work area and for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Access to information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this Substance Safety Data Sheet for acrylonitrile.  In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using acrylonitrile, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to acrylonitrile.  You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained.  Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure.  If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations.  These records must be kept by the employer for at least forty years or for the period of your employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07337, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-62-07337, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-09-030, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96)

WAC 296-62-07342
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.

(1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

(b) This section does not apply to:

(i) Exposure to DBCP which results solely from the application and use of DBCP as a pesticide; or

(ii) The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of DBCP in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to prevent exposure to DBCP vapors or liquids, except for the requirements of subsections (11), (16) and (17) of this section.

(2) Definitions applicable to this section:

(a) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer and whose duties require the person to be present in areas where DBCP is present; and any person entering this area as a designated representative of employees exercising an opportunity to observe employee exposure monitoring.

(b) "DBCP" - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 96-12-8, and includes all forms of DBCP.

(c) "Director" - the director of labor and industries, or his authorized representative.

(d) "Emergency" - any occurrence such as, but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may, or does, result in unexpected release of DBCP.

(3) Permissible exposure limits.

(a) Inhalation.

(i) Time-weighted average limit (TWA).  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of 1 part DBCP per billion part of air (ppb) as an eight-hour time-weighted average.

(ii) Ceiling limit.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration in excess of 5 parts DBCP per billion parts of air (ppb) as averaged over any 15 minutes during the working day.

(b) Dermal and eye exposure.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to eye or skin contact with DBCP.

(4) Notification of use.  Within ten days of the effective date of this section or within ten days following the introduction of DBCP into the workplace, every employer who has a workplace where DBCP is present shall report the following information to the director for each such workplace:

(a) The address and location of each workplace in which DBCP is present;

(b) A brief description of each process or operation which may result in employee exposure to DBCP;

(c) The number of employees engaged in each process or operation who may be exposed to DBCP and an estimate of the frequency and degree of exposure that occurs;

(d) A brief description of the employer's safety and health program as it relates to limitation of employee exposure to DBCP.

(5) Regulated areas.  The employer shall establish, within each place of employment, regulated areas wherever DBCP concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

(a) The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.

(b) All employees entering or working in a regulated area shall wear respiratory protection in accordance with Table I.

(6) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.  Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to DBCP over an eight-hour period.  (For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.)

(b) Initial.  Each employer who has a place of employment in which DBCP is present shall monitor each workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentrations of DBCP to which employees may be exposed.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposures to be below the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations at least quarterly.

(ii) If the monitoring required by this section reveals employee exposure to be in excess of the permissible exposure limits, the employer shall repeat these determinations for each such employee at least monthly.  The employer shall continue these monthly determinations until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the permissible exposure limit, thereafter the employer shall monitor at least quarterly.

(d) Additional.  Whenever there has been a production process, control or personnel change which may result in any new or additional exposure to DBCP, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to DBCP, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (6) shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of results which represent the employee's exposure.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits.

(f) Accuracy of measurement.  The method of measurement shall be accurate, to a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of DBCP at or above the permissible exposure limits.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Priority of compliance methods.  The employer shall institute engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures to DBCP at or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer establishes that such controls are not feasible.  Where feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to within the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest level achievable by these controls, and shall supplement them by use of respiratory protection.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to DBCP to or below the permissible exposure limit solely by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by this section.

(ii) The written program shall include a detailed schedule for development and implementation of the engineering and work practice controls.  These plans shall be revised at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(iii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, and any affected employee or designated representative of employees.

(iv) The employer shall institute and maintain at least the controls described in his most recent written compliance program.

(8) ((Respirators)) Respiratory protection.

(a) General.  ((Where respiratory protection is required under this section, the employer shall select, provide and assure the proper use of respirators.

(b) Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances)) For employees who are required to use respirators under this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) ((During the)) Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls; ((or))

(ii) ((During)) Maintenance and repair activities ((in)) for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible; ((or))

(iii) ((In work situations where)) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit; ((or))

(iv) ((In)) Emergencies.

(((9) Respirator selection.

(a) Where respirators are required under this section, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator from Table I of this section and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(b) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.)) (b) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1) and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table I of this subsection.


TABLE I

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR DBCP

Concentration

Not Greater Than

Respirator Type

(a)

10 ppb:

(i)

Any supplied-air respirator.
(ii)Any self-contained breathing apparatus.
(b)50 ppb:(i)Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, helmet or hood.
(ii)Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.
(c)250 ppb:(i)A Type C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous flow mode.
(d)500 ppb:(i)A Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand mode with full facepiece.
(e)Greater than 500

ppb or entry

into unknown

concentrations:

(i)A combination respirator which includes a Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus.
(ii)A self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand mode.
(f)Firefighting:(i)A self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand mode.

(((c) Respirator program.

(i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(ii) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.)) (9) Reserved.

(10) Emergency situations.

(a) Written plans.

(i) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace in which DBCP is present.

(ii) Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(b) Employees engaged in correcting conditions shall be equipped as required in subsection (11) of this section until the emergency is abated.

(c) Evacuation.  Employees not engaged in correcting the emergency shall be removed and restricted from the area and normal operations in the affected area shall not be resumed until the emergency is abated.

(d) Alerting employees.  Where there is a possibility of employee exposure to DBCP due to the occurrence of an emergency, a general alarm shall be installed and maintained to promptly alert employees of such occurrences.

(e) Medical surveillance.  For any employee exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide medical surveillance in accordance with subsection (14) of this section.

(f) Exposure monitoring.

(i) Following an emergency, the employer shall conduct monitoring which complies with subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) In workplaces not normally subject to periodic monitoring, the employer may terminate monitoring when two consecutive measurements indicate exposures below the permissible exposure limit.

(11) Protective clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use.  Where eye or skin contact with liquid or solid DBCP may occur, employers shall provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that employees wear impermeable protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-24-07501 and 296-24-07801 to protect the area of the body which may come in contact with DBCP.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall clean, launder, maintain, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain their effectiveness.  In addition, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least daily to each affected employee.

(ii) Removal and storage.

(A) The employer shall assure that employees remove DBCP contaminated work clothing only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (13) of this section.

(B) The employer shall assure that employees promptly remove any protective clothing and equipment which becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids and solids.  This clothing shall not be reworn until the DBCP has been removed from the clothing or equipment.

(C) The employer shall assure that no employee takes DBCP contaminated protective devices and work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(iii) The employer shall assure that DBCP-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment is placed and stored in closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(iv) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans DBCP-contaminated protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to DBCP.

(v) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment which are to be removed from the workplace for any reason are labeled in accordance with subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(vi) The employer shall prohibit the removal of DBCP from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(12) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces.

(i) All surfaces shall be maintained free of accumulations of DBCP.

(ii) Dry sweeping and the use of air for the cleaning of floors and other surfaces where DBCP dust or liquids are found is prohibited.

(iii) Where vacuuming methods are selected, either portable units or a permanent system may be used.

(A) If a portable unit is selected, the exhaust shall be attached to the general workplace exhaust ventilation system or collected within the vacuum unit, equipped with high efficiency filters or other appropriate means of contaminant removal, so that DBCP is not reintroduced into the workplace air; and

(B) Portable vacuum units used to collect DBCP may not be used for other cleaning purposes and shall be labeled as prescribed by subsection (16)(c) of this section.

(iv) Cleaning of floors and other contaminated surfaces may not be performed by washing down with a hose, unless a fine spray has first been laid down.

(b) Liquids.  Where DBCP is present in a liquid form, or as a resultant vapor, all containers or vessels containing DBCP shall be enclosed to the maximum extent feasible and tightly covered when not in use.

(c) Waste disposal.  DBCP waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers or equipment, shall be disposed in sealed bags or other closed containers which prevent dispersion of DBCP outside the container.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.  

(a) Change rooms.  The employer shall provide clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment whenever employees are required to wear protective clothing and equipment in accordance with subsections (8), (9) and (11) of this section.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees whose skin becomes contaminated with DBCP-containing liquids or solids immediately wash or shower to remove any DBCP from the skin.

(iii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009 (3)(c).

(c) Lunchrooms.  The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(d) Lavatories.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area remove protective clothing and wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(ii) The employer shall provide a sufficient number of lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-24-12009 (1) and (2).

(e) Prohibition of activities in regulated areas.  The employer shall assure that, in regulated areas, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products and implements are not present or used, and cosmetics are not present or applied.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.  The employer shall institute a program of medical surveillance for each employee who is or will be exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, to DBCP.  The employer shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for medical examinations and tests in accordance with this subsection.  All medical examinations and procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(b) Frequency and content.  At the time of initial assignment, annually thereafter, and whenever exposure to DBCP occurs, the employer shall provide a medical examination for employees who work in regulated areas, which includes at least the following:

(i) A complete medical and occupational history with emphasis on reproductive history.

(ii) A complete physical examination with emphasis on the genito-urinary tract, testicle size, and body habitus including the following tests:

(A) Sperm count;

(B) Complete urinalysis (U/A);

(C) Complete blood count; and

(D) Thyroid profile.

(iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and the following determinations made by radioimmunoassay techniques utilizing National Institutes of Health (NIH) specific antigen or one of equivalent sensitivity:

(A) Serum multiphasic analysis (SMA 12);

(B) Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH);

(C) Serum luteinizing hormone (LH); and

(D) Serum estrogen (females).

(iv) Any other tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician.

(c) Additional examinations.  If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to DBCP, the employer shall provide the employee with a medical examination which shall include those elements considered appropriate by the examining physician.

(d) Information provided to the physician.  The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The level of DBCP to which the employee is exposed; and

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used.

(e) Physician's written opinion.

(i) For each examination under this section, the employer shall obtain and provide the employee with a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at an increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to DBCP;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to DBCP or upon the use of protective clothing and equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee was informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination, and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to DBCP.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(f) Emergency situations.  If the employee is exposed to DBCP in an emergency situation, the employer shall provide the employee with a sperm count test as soon as practicable, or, if the employee is unable to produce a semen specimen, the hormone tests contained in subsection (14)(b) of this section.  The employer shall provide these same tests three months later.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) Within thirty days of the effective date of this standard, the employer shall institute a training program for all employees who may be exposed to DBCP and shall assure their participation in such training program.

(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendices A, B and C;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of DBCP and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to DBCP as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, ((and)) limitations ((of respirators)), and other training requirements covering respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) The purpose and description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (14) of this section; and

(E) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs to clearly indicate all work areas where DBCP may be present.  These signs shall bear the legend:

DANGER

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane




(Insert appropriate trade or common names)

CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY


(ii) Where airborne concentrations of DBCP exceed the permissible exposure limits, the signs shall bear the additional legend:

RESPIRATOR REQUIRED


(c) Labels.

(i) The employer shall assure that precautionary labels are affixed to all containers of DBCP and of products containing DBCP, and that the labels remain affixed when the DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed, or otherwise leave the employer's workplace.  Where DBCP or products containing DBCP are sold, distributed or otherwise leave the employer's workplace bearing appropriate labels required by EPA under the regulations in 40 CFR Part 162, the labels required by this subsection need not be affixed.

(ii) The employer shall assure that the precautionary labels required by this subsection are readily visible and legible.  The labels shall bear the following legend:

DANGER

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

CANCER HAZARD



(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (6) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The dates, number, duration and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used;

(C) Type of respiratory worn, if any; and

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinion;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to DBCP;

(D) A copy of the information provided the physician as required by subsection (14)(c) of this section; and

(E) A copy of the employee's medical and work history.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least forty years or the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall assure that all records required to be maintained by this section be made available upon request to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Employee exposure monitoring records and employee medical records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees' designated representatives and the assistant director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209; and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) If the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period.

(ii) If the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained under this section, the employer shall transmit these records by mail to the director.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation.  The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP conducted under subsection (6) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to DBCP requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing or equipment required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring or measurement, observers shall be entitled to:

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the measurement of airborne concentrations of DBCP performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained.

(19) ((Effective date.  This standard will become effective July 28, 1978.

(20))) Appendices.  The information contained in the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  96-09-030, § 296-62-07342, filed 4/10/96, effective 6/1/96; 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-62-07342, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07343
Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for DBCP.

(1) Substance identification.

(a) Synonyms and trades names: DBCP; Dibromochloropropane; Fumazone (Dow Chemical Company TM); Nemafume; Nemagon (Shell Chemical Co. TM); Nemaset; BBC 12; and OS 1879.

(b) Permissible exposure:

(i) Airborne.  1 part DBCP vapor per billion parts of air (1 ppb); time-weighted average (TWA) for an eight-hour workday.

(ii) Dermal.  Eye contact and skin contact with DBCP are prohibited.

(c) Appearance and odor: Technical grade DBCP is a dense yellow or amber liquid with a pungent odor.  It may also appear in granular form, or blended in varying concentrations with other liquids.

(d) Uses: DBCP is used to control nematodes, very small worm-like plant parasites, on crops including cotton, soybeans, fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamentals.

(2) Health hazard data.

(a) Routes of entry: Employees may be exposed:

(i) Through inhalation (breathing);

(ii) Through ingestion (swallowing);

(iii) Skin contact; and

(iv) Eye contact.

(b) Effects of exposure:

(i) Acute exposure.  DBCP may cause drowsiness, irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skin, nausea and vomiting.  In addition, overexposure may cause damage to the lungs, liver or kidneys.

(ii) Chronic exposure.  Prolonged or repeated exposure to DBCP has been shown to cause sterility in humans.  It also has been shown to produce cancer and sterility in laboratory animals and has been determined to constitute an increased risk of cancer in people.

(iii) Reporting signs and symptoms.  If you develop any of the above signs or symptoms that you think are caused by exposure to DBCP, you should inform your employer.

(3) Emergency first-aid procedures.

(a) Eye exposure.  If DBCP liquid or dust containing DBCP gets into your eyes, wash your eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  Get medical attention immediately.  Contact lenses should not be worn when working with DBCP.

(b) Skin exposure.  If DBCP liquids or dusts containing DBCP get on your skin, immediately wash using soap or mild detergent and water.  If DBCP liquids or dusts containing DBCP penetrate through your clothing, remove the clothing immediately and wash.  If irritation is present after washing get medical attention.

(c) Breathing.  If you or any person breathe in large amounts of DBCP, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Do not use mouth-to-mouth.  Keep the affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as possible.

(d) Swallowing.  When DBCP has been swallowed and the person is conscious, give the person large amounts of water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention immediately.

(e) Rescue.  Notify someone.  Put into effect the established emergency rescue procedures.  Know the locations of the emergency rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and protective clothing.

(a) Respirators.  You may be required to wear a respirator in emergencies and while your employer is in the process of reducing DBCP exposures through engineering controls.  If respirators are worn, they must have a label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ((approval label (older respirators may have a Bureau of Mines Approval label))) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with organic vapors.  For effective protection, a respirator must fit your face and head snugly.  The respirator should not be loosened or removed in work situations where its use is required.  ((DBCP does not have a detectable odor except at 1,000 times or more above the permissible exposure limit.  If you can smell DBCP while wearing a respirator, the respirator is not working correctly; go immediately to fresh air.  If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.)) Respirators must not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

(b) Protective clothing.  When working with DBCP you must wear for your protection impermeable work clothing provided by your employer.  (Standard rubber and neoprene protective clothing do not offer adequate protection).  DBCP must never be allowed to remain on the skin.  Clothing and shoes must not be allowed to become contaminated with DBCP, and if they do, they must be promptly removed and not worn again until completely free of DBCP.  Turn in impermeable clothing that has developed leaks for repair or replacement.

