LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Date of Adoption: October 18, 2000.
Purpose: Chapter 296-56 WAC, Longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations.
December of 1998, federal and state-initiated amendments were made to chapter 296-56 WAC, Safety standards for longshore, stevedore and related waterfront operations. These amendments were sent to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for federal approval on February 17, 1999. We received a letter dated May 13, 1999, from OSHA indicating that there were areas in our standard that did not meet the "at-least-as-effective-as" OSHA criteria. These amendments must be made to bring our requirements into compliance with the federal requirements as mandated. In addition, OSHA has made several housekeeping type amendments which are included in this proposal.
The following are the federal-initiated adopted changes:
WAC 296-56-60005 Definitions.
|•||Deleted the definition of "dockboard."|
|•||Added definitions for "dockboards" and "ramps."|
|•||Added a reference.|
|•||Reformatted subsection (5).|
|•||Corrected a measurement.|
|•||Corrected Table C-1 and C-3.|
|•||Added clarifying language relating to providing means for employees on platforms to shut off power to vehicles.|
|•||Added clarifying language relating to special stevedoring gear that suffers damage requiring structural repair will be inspected and retested after repair.|
|•||Corrected the spelling of "bailwater."|
|•||Updated ANSI reference to 1989 edition.|
|•||Updated ANSI reference to 1986 edition.|
|•||Include requirements addressing the storage, patient restraints, bridle configuration, bridle strength and maintenance for stretchers.|
|•||Clarified language relating to personal flotation devices.|
|•||Corrected a measurement.|
|•||Corrected a measurement.|
|•||Corrected a measurement.|
|•||Deleted the definitions for "dockboards" and "ramps." These definitions were added to WAC 296-56-60005.|
|•||Added a reference.|
|•||Corrected a measurement.|
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-56-60005 Definitions, 296-56-60057 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives, 296-56-60073 Miscellaneous auxiliary gear, 296-56-60077 Powered industrial trucks, 296-56-60083 Cranes and derricks, 296-56-60098 Examination and inspection of cranes and derricks, 296-56-60103 Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations, 296-56-60107 Terminal facilities handling menhaden and similar species of fish, 296-56-60109 Eye protection, 296-56-60111 Head protection, 296-56-60115 Other protective measures, 296-56-60123 Guarding of edges, 296-56-60133 Manlifts, 296-56-60209 Fixed ladders, 296-56-60211 Portable ladders, 296-56-60215 Fixed stairways, 296-56-60217 Spiral stairways, 296-56-60219 Employee exits, 296-56-60223 Passage between levels and across openings, 296-56-60233 Related terminal operations and equipment -- Machine guarding, 296-56-60235 Welding, cutting and heating (hot work), 296-56-60237 Spray painting, and 296-56-60243 Fuel handling and storage.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
Adopted under notice filed as WSR 00-16-150 on August 16 , 2000.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 23, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 0, Amended 23, Repealed 0. Effective Date of Rule: February 1, 2001.
October 18, 2000
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-02-024, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99)
"Apron" means that open portion of a marine terminal immediately adjacent to a vessel berth and used in the direct transfer of cargo between the terminal and vessel.
"Assistant director for the division of WISHA services" means the assistant director of WISHA services, department of labor and industries or his/her authorized representative.
"Authorized," in reference to an employee's assignment, means selected by the employer for that purpose.
"Cargo door" (transit shed door) means a door designed to permit transfer of cargo to and from a marine terminal structure.
"Cargo packaging" means any method of containment for shipment, including cases, cartons, crates and sacks, but excluding large units such as intermodal containers, vans or similar devices.
"Confined space" means a space that:
• Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
• Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and
• Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
"Conveyor" means a device designed exclusively for transporting bulk materials, packages or objects in a predetermined path and having fixed or selective points of loading or discharge.
"Danger zone" means any place in or about a machine or piece of equipment where an employee may be struck by or caught between moving parts, caught between moving and stationary objects or parts of the machine, caught between the material and a moving part of the machine, burned by hot surfaces or exposed to electric shock. Examples of danger zones are nip and shear points, shear lines, drive mechanisms, and areas beneath counterweights.
"Designated person" means a person who possesses specialized abilities in a specific area and is assigned by the employer to perform a specific task in that area.
"Dock" means a wharf or pier forming all or part of a waterfront facility, including marginal or quayside berthing facilities; not to be confused with "loading dock" as at a transit shed or container freight station, or with the body of water between piers or wharves.
"Dock facilities" includes all piers, wharves, sheds, aprons, dolphins, cranes, or other gear or equipment owned or controlled by the dock or facility owner, where cargo or materials are loaded, moved or handled to or from a vessel.
"Dockboard" (bridge plate or car plate) means a device
utilized to span the gap between railroad cars, or between
railroad cars or highway vehicles and the loading dock or
platform. A car plate may be fixed, adjustable, portable,
powered, or unpowered.)) "Dockboards" (car and bridge plates)
mean devices for spanning short distances between rail cars or
highway vehicles and loading platforms that do not expose
employees to falls greater than 4 feet (1.22 m).
"Enclosed space" means an indoor space, other than a confined space, that may contain or accumulate a hazardous atmosphere due to inadequate natural ventilation. Examples of enclosed spaces are trailers, railcars, and storage rooms.