(c) Eye protection.  You must wear splashproof safety goggles where there is any possibility of DBCP liquid or dust contacting your eyes.

(5) Precautions for safe use, handling, and storage.

(a) DBCP must be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area.

(b) If your work clothing may have become contaminated with DBCP, or liquids or dusts containing DBCP, you must change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.

(c) You must promptly remove any protective clothing that becomes contaminated with DBCP.  This clothing must not be reworn until the DBCP is removed from the clothing.

(d) If your skin becomes contaminated with DBCP, you must immediately and thoroughly wash or shower with soap or mild detergent and water to remove any DBCP from your skin.

(e) You must not keep food, beverages, cosmetics, or smoking materials, nor eat or smoke, in regulated areas.

(f) If you work in a regulated area, you must wash your hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water, before eating, smoking or using toilet facilities.

(g) If you work in a regulated area, you must remove any protective equipment or clothing before leaving the regulated area.

(h) Ask your supervisor where DBCP is used in your work area and for any additional safety and health rules.

(6) Access to information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this substance safety data sheet for DBCP.  In addition, your employer must instruct you in the safe use of DBCP, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to DBCP.  You or your representative have the right to observe employee exposure measurements and to record the result obtained.  Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure.  If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, they are required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposure and medical examinations.  Your employer is required to keep exposure and medical data for at least forty years or the duration of your employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(d) Your employer is required to release exposure and medical records to you, your physician, or other individual designated by you upon your written request.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07343, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-62-07343, filed 5/11/88.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-02-030, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98)

WAC 296-62-07347
Inorganic arsenic.

(1) Scope and application.  This section applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.

(2) Definitions.

(a) "Action level" - a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 ΅g/m3) averaged over any eight-hour period.

(b) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (5) of this section.

(c) "Director" - the director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her designated representative.

(d) "Inorganic arsenic" - copper aceto-arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(3) Permissible exposure limit.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 ΅g/m3), averaged over any eight-hour period.

(4) Notification of use.

(a) ((By October 1, 1978, or)) Within sixty days after the introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer who is required to establish a regulated area in his/her workplaces shall report in writing to the department of labor and industries for each such workplace:

(i) The address of each such workplace;

(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulated areas; and

(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and the actions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.

(b) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by subsection (4)(a) of this section, the employer shall report the changes in writing within sixty days to the department of labor and industries.

(5) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight-hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.

(b) Initial monitoring.  Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic arsenic to which employees may be exposed.

(c) Frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subsection (5)(d) of this section.

(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.

(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below the permissible exposure limit the employee shall repeat monitoring at least every six months.

(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in subsection (5)(d) of this section occur.

(d) Additional monitoring.  Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (5) of this section shall be conducted.

(e) Employee notification.

(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposures.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.

(f) Accuracy of measurement.

(i) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 ΅g/m3.

(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5 ΅g/m3 but less than 10 ΅g/m3.

(6) Regulated area.

(a) Establishment.  The employer shall establish regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.

(b) Demarcation.  Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.

(c) Access.  Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto to enter such areas.

(d) Provision of respirators.  All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (8)(((b))) (c) of this section.

(e) Prohibited activities.  The employer shall assure that in regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsection (12) of this section.  Drinking water may be consumed in the regulated area.

(7) Methods of compliance.

(a) Controls.

(i) The employer shall institute ((at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979,)) engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in accordance with subsection (8) of this section and other necessary personal protective equipment.  Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy before respiratory protection is instituted.

(b) Compliance program.

(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:

(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary to meet the permissible exposure limit;

(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit with engineering controls and work practices ((by December 31, 1979)), the employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.

(iv) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General.  ((The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee exposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies.  Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances)) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) ((During the time)) Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work-practice controls;

(ii) ((In)) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, in which the employer establishes that engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(iii) ((In work situations in)) Work operations for which engineering ((controls and supplemental)) work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; ((or))

(iv) ((In)) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator ((selection)) program.

(i) ((Where respirators are required under this section the employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, or Table II for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vapor pressure)) The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1) and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(ii) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, they must be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether they can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(c) Respirator selection.

(i) The employer must use Table I of this section to select the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, and Table II of this section to select the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators for inorganic arsenic compounds that have significant vapor pressure.

(ii) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for ((particular gasses such as)) other gases (for example, sulfur dioxide), any air-purifying respirator ((supplied)) provided to the employee as ((permitted)) specified by this ((standard)) section must have a combination high-efficiency filter with an appropriate gas sorbent.  (See footnote in Table I)

(iii) Employees required to use respirators may choose, and the employer must provide, a powered air-purifying respirator if it will provide proper protection. In addition, the employer must provide a combination dust and acid-gas respirator to employees who are exposed to gases over the relevant exposure limits.

TABLE I

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC

PARTICULATE EXCEPT FOR THOSE WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR

PRESSURE


Concentration of Inorganic

Arsenic (as As) or Condition

of Use

Required Respirator


(i) Unknown or greater or lesser

than 20,000 ΅g/m3 (20 mg/m3)

firefighting.

(A)Any full facepiece self-contained or breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
(ii) Not greater than 20,000

΅g/m3 (20 mg/m3)

(A)Supplied air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.
(iii) Not greater than 10,000

΅g/m3 (10 mg/m3)

(A)Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high-efficiency filters.1
(B)Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode.
(iv) Not greater than 500 ΅g/m3(A)Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1
(B)Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C)Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.
(v) Not greater than 100 ΅g/m3(A)Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1
(B)Any half-mask supplied air respirator.


1High-efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

TABLE II


RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENICALS

(SUCH AS ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE2 AND ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE)

WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE


Concentration of Inorganic

Arsenic (as As) or Condition

of Use

Required Respirator


(i) Unknown or greater or lesser

than 20,000 ΅g/m3(20 mg/m3)

or firefighting.

(A)Any full facepiece

contained breathing

apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.

(ii) Not greater than 20,000

΅g/m3(20 mg/m3)

(A)Supplied air respirator with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.
(iii) Not greater than 10,000

΅g/m3(10 mg/m3)

(A)Half-mask2 supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.
(iv) Not greater than 500 ΅g/m3(A)Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas canister.
(B)Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C)Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.
(v) Not greater than 100 ΅g/m3(A)Half-mask2 air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas cartridge.
(B)Any half-mask supplied air respirator.


1High efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.
2Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.

(((iii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against dust, fume, and mist by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(c) Respirator usage.

(i) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.

(iii) Employers with more than twenty employees wearing respirators shall perform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators.  The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I or II.

(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(d) Respirator program.

(i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(e) Commencement of respirator use.

(i) The employer's obligation to provide respirators commences on August 1, 1978, for employees exposed over 500 ΅g/m3 of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later than October 1, 1978, for employees exposed to over 50 ΅g/m3 of inorganic arsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978, for employees exposed between 10 and 50 ΅g/m3 of inorganic arsenic.

(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 ΅g/m3 of inorganic arsenic may choose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.

(iii) After December 1, 1978, any employee required to wear air purifying respirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if it will give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and in addition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for times where exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.))

(9) Reserved.

(10) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Provision and use.  Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;

(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye irritation, which comply with the requirements of WAC 296-24-07801 (1) - (6).

(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic trichloride.

(b) Cleaning and replacement.

(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in subsection (10)(a) of this section in a freshly laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works in areas where exposures are over 100 ΅g/m3 of inorganic arsenic or in areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.

(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by subsection (10)(a) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful affects including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed from the workplace are labeled as follows:


Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by blowing or shaking.  Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.


(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.

(11) Housekeeping.

(a) Surfaces.  All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.

(b) Cleaning floors.  Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(c) Vacuuming.  Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic into the workplace.

(d) Housekeeping plan.  A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection equipment.  The plan shall be available for inspection by the director.

(e) Maintenance of equipment.  Periodic cleaning of dust collection and ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.

(12) Reserved.

(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.

(a) Change rooms.  The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-24-12011.

(b) Showers.

(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009(3).

(c) Lunchrooms.

(i) The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(d) Lavatories.  The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-24-12009 (1) and (2).

(e) Vacuuming clothes.  The employer shall provide facilities for employees working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds 100 ΅g/m3 to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower rooms required by subsection (10) of this section and shall assure that such employees use such facilities.

(f) Avoidance of skin irritation.  The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(14) Medical surveillance.

(a) General.

(i) Employees covered.  The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the following employees:

(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, at least thirty days per year; and

(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without regard to respirator use, for thirty days or more per year for a total of ten years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard.  The determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls utilized and materials used by that employer.

(ii) Examination by physician.  The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(b) Initial examinations.  ((By December 1, 1978,)) For employees initially covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed over the action level at least thirty days per year, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:

(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.

(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:

(A) A 14" by 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(B) A nasal and skin examination; and

(C) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.

(c) Periodic examinations.

(i) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (14)(b)(i) and (14)(b)(ii)(A), (B) and (C) of this section at least annually for covered employees who are under forty-five years of age with fewer than ten years of exposure over the action level without regard to respirator use.

(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (14)(b)(i) and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section at least semi-annually for other covered employees.

(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified in subsection (14)(b)(i) and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section within six months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(d) Additional examinations.  If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.

(e) Information provided to the physician.  The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(f) Physician's written opinion.

(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.

(15) Employee information and training.

(a) Training program.

(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic.  The employer shall assure that those employees participate in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided ((by October 1, 1978)) for employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least quarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at least annually for other covered employees thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;

(D) The purpose and a description of medical surveillance program as required by subsection (14) of this section;

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment; and

(F) A review of this standard.

(b) Access to training materials.

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(16) Signs and labels.

(a) General.

(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign or label.

(b) Signs.

(i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas bearing the legend:


DANGER
INORGANIC ARSENIC
CANCER HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
NO SMOKING OR EATING
RESPIRATOR REQUIRED

(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(c) Labels.  The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shipping and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing inorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure to inorganic arsenic.  (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass.) The label shall bear the following legend:


DANGER
CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC
CANCER HAZARD
HARMFUL IF INHALED OR

SWALLOWED


USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE

VENTILATION

OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION


(17) Recordkeeping.

(a) Exposure monitoring.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(C) The ((type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any)) purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements covering respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;

(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the employee's exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(b) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of duties of the employee;

(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;

(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and

(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:

(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (14) of this section;

(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;

(C) The initial x-ray;

(D) The x-rays for the most recent five years;

(E) Any x-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent x-rays; and

(F) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if such atypia persists for three years, and all subsequent slides and written descriptions.

(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment, plus twenty years, whichever is longer.

(c) Availability.

(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the director for examination and copying.

(ii) Records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209 and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.

(iii) The employer shall make available upon request an employee's medical records and exposure records representative of that employee's exposure required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician designated by the affected employee or former employee.

(d) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.

(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.

(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if he requests them within that period.

(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(18) Observation of monitoring.

(a) Employee observation.  The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Observation procedures.

(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;

(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;

(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenic performed at the place of exposure; and

(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.

(19) ((Effective date.  This standard shall become effective thirty days after filing with the code reviser.

(20))) Appendices.  The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

(((21) Startup dates.

(a) General.  The startup dates of requirements of this standard shall be the effective date of this standard unless another startup date is provided for, either in other subsections of this section or in this subsection.

(b) Monitoring.  Initial monitoring shall be commenced by August 1, 1978, and shall be completed by September 15, 1978.

(c) Regulated areas.  Regulated areas required to be established as a result of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after the results of that monitoring is known and no later than October 1, 1978.

(d) Compliance program.  The written program required by subsection (7)(b) as a result of initial monitoring shall be made available for inspection and copying as soon as possible and no later than December 1, 1978.

(e) Hygiene and lunchroom facilities.  Construction plans for change-rooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed no later than December 1, 1978, and these facilities shall be constructed and in use no later than July 1, 1979.  However, if as part of the compliance plan it is predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls and work practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit by December 31, 1979, for affected employees, then such facilities need not be completed until one year after the engineering controls are completed or December 31, 1980, whichever is earlier, if such controls have not in fact succeeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.

(f) Summary of startup dates set forth elsewhere in this standard.

STARTUP DATES


August 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 500 ΅g/m3.


AS SOON AS POSSIBLE BUT NO LATER THAN


September 15, 1978 - Completion of initial monitoring.

October 1, 1978 - Complete establishment of regulated areas.  Respirator use for employees exposed above 50 ΅g/m3.  Completion of initial training.  Notification of use.

December 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 10 ΅g/m3.  Completion of initial medical.  Completion of compliance plan.  Optional use of powered air-purifying respirators.

July 1, 1979 - Completion of lunch rooms and hygiene facilities.

December 31, 1979 - Completion of engineering controls.

All other requirements of the standard have as their startup date August 1, 1978.))

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.  98-02-030, § 296-62-07347, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98.  Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94.  Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240.  81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-62-07347, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/27/81; 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/31/79; 79-02-037 (Order 79-1), § 296-62-07347, filed 1/23/79.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-16, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07367
Respiratory protection and personal protective equipment.

(1) General.  ((The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389.  Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances.)) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389. Respirators must be used during:

(a) ((During the interval)) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(b) ((In)) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, vessel cleaning, or other activities, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(c) ((In work situations where)) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the TWA or excursion limit; ((and))

(d) ((In)) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator ((selection.

(a) Where respirators are required under WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1, and shall ensure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(b) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection against EtO by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11)) program. The employer must establish, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1) and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(3) Respirator ((program.  Where respiratory protection is required by WAC 296-62-07355 through 296-62-07389, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071)) selection. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table 1 of this section.


Table 1.--Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne EtO


Condition of use or

concentration of

airborne EtO (ppm)


Minimum required respirator


Equal to or less

than 50


(a)

Full facepiece respirator with EtO approved canister, front-or back-mounted.
Equal to or less than 2,000(a)Positive-pressure supplied air respirator, equipped with full facepiece, hood or helmet, or
(b)Continuous-flow supplied air respirator (positive pressure) equipped with hood, helmet or suit.
Concentration above 2,000 or unknown concentration (such as in emergencies)(a)Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), equipped with full facepiece, or
(b)Positive-pressure full facepiece supplied air respirator equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Firefighting(a)Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with full facepiece.
Escape(a)Any respirator described above.
Note:Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations.


(4) Protective clothing and equipment.  Where employees could have eye or skin contact with ((liquid)) EtO or EtO solutions ((may occur)), the employer ((shall)) must select and provide, at no cost to the employee, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-2, and to protect any area of the body that may come in contact with liquid EtO or EtO in solution, and ((shall)) must ensure that the employee wears the protective clothing and equipment provided.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-62-07367, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-62-07367, filed 11/14/88; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-62-07367, filed 11/30/87.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 87-24, filed 11/30/87)

WAC 296-62-07369
Emergency situations.

(1) Written plan.

(a) A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.  Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.