"Examination," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, means a comprehensive survey consisting of the criteria outlined in WAC 296-56-60093 through 296-56-60097. The examination is supplemented by a unit proof test in the case of annual survey.
"Flammable atmosphere" means an atmosphere containing more than ten percent of the lower flammable limit (LEL) of a flammable or combustible vapor or dust mixed with air. Such atmospheres are usually toxic as well as flammable.
• As applied to power-operated industrial trucks, means the various devices, such as roll clamps, rotating and sideshifting carriages, magnets, rams, crane arms or booms, load stabilizers, scoops, buckets, and dumping bins, attached to the load end for handling lifts as single or multiple units.
• As applied to cranes, means various attachments applied to the basic machine for the performance of functions such as lifting, clamshell or magnet services.
"Fumigant" is a substance or mixture of substances, used to kill pests or prevent infestation, which is a gas or is rapidly or progressively transformed to the gaseous state even though some nongaseous or particulate matter may remain and be dispersed in the treatment space.
"Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere" means:
• Any substance listed in chapter 296-62 WAC;
• Any material in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172;
• Any article not properly described by a name in the hazardous materials table and hazardous materials communications regulations of the Department of Transportation, 49 CFR Part 172, but which is properly classified under the definition of those categories of dangerous articles given in 49 CFR Part 173;
• Atmospheres having concentrations of airborne chemicals in excess of permissible exposure limits as defined in chapter 296-62 WAC; or
• Any atmosphere with an oxygen content of less than nineteen and one-half percent by volume.
"House falls" means spans and supporting members, winches, blocks, and standing and running rigging forming part of a marine terminal and used with a vessel's cargo gear to load or unload by means of married falls.
"Inspection," as applied to material handling devices required to be certified by this chapter, includes a complete visual examination of all visible parts of the device.
"Intermodal container" means a reusable cargo container of rigid construction and rectangular configuration intended to contain one or more articles of cargo or bulk commodities for transportation by water and one or more other transport modes without intermediate cargo handling. The term includes completely enclosed units, open top units, fractional height units, units incorporating liquid or gas tanks and other variations fitting into the container system, demountable or with attached wheels. It does not include cylinders, drums, crates, cases, cartons, packages, sacks, unitized loads or any other form of packaging.
"Loose gear" means removable or replaceable components of equipment or devices which may be used with or as a part of assembled material handling units for purposes such as making connections, changing line direction and multiplying mechanical advantage. Examples include shackles and snatch blocks.
"Marina" means a small harbor or boat basin providing dockage, supplies, and services for small craft.
"Marine terminal" means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or contiguous areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel. It includes structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation, loading or delivery of waterborne shipments and passengers, and areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.
"Permit-required confined space (permit space)" means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
• Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
• Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
• Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
• Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
"Ramps" mean other flat-surface devices for passage between levels and across openings not covered under "dockboards."
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60005, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60005, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60005, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60005, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60005, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Whenever cargo in a space is or has been stowed, handled, or treated with a fumigant, pesticide, insecticide, or hazardous preservative, a determination shall be made as to whether a hazardous atmosphere is present in the space. Only employees protected as required in subsection (5) of this section shall enter the space if it is hazardous.
(2) Tests to determine the atmospheric concentration of chemicals used to treat cargo shall be:
(a) Appropriate for the hazard involved;
(b) Conducted by designated persons; and
(c) Performed at the intervals necessary to ensure that employee exposure does not exceed the permissible exposure limit for the chemical involved, see chapter 296-62 WAC.
(3) Results of any tests shall be available for at least thirty days.
(4) Chemicals shall only be applied to cargoes by designated persons.
(5) Only designated persons shall enter hazardous atmospheres. Whenever a hazardous atmosphere is entered the following provisions apply.
(a) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be protected by respiratory and emergency protective equipment meeting the requirements of part G of this standard; and
(b) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be instructed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective and emergency equipment. Standby observers, similarly equipped and instructed, shall continuously monitor the activity of employees within such a space.
(6) Signs shall be clearly posted where fumigants, pesticides or hazardous preservatives have created a hazardous atmosphere. These signs shall note the danger, identify specific chemical hazards, and give appropriate information and precautions, including instructions for the emergency treatment of employees affected by any chemical in use.
(7) In the case of containerized shipments of fumigated tobacco, the contents of the container shall be aerated by opening the container doors for a period of forty-eight hours after the completion of fumigation and prior to loading. When tobacco is within shipping cases having polyethylene or similar bag liners, the aeration period shall be seventy-two hours. The employer shall obtain a written warranty from the fumigation facility stating that the appropriate aeration period has been met.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60057, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60057, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60057, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60057, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Routine inspection.
(a) At the completion of each use, loose gear such as slings, chains, bridles, blocks, and hooks shall be so placed as to avoid damage to the gear. Loose gear shall be inspected and any defects corrected before re-use.
(b) All loose gear shall be inspected by the employer or his/her authorized representative before each use and, when necessary, at intervals during its use, to ensure that it is safe. Any gear which is found upon inspection to be unsafe shall not be used until it is made safe.
(c) Defective gear shall not be used. Distorted hooks, shackles, or similar gear shall be discarded.
(d) Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered, or repaired by welding shall be properly heat treated, and before again being put into use, shall be tested and reexamined in the manner set forth in WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.
(2) The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of the tests with each unit of gear concerned clearly identified. The records shall be available for examination by division of consultation and compliance personnel and the employee safety committee.
(3) Wire rope and wire rope slings.
(a) The employer shall ascertain and adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for wire rope and wire rope slings and shall have such ratings available at the terminal. When the manufacturer is unable to supply such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for wire rope and wire rope slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI/ASME B30.9-1984. A design safety factor of at least five shall be maintained for the common sizes of running wire used as falls, in purchases or in such uses as light load slings. Wire rope with a safety factor of less than five may be used only:
(i) In specialized equipment, such as cranes designed to be used with lesser wire rope safety factors;
(ii) In accordance with design factors in standing rigging applications; or
(iii) For heavy lifts or other purposes for which a safety factor of five is impractical and for which the employer can demonstrate that equivalent safety is ensured.
(b) Wire rope or wire rope slings exhibiting any of the following conditions shall not be used:
(i) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three or more broken wires in one strand in one rope lay;
(ii) Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure;
(iii) Evidence of heat damage;
(iv) Excessive wear, corrosion, deformation or other defect in the wire or attachments, including cracks in attachments;
(v) Any indication of strand or wire slippage in end attachments; or
(vi) More than one broken wire in the close vicinity of a socket or swaged fitting.
(c) Four by twenty-nine (4 x 29) wire rope shall not be used in any running rigging.
(d) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. Coverings shall be removable so that splices can be examined. Means used to cover or blunt ends shall not damage the wire.
(e) Where wire rope clips are used to form eyes, the
employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations,
which shall be available at the terminal. If "U" bolt clips are
used and the manufacturer's recommendations are not available,
Table C-1 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of
clips. "U" bolts shall be applied with the "U" section in
contact with the dead end of the rope.
Table C-1 -- Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips
|Improved plow steel, rope diameter||Minimum number of clips||Minimum spacing|
|1/2 or less (1.3)||3||4||3 (7.6)|
|5/8 (1.6)||3||4||3 3/4 (9.5)|
|3/4 (1.9)||4||5||4 1/2 (11.4)|
|7/8 (2.2)||4||5||5 1/4 (13.3)|
|1 (2.5)||5||7||6 (15.2)|
|1 1/8 ((
||6||7||6 3/4 (17.1)|
|1 1/4 (3.2)||6||8||7 1/2
|1 3/8 (3.5)||7||8||8 1/4 (21.0)|
|1 1/2 (3.8)||7||9||9 (22.9)|
(g) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, bull wires, or in single parts used for hoisting shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots.
(h) Eye splices in wire ropes shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two tucks with one-half of the wire cut from each strand. Other forms of splices or connections which are demonstrated to be equally safe may be used.
(i) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in bulling cargo, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
(4) Natural fiber rope.
(a) The employer shall ascertain the manufacturer's ratings for the specific natural fiber rope used and have such ratings available at the terminal. The manufacturer's ratings shall be adhered to and a minimum design safety factor of five maintained.
(b) Eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks. Short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the center line.
(5) Synthetic rope.
(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's ratings and use recommendations for the specific synthetic fiber rope used and shall have such ratings available at the terminal.
(b) Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, when synthetic fiber ropes are substituted for manila ropes of less than three inches (7.62 cm) circumference, the substitute shall be of equal size. Where substituted for manila rope of three inches or more in circumference, the size of the synthetic rope shall be determined from the formula:
(c) In making such substitution, it shall be ascertained that the inherent characteristics of the synthetic fiber are suitable for hoisting.
(6) Removal of natural and synthetic rope from service. Natural or synthetic rope having any of the following defects shall be removed from service:
(a) Abnormal wear;
(b) Powdered fiber between strands;
(c) Sufficient cut or broken fibers to affect the capacity of the rope;
(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands;
(e) Discolorations other than stains not associated with rope damage;
(f) Rotting; or
(g) Distortion or other damage to attached hardware.
(7) Thimbles. Properly fitting thimbles shall be used where any rope is secured permanently to a ring, shackle or attachment, where practical.
(8) Synthetic web slings.
(a) Slings and nets or other combinations of more than one piece of synthetic webbing assembled and used as a single unit (synthetic web slings) shall not be used to hoist loads in excess of the sling's rated capacity.
(b) Synthetic web slings shall be removed from service if they exhibit any of the following defects:
(i) Acid or caustic burns;
(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(iv) Broken or worn stitches;
(v) Distortion or damage to fittings; or
(vi) Display of visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear or damage.
(c) Defective synthetic web slings removed from service shall not be returned to service unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or similar entity. Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the repairer to twice the slings' rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.
(d) Synthetic web slings provided by the employer shall only be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, which shall be made available upon request.
(e) Fittings shall have a breaking strength at least equal to that of the sling to which they are attached and shall be free of sharp edges.
(9) Chains and chain slings used for hoisting.
(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for safe working loads for the sizes of the wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain slings used and shall have such ratings available. When the manufacturer is unable to provide such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for chains and chain slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971.
(b) Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, and other chain not recommended by the manufacturer for slinging or hoisting shall not be used for slinging or hoisting.
(c)(i) Sling chains, including end fastenings, shall be inspected for visible defects before each day's use and as often as necessary during use to ensure integrity of the sling.
(ii) Thorough inspections of chains in use shall be made quarterly to detect wear, defective welds, deformation, increase in length or stretch. The month of inspection shall be indicated on each chain by color of paint on a link or by other effective means.