(b) The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped with respiratory protection as required by WAC 296-62-07367 until the emergency is abated.

(c) The plan shall include the elements prescribed in WAC 296-24-567, "Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans."

(2) Alerting employees.  Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to EtO due to an emergency, means shall be developed to alert potentially affected employees of such occurrences promptly.  Affected employees shall be immediately evacuated from the area in the event that an emergency occurs.

((Table 1.--Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne EtO


Condition of use or

concentration of

airborne EtO (ppm)


Minimum required respirator


Equal to or less

than 50.


(a)

Full facepiece respirator with EtO approved canister, front-or back-mounted.
Equal to or less

than 2,000.

(a)Positive-pressure supplied air respirator, equipped with full facepiece, hood, or helmet, or
(b)Continuous-flow supplied air respirator (positive pressure) equipped with hood, helmet or suit.
Concentration above

2,000 or unknown

concentration (such

as in emergencies).

(a)Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), equipped with full facepiece, or
(b)Positive-pressure full facepiece supplied air respirator equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
Firefighting . . . . . . . . (a)Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with full facepiece.
Escape . . . . . . . . . . . . (a)Any respirator described above.
Note:Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations.

))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-62-07369, filed 11/30/87.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 88-11, filed 7/6/88)

WAC 296-62-07383
Appendix A--Substance safety data sheet for ethylene oxide (nonmandatory).

(1) Substance identification

(a) Substance: Ethylene oxide (C2H4O).

(b) Synonyms: Dihydrooxirene, dimethylene oxide, EO, 1,2-epoxyethane, EtO, ETO, oxacyclopropane, oxane, oxidoethane, alpha/beta-oxidoethane, oxiran, oxirane.

(c) Ethylene oxide can be found as a liquid or vapor.

(d) EtO is used in the manufacture of ethylene glycol, surfactants, ethanolamines, glycol ethers, and other organic chemicals.  EtO is also used as a sterilant and fumigant.

(e) Appearance and odor: Colorless liquid below 10.7°C (51.3°F) or colorless gas with ether-like odor detected at approximately 700 parts EtO per million parts of air (700 ppm).

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part EtO per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour work day.

(2) Health hazard data

(a) Ethylene oxide can cause bodily harm if you inhale the vapor, if it comes into contact with your eyes or skin, or if you swallow it.

(b) Effects of overexposure:

(i) Ethylene oxide in liquid form can cause eye irritation and injury to the cornea, frostbite, and severe irritation and blistering of the skin upon prolonged or confined contact.  Ingestion of EtO can cause gastric irritation and liver injury.  Acute effects from inhalation of EtO vapors include respiratory irritation and lung injury, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath, and cyanosis (blue or purple coloring of skin).  Exposure has also been associated with the occurrence of cancer, reproductive effects, mutagenic changes, neurotoxicity, and sensitization.

(ii) EtO has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals and has been associated with higher incidences of cancer in humans.  Adverse reproductive effects and chromosome damage may also occur from EtO exposure.

(c) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your employer if you develop any signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to EtO.

(3) Emergency first aid procedures

(a) Eye exposure: If EtO gets into your eyes, wash your eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the lower and upper eyelids.  Get medical attention immediately.  Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

(b) Skin exposure: If EtO gets on your skin, immediately wash the contaminated skin with water.  If EtO soaks through your clothing, especially your shoes, remove the clothing immediately and wash the skin with water using an emergency deluge shower.  Get medical attention immediately.  Thoroughly wash contaminated clothing before reusing.  Contaminated leather shoes or other leather articles should not be reused and should be discarded.

(c) Inhalation: If large amounts of EtO are inhaled, the exposed person must be moved to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  Keep the affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention immediately.

(d) Swallowing: When EtO has been swallowed, give the person large quantities of water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by having him or her touch the back of the throat with his or her finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention immediately.

(e) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure.  If the exposed person has been overcome, attempt rescue only after notifying at least one other person of the emergency and putting into effect established emergency procedures.  Do not become a casualty yourself.  Understand your emergency rescue procedures and know the location of the emergency equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and protective clothing

(a) Respirators:

(i) You may be required to wear a respirator for nonroutine activities, in emergencies, while your employer is in the process of reducing EtO exposure through engineering controls, and in areas where engineering controls are not feasible.  ((As of the effective date of the standard,)) Only air supplied positive-pressure, full-facepiece respirators are approved for protection against EtO.  If air-purifying respirators are worn in the future, they must have a ((joint Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and)) label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ((label of approval)) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with ethylene oxide.  For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly.  Respirators ((should)) must not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

(ii) EtO does not have a detectable odor except at levels well above the permissible exposure limits.  If you can smell EtO while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air.  If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.

(b) Protective clothing:

(i) You may be required to wear impermeable clothing, gloves, a face shield, or other appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin contact with liquid EtO or EtO-containing solutions.  Where protective clothing is required, your employer must provide clean garments to you as necessary to assure that the clothing protects you adequately.

(ii) Replace or repair protective clothing that has become torn or otherwise damaged.

(iii) EtO must never be allowed to remain on the skin.  Clothing and shoes which are not impermeable to EtO should not be allowed to become contaminated with EtO, and if they do, the clothing should be promptly removed and decontaminated.  Contaminated leather shoes should be discarded.  Once EtO penetrates shoes or other leather articles, they should not be worn again.

(c) Eye protection: You must wear splashproof safety goggles in areas where liquid EtO or EtO-containing solutions may contact your eyes.  In addition, contact lenses should not be worn in areas where eye contact with EtO can occur.

(5) Precautions for safe use, handling, and storage

(a) EtO is a flammable liquid, and its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures in air.

(b) EtO must be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area, away from heat, sparks, flames, strong oxidizers, alkalines, and acids, strong bases, acetylide forming metals such as copper, silver, mercury and their alloys.

(c) Sources of ignition such as smoking material, open flames and some electrical devices are prohibited wherever EtO is handled, used, or stored in a manner that could create a potential fire or explosion hazard.

(d) You should use nonsparking tools when opening or closing metal containers of EtO, and containers must be bonded and grounded in the rare instances in which liquid EtO is poured or transferred.

(e) Impermeable clothing wet with liquid EtO or EtO-containing solutions may be easily ignited.  If you are wearing impermeable clothing and are splashed with liquid EtO or EtO-containing solution, you should immediately remove the clothing while under an emergency deluge shower.

(f) If your skin comes into contact with liquid EtO or EtO-containing solutions, you should immediately remove the EtO using an emergency deluge shower.

(g) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in regulated areas where employee exposures are above the permissible exposure limits.

(h) Fire extinguishers and emergency deluge showers for quick drenching should be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(i) Ask your supervisor where EtO is used in your work area and for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Access to information

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this standard and appendices for EtO.  In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using EtO emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to EtO.  You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained.  Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure.  If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations.  These exposure records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty years.  Medical records must be kept for the period of your employment plus thirty years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to your physician or designated representative upon your written request.

(7) Sterilant use of EtO in hospitals and health care facilities.

(a) This section of Appendix A, for informational purposes, sets forth EPA's recommendations for modifications in workplace design and practice in hospitals and health care facilities for which the Environmental Protection Agency has registered EtO for uses as a sterilant or fumigant under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 7 U.S.C. 136 et seq. These new recommendations, published in the Federal Register by EPA at 49 FR 15268, as modified in today's Register, are intended to help reduce the exposure of hospital and health care workers to EtO to 1 ppm.  EPA's recommended workplace design and workplace practice are as follows:

(i) Workplace design

(A) Installation of gas line hand valves.  Hand valves must be installed on the gas supply line at the connection to the supply cylinders to minimize leakage during cylinder change.

(B) Installation of capture boxes.  Sterilizer operations result in a gas/water discharge at the completion of the process.  This discharge is routinely piped to a floor drain which is generally located in an equipment or an adjacent room.  When the floor drain is not in the same room as the sterilizer and workers are not normally present, all that is necessary is that the room be well ventilated.

(C) The installation of a "capture box" will be required for those work place layouts where the floor drain is located in the same room as the sterilizer or in a room where workers are normally present.  A "capture box" is a piece of equipment that totally encloses the floor drain where the discharge from the sterilizer is pumped.  The "capture box" is to be vented directly to a nonrecirculating or dedicated ventilation system.  Sufficient air intake should be allowed at the bottom of the box to handle the volume of air that is ventilated from the top of the box.  The "capture box" can be made of metal, plastic, wood or other equivalent material.  The box is intended to reduce levels of EtO discharged into the work room atmosphere.  The use of a "capture box" is not required if: (I) The vacuum pump discharge floor drain is located in a well ventilated equipment or other room where workers are not normally present or (II) the water sealed vacuum pump discharges directly to a closed sealed sewer line (check local plumbing codes).

(D) If it is impractical to install a vented "capture box" and a well ventilated equipment or other room is not feasible, a box that can be sealed over the floor drain may be used if: (I) The floor drain is located in a room where workers are not normally present and EtO cannot leak into an occupied area, and (II) the sterilizer in use is less than 12 cubic feet in capacity (check local plumbing codes).

(ii) Ventilation of aeration units.

(A) Existing aeration units.  Existing units must be vented to a nonrecirculating or dedicated system or vented to an equipment or other room where workers are not normally present and which is well ventilated.  Aerator units must be positioned as close as possible to the sterilizer to minimize the exposure from the off-gassing of sterilized items.

(B) Installation of new aerator units (where none exist).  New aerator units must be vented as described above for existing aerators.  Aerators must be in place by July 1, 1986.

(iii) Ventilation during cylinder change.  Workers may be exposed to short but relatively high levels of EtO during the change of gas cylinders.  To reduce exposure from this route, users must select one of three alternatives designed to draw off gas that may be released when the line from the sterilizer to the cylinder is disconnected:

(A) Location of cylinders in a well ventilated equipment room or other room where workers are not normally present.

(B) Installation of a flexible hose (at least four inches in diameter) to a nonrecirculating or dedicated ventilation system and located in the area of cylinder change in such a way that the hose can be positioned at the point where the sterilizer gas line is disconnected from the cylinder.

(C) Installation of a hood that is part of a nonrecirculating or dedicated system and positioned no more than one foot above the point where the change of cylinders takes place.

(iv) Ventilation of sterilizer door area.  One of the major sources of exposure to EtO occurs when the sterilizer door is opened following the completion of the sterilization process.  In order to reduce this avenue of exposure, a hood or metal canopy closed on each end must be installed over the sterilizer door.  The hood or metal canopy must be connected to a nonrecirculating or dedicated ventilation system or one that exhausts gases to a well ventilated equipment or other room where workers are not normally present.  A hood or canopy over the sterilizer door is required for use even with those sterilizers that have a purge cycle and must be in place by July 1, 1986.

(v) Ventilation of sterilizer relief valve.  Sterilizers are typically equipped with a safety relief device to release gas in case of increased pressure in the sterilizer.  Generally, such relief devices are used on pressure vessels.  Although these pressure relief devices are rarely opened for hospital and health care sterilizers, it is suggested that they be designed to exhaust vapor from the sterilizer by one of the following methods:

(A) Through a pipe connected to the outlet of the relief valve ventilated directly outdoors at a point high enough to be away from passers by, and not near any windows that open, or near any air conditioning or ventilation air intakes.

(B) Through a connection to an existing or new nonrecirculating or dedicated ventilation system.

(C) Through a connection to a well ventilated equipment or other room where workers are not normally present.

(vi) Ventilation systems.  Each hospital and health care facility affected by this notice that uses EtO for the sterilization of equipment and supplies must have a ventilation system which enables compliance with the requirements of (a)(i)(B) through (v) of this subsection in the manner described in these sections and within the timeframes allowed.  Thus, each affected hospital and health care facility must have or install a nonrecirculating or dedicated ventilation equipment or other room where workers are not normally present in which to vent EtO.

(vii) Installation of alarm systems.  An audible and visual indicator alarm system must be installed to alert personnel of ventilation system failures, i.e., when the ventilation fan motor is not working.

(b) Workplace practices

(i) All the workplace practices discussed in this unit must be permanently posted near the door of each sterilizer prior to use by any operator.

(ii) Changing of supply line filters.

Filters in the sterilizer liquid line must be changed when necessary, by the following procedure:

(A) Close the cylinder valve and the hose valve.

(B) Disconnect the cylinder hose (piping) from the cylinder.

(C) Open the hose valve and bleed slowly into a proper ventilating system at or near the in-use supply cylinders.

(D) Vacate the area until the line is empty.

(E) Change the filter.

(F) Reconnect the lines and reverse the valve position.

(G) Check hoses, filters, and valves for leaks with a fluorocarbon leak detector (for those sterilizers using the eighty-eight percent chlorofluorocarbon, twelve percent ethylene oxide mixture (12/88)).

(iii) Restricted access area.

(A) Areas involving use of EtO must be designated as restricted access areas.  They must be identified with signs or floor marks near the sterilizer door, aerator, vacuum pump floor drain discharge, and in-use cylinder storage.

(B) All personnel must be excluded from the restricted area when certain operations are in progress, such as discharging a vacuum pump, emptying a sterilizer liquid line, or venting a nonpurge sterilizer with the door ajar or other operations where EtO might be released directly into the face of workers.

(iv) Door opening procedures.

(A) Sterilizers with purge cycles.  A load treated in a sterilizer equipped with a purge cycle should be removed immediately upon completion of the cycle (provided no time is lost opening the door after cycle is completed).  If this is not done, the purge cycle should be repeated before opening door.

(B) Sterilizers without purge cycles.  For a load treated in a sterilizer not equipped with a purge cycle, the sterilizer door must be ajar six inches for fifteen minutes, and then fully opened for at least another fifteen minutes before removing the treated load.  The length of time of the second period should be established by peak monitoring for one hour after the two fifteen-minute periods suggested.  If the level is above 10 ppm time-weighted average for eight hours, more time should be added to the second waiting period (door wide open).  However, in no case may the second period be shortened to less than fifteen minutes.

(v) Chamber unloading procedures.

(A) Procedures for unloading the chamber must include the use of baskets or rolling carts, or baskets and rolling tables to transfer treated loads quickly, thus avoiding excessive contact with treated articles, and reducing the duration of exposures.

(B) If rolling carts are used, they should be pulled not pushed by the sterilizer operators to avoid offgassing exposure.

(vi) Maintenance.  A written log should be instituted and maintained documenting the date of each leak detection and any maintenance procedures undertaken.  This is a suggested use practice and is not required.

(vii) Leak detection.  Sterilizer door gaskets, cylinder and vacuum piping, hoses, filters, and valves must be checked for leaks under full pressure with a Fluorocarbon leak detector (for 12/88 systems only) every two weeks by maintenance personnel.  Also, the cylinder piping connections must be checked after changing cylinders.  Particular attention in leak detection should be given to the automatic solenoid valves that control the flow of EtO to the sterilizer.  Specifically, a check should be made at the EtO gasline entrance port to the sterilizer, while the sterilizer door is open and the solenoid valves are in a closed position.

(viii) Maintenance procedures.  Sterilizer/aerator door gaskets, valves, and fittings must be replaced when necessary as determined by maintenance personnel in their biweekly checks; in addition, visual inspection of the door gaskets for cracks, debris, and other foreign substances should be conducted daily by the operator.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-62-07383, filed 7/6/88; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-62-07383, filed 11/30/87.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 93-06, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)

WAC 296-62-07413
Respirator protection.