(iii) Chains shall be removed from service when maximum allowable wear, as indicated in Table C-2, is reached at any point of link.
(iv) Chain slings shall be removed from service when stretch has increased the length of a measured section by more than five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when a link has a raised scarf or defective weld.
(v) Only designated persons shall inspect chains used for slinging and hoisting.
Table C-2 -- Maximum Allowable
Wear at Any Point of Link
|Chain size||Maximum allowable wear|
|1 3/4||(4.4)||1 1/32||(0.9)|
(e) Wrought iron chains in constant use shall be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six months. Heat treatment certificates shall be available at the terminal. Alloy chains shall not be annealed.
(f) Kinked or knotted chains shall not be used for lifting. Chains shall not be shortened by bolting, wiring or knotting. Makeshift links or fasteners such as wire, bolts or rods shall not be used.
(g) Hooks, rings, links and attachments affixed to sling chains shall have rated capacities at least equal to that of the chains to which they are attached.
(h) Chain slings shall bear identification of size, grade and rated capacity.
(a) If available, the manufacturer's recommended safe working loads for shackles shall not be exceeded. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, Table C-3 shall apply.
(b) Screw pin shackles used aloft in house fall or other gear, except in cargo hook assemblies, shall have their pins moused or otherwise effectively secured.
Table C-3 -- Safe Working Loads for Shackles
|Material size||Safe working load in 2,000 lb tons|
|1 1/8||(2.9)||1 1/4||(3.2)||6.7|
|1 1/4||(3.2)||1 3/8||(3.5)||8.2|
|1 3/8||(3.5)||1 1/2||(3.8)||10.0|
In Pounds or Tons of 2,000 Pounds
|3 1/4||1 1/16||1.0||1.7||1.4||1.0|
|3 1/2||1 1/8||1.2||2.1||1.7||1.2|
|3 3/4||1 1/4||1.35||2.3||1.9||1.35|
|4 1/2||1 1/2||1.8||3.1||2.5||1.8|
|5 1/2||1 3/4||2.6||4.5||3.7||2.6|
|6 1/2||2 1/8||3.6||6.2||5.1||3.6|
|TABLE G-2 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED
PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE,
WIRE ROPE AND WIRE SLINGS
(IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
6 x 19 Classification
6 x 37 Classification
(A) -- Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.
(B) -- Mechanical Sleeve attachment.
(C) -- Hand Tucked Splice attachment.
TABLE G-3 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE SLING (IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
|Two-leg bridle or basket hitch|
|6 x 19 Classification|
|6 x 37 Classification|
|(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
|TABLE G-4 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED
PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE AND
WIRE ROPE SLINGS
(In Tons of 2,000 pounds)
6 x 19 Classification
6 x 37 Classification
|(A) -- Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.
(B) -- Mechanical Sleeve attachment.
(C) -- Hand Tucked Splice attachment.
|Two-leg bridle or basket hitch|
|6 x 19 Classification|
|6 x 37 Classification|
|(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-6 ALLOY STEEL CHAIN
(In Tons of 2,000 Pounds)
(11) Hooks other than hand hooks.
(a) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.
(b) Loads shall be applied to the throat of the hook since loading the point may overstress, bend, or spring the hook.
(c) Hooks shall be inspected once a month to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Bent or sprung hooks shall not be used.
(d) Crane hooks. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection shall be performed at least once each year. When testing by x-ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.
(e) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or x-rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.
(f) Teeth of case hooks shall not be split, cracked, or deformed.
(g) Jaws of patent clamp type plate hooks shall be kept in safe condition so that they will grip plates securely.
(a) Pallets shall be made and maintained to safely support and carry loads being handled. Fastenings of reusable pallets used for hoisting shall be bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails or fastenings of equivalent holding strength.
(b) Damaged pallets shall be stored in designated areas and identified.
(c) Reusable wing or lip-type pallets shall be hoisted by
bar bridles or other suitable gear and shall have an overhanging
wing or lip of at least three inches ((
(76.2 mm))) (7.62 cm). They shall not be hoisted by wire slings alone.
(d) Loaded pallets that do not meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be hoisted only after being placed on pallets meeting such requirements or shall be handled by other means providing equivalent protection.
(e) Bridles for handling flush end or box-type pallets shall be designed to prevent disengagement from the pallet under load.
(f) Pallets shall be stacked or placed to prevent falling, collapsing or otherwise causing a hazard under standard operating conditions.
(g) Disposable pallets intended only for one use shall not be re-used for hoisting.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60073, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60073, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60073, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), § 296-56-60073, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60073, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60073, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60073, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Applicability. This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or equipment handling within a marine terminal. Employers must comply with the provisions of WAC 296-24-230 and this section. It does not apply to over-the-road vehicles.
(a) Modifications, such as adding counterweights, that might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety shall not be performed without either the manufacturer's prior written approval or the written approval of a professional engineer experienced with the equipment who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available. Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals shall be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.
(b) Unauthorized personnel shall not ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided when riding is authorized.
(c) When a powered industrial truck is left unattended,
load-engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized
and brakes set. Unless the truck is in view and within
twenty-five feet (((
7.6)) 7.62 m) of the operator, power shall be
shut off. Wheels shall be blocked or curbed if the truck is on
(d) Powered industrial trucks shall not be operated inside highway vehicles or railcars having damage which could affect operational safety.
(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be marked with their rated capacities, which shall be visible to the operator.
(f) Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.
(g) Drivers shall ascend and descend grades slowly.
(h) Drivers shall slow down and sound the horn at crossaisles and other locations where visibility is obstructed.
(i) If the load obstructs the forward view drivers shall travel with the load trailing.
(j) Steering knobs shall not be used unless the truck is equipped with power steering.
(k) When powered industrial trucks use cargo lifting devices that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means shall be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been engaged.
(l) When cargo is being towed on pipe trucks or similar equipment, a safe means shall be provided to protect the driver from sliding loads.
(a) Only designated persons shall perform maintenance and repair.
(b) Batteries on all powered trucks shall be disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system unless power is necessary for testing and repair. On trucks equipped with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy shall be safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
(c) Replacement parts whose function might affect operational safety shall be equivalent in strength and performance capability to the original parts which they replace.
(d) Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking shall be operable and in safe condition.
(e) Powered industrial trucks shall be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices shall not be removed or made inoperative except as otherwise provided in this section. Trucks with a fuel system leak or any other safety defect shall not be operated.
(f) Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated as safe for such repairs.
(4) Approved trucks.
(a) "Approved power-operated industrial truck" means one listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(b) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, shall bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
(c) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous and the provisions of United States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used.
(5) Duties of operator.
(a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are:
(i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner.
(ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work.
(iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle.
(iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when traveling with a load on the fork lift jitney.
(b) Unobstructed view. When traveling, power-propelled vehicles shall at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator shall be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so.
(c) Employee riding safety. Operators and authorized passengers shall not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor shall they be permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position.
(d) Moving vehicles. Vehicles shall be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles where view is obstructed. Vehicles shall not be pushed with blades of a forklift.
(e) Moving highway trailers. In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers, trailers shall be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution shall be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers shall be loaded in a manner which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer shall be evenly distributed so as not to cause the trailer to tip to one side.
(f) Prohibited forms of riding. Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited.
(g) Regular seats for riders. No one except the operator shall ride on power-driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers.
(h) Jumping on or off moving vehicles. Employees shall not jump on or off moving vehicles.
(i) Reporting defects. If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator shall report same immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle shall not be used for production work until it has been made safe.
(6) Vehicle equipment and maintenance.
(a) Horns and lights. All power-propelled vehicles shall be provided with horns or other warning devices.
(b) Power-propelled vehicles used for night work, when required to travel away from an illuminated work area shall be equipped with a light or lights directed in the direction of travel in order to safely travel about the area.
(c) Guards on operator's platform. Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position shall be equipped with a substantial guard securely attached to the platform or frame of the vehicle in such a manner as to protect the operator from falling objects and so designed that the operator can easily mount or dismount from the operating station.
(d) Seat cushions. All vehicles having a driver's seat shall be provided with resilient seat cushions fixed in place.
(e) Securing of counterbalances. Counterbalances of all power-driven vehicles shall be positively secured to prevent accidental dislodging, but may be a removable type which may be removed, if desired, prior to hoisting the vehicle.
(f) Exhaust pipes and mufflers. Exhaust pipes and mufflers of internal combustion engines, where workers are exposed to contact shall be isolated or insulated. Exhaust pipes shall be constructed to discharge not less than seventy-two inches above the floor on jitneys and eighty-four inches on forklifts or less than twenty inches from the floor.
(g) Ventilation where internal combustion vehicles are used. Internal combustion engines may be used only in areas where adequate ventilation is provided.
(h) Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations shall not exceed the levels specified in WAC 296-56-60055.
(i) When disputes arise concerning degree of concentration, methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions should be referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.
(j) Cargo truck couplings. Couplings installed on cargo trucks (four-wheelers) shall be of a type which will prevent accidental disengaging.
(k) Operating levers. Operating levers on power-driven vehicles shall be so placed as not to project toward the operator's body.
(l) Front axle assembly. The front axle assembly on all trailers shall be securely fastened to the truck bed.
(m) Air line hook-up. Tractors hauling heavy duty highway trailers shall have an air line brake hook-up.
(n) Floor mats. On power-driven vehicles where the operator stands on a platform, resilient foot mats shall be securely attached.
(o) Cleaning vehicles. All power-propelled vehicles shall be cleaned at frequent intervals to remove any accumulation of dust and grease that may present a hazard.
(7) Forklift trucks.
(a) Overhead guards.
(i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards shall be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects.
(ii) Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view,
and openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches
15.2)) 15.24 cm) in one of the two directions, width or
length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the
smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard.
(iii) Overhead guards shall be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.
(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.
(v) Overhead guards shall be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.
(b) Supplies to ship's rail. Cargo or supplies shall not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading.
(c) Position of forks. When standing, lift forklift forks shall be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks shall be kept as low as possible.
(d) Forklift use in gangplank moving. Not less than two forklifts shall be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded.
(e) Forklift seat covers. Seats on forklifts shall be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather.
(f) Raised equipment to be blocked. Workers shall not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall be used in conjunction with the jack.
(g) Maximum speed. The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks shall not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit shall be prominently posted on such docks.
(h) Load backrest extensions. Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks shall be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.
(i) Forks. Forks, fork extensions and other attachments shall be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(j) Counterweights. Counterweights shall be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged.
(k) Capacities and weights.