(1) General.  ((Where respirators are required by this section, the employer shall provide them at no cost to the employee and shall assure that they are used in compliance with the requirements of this section.  Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances)) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(a) ((Where exposure levels exceed the PEL, during the time period)) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls when employee exposure levels exceed the PEL;

(b) ((In those)) Maintenance and repair activities, and ((during those)) brief or intermittent operations, where employee exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible or are not required;

(c) Activities in regulated areas((,)) as ((prescribed)) specified in WAC 296-62-07409;

(d) ((Where)) Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work-practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL;

(e) ((In emergencies;

(f) Wherever)) Work operations for which an employee who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, and the employee requests a respirator;

(((g) Wherever)) (f) Work operations for which an employee is exposed above the PEL ((in an industry to which a SECAL is applicable;)) and engineering controls are not required by WAC 296-62-07411 (1)(b); and

(((h) Wherever an employee is exposed to cadmium above the PEL and engineering controls are not required under WAC 296-62-07411 (1)(c).)) (g) Emergencies.

(2) Respirator ((selection.

(a) Where respirators are required under this section, the employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 2.  The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as acceptable protection against cadmium dust, fume, and mist by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11.)) program.

(a) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1) and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(b) No employees must use a respirator if, based on their recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that they will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines that the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of their inability to use a respirator, the limitation or removal must be in accordance with WAC 296-62-07423 (11) and (12).

(c) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by WAC 296-62-07423 (6)(b) to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(3) Respirator selection.

(a) The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table 2 of this section.


Table 2.—Respiratory Protection for Cadmium

Airborne concentration or condition of usea Required respirator typeb
10 x or lessA half mask, air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPAc filterd.
25 x or lessA powered air-purifying respirator ("PAPR") with a loose-fitting hood or helmet equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied-air respirator with a loose-fitting hood or helmet facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode.
50 x or lessA full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPA filter, or a powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting half mask equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied air respirator with a tight-fitting half mask operated in the continuous flow mode.
250 x or lessA powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied-air respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode.
1000 x or lessA supplied-air respirator with half mask or full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
>1000 x or unknown concentrationsA self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode, or a supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode and equipped with an auxiliary escape type self-contained breathing apparatus operated in the pressure demand mode.
Fire fightingA self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

aConcentratrations expressed as multiple of the PEL.
bRespirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower exposure levels.  Quantitative fit testing is required for all tight-fitting air purifying respirators where airborne concentration of cadmium exceeds 10 times the TWA PEL (10x5 ΅g/m3=50 ΅g/m3).  A full facepiece respirator is required when eye irritation is experienced.
cHEPA means High Efficiency Particulate Air.
dFit testing, qualitative or quantitative, is required.

SOURCE:Respiratory Decision Logic, NIOSH, 1987

(b) The employer ((shall)) must provide an employee with a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) ((in lieu)) instead of a negative-pressure respirator ((wherever:

(i) An)) when an employee who is entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator((;)) and

(((ii) This)) such a respirator ((will)) provides adequate protection to the employee.

(((3) Respirator program.

(a) Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator protection program in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(b) The employer shall permit each employee who is required to use an air purifying respirator to leave the regulated area to change the filter elements or replace the respirator whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(c) The employer shall also permit each employee who is required to wear a respirator to leave the regulated area to wash his or her face and the respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(d) If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator during a fit test or during use, the employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination in accordance with WAC 296-62-07423 (6)(b) to determine if the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duties.

(e) No employee shall be assigned a task requiring the use of a respirator if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while wearing a respirator.  If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from his or her current job because of the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the limitation or removal shall be in accordance with WAC 296-62-07423 (11) and (12).

(4) Respirator fit testing.

(a) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee is fitted properly and exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage.

(b) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that do not exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x 5 ΅g/m3=50 ΅g/m3), the employer shall perform either quantitative or qualitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter.  If quantitative fit testing is used for a negative pressure respirator, a fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2 in subsection (2)(a) of this section) shall be achieved at testing.

(c) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x 5 ΅g/m3=50 ΅g/m3), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter.  For negative-pressure respirators, a fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2 in subsection (2)(a) of this section) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing.

(d) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus, the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter.  This shall be accomplished by fit testing an air purifying respirator of identical type facepiece, make, model, and size as the supplied air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus that is equipped with HEPA filters and tested as a surrogate (substitute) in the negative pressure mode.  A fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2 in subsection (2)(a) of this section) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing.  A supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus with the same type facepiece, make, model, and size as the air purifying respirator with which the employee passed the quantitative fit test may then be used by that employee up to the protection factor listed in Table 2 for that class of respirators.

(e) Fit testing shall be conducted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07445, Appendix C.))

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  93-21-075 (Order 93-06), § 296-62-07413, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-62-07413, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 93-06, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93)

WAC 296-62-07425
Communication of cadmium hazards to employees.

(1) General.  In communications concerning cadmium hazards, employers shall comply with the requirements of WISHA's Hazard Communication Standard, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part C, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training.  In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:

(2) Warning signs.

(a) Warning signs shall be provided and displayed in regulated areas.  In addition, warning signs shall be posted at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.

(b) Warning signs required by (a) of this subsection shall bear the following information:

DANGER CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD CAN CAUSE LUNG

AND KIDNEY DISEASE AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA



(c) The employer shall assure that signs required by this subsection are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(3) Warning labels.

(a) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris shall bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in (b) of this subsection.

(b) The warning labels shall include at least the following information:

DANGER CONTAINS CADMIUM CANCER HAZARD AVOID

CREATING DUST CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE



(c) Where feasible, installed cadmium products shall have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.

(4) Employee information and training.

(a) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, assure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(b) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.

(c) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the employee and shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(i) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A;

(ii) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;

(iii) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(iv) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;

(v) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of ((respirators and)) protective clothing;

(vi) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by WAC 296-62-07423;

(vii) The contents of this section and its appendices; ((and))

(viii) The employee's rights of access to records under WAC 296-62-05213; and

(ix) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

(d) Additional access to information and training program and materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  93-21-075 (Order 93-06), § 296-62-07425, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-62-07425, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)

WAC 296-62-07441
Appendix A, substance safety data sheet--Cadmium.

(1) Substance identification.

(a) Substance: Cadmium.

(b) 8-Hour, time-weighted-average, permissible exposure limit (TWA PEL):

(c) TWA PEL: Five micrograms of cadmium per cubic meter of air 5 ΅g/m3, time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8-hour workday.

(d) Appearance: Cadmium metal--soft, blue-white, malleable, lustrous metal or grayish-white powder.  Some cadmium compounds may also appear as a brown, yellow, or red powdery substance.

(2) Health hazard data.

(a) Routes of exposure.  Cadmium can cause local skin or eye irritation.  Cadmium can affect your health if you inhale it or if you swallow it.

(b) Effects of overexposure.

(i) Short-term (acute) exposure: Cadmium is much more dangerous by inhalation than by ingestion.  High exposures to cadmium that may be immediately dangerous to life or health occur in jobs where workers handle large quantities of cadmium dust or fume; heat cadmium-containing compounds or cadmium-coated surfaces; weld with cadmium solders or cut cadmium-containing materials such as bolts.

(ii) Severe exposure may occur before symptoms appear.  Early symptoms may include mild irritation of the upper respiratory tract, a sensation of constriction of the throat, a metallic taste and/or a cough.  A period of one to ten hours may precede the onset of rapidly progressing shortness of breath, chest pain, and flu-like symptoms with weakness, fever, headache, chills, sweating, and muscular pain.  Acute pulmonary edema usually develops within twenty-four hours and reaches a maximum by three days.  If death from asphyxia does not occur, symptoms may resolve within a week.

(iii) Long-term (chronic) exposure.  Repeated or long-term exposure to cadmium, even at relatively low concentrations, may result in kidney damage and an increased risk of cancer of the lung and of the prostate.

(c) Emergency first aid procedures.

(i) Eye exposure: Direct contact may cause redness or pain.  Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the upper and lower eyelids.  Get medical attention immediately.

(ii) Skin exposure: Direct contact may result in irritation.  Remove contaminated clothing and shoes immediately.  Wash affected area with soap or mild detergent and large amounts of water.  Get medical attention immediately.

(iii) Ingestion: Ingestion may result in vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and sore throat.  Treatment for symptoms must be administered by medical personnel.  Under no circumstances should the employer allow any person whom he/she retains, employs, supervises, or controls to engage in therapeutic chelation.  Such treatment is likely to translocate cadmium from pulmonary or other tissue to renal tissue.  Get medical attention immediately.

(iv) Inhalation: If large amounts of cadmium are inhaled, the exposed person must be moved to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  Administer oxygen if available.  Keep the affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention immediately.

(v) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure.  If the exposed person has been overcome, attempt rescue only after notifying at least one other person of the emergency and putting into effect established emergency procedures.  Do not become a casualty yourself.  Understand your emergency rescue procedures and know the location of the emergency equipment before the need arises.

(3) Employee information.

(a) Protective clothing and equipment.

(i) Respirators: You may be required to wear a respirator for nonroutine activities; in emergencies; while your employer is in the process of reducing cadmium exposures through engineering controls; and where engineering controls are not feasible.  If air-purifying respirators are worn ((in the future)), they must have a ((joint Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and)) label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ((label of approval)) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been certified for use with cadmium.  Cadmium does not have a detectable odor except at levels well above the permissible exposure limits.  If you can smell cadmium while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air.  If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.

(ii) Protective clothing: You may be required to wear impermeable clothing, gloves, foot gear, a face shield, or other appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin contact with cadmium.  Where protective clothing is required, your employer must provide clean garments to you as necessary to assure that the clothing protects you adequately.  The employer must replace or repair protective clothing that has become torn or otherwise damaged.

(iii) Eye protection: You may be required to wear splash-proof or dust resistant goggles to prevent eye contact with cadmium.

(b) Employer requirements.

(i) Medical: If you are exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, your employer is required to provide a medical examination, laboratory tests and a medical history according to the medical surveillance provisions under WAC 296-62-07423.  (See summary chart and tables in this section, appendix A.) These tests shall be provided without cost to you.  In addition, if you are accidentally exposed to cadmium under conditions known or suspected to constitute toxic exposure to cadmium, your employer is required to make special tests available to you.

(ii) Access to records: All medical records are kept strictly confidential.  You or your representative are entitled to see the records of measurements of your exposure to cadmium.  Your medical examination records can be furnished to your personal physician or designated representative upon request by you to your employer.

(iii) Observation of monitoring: Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to cadmium and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure.  You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained.  When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.

(c) Employee requirements.   You will not be able to smoke, eat, drink, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics while working with cadmium in regulated areas.  You will also not be able to carry or store tobacco products, gum, food, drinks, or cosmetics in regulated areas because these products easily become contaminated with cadmium from the workplace and can therefore create another source of unnecessary cadmium exposure.  Some workers will have to change out of work clothes and shower at the end of the day, as part of their workday, in order to wash cadmium from skin and hair.  Handwashing and cadmium-free eating facilities shall be provided by the employer and proper hygiene should always be performed before eating.  It is also recommended that you do not smoke or use tobacco products, because among other things, they naturally contain cadmium.  For further information, read the labeling on such products.

(4) Physician information.

(a) Introduction.  The medical surveillance provisions of WAC 296-62-07423 generally are aimed at accomplishing three main interrelated purposes: First, identifying employees at higher risk of adverse health effects from excess, chronic exposure to cadmium; second, preventing cadmium-induced disease; and third, detecting and minimizing existing cadmium-induced disease.  The core of medical surveillance in this standard is the early and periodic monitoring of the employee's biological indicators of:

(i) Recent exposure to cadmium;

(ii) Cadmium body burden; and

(iii) Potential and actual kidney damage associated with exposure to cadmium.  The main adverse health effects associated with cadmium overexposure are lung cancer and kidney dysfunction.  It is not yet known how to adequately biologically monitor human beings to specifically prevent cadmium-induced lung cancer.  By contrast, the kidney can be monitored to provide prevention and early detection of cadmium-induced kidney damage.  Since, for noncarcinogenic effects, the kidney is considered the primary target organ of chronic exposure to cadmium, the medical surveillance provisions of this standard effectively focus on cadmium-induced kidney disease.  Within that focus, the aim, where possible, is to prevent the onset of such disease and, where necessary, to minimize such disease as may already exist.  The by-products of successful prevention of kidney disease are anticipated to be the reduction and prevention of other cadmium-induced diseases.

(b) Health effects.  The major health effects associated with cadmium overexposure are described below.

(i) Kidney: The most prevalent nonmalignant disease observed among workers chronically exposed to cadmium is kidney dysfunction.  Initially, such dysfunction is manifested as proteinuria.  The proteinuria associated with cadmium exposure is most commonly characterized by excretion of low-molecular weight proteins (15,000 to 40,000 MW) accompanied by loss of electrolytes, uric acid, calcium, amino acids, and phosphate.  The compounds commonly excreted include: beta-2-microglobulin (&bgr;2-M), retinol binding protein (RBP), immunoglobulin light chains, and lysozyme.  Excretion of low molecular weight proteins are characteristic of damage to the proximal tubules of the kidney (Iwao et al., 1980).   It has also been observed that exposure to cadmium may lead to urinary excretion of high-molecular weight proteins such as albumin, immunoglobulin G, and glycoproteins (Ex. 29).  Excretion of high-molecular weight proteins is typically indicative of damage to the glomeruli of the kidney.  Bernard et al., (1979) suggest that damage to the glomeruli and damage to the proximal tubules of the kidney may both be linked to cadmium exposure but they may occur independently of each other.   Several studies indicate that the onset of low-molecular weight proteinuria is a sign of irreversible kidney damage (Friberg et al., 1974; Roels et al., 1982; Piscator 1984; Elinder et al., 1985; Smith et al., 1986).  Above specific levels of &bgr;2-M associated with cadmium exposure it is unlikely that &bgr;2-M levels return to normal even when cadmium exposure is eliminated by removal of the individual from the cadmium work environment (Friberg, Ex. 29, 1990).   Some studies indicate that such proteinuria may be progressive; levels of &bgr;2-M observed in the urine increase with time even after cadmium exposure has ceased.  See, for example, Elinder et al., 1985.  Such observations, however, are not universal, and it has been suggested that studies in which proteinuria has not been observed to progress may not have tracked patients for a sufficiently long time interval (Jarup, Ex. 8-661).   When cadmium exposure continues after the onset of proteinuria, chronic nephrotoxicity may occur (Friberg, Ex.  29).  Uremia results from the inability of the glomerulus to adequately filter blood.  This leads to severe disturbance of electrolyte concentrations and may lead to various clinical complications including kidney stones (L-140-50).   After prolonged exposure to cadmium, glomerular proteinuria, glucosuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, and hypercalciuria may develop (Exs. 8-86, 4-28, 14-18).  Phosphate, calcium, glucose, and amino acids are essential to life, and under normal conditions, their excretion should be regulated by the kidney.  Once low molecular weight proteinuria has developed, these elements dissipate from the human body.  Loss of glomerular function may also occur, manifested by decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased serum creatinine.  Severe cadmium-induced renal damage may eventually develop into chronic renal failure and uremia (Ex. 55).   Studies in which animals are chronically exposed to cadmium confirm the renal effects observed in humans (Friberg et al., 1986).  Animal studies also confirm problems with calcium metabolism and related skeletal effects which have been observed among humans exposed to cadmium in addition to the renal effects.  Other effects commonly reported in chronic animal studies include anemia, changes in liver morphology, immunosuppression and hypertension.  Some of these effects may be associated with co-factors.  Hypertension, for example, appears to be associated with diet as well as cadmium exposure.  Animals injected with cadmium have also shown testicular necrosis (Ex. 8-86B).