(i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, shall not be exceeded. Rated capacities shall be marked on the vehicle and shall be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, shall be similarly marked.
(ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load shall not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved.
(l) Lifting of employees. Employees may be elevated by forklift trucks only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform shall meet the following requirements:
(i) The platform shall have a railing complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).
(ii) The platform shall have toeboards complying with WAC 296-56-60123(4), if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.
(iii) When the truck has controls which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(iv) Employees on the platform shall be protected from exposure to moving truck parts.
(v) The platform floor shall be skid resistant.
(vi) A truck operator shall be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage.
(vii) When the truck has controls elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle.
(viii) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments.
(8) Bulk cargo-moving vehicles.
(a) Where a seated operator may come into contact with projecting overhead members, crawler-type bulk-cargo-moving vehicles that are rider operated shall be equipped with operator guards.
(b) Guards and their attachment points shall be so designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the drawbar pull of the machine.
(c) After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles shall be equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a rollover or upset.
(9) Straddle trucks.
(a) Accessibility. Straddle trucks shall have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent.
(i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels shall be guarded as follows:
(A) The upper sprocket shall be fully enclosed;
(B) The upper half of the lower sprocket shall be enclosed; and
(C) The drive chain shall be enclosed to a height of eight
2.6)) 2.44 m) except for that portion at the lower half
of the lower sprocket.
(ii) Gears shall be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator shall be guarded.
(iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel-deflecting guards shall be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels.
(c) Visibility. Operator visibility shall be provided in all directions of movement.
(10) Trailer-spotting tractors.
(a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) shall be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel.
(b) Rear cab windows shall be of safety glass or equivalent material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 00-01-176, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/21/99, effective 3/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60077, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60077, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60077, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60077, filed 12/11/84.]
(a) This section through WAC 296-56-60103 applies to every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment performing the functions of a crane or derrick except as noted in (b) of this subsection.
(b) This section does not apply to small industrial truck-type cranes, container handling toploaders and sideloaders, chain hoists, and mobile straddle-type cranes incapable of straddling two or more intermodal containers (sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width).
(a) Except for bridge cranes covered by subsection (7) of this section, cranes and derricks having ratings that vary with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables shall have a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete range of the manufacturer's (or design) capacity ratings. The rating chart shall include all operating radii (outreach) for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths as applicable, with and without outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer shall be included.
(b) The manufacturer's (or design) rated loads for the conditions of use shall not be exceeded.
(c) Designated working loads shall not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturer's approval. When the manufacturer's services are not available or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis shall be performed or approved by a person accredited for certifying the equipment under WAC 296-56-60093. Cranes shall conform with the manufacturer's specifications or any current ANSI standards that apply. Engineering design analysis shall be performed by a registered professional engineer competent in the field of cranes and derricks. Any structural changes necessitated by the change in rating shall be carried out.
(3) Radius indicator. When the rated load varies with the boom radius, the crane or derrick shall be fitted with a boom angle or radius indicator visible to the operator.
(4) Prohibited usage.
(a) Equipment shall not be used in a manner that exerts sideloading stresses upon the crane or derrick boom.
(b) No crane or derrick having a visible or known defect that affects safe operation shall be used.
(5) Protective devices.
(a) When exposed moving parts such as gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees during crane and derrick operations, those parts shall be securely guarded.
(b) Crane hooks shall be latched or otherwise secured to prevent accidental load disengagement.
(c) When hoisting personnel in an approved man basket, the hook shall have a positive safety latch to prevent rollouts.
(a) Operating controls.
(i) Crane and derrick operating controls shall be clearly marked, or a chart indicating their function shall be posted at the operator's position.
(ii) All crane controls shall operate in a uniform manner within a given port.
(iii) Overhead bridge and container gantry crane operating control levers shall be self-centering so that they will automatically move to the "off" position when the operator releases the control.
(b) Booms. Cranes with elevatable booms and without operable automatic limiting devices shall be provided with boom stops if boom elevation can exceed maximum design angles from the horizontal.
(c) Foot pedals. Foot pedals shall have a nonskid surface.
(d) Access. Ladders, stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps or equivalent means shall be provided as necessary to ensure safe access to footwalks, cab platforms, the cab and any portion of the superstructure which employees must reach.
(i) Footwalks shall be of rigid construction, and shall be capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds (4.79 kPa) per square foot.
(ii) If more than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height, vertical ladders shall comply with WAC 296-56-60209 (4), (5)(a), (5)(b)(iii) and (5)(b)(iv).
(iii) Stairways on cranes shall be equipped with rigid handrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123 (5)(a).
(iv) If the top of a ladder or stairway or any position thereof is located where a moving part of a crane, such as a revolving house, could strike an employee ascending or descending the ladder or stairway, a prominent warning sign shall be posted at the foot of the ladder or stairway. A system of communication (such as a buzzer or bell) shall be established and maintained between the foot of the ladder or stairway and the operator's cab.
(e) Operator's station. The cab, controls, and mechanism of the equipment shall be so arranged that the operator has a clear view of the load or signal person, when one is used. Cab glass, when used, shall be safety plate glass or equivalent and good visibility shall be maintained through the glass. Clothing, tools and equipment shall be stored so as not to interfere with access, operation, or the operator's view.
(f) A seat (lap) belt, meeting the requirements of 49 CFR 571.208-210 for a Type 1 seat belt assembly, shall be installed on the operator's seat of high speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.