(ii) Biological markers.  It is universally recognized that the best measures of cadmium exposures and its effects are measurements of cadmium in biological fluids, especially urine and blood.  Of the two, CdU is conventionally used to determine body burden of cadmium in workers without kidney disease.  CdB is conventionally used to monitor for recent exposure to cadmium.  In addition, levels of CdU and CdB historically have been used to predict the percent of the population likely to develop kidney disease (Thun et al., Ex. L-140-50; WHO, Ex. 8-674; ACGIH, Exs.  8-667, 140-50).   The third biological parameter upon which WISHA relies for medical surveillance is beta-2-microglobulin in urine (&bgr;2-M), a low molecular weight protein.  Excess &bgr;2-M has been widely accepted by physicians and scientists as a reliable indicator of functional damage to the proximal tubule of the kidney (Exs.  8-447, 144-3-C, 4-47, L-140-45, 19-43-A).  Excess &bgr;2-M is found when the proximal tubules can no longer reabsorb this protein in a normal manner.  This failure of the proximal tubules is an early stage of a kind of kidney disease that commonly occurs among workers with excessive cadmium exposure.  Used in conjunction with biological test results indicating abnormal levels of CdU and CdB, the finding of excess &bgr;2-M can establish for an examining physician that any existing kidney disease is probably cadmium-related (Trs. 6/6/90, pp. 82-86, 122, 134).  The upper limits of normal levels for cadmium in urine and cadmium in blood are 3 ΅g Cd/gram creatinine in urine and 5 ΅gCd/liter whole blood, respectively.  These levels were derived from broad-based population studies.  Three issues confront the physicians in the use of &bgr;2-M as a marker of kidney dysfunction and material impairment.  First, there are a few other causes of elevated levels of &bgr;2-M not related to cadmium exposures, some of which may be rather common diseases and some of which are serious diseases (e.g., myeloma or transient flu, Exs. 29 and 8-086).  These can be medically evaluated as alternative causes (Friberg, Ex. 29).  Also, there are other factors that can cause &bgr;2-M to degrade so that low levels would result in workers with tubular dysfunction.  For example, regarding the degradation of &bgr;2-M, workers with acidic urine (pH<6) might have &bgr;2-M levels that are within the "normal" range when in fact kidney dysfunction has occurred (Ex. L-140-1) and the low molecular weight proteins are degraded in acid urine.  Thus, it is very important that the pH of urine be measured, that urine samples be buffered as necessary (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F.), and that urine samples be handled correctly, i.e., measure the pH of freshly voided urine samples, then if necessary, buffer to Ph>6 (or above for shipping purposes), measure Ph again and then, perhaps, freeze the sample for storage and shipping.  (See also WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F.) Second, there is debate over the pathological significance of proteinuria, however, most world experts believe that &bgr;2-M levels greater than 300 ΅g/g Cr are abnormal (Elinder, Ex. 55, Friberg, Ex. 29).  Such levels signify kidney dysfunction that constitutes material impairment of health.  Finally, detection of &bgr;2-M at low levels has often been considered difficult, however, many laboratories have the capability of detecting excess &bgr;2-M using simple kits, such as the Phadebas Delphia test, that are accurate to levels of 100 ΅g &bgr;2-M/g Cr U (Ex. L-140-1).   Specific recommendations for ways to measure &bgr;2-M and proper handling of urine samples to prevent degradation of &bgr;2-M have been addressed by WISHA in WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F, in the section on laboratory standardization.  All biological samples must be analyzed in a laboratory that is proficient in the analysis of that particular analyte, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1)(d).  (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F).  Specifically, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1)(d), the employer is to assure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (&bgr;2-M) taken from employees is collected in a manner that assures reliability.  The employer must also assure that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (&bgr;2-M) taken from employees is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency for that particular analyte.  (See WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F).

(iii) Lung and prostate cancer.  The primary sites for cadmium-associated cancer appear to be the lung and the prostate (L-140-50).  Evidence for an association between cancer and cadmium exposure derives from both epidemiological studies and animal experiments.  Mortality from prostate cancer associated with cadmium is slightly elevated in several industrial cohorts, but the number of cases is small and there is not clear dose-response relationship.  More substantive evidence exists for lung cancer.  The major epidemiological study of lung cancer was conducted by Thun et al., (Ex. 4-68).  Adequate data on cadmium exposures were available to allow evaluation of dose-response relationships between cadmium exposure and lung cancer.  A statistically significant excess of lung cancer attributed to cadmium exposure was observed in this study even when confounding variables such as co-exposure to arsenic and smoking habits were taken into consideration (Ex. L-140-50).   The primary evidence for quantifying a link between lung cancer and cadmium exposure from animal studies derives from two rat bioassay studies; one by Takenaka et al., (1983), which is a study of cadmium chloride and a second study by Oldiges and Glaser (1990) of four cadmium compounds.  Based on the above cited studies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified cadmium as "B1", a probable human carcinogen, in 1985 (Ex. 4-4).  The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1987 also recommended that cadmium be listed as "2A", a probable human carcinogen (Ex. 4-15).  The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recently recommended that cadmium be labeled as a carcinogen.  Since 1984, NIOSH has concluded that cadmium is possibly a human carcinogen and has recommended that exposures be controlled to the lowest level feasible.

(iv) Noncarcinogenic effects.  Acute pneumonitis occurs 10 to 24 hours after initial acute inhalation of high levels of cadmium fumes with symptoms such as fever and chest pain (Exs. 30, 8-86B).  In extreme exposure cases pulmonary edema may develop and cause death several days after exposure.  Little actual exposure measurement data is available on the level of airborne cadmium exposure that causes such immediate adverse lung effects, nonetheless, it is reasonable to believe a cadmium concentration of approximately 1 mg/m3 over an eight hour period is "immediately dangerous" (55 FR 4052, ANSI; Ex. 8-86B).   In addition to acute lung effects and chronic renal effects, long term exposure to cadmium may cause other severe effects on the respiratory system.  Reduced pulmonary function and chronic lung disease indicative of emphysema have been observed in workers who have had prolonged exposure to cadmium dust or fumes (Exs. 4-29, 4-22, 4-42, 4-50, 4-63).  In a study of workers conducted by Kazantzis et al., a statistically significant excess of worker deaths due to chronic bronchitis was found, which in his opinion was directly related to high cadmium exposures of 1 mg/m3 or more (Tr. 6/8/90, pp. 156-157).   Cadmium need not be respirable to constitute a hazard.  Inspirable cadmium particles that are too large to be respirable but small enough to enter the tracheobronchial region of the lung can lead to bronchoconstriction, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer of that portion of the lung.  All of these diseases have been associated with occupational exposure to cadmium (Ex. 8-86B).  Particles that are constrained by their size to the extra-thoracic regions of the respiratory system such as the nose and maxillary sinuses can be swallowed through mucocillary clearance and be absorbed into the body (ACGIH, Ex. 8-692).  The impaction of these particles in the upper airways can lead to anosmia, or loss of sense of smell, which is an early indication of overexposure among workers exposed to heavy metals.  This condition is commonly reported among cadmium-exposed workers (Ex. 8-86-B).

(c) Medical surveillance.   In general, the main provisions of the medical surveillance section of the standard, under WAC 296-62-07423 (1) through (16), are as follows:

(i) Workers exposed above the action level are covered;

(ii) Workers with intermittent exposures are not covered;

(iii) Past workers who are covered receive biological monitoring for at least one year;

(iv) Initial examinations include a medical questionnaire and biological monitoring of cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU), and Beta-2-microglobulin in urine (&bgr;2-M);

(v) Biological monitoring of these three analytes is performed at least annually; full medical examinations are performed biennially;

(vi) Until five years from the effective date of the standard, medical removal is required when CdU is greater than 15 ΅g/gram creatinine (g Cr), or CdB is greater than 15 ΅g/liter whole blood (lwb), or &bgr;2-M is greater than 1500 ΅g/g Cr, and CdB is greater than 5 ΅g/lwb or CdU is greater than 3 ΅g/g Cr;

(vii) Beginning five years after the standard is in effect, medical removal triggers will be reduced;

(viii) Medical removal protection benefits are to be provided for up to eighteen months;

(ix) Limited initial medical examinations are required for respirator usage;

(x) Major provisions are fully described under WAC 296-62-07423; they are outlined here as follows:

(A) Eligibility.

(B) Biological monitoring.

(C) Actions triggered by levels of CdU, CdB, and &bgr;2-M (See Summary Charts and Tables in WAC 296-62-07441(5).)

(D) Periodic medical surveillance.

(E) Actions triggered by periodic medical surveillance (See appendix A Summary Chart and Tables in WAC 296-62-07441(5).)

(F) Respirator usage.

(G) Emergency medical examinations.

(H) Termination examination.

(I) Information to physician.

(J) Physician's medical opinion.

(K) Medical removal protection.

(L) Medical removal protection benefits.

(M) Multiple physician review.

(N) Alternate physician review.

(O) Information employer gives to employee.

(P) Recordkeeping.

(Q) Reporting on OSHA form 200.

(xi) The above mentioned summary of the medical surveillance provisions, the summary chart, and tables for the actions triggered at different levels of CdU, CdB and &bgr;2-M (in subsection (5) of this section, Attachment 1) are included only for the purpose of facilitating understanding of the provisions of WAC 296-62-07423(3) of the final cadmium standard.  The summary of the provisions, the summary chart, and the tables do not add to or reduce the requirements in WAC 296-62-07423(3).

(d) Recommendations to physicians.

(i) It is strongly recommended that patients with tubular proteinuria are counseled on: The hazards of smoking; avoidance of nephrotoxins and certain prescriptions and over-the-counter medications that may exacerbate kidney symptoms; how to control diabetes and/or blood pressure; proper hydration, diet, and exercise (Ex. 19-2).  A list of prominent or common nephrotoxins is attached. (See subsection (6) of this section, Attachment 2.)

(ii) DO NOT CHELATE; KNOW WHICH DRUGS ARE NEPHROTOXINS OR ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NEPHRITIS.

(iii) The gravity of cadmium-induced renal damage is compounded by the fact there is no medical treatment to prevent or reduce the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney (Ex. 8-619).  Dr. Friberg, a leading world expert on cadmium toxicity, indicated in 1992, that there is no form of chelating agent that could be used without substantial risk.  He stated that tubular proteinuria has to be treated in the same way as other kidney disorders (Ex. 29).

(iv) After the results of a workers' biological monitoring or medical examination are received the employer is required to provide an information sheet to the patient, briefly explaining the significance of the results.  (See subsection (7) of this section.)

(v) For additional information the physician is referred to the following additional resources:

(A) The physician can always obtain a copy of the OSHA final rule preamble, with its full discussion of the health effects, from OSHA's Computerized Information System (OCIS).

(B) The OSHA Docket Officer maintains a record of the OSHA rulemaking.  The Cadmium Docket (H-057A), is located at 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room N-2625, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 219-7894.

(C) The following articles and exhibits in particular from that docket (H- 057A):


Exhibit numberAuthor and paper title
8-447Lauwerys et. al., Guide for physicians, "Health Maintenance of Workers Exposed to Cadmium," published by the Cadmium Council.
4-67Takenaka, S., H. Oldiges, H. Konig, D. Hochrainer, G. Oberdorster. "Carcinogenicity of Cadmium Chloride Aerosols in Wistar Rats". JNCI 70:367-373, 1983. (32)
4-68Thun, M.J., T.M. Schnoor, A.B. Smith, W.E. Halperin, R.A. Lemen. "Mortality Among a Cohort of U.S. Cadmium Production Workers--An Update." JNCI 74(2):325-33, 1985. (8)
4-25Elinder, C.G., Kjellstrom, T., Hogstedt, C., et al., "Cancer Mortality of Cadmium Workers." Brit. J. Ind. Med. 42:651-655, 1985. (14)
4-26Ellis, K.J. et al., "Critical Concentrations of Cadmium in Human Renal Cortex: Dose Effect Studies to Cadmium Smelter Workers." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7:691-703, 1981. (76)
4-27Ellis, K.J., S.H. Cohn and T.J. Smith. "Cadmium Inhalation Exposure Estimates: Their Significance with Respect to Kidney and Liver Cadmium Burden." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 15:173-187, 1985.
4-28Falck, F.Y., Jr., Fine, L.J., Smith, R.G., McClatchey, K.D., Annesley, T., England, B., and Schork, A.M. "Occupational Cadmium Exposure and Renal Status." Am. J. Ind. Med. 4:541, 1983. (64)
8-86AFriberg, L., C.G. Elinder, et al., "Cadmium and Health a Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal, Volume I, Exposure, Dose, and Metabolism." CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1986. (Available from the OSHA Technical Data Center)
8-86BFriberg, L., C.G. Elinder, et al., "Cadmium and Health: A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal, Volume II, Effects and Response." CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1986. (Available from the OSHA Technical Data Center)
L-140-45 Elinder, C.G., "Cancer Mortality of Cadmium Workers", Brit. J. Ind. Med., 42, 651-655, 1985.
L-140-50 Thun, M., Elinder, C.G., Friberg, L, "Scientific Basis for an Occupational Standard for Cadmium, Am. J. Ind. Med., 20; 629-642, 1991.

(5) Information sheet.  The information sheet (subsection (8) of this section, Attachment 3) or an equally explanatory one should be provided to you after any biological monitoring results are reviewed by the physician, or where applicable, after any medical examination.

(6) Attachment 1--Appendix A, summary chart and Tables A and B of actions triggered by biological monitoring.

(a) Summary chart: WAC 296-62-07423(3) Medical surveillance--Categorizing biological monitoring results.

(i) Biological monitoring results categories are set forth in Table A for the periods ending December 31, 1998, and for the period beginning January 1, 1999.

(ii) The results of the biological monitoring for the initial medical exam and the subsequent exams shall determine an employee's biological monitoring result category.

(b) Actions triggered by biological monitoring.

(i) The actions triggered by biological monitoring for an employee are set forth in Table B.

(ii) The biological monitoring results for each employee under WAC 296-62-07423(3) shall determine the actions required for that employee.  That is, for any employee in biological monitoring category C, the employer will perform all of the actions for which there is an X in column C of Table B.

(iii) An employee is assigned the alphabetical category ("A" being the lowest) depending upon the test results of the three biological markers.

(iv) An employee is assigned category A if monitoring results for all three biological markers fall at or below the levels indicated in the table listed for category A.

(v) An employee is assigned category B if any monitoring result for any of the three biological markers fall within the range of levels indicated in the table listed for category B, providing no result exceeds the levels listed for category B.

(vi) An employee is assigned category C if any monitoring result for any of the three biological markers are above the levels listed for category C.

(c) The user of Tables A and B should know that these tables are provided only to facilitate understanding of the relevant provisions of WAC 296-62-07423.  Tables A and B are not meant to add to or subtract from the requirements of those provisions.


Table A

Categorization of Biological Monitoring Results


Applicable Through 1998 Only

Monitoring result categories
Biological markerABC
Cadmium in urine (CdU)

(΅g/g creatinine)

≤=3>3 and ≤=15>15
&bgr;2-microglobulin (&bgr;2-M)

(΅g/g creatinine)

≤=300>300 and ≤=1500>1500*
Cadmium in blood (CdB)

(΅g/liter whole blood)

≤=5>5 and ≤=15>15

*If an employee's &bgr;2-M levels are above 1,500 ΅g/g creatinine, in order for mandatory medical removal to be required (See WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A Table B.), either the employee's CdU level must also be >3 ΅g/g creatinine or CdB level must also be >5 ΅g/liter whole blood.

Applicable Beginning January 1, 1999

Monitoring result categories
Biological markerABC
Cadmium in urine (CdU)

(΅g/g creatinine)

≤=3>3 and ≤=7>7
&bgr;2-microglobulin (&bgr;2-M)

(΅g/g creatinine)

≤=300>300 and ≤=750>750*
Cadmium in blood (CdB)

(΅g/liter whole blood)

≤=5>5 and ≤=10>10

*If an employee's &bgr;2-M levels are above 750 ΅g/g creatinine, in order for mandatory medical removal to be required (See WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A Table B.), either the employee's CdU level must also be >3 ΅g/g creatinine or CdB level must also be >5 ΅g/liter whole blood.

Table B--Actions determined by biological monitoring.


This table presents the actions required based on the monitoring result in Table A.  Each item is a separate requirement in citing noncompliance.  For example, a medical examination within ninety days for an employee in category B is separate from the requirement to administer a periodic medical examination for category B employees on an annual basis.

Table B

Monitoring result category

A1B1C1
Required actions
(1) Biological monitoring:
(a) Annual.X
(b) SemiannualX
(c) QuarterlyX
(2) Medical examination:
(a) BiennialX
(b) Annual.X
(c) Semiannual.X
(d) Within 90 daysXX
(3) Assess within two weeks:
(a) Excess cadmium exposureXX
(b) Work practicesXX
(c) Personal hygieneXX
(d) Respirator usageXX
(e) Smoking historyXX
(f) Hygiene facilitiesXX
(g) Engineering controlsXX
(h) Correct within 30 daysXX
(i) Periodically assess exposuresX
(4) Discretionary medical

removal

XX
(5) Mandatory medical removalX2

1 For all employees covered by medical surveillance exclusively because of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard, if they are in Category A, the employer shall follow the requirements of WAC 296-62-07423 (3)(a)(ii) and (4)(e)(i). If they are in Category B or C, the employer shall follow the requirements of WAC 296-62-07423 (4)(e)(ii) and (iii).
2 See footnote in Table A.

(7) Attachment 2, list of medications.

(a) A list of the more common medications that a physician, and the employee, may wish to review is likely to include some of the following:

(i) Anticonvulsants: Paramethadione, phenytoin, trimethadone;

(ii) Antihypertensive drugs: Captopril, methyldopa;

(iii) Antimicrobials: Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cephalosporins, ethambutol;

(iv) Antineoplastic agents: Cisplatin, methotrexate, mitomycin-C, nitrosoureas, radiation;

(v) Sulfonamide diuretics: Acetazolamide, chlorthalidone, furosemide, thiazides;

(vi) Halogenated alkanes, hydrocarbons, and solvents that may occur in some settings: Carbon tetrachloride, ethylene glycol, toluene; iodinated radiographic contrast media; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and

(vii) Other miscellaneous compounds: Acetaminophen, allopurinol, amphetamines, azathioprine, cimetidine, cyclosporine, lithium, methoxyflurane, methysergide, D-penicillamine, phenacetin, phenendione.

(b) A list of drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis includes:

(i) Antimicrobial drugs: Cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, colistin, erythromycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, para-amin-osalicylic acid, penicillins, polymyxin B, rifampin, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and vancomycin;

(ii) Other miscellaneous drugs: Allopurinol, antipyrine, azathioprine, captopril, cimetidine, clofibrate, methyldopa, phenindione, phenylpropanolamine, phenytoin, probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, sulfonamide diuretics, triamterene; and

(iii) Metals: Bismuth, gold.  This list has been derived from commonly available medical textbooks (e.g., Ex. 14-18).  The list has been included merely to facilitate the physician's, employer's, and employee's understanding.  The list does not represent an official OSHA opinion or policy regarding the use of these medications for particular employees.  The use of such medications should be under physician discretion.

(8) Attachment 3--Biological monitoring and medical examination results.


Employee

Testing

Date

Cadmium in Urine ___ ΅g/g Cr--Normal Levels:

≤=3 ΅g/g Cr.

Cadmium in Blood ___ ΅g/lwb--Normal Levels:

≤=5 ΅g/lwb.

Beta-2-microglobulin in Urine ___ ΅g/g Cr--Normal

Levels: ≤=300 ΅g/g Cr.

Physical Examination Results: N/A ___

Satisfactory ___

Unsatisfactory ___ (see physician again).

Physician's Review of Pulmonary Function Test:

N/A ___ Normal ___

Abnormal ___.

Next biological monitoring or medical examination

scheduled for ___________________


(a) The biological monitoring program has been designed for three main purposes:

(i) To identify employees at risk of adverse health effects from excess, chronic exposure to cadmium;

(ii) To prevent cadmium-induced disease(s); and

(iii) To detect and minimize existing cadmium-induced disease(s).

(b) The levels of cadmium in the urine and blood provide an estimate of the total amount of cadmium in the body.  The amount of a specific protein in the urine (beta-2-microglobulin) indicates changes in kidney function.  All three tests must be evaluated together.  A single mildly elevated result may not be important if testing at a later time indicates that the results are normal and the workplace has been evaluated to decrease possible sources of cadmium exposure.  The levels of cadmium or beta-2-microglobulin may change over a period of days to months and the time needed for those changes to occur is different for each worker.

(c) If the results for biological monitoring are above specific "high levels" (cadmium urine greater than 10 micrograms per gram of creatinine ΅g/g Cr), cadmium blood greater than 10 micrograms per liter of whole blood (΅g/lwb), or beta-2-microglobulin greater than 1000 micrograms per gram of creatinine (΅g/g Cr)), the worker has a much greater chance of developing other kidney diseases.

(d) One way to measure for kidney function is by measuring beta-2-microglobulin in the urine.  Beta-2-microglobulin is a protein which is normally found in the blood as it is being filtered in the kidney, and the kidney reabsorbs or returns almost all of the beta-2-microglobulin to the blood.  A very small amount (less than 300 ΅g/g Cr in the urine) of beta-2-microglobulin is not reabsorbed into the blood, but is released in the urine.  If cadmium damages the kidney, the amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine increases because the kidney cells are unable to reabsorb the beta-2-microglobulin normally.  An increase in the amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine is a very early sign of kidney dysfunction.  A small increase in beta-2-microglobulin in the urine will serve as an early warning sign that the worker may be absorbing cadmium from the air, cigarettes contaminated in the workplace, or eating in areas that are cadmium contaminated.

(e) Even if cadmium causes permanent changes in the kidney's ability to reabsorb beta-2-microglobulin, and the beta-2-microglobulin is above the "high levels," the loss of kidney function may not lead to any serious health problems.  Also, renal function naturally declines as people age.  The risk for changes in kidney function for workers who have biological monitoring results between the "normal values" and the "high levels" is not well known.  Some people are more cadmium-tolerant, while others are more cadmium-susceptible.

(f) For anyone with even a slight increase of beta-2-microglobulin, cadmium in the urine, or cadmium in the blood, it is very important to protect the kidney from further damage.  Kidney damage can come from other sources than excess cadmium-exposure so it is also recommended that if a worker's levels are "high" he/she should receive counseling about drinking more water; avoiding cadmium-tainted tobacco and certain medications (nephrotoxins, acetaminophen); controlling diet, vitamin intake, blood pressure and diabetes; etc.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.  94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07441, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 93-21-075 (Order 93-06), § 296-62-07441, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-62-07441, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 97-19-014, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97)

WAC 296-62-07460
Butadiene.

(1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.

(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.

(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.

(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

"Action level" means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.

"Director" means the director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.

"1,3-Butadiene" means an organic compound with chemical formula CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2) that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.

"Business day" means any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.

"Complete blood count (CBC)" means laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.

"Day" means any part of a calendar day.

"Emergency situation" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.

"Employee exposure" means exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

"Objective data" means monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.

"Permissible exposure limits (PELs)" means either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).

"Physician or other licensed health care professional" is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.

"Regulated area" means any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.

"This section" means this 1,3-butadiene standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit.  The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL).  The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.

(b) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or shall rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.

(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.

(d) Termination of monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.

(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.

(e) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.

(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hr TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer shall monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.

(f) Accuracy of monitoring.

Monitoring shall be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.

(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(h) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation.  The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures.  When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and shall ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hr TWA or the STEL.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(c) Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.

(d) An employer at a multi-employer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering controls and work practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance plan.

(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer shall establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section.  No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.

(ii) The written compliance plan shall include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.

(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.  Such plans shall be reviewed at least every 12 months, and shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iv) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(7) Exposure goal program.

(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer shall have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.

(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(c) Such plans shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.

(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.

(e) The exposure goal program shall include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:

(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.

(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.

(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.

(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.

(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.

(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General.  ((The employer shall provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection, at no cost to each affected employee, and ensure that each affected employee uses such respirator where required by this section.  Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances)) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) ((During the time interval)) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) ((In)) Nonroutine work operations ((which)) that are performed infrequently and ((in)) for which exposures are limited in duration;

(iii) ((In work situations where)) Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PELs; ((or))

(iv) ((In)) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator ((selection)) program.

(i) ((Where respirators are required, the employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 of this section, and ensure its use)) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (except WAC 296-62-07130(1), 296-62-07131 (4)(b)(i) and (ii), and 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156).

(ii) ((The employer shall select respirators from among those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR Part 84, "Respiratory Protective Devices." Air purifying respirators shall have filter element(s) approved by NIOSH for organic vapors or BD)) If air-purifying respirators are used, the employer must replace the air-purifying filter elements according to the replacement schedule set for the class of respirators listed in Table 1 of this section, and at the beginning of each work shift.

(iii) ((If an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative pressure respirator, the employee must be provided with a respirator having less breathing resistance, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied air respirator, if the employee is able to use it and if it will provide adequate protection)) Instead of using the replacement schedule listed in Table 1 of this section, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of their expiration service life, provided the employer:

(A) Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure;

(B) Uses BD breakthrough data for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst-case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air-flow rate through the filter element, and the employer also describes the data supporting the cartridge- or canister-change schedule, as well as the basis for using the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iv) A label must be attached to each filter element to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.

(v) If NIOSH approves an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until the ESLI shows no further useful service life or until the element is replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever occurs first.

(vi) Regardless of the air-purifying element used, if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer must replace the air-purifying element immediately.

(c) Respirator ((program.  Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.

(d) Respirator use.

(i) Where air-purifying respirators are used, the employer shall replace the air-purifying filter element(s) according to the replacement life interval set for the class of respirator listed in Table 1 in (e) of this subsection and at the beginning of each work shift.

(ii) In lieu of the replacement intervals listed in Table 1, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of the expiration of service life, provided the employer can demonstrate that employees will be adequately protected.  BD breakthrough data relied upon by the employer must derive from tests conducted under worst case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air flow rate through the filter element.  The employer shall describe the data supporting the cartridge/canister change schedule and the basis for reliance on the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iii) A label shall be attached to the filter element(s) to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.  If an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

(iv) If a NIOSH-approved end of service life indicator (ESLI) for BD becomes available for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until such time as the indicator shows no further useful service life or until replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever comes first.  If an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

(v) The employer shall permit employees who wear respirators to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary in order to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use or to change the filter elements of air-purifying respirators whenever they detect a change in breathing resistance or whenever the odor of BD is detected.

(e) Respirator fit testing.

(i) The employer shall perform either qualitative fit testing (QLFT) or quantitative fit testing (QNFT), as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for employees who wear tight-fitting negative pressure respirators.  Fit testing shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which exhibits minimum leakage and provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1 of this section.

(ii) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting full facepiece negative pressure respirator who is exposed to airborne concentrations of BD that exceed 10 times the TWA PEL (10 ppm), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter)) selection.

(i) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table 1 of this section.


Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory

Protection for Airborne BD


Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use

Minimum required respirator


Less than or equal to 5 ppm(5 times PEL)

(a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece
respirator equipped with approved BD or organic
vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or
canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.
Less than or equal to 10 ppm(10 times PEL)(a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece
respirator equipped with approved BD or organic
vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or
canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.
Less than or equal to 25 ppm(25 times PEL)(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator
equipped with approved BD or organic vapor
cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters
shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped
with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges.
PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator
equipped with a hood or helmet.
Less than or equal to 50 ppm(50 times PEL)(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped
with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or
canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced
every 1 hour.
(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped
with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved
BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges
shall be replaced every 1 hour.
Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL)(a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a
half mask or full facepiece and operated in
a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Greater than 1,000 ppm(a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration,
or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full
facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or
other positive pressure mode.
(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a
full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand
or other positive pressure mode in combination
with an auxiliary self-contained breathing
apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other
positive pressure mode.
Escape from IDLH Conditions(a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing
apparatus with an appropriate service life.
(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator
equipped with a front or back mounted BD or
organic vapor canister.

Notes:Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations.  Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.
(((iii) The employer shall ensure that employees wearing tight-fitting respirators perform a facepiece seal fit check to ensure that a proper facepiece seal is obtained prior to entry into a BD atmosphere.  The recommended positive or negative pressure fit check procedures listed in Appendix E to this section or the respirator manufacturer's recommended fit check procedure shall be used.))

(ii) Air-purifying respirators must have filter elements certified by NIOSH for organic vapor or BD.

(iii) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative-pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance than the negative-pressure respirator, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied-air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it provides the employee adequate protection.

(9) Protective clothing and equipment.  Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer shall provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and shall ensure its use.  Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-078.

(10) Emergency situations.  Written plan.  A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed, or an existing plan shall be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567, Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in WAC 296-62-3112, hazardous waste operations and emergency responses, for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.

(11) Medical screening and surveillance.

(a) Employees covered.  The employer shall institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:

(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;

(ii) Employers (including successor owners) shall continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:

(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;

(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or

(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and

(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.

(b) Program administration.

(i) The employer shall ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures shall be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.

(iii) Laboratory tests shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory.

(c) Frequency of medical screening activities.  The employer shall make medical screening available on the following schedule:

(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:

(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;

(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;

(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;

(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;

(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and

(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.

(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening shall be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.

(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by WAC 296-62-071.