(g) Counterweights or ballast. Cranes shall be operated only with the specified type and amount of ballast or counterweights. Ballast or counterweight shall be located and secured only as provided in the manufacturer's or design specifications, which shall be available.
(h) Outriggers. Outriggers shall be used according to the manufacturer's specifications or design data, which shall be available. Floats, when used, shall be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support shall be of sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that may affect safety and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane from shifting or toppling under load.
(i) Exhaust gases. Engine exhaust gases shall be discharged away from the normal position of crane operating personnel.
(j) Electrical equipment shall be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact. Designated persons may work on energized equipment only if necessary during inspection, maintenance, or repair.
(k) Fire extinguisher.
(i) At least one portable fire extinguisher of at least 5-BC rating or equivalent shall be accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.
(ii) No portable fire extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents shall be used.
(l) Rope on drums. At least three full turns of rope shall remain on ungrooved drums, and two turns on grooved drums, under all operating conditions. Wire rope shall be secured to drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles, or equivalent means. Fiber rope fastenings are prohibited.
(m) Assembly or disassembly of boom sections. Mobile crane booms being assembled or disassembled on the ground with or without the support of the boom harness shall be blocked to prevent dropping of the boom or boom sections.
(i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or gear train.
(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction, shall, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with a controlled braking means to control lowering speeds.
(iii) Holding brakes for hoist units shall have not less than the following percentage of the rated load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied:
(A) One hundred twenty-five percent when used with a controlled braking means.
(B) One hundred percent when used with a mechanically-controlled braking means.
(C) One hundred percent when two holding brakes are provided.
(iv) All power control braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
(o) Each crane or derrick shall be equipped with sufficient lights to maintain five foot candles in the working area around the load hook. All crane ladders and machinery houses shall be illuminated at a minimum of two candle power.
(p) Light fixtures connected to the boom, gantry legs, or machinery house shall be provided with safety devices which will prevent the light fixture from falling in case of bracket failure.
(q) Electronic devices may be installed to prevent collision subject to approval of the accredited certification agency.
(r) On all rail gantry cranes, truck guards shall extend on the ends of the trucks, close to the top of the rail to prevent worker's feet from being caught between the rail and wheel. This subsection does not apply if rail sweeps are present.
(s) All hydraulic cylinders used to control crane booms or to provide crane stability (outriggers) shall be equipped with a pilot operated check valve or a device which will prevent the boom or outrigger from retracting in case of failure of a component of the hydraulic system.
(t) Gantry cranes shall be provided with automatic rail clamps or other devices to prevent the crane from moving when not being used or when power is off.
(7) Rail-mounted cranes (excluding locomotive types).
(a) For the purposes of this section, rail-mounted cranes include bridge cranes and portal cranes.
(b) Rated load marking. The rated loads of bridge cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane and in the cab. If there is more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or on its load block. Marking shall be legible from the ground level.
(c) Wind-indicating devices.
(i) Each rail-mounted bridge and portal crane located outside of an enclosed structure shall be fitted with an operable wind-indicating device.
(ii) The wind indicating device shall provide a visible or audible warning to alert the operator of high wind conditions. That warning shall be transmitted whenever the following circumstances are present:
(A) When wind velocity reaches the warning speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations; and
(B) When wind velocity reaches the shutdown speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations, at which work is to be stopped and the crane secured.
(iii) Instructions. The employer shall post operating instructions for high wind conditions in the operator's cab of each crane. Operators shall be directed to comply with these instructions. The instructions shall include procedures for responding to high wind alerts and for any coordination necessary with other cranes.
(d) Securing of cranes in high winds.
(i) When the wind reaches the crane's warning speed:
(A) Gantry travel shall be stopped; and
(B) The crane shall be readied for shutdown.
(ii) When the wind reaches the crane's shutdown speed:
(A) Any portion of the crane spanning or partially spanning a vessel shall be moved clear of the vessel if safe to do so; and
(B) The crane shall be secured against travel, using all available means of securing.
(e) The employer shall monitor local weather conditions by subscribing to a weather service or using equally effective means.
(f) Stops and bumpers.
(i) The ends of all tracks shall be equipped with stops or bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of the wheel, it shall be of a height not less than the radius of the wheel.
(ii) When more than one crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same bridge, each crane or trolley shall be equipped with bumpers or equivalent devices at adjacent ends subject to impact.
(g) Employee exposure to crane movement. When employees may be in the vicinity of the tracks, crane trucks shall be equipped with personnel-deflecting guards.
(h) Pedestrian clearance. If the track area is used for
employee passage or for work, a minimum clearance of three feet
0.9)) 0.91 m) shall be provided between trucks or the
structures of rail-mounted cranes and any other structure or
obstruction. When the required clearance is not available on at
least one side of the crane's trucks, the area shall not be used
and shall be marked and identified.
(i) Warning devices. Rail-mounted cranes shall be equipped with an effective audible and visible travel warning device which shall be used to warn employees who may be in the path of the moving crane.
(i) Means of communication shall be provided between the operator's cab and the base of the gantry of all rail-mounted cranes. This requirement may be met by telephone, radio, sound-signaling system or other effective methods, but not solely by hand-signaling.