(d) Content of medical screening.

(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall include:

(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually.  Particular emphasis shall be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure.  Health questionnaires shall consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;

(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;

(C) A CBC; and

(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.

(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation shall focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache.  Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, shall be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.

(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional shall refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and shall make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.

(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection shall determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.

(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional.  The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:

(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;

(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;

(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.

(g) The written medical opinion.

(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation.  The written opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;

(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The written medical opinion provided to the employer shall not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.

Note:This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employee.


(h) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.

(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.

(12) Communication of BD hazards to employees.

(a) Hazard communication.  The employer shall communicate the hazards associated with BD exposure in accordance with the requirements of the hazard communication standard, WAC 296-62-054.

(b) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall provide all employees exposed to BD with information and training in accordance with the requirements of the hazard communication standard, WAC 296-62-054.

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(iii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.

(iv) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand.  The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;

(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and

(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:

(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;

(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(((d))) (c) of this section; and

(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(c) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and

(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with WAC 296-62-052.

(c) ((Respirator fit test.

(i) The employer shall establish a record of the fit tests administered to an employee including:

(A) The name of the employee;

(B) Type of respirator;

(C) Brand and size of respirator;

(D) Date of test; and

(E) Where QNFT is used, the fit factor, strip chart recording or other recording of the results of the test.

(ii) Fit test records shall be maintained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.

(d))) Medical screening and surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(((f))) (e) of this section;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsection((s)) (11)(((f))) (e) of this section.

(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records shall be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with WAC 296-62-052.

(((e))) (d) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.

(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) ((through (c))) and (b) of this subsection shall be granted in accordance with WAC 296-62-05209.

(((f))) (e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer records required by this section to the successor employer.  The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records.  If there is no successor employer, the employer shall notify the director, at least three months prior to disposal, and transmit them to the director if requested by the director within that period.

(ii) The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.

(14) Dates.

(a) Effective date.  This section shall become effective (day, month), 1997.

(b) Start-up dates.

(i) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section shall be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, shall be complied with immediately.

(iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.

(15) Appendices.

(((a) Appendix E to this section is mandatory.

(b))) Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.


Appendix A.  Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Substance Identification.

(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.

(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.

(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry.  Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts.  It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.

(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, non-corrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.

(2) Health Hazard Data.

(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness.  There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur.  Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.  Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.

(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats.  A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia.  The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD.  OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.

(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.

(3) Emergency First Aid Procedures.

In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area.  If you have been trained in first aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures.  If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.

(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used.  If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids.  Flush repeatedly.  Get medical attention immediately.  Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.  In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.

(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure.  Keep the affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention immediately.

(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure.  If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures.  Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty.  Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.

(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level.  However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure.  Respirators may be used when engineering and work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, non-routine, intermittent exposure.  Respirators may also be used in situations involving non-routine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations.  In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints.  For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.

If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators.  If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before re-entering an area where there is BD exposure.  If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.

(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).

Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.

(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.

(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air.  It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%.  It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F).  Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.  Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides.  At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.  If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.

(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic.  Slight respiratory irritant.  Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.

(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers.  Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred.  Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition.  Store cylinders vertically and do not stack.  Do not store with oxidizing material.

(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.

(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code.  If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B.  Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger.  See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).

(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas.  Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool.  Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed.  If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk.  If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261).  It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability.  The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270.  Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities.  Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.

(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.

(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Medical Requirements.

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year.  Exposure for any part of a day counts.  If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.

The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program.  These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:

(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;

(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or

(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.

Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours.  The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test.  These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.

(7) Observation of Monitoring.

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure.  You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained.  When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.

(8) Access to Information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix.  In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD.  You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure.  If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations.  These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty (30) years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.


Appendix B.  Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Physical and Chemical Data.

(a) Substance identification:

(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.

(ii) Formula: (CH(2)=CH-CH=CH(2)).

(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.

(b) Physical data:

(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).

(ii) Specific gravity (water=1):0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).

(iii) Vapor density (air=1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.

(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.

(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.

(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor.  Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.

(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.

(a) Fire:

(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.

(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage.  Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.

(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.

(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.

(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance.  Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire.  Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.

(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back.  Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas.  For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.

(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.

(b) Reactivity:

(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat.  Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level.  At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.

(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions.  The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.

(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.

(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.  BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron.  Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.

(c) Warning Properties:

(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards.  (Ex.  32-28C).

(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs.  Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.

(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.

(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.

(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed.  If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk.  If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261).  It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability.  The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270.  Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities.  Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.

(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.

(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):

(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift.  Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).

(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.

(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.

Table 1. -- Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated

Monitoring Frequencies

Action Level8-hr TWASTELRequired Monitoring Activity

__* __ __
No 8-hr TWA or STEL monitoring required.
+* __ __No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.
+ __ __No STEL monitoring required. Periodic monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).**
+++Periodic monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).
+ __+Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.

Footnote (*)Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: += Yes, - = No.
Footnote (**)The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hr TWA, but at or above the action level.
(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD.  The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions.  The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.

(5) Personal Protective Equipment.

(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.

(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not re-worn until the butadiene has evaporated.

(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.

(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-24-120 (Part B-1 Sanitation), the following items should be emphasized:

(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.

(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.

(7) Additional Precautions.

(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.

(b) Non-sparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers.  These containers must be effectively grounded.

(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.

(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.


Appendix C.  Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.

(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.

(b) Toxicology.

Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity.  Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects.  BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats.  Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites.  Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.

Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy.  Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test.  In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.

Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene.  In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.

(c) Epidemiology.

Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia.  Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.

(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.

(a) Acute.

Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite.  BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs.  Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur.  Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.

At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death.  Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.

(b) Chronic.

The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity.  Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.

(c) Reproductive.

Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child.  For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.

(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.

(a) Health Questionnaire.

The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities.  Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses.  Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD.

Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD.  After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.

(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure.  This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood.  The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.

Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies.  The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females.  A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as "abnormal" for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values.  It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.

A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred.  Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available.  Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern.  A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error.  In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred.  A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD.  Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.

(c) Physical Examination.

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years.  The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure.  The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.

Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality.  Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC.  Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.

The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly.  For these workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.

Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints.  If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management.  Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.


Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

OSHA Method No.: 56.

Matrix: Air.

Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m(3)).

Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol.  The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.

Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.

Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m(3)) (based on 3 L air volume).

Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.

Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol.  Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.

Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.

(1) Background.

This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm.  The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref.  5.2).  This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.

The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC).  TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref.  5.3).

(a) Toxic effects.

Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.  It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue.  Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD.  (Ref.  5.1)

NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen.  This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice.  BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system.  It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects.  (Ref. 5.1)

(b) Potential workplace exposure.

About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber.  Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-stryene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates.  (Ref. 5.1)

(c) Physical properties (Ref.  5.1).

CAS No.: 106-99-0

Molecular weight: 54.1

Appearance: Colorless gas

Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)

Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C

Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C

Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)

Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm

Structural formula: H(2)C:CHCH:CH(2)

Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.

(d) Limit defining parameters.

The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL.  Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.

(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.

The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection.  This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.

(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.

The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m(3)).  This amount was determined graphically.  It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

(g) Reliable quantitation limit.

The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m(3)).  This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of+/- 25% or better.

(h) Sensitivity.(1)


Footnote (1)The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte.  When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.
The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL.  This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve.  The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.

(i) Recovery.

The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature.  These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data.  The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.

(j) Precision (analytical method only).

The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.

(k) Precision (overall procedure).

The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was+/- 12.7%.  This value includes an additional+/- 5% for sampling error.  The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are+/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.

(l) Reproducibility.

Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation.  The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.

(2) Sampling procedure.

(a) Apparatus.  Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within+/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.

(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes.  The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long.  The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm.  One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling.  The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm).  The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube.  Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety.  The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC.  The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal.  The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool.  Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps.  Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.

(c) Reagents.

None required.

(d) Technique.

(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.

(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere.  Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube.  The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.

(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps.  Wrap the tube lengthwise.

(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set.  The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.

(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.

(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions.  The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures.  If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer.  The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.

(e) Breakthrough.

(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube.  Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min.  At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected.  The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)

Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration.  The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.

(f) Desorption efficiency.

The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%.  The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.

(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.

(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.

(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.

(j) Interferences.

There are no known interferences to the sampling method.

(k) Safety precautions.

(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.

(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.

(3) Analytical procedure.

(a) Apparatus.

(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)


Footnote (2)A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation.  Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.
(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)


Footnote (3)A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.
(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflon-lined caps.

(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.

(b) Reagents.

(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)


Footnote (4)Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S.  Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.
The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.

(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.

(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)


Footnote (5)Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.
(c) Standard preparation.

(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide.  This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial.  Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)


Footnote (6)A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.
(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:

MV=(760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)

Where:

MV= ambient molar volume BP= ambient barometric pressure T=ambient temperature ug/uL

=54.09/MV ug/standard= (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard

(d) Sample preparation.

(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial.  Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial.  If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.

(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.

(iii) Seal the vials with Teflon-lined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour.  Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.

(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour.  This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.

(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.

(e) Analysis.

(i) GC Conditions.

Column temperature: 95 deg. C

Injector temperature: 180 deg. C

Detector temperature: 275 deg. C

Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.

Injection volume: 0.80 uL

GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%

FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.

(ii) Chromatogram.  See Section 4.2.

(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.

(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations.  Prepare the calibration curve daily.  Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.

(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.

(f) Interferences (analytical).

(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference.  Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.

(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.

(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS.  It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.

(g) Calculations.

(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves.  Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard.  The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.

(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve.  If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section.  Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.

(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:

mg/m(3)=(A)(B)/(C)(D)

Where:

A= ug/mL from Section 3.7.2 B= volume C= L of air sampled D =efficiency

(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m(3) to ppm:

ppm=(mg/m(3))(24.46)/54.09

Where:

mg/m(3)= result from Section 3.7.3.  24.46= molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.

(h) Safety precautions (analytical).

(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.

(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.

(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.

(4) Additional Information.

(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.

(i) Apparatus.

(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.

(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)


Footnote (8)A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.
(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.

(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.

(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.

(ii) Reagents.

(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)


Footnote (9)Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.
(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)


Footnote (10)The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.
(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)


Footnote (11)Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation.  The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.
(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.

(iii) Procedure.

Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask.  Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture.  Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer.  Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel.  Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid.  Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube.  Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube.  Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C.  Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour.  After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker.  Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.

CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.

Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle.  Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape.  Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level.  Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour.  Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.

The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes.  The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination.  Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature.  The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.

(b) Chromatograms.

The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method.  The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.

The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC.  This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte.  The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.

(5) References.

(a) "Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene", U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.

(b) "NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods", 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.

(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. "The Condensed Chemical Dictionary", 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.


Appendix E: ((Respirator Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory)

A.  The Employer Shall Conduct Fit Testing Using the Following Procedures.

These provisions apply to both QLFT and QNFT.

1.  The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most comfortable respirator from a selection of respirators of various sizes and models.

2.  Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine a comfortable fit.  A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning the respirator.  This instruction may not constitute the subject's formal training on respirator use, because it is only a review.

3.  The test subject shall be informed that he/she is being asked to select the respirator which provides the most comfortable fit.  Each respirator represents a different size and shape, and if fitted and used properly, will provide adequate protection.

4.  The test subject shall be instructed to hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those which obviously do not give a comfortable fit.

5.  The more comfortable facepieces are noted; the most comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five minutes to assess comfort.  Assistance in assessing comfort can be given by discussing the points in item 6 below.  If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject shall be directed to don the mask several times and to adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps.

6.  Assessment of comfort shall include reviewing the following points with the test subject and allowing the test subject adequate time to determine the comfort of the respirator:

(a) Position of the mask on the nose.

(b) Room for eye protection.

(c) Room to talk.

(d) Position of mask on face and cheeks.

7.  The following criteria shall be used to help determine the adequacy of the respirator fit:

(a) Chin properly placed;

(b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened;

(c) Fit across nose bridge;

(d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin;

(e) Tendency of respirator to slip;

(f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

8.  The test subject shall conduct the negative and positive pressure fit checks using procedures in Appendix A or those recommended by the respirator manufacturer.  Before conducting the negative or positive pressure fit checks, the subject shall be told to seat the mask on the face by moving the head from side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in a few slow deep breaths.  Another facepiece shall be selected and retested if the test subject fails the fit check tests.

9.  The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, or sideburns which cross the respirator sealing surface.  Any type of apparel which interferes with a satisfactory fit shall be altered or removed.

10.  If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

11.  If the employee finds the fit of the respirator unacceptable, the test subject shall be given the opportunity to select a different respirator and to be retested.

12.  Exercise regimen.  Prior to the commencement of the fit test, the test subject shall be given a description of the fit test and the test subject's responsibilities during the test procedure.  The description of the process shall include a description of the test exercises that the subject will be performing.  The respirator to be tested shall be worn for at least 5 minutes before the start of the fit test.

13.  Test Exercises.  The test subject shall perform exercises, in the test environment, while wearing any applicable safety equipment that may be worn during actual respirator use which could interfere with fit, in the manner described below:

(a) Normal breathing.  In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally.

(b) Deep breathing.  In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply, taking caution so as to not hyperventilate.

(c) Turning head side to side.  Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side.  The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side.

(d) Moving head up and down.  Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down.  The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling).

(e) Talking.  The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor.  The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song.

Rainbow Passage

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow.  The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors.  These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon.  There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end.  People look, but no one ever finds it.  When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

(f) Grimace.  The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning.  (Only for QNFT testing, not performed for QLFT)

(g) Bending over.  The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he/she were to touch his/her toes.  Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT units which prohibit bending at the waist.

(h) Normal breathing.  Same as exercise (a).  Each test exercise shall be performed for one minute except for the grimace exercise which shall be performed for 15 seconds.

The test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol.  If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

B.  Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) Protocols

1.  General

(a) The employer shall assign specific individuals who shall assume full responsibility for implementing the respirator qualitative fit test program.

(b) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QLFT are able to prepare test solutions, calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, and assure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(c) The employer shall assure that QLFT equipment is kept clean and well maintained so as to operate within the parameters for which it was designed.

2.  Isoamyl Acetate Protocol

(a) Odor threshold screening.

The odor threshold screening test, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine if the individual tested can detect the odor of isoamyl acetate.

(1) Three 1 liter glass jars with metal lids are required.

(2) Odor free water (e.g.  distilled or spring water) at approximately 25 degrees C shall be used for the solutions.

(3) The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known at isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1 cc of pure IAA to 800 cc of odor free water in a 1 liter jar and shaking for 30 seconds.  A new solution shall be prepared at least weekly.

(4) The screening test shall be conducted in a room separate from the room used for actual fit testing.  The two rooms shall be well ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evident in the general room air where testing takes place.

(5) The odor test solution is prepared in a second jar by placing 0.4 cc of the stock solution into 500 cc of odor free water using a clean dropper or pipette.  The solution shall be shaken for 30 seconds and allowed to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium.  This solution shall be used for only one day.

(6) A test blank shall be prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor free water.

(7) The odor test and test blank jars shall be labeled 1 and 2 for jar identification.  Labels shall be placed on the lids so they can be periodically peeled off and switched to maintain the integrity of the test.

(8) The following instruction shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e., 1 and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration.  The two bottles in front of you contain water.  One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil.  Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds.  Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle.  Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil."

(9) The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection test shall be prepared in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory fatigue in the subject.

(10) If the test subject is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, the IAA qualitative fit test shall not be performed.

(11) If the test subject correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the test subject may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing.

(b) Isoamyl acetate fit test

(1) The fit test chamber shall be similar to a clear 55-gallon drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot diameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject's head.  The inside top center of the chamber shall have a small hook attached.

(2) Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors.

(3) After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room.  This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection, and shall be well ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination.

(4) A copy of the test exercises and any prepared text from which the subject is to read shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber.

(5) Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single-ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 cc of pure IAA.  The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber.

(6) Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to stabilize before starting the fit test exercises.  This would be an appropriate time to talk with the test subject; to explain the fit test, the importance of his/her cooperation, and the purpose for the test exercises; or to demonstrate some of the exercises.

(7) If at any time during the test, the subject detects the banana like odor of IAA, the test is failed.  The subject shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory fatigue.

(8) If the test is failed, the subject shall return to the selection room and remove the respirator.  The test subject shall repeat the odor sensitivity test, select and put on another respirator, return to the test area and again begin the fit test procedure described in (1) through (7) above.  The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found.  Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the subject shall wait about 5 minutes before retesting.  Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time.

(9) When the subject wearing the respirator passes the test, its efficiency shall be demonstrated for the subject by having the subject break the face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber.

(10) When the test subject leaves the chamber, the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the chamber during subsequent tests.  The used towels shall be kept in a self-sealing bag to keep the test area from being contaminated.

3.  Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol

The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Taste threshold screening.  The saccharin taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of saccharin.

(1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that allows free movements of the head when a respirator is worn.  An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT 15 combined, is adequate.

(2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4-inch hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure.  Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his/her slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent the test conductor shall spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure.  This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(5) The threshold check solution consists of 0.83 grams of sodium saccharin USP in 100 ml of warm water.  It can be prepared by putting 1 ml of the fit test solution (see (b)(5) below) in 100 ml of distilled water.

(6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then released and allowed to fully expand.

(7) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted.

(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted.

(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted.

(10) The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(11) If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject may not perform the saccharin fit test.

(12) If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

(b) Saccharin solution aerosol fit test procedure

(1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure described in (a) above.

(3) The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in section (a) above.  The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter(s).

(4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure.  This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm water.

(6) As before, the test subject shall breathe through the slightly open mouth with tongue extended.

(7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and the fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response in the screening test.  A minimum of 10 squeezes is required.

(8) After generating the aerosol the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section A. 13 above.

(9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the number of squeezes as initially.

(10) The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected.

(11) If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and a different respirator shall be tried.

4.  Irritant Fume Protocol

(a) The respirator to be tested shall be equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.

(b) No form of test enclosure or hood for the test subject shall be used.

(c) The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before the respirator is donned to become familiar with its irritating properties.

(d) Break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chloride.  Attach one end of the smoke tube to an aspirator squeeze bulb and cover the other end with a short piece of tubing to prevent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube.

(d) Advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes and instruct the subject to keep his/her eyes closed while the test is performed.

(e) The test conductor shall direct the stream of irritant smoke from the smoke tube towards the face seal area of the test subject.  He/She shall begin at least 12 inches from the facepiece and gradually move to within one inch, moving around the whole perimeter of the mask.

(f) The exercises identified in section A. 13 above shall be performed by the test subject while the respirator seal is being challenged by the smoke.

(g) Each test subject passing the smoke test without evidence of a response (involuntary cough) shall be given a sensitivity check of the smoke from the same tube once the respirator has been removed to determine whether he/she reacts to the smoke.  Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test.

(h) The fit test shall be performed in a location with exhaust ventilation sufficient to prevent general contamination of the testing area by the test agent.

C.  Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) Protocols

The following quantitative fit testing procedures have been demonstrated to be acceptable.

(1) Quantitative fit testing using a non-hazardous challenge aerosol (such as corn oil or sodium chloride) generated in a test chamber, and employing instrumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator.

(2) Quantitative fit testing using ambient aerosol as the challenge agent and appropriate instrumentation (condensation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit.

(3) Quantitative fit testing using controlled negative pressure and appropriate instrumentation to measure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify the respirator fit.

1.  General

(a) The employer shall assign specific individuals who shall assume full responsibility for implementing the respirator quantitative fit test program.

(b) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QNFT are able to calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, calculate fit factors properly and assure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(c) The employer shall assure that QNFT equipment is kept clean, maintained and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions so as to operate at the parameters for which it was designed.

2.  Generated aerosol quantitative fit testing protocol

Apparatus

(a) Instrumentation.  Aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems using particulates (corn oil or sodium chloride) or gases or vapors as test aerosols shall be used for quantitative fit testing.

(b) Test chamber.  The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to perform freely all required exercises without disturbing the challenge agent concentration or the measurement apparatus.  The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the challenge agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber.

(c) When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter supplied by the same manufacturer in the case of particulate QNFT aerosols or a sorbent offering contaminant penetration protection equivalent to high-efficiency filters where the QNFT test agent is a gas or vapor.

(d) The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a computer record or strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of the challenge agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000.  Integrators or computers which integrate the amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used provided a record of the readings is made.

(e) The combination of substitute air-purifying elements, challenge agent and challenge agent concentration shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of an established exposure limit for the challenge agent at any time during the testing process based upon the length of the exposure and the exposure limit duration.

(f) The sampling port on the test specimen respirator shall be placed and constructed so that no leakage occurs around the port (e.g.  where the respirator is probed), a free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times and so that there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator.  The in-mask sampling device (probe) shall be designed and used so that the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone of the test subject, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4 inch.

(g) The test set up shall permit the person administering the test to observe the test subject inside the chamber during the test.

(h) The equipment generating the challenge atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of challenge agent constant to within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.

(i) The time lag (interval between an event and the recording of the event on the strip chart or computer or integrator) shall be kept to a minimum.  There shall be a clear association between the occurrence of an event and its being recorded.

(j) The sampling line tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be of equal diameter and of the same material.  The length of the two lines shall be equal.

(k) The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through a high-efficiency filter before release.

(l) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent.

(m) The limitations of instrument detection shall be taken into account when determining the fit factor.

(n) Test respirators shall be maintained in proper working order and inspected for deficiencies such as cracks, missing valves and gaskets, etc.

3. Procedural Requirements

(a) When performing the initial positive or negative pressure fit check the sampling line shall be crimped closed in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of these fit checks.

(b) The use of an abbreviated screening QLFT test is optional and may be utilized in order to quickly identify poor fitting respirators which passed the positive and/or negative pressure test and thus reduce the amount of QNFT time.  The use of the CNC QNFT instrument in the count mode is another optional method to use to obtain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fitting respirators before going on to perform a full QNFT.

(c) A reasonably stable challenge agent concentration shall be measured in the test chamber prior to testing.  For canopy or shower curtain type of test units the determination of the challenge agent stability may be established after the test subject has entered the test environment.

(d) Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the challenge agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half mask or 1 percent for a full facepiece respirator.

(e) A stable challenge concentration shall be obtained prior to the actual start of testing.

(f) Respirator restraining straps shall not be over tightened for testing.  The straps shall be adjusted by the wearer without assistance from other persons to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use.

(g) The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half masks and 1 percent for full facepiece respirators.  The test subject shall be refitted and retested.

(h) Calculation of fit factors.

(1) The fit factor shall be determined for the quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the concentration measured inside the respirator for each test exercise except the grimace exercise.

(2) The average test chamber concentration shall be calculated as the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each test (i.e.  8 exercises) or the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each exercise or the true average measured continuously during the respirator sample.

(3) The concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be determined by one of the following methods:

(i) Average peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration into the respirator utilizing a strip chart recorder, integrator, or computer.  The agent penetration is determined by an average of the peak heights on the graph or by computer integration, for each exercise except the grimace exercise.  Integrators or computers which calculate the actual test agent penetration into the respirator for each exercise will also be considered to meet the requirements of the average peak penetration method.

(ii) Maximum peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration in the respirator as determined by strip chart recordings of the test.  The highest peak penetration for a given exercise is taken to be representative of average penetration into the respirator for that exercise.

(iii) Integration by calculation of the area under the individual peak for each exercise except the grimace exercise.  This includes computerized integration.

(iv) The calculation of the overall fit factor using individual exercise fit factors involves first converting the exercise fit factors to penetration values, determining the average, and then converting that result back to a fit factor.  This procedure is described in the following equation:


OverallNumber of exercises
Fit Factor: =


1/ff(1)+1/ff(2)+1/ff(3)+1/ff(4)+1/ff(5)+1/ff(7)+1/ff(8)

where ff(1), ff(2), ff(3), etc. are the fit factors for exercise 1,2,3, etc. (Results of the grimace exercise (7) are not used in this calculation.)

(j) The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half mask or quarter facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained, or a full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained.

(k) Filters used for quantitative fit testing shall be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media.  Organic vapor cartridges/canisters shall be replaced if there is any indication of breakthrough by a test agent.

4.  Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol

The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing (Portacount(TM)) protocol quantitatively fit tests respirators with the use of a probe.  The probed respirator is only used for quantitative fit tests.  A probed respirator has a special sampling device, installed on the respirator, that allows the probe to sample the air from inside the mask.  A probed respirator is required for each make, model, and size in which your company requires and can be obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distributor.  The CNC instrument manufacturer Dynatech Nevada also provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) that permits fit testing in an employee's own respirator.  A fit factor pass level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a fit factor of at least 10 times greater than the assigned protection factor for any other negative pressure respirator.  The Agency does not recommend the use of homemade sampling adapters.  The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Portacount Fit Test Requirements.

(1) Check the respirator to make sure the respirator is fitted with a high efficiency filter and that the sampling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece.

(2) Instruct the person to be tested to don the respirator several minutes before the fit test starts.  This purges the particles inside the respirator and permits the wearer to make certain the respirator is comfortable.  This individual should have already been trained on how to wear the respirator properly.

(3) Check the following conditions for the adequacy of the respirator fit: Chin properly placed; Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Fit across nose bridge; Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin; Tendencies for the respirator to slip; Self-observation in a mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

(4) Have the person wearing the respirator do a fit check.  If leakage is detected, determine the cause.  If leakage is from a poorly fitting facepiece, try another size of the same type of respirator.

(5) Follow the instructions for operating the Portacount and proceed with the test.

(b) Portacount Test Exercises.

(1) Normal breathing.  In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute.

(2) Deep breathing.  In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply for 1 minute, taking caution so as too not hyperventilate.

(3) Turning head side to side.  Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his or her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side for 1 minute.  The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side.

(4) Moving head up and down.  Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his or her head up and down for 1 minute.  The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling).

(5) Talking.  The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor.  The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song for 1 minute.

(6) Grimace.  The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning for 15 seconds.

(7) Bending Over.  The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he or she were to touch his or her toes for 1 minute.  Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT units which prohibit bending at the waist.

(8) Normal Breathing.  Remove and re-don the respirator within a one-minute period.  Then, in a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute.

After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol.  If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

(c) Portacount Test Instrument.

(1) The Portacount will automatically stop and calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of exercises.  The overall fit factor is what counts.  The Pass or Fail message will indicate whether or not the test was successful.  If the test was a Pass, the fit test is over.

(2) A record of the test needs to be kept on file assuming the fit test was successful.  The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model and size of respirator used, and date tested.)) Reserved.


APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)


1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene).  These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns.  Please do your best to answer all of the questions.  If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record.  Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer.  Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.


Date:


Name:


SSN / /
LastFirstMI
Job Title:


Company's Name:


Supervisor's Name:


Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

Work History


1.  Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job.  (For more space, write on the back of this page.)


Main Job Duty

Year

Company Name

City, State


Chemicals

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.







3.  Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:


benzene
glues
toluene
inks, dyes
other solvents, grease cutters
insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)
paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers
dusts
carbon tetrachloride ("carbon tet")
arsine
carbon disulfide
lead
cement
petroleum products
nitrites

4.  Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:


gloves
coveralls
respirator
dust mask
safety glasses, goggles

Please circle your answer.


5.  Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you

properly? yes no


6.  Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment to make it fit better? yes no


7.  Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


8.  Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? (Please check all that apply.)

Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar
Break room/employee lounge
Smoking lounge
At my work station

Please circle your answer.


9.  Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job you have now or at past

jobs? yes no


10.  Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals (including paints, glues, etc.)? yes no


11.  Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?





12.  Were you in the military? yes no


If yes, what did you do in the military?









Family Health History

1.  In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which family member, if any, had the disease.


DISEASEFAMILY MEMBER

Cancer

Lymphoma

Sickle Cell Disease or Trait

Immune Disease

Leukemia

Anemia


2.  Please fill in the following information about family health


Relative

Alive?

Age at Death?

Cause of Death?

Father

Mother

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister


Personal Health History


Birth Date / / Age Sex Height Weight


Please circle your answer.


1.  Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no


2.  Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation?

yes no


If yes, what type of surgery:








3.  Have you ever been in the hospital for any other

reasons? yes no

If yes, please describe the reason









4.  Do you have any on-going or current medical problems

or conditions? yes no


If yes, please describe:







5.  Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus
weight loss
kidney problems
enlarged lymph nodes
liver disease
cancer
infertility
drinking problems
thyroid problems
night sweats
chest pain
still birth
eye redness
lumps you can feel
child with birth defect
autoimmune disease
overly tired
lung problems
rheumatoid arthritis
mononucleosis ("mono")
nagging cough

Please circle your answer.


6.  Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:




7.  Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or

problems? yes no don't know


If yes, please describe:





8.  Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when working with BD? yes no


9.  Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache when working with BD? yes no


10.  Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)? yes no


If yes, please list:





11.  Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals? yes no


If yes, please list:





12.  Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you think are affected by your work with

BD? yes no


If yes, please explain:





13.  Did you understand all the questions? yes no

Signature



1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire


DIRECTIONS:


You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene).  These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns.  Please do your best to answer all of the questions.  If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.


This form is a confidential medical record.  Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer.  Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:


Name:


SSN / /
LastFirstMI
Job Title:


Company's Name:


Supervisor's Name:


Supervisor's Phone No.: ( ) -

1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your

job.








2.  Please describe any additional job duties you have:

















Please circle your answer.


3.  Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work

since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to

BD? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:



4.  Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no


5.  Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no


6.  Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective clothing or equipment? yes no


7.  Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no


If yes, please list what they are:



8.  Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new second or side jobs? yes no


If yes, what are your duties there?







Personal Health History


1.  What is your current weight? pounds


2.  Have you been diagnosed with any new medical

conditions or illness since your last evaluation?

yesno


If yes, please tell what they are:



3.  Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any illnesses, injuries, or surgery? yes no


If yes, please describe:



4.  Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.
unexplained fever
anemia ("low blood")
HIV/AIDS
weakness
sickle cell
miscarriage
skin rash
bloody stools
leukemia/lymphoma
neck mass/swelling
wheezing
yellowing of skin
bruising easily
lupus