(ii) All rail-mounted cranes thirty ton and above capacity shall be equipped with a voice hailing device (PA system) from the operator to the ground, audible within one hundred feet.
(k) Limit switch bypass systems shall be secured during all cargo operations. Such bypass systems shall not be used except in an emergency or during noncargo handling operations such as stowing cranes or derricks or performing repairs. When a situation requiring the use of a bypass system or the readjustment of a limit switch arises, it shall be done only under the direction of a crane mechanic.
(l) Cranes and crane operations -- Scope and application. The sections of this chapter, WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60099, apply to cranes, derricks, and crane operations.
(m) Signal persons. A signal person shall be required when a crane operator's visibility is obstructed. When a signal person is required to transmit hand signals, they shall be in such a position that the operator can plainly see the signals.
(n) Signals. All operators and signal persons shall use standard signals as illustrated for longshore crane operations. (See Appendices C and D, at the end of this chapter.)
(o) Signal person for power units. Where power units, such as cranes and winches are utilized and signaling is required, the operator shall be instructed as to who is authorized to give signals. The operator shall take signals only from such authorized person. In case of emergency, any worker shall be authorized to give a stop signal.
(i) No draft shall be hoisted unless the winch or crane operator can clearly see the draft itself or see the signals of any signal person associated with the operation.
(ii) Loads requiring continuous manual guidance while in motion shall be provided with tag lines.
(p) Landing loads. Persons assisting in landing a load shall face the load and use caution to prevent themselves from getting in a position where they may be caught between the load and a fixed object.
(8) Stabilizing of locomotive cranes. Loads may be hoisted by locomotive cranes only if outriggers are in place, unless means are taken to prevent the load being carried by the truck springs of the crane.
(a) Use of cranes together. When two or more cranes hoist a load in unison, a designated person shall direct the operation and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the load and movements to be made.
(b) Guarding of swing radius. Accessible areas within the swing radius of the body of a revolving crane shall be physically guarded during operations to prevent an employee from being caught between the body of the crane and any fixed structure or between parts of the crane.
(c) Securing mobile crane components in transit. The crane's superstructure and boom shall be secured against rotation and carried in line with the direction of travel except when negotiating turns with an operator in the cab or when the boom is supported on a dolly. The empty hook or other attachment shall be secured.
(d) Unattended cranes. The following steps shall be taken before leaving a crane unattended between work periods:
(i) Suspended loads, such as those hoisted by lifting magnets or clamshell buckets, shall be landed unless the storage position or maximum hoisting of the suspended device will provide equivalent safety;
(ii) Clutches shall be disengaged;
(iii) The power supply shall be shut off;
(iv) The crane shall be secured against accidental travel; and
(v) The boom shall be lowered or secured against movement.
(e) Operating near electric power lines.
(i) Clearance. Unless electrical distribution and transmission lines are deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or unless insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the crane have been erected to prevent physical contact with lines, cranes may be operated near power lines only in accordance with following:
(A) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance
between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten
3)) 3.05 m);
(B) For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between
the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be either 10
3)) 3.05 m) plus 0.4 inch ((( 10)) 10.16 mm) for each 1 kV
over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never
less than ten feet; and
(C) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance
shall be a minimum of four feet (((
1.2)) 1.22 m).
(ii) Boom guards. Cage-type boom guards, insulating links or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but they shall not be used in place of the clearances required by subsection (9)(e)(i) of this section.
(iii) Determination of energized lines. Any overhead line shall be presumed to be energized until the owner of the line indicates that it is not energized.
(10) Protection for employees being hoisted.
(a) No employee shall be hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick except:
(i) On intermodal container spreaders, equipped in accordance with this subsection; or
(ii) In a boatswain's chair or other device rigged to prevent it from accidental disengagement from the hook or supporting member; or
(iii) On a platform meeting the following requirements:
(A) Enclosed by a railing or other means providing protection equivalent to that described in WAC 296-56-60123(3). If equipped with open railings, the platform shall be fitted with toe boards;
(B) Having a safety factor of four based on ultimate strength;
(C) Bearing a plate or permanent marking indicating maximum load rating, which shall not be exceeded, and the weight of the platform itself;
(D) Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from opening accidentally;
(E) Equipped with overhead protection for employees on the platform if they are exposed to falling objects or overhead hazards;
(F) Secured to the load line by means other than wedge and socket attachments, unless the free (bitter) end of the line is secured back to itself by a clamp placed as close above the wedge as possible.
(b) Except in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all overhead and container gantry cranes used to hoist personnel shall operate in power up and power down, with automatic brake application when not hoisting or lowering.
(c) Variable radius booms of a crane or derrick used to hoist personnel shall be so constructed or secured as to prevent accidental boom movement.
(d) Platforms or devices used to hoist employees shall be inspected for defects before each day's use and shall be removed from service if defective.
(e) Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and communication with the operator or signal person.
(f) Operators shall remain at the controls when employees are hoisted.
(g) Cranes shall not travel while employees are hoisted, except in emergency or in normal tier to tier transfer of employees during container operations.
(h) When intermodal container spreaders are used to transfer
employees to or from the tops of containers, the spreaders shall
be equipped with a personnel platform equipped with fixed
railings, provided that the railings have one or more openings
for access. The openings shall be fitted with a means of
closure, such as chains with hooks. Existing railings shall be at
least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) in height. New railings
installed after October 3, 1983 shall be forty-two inches (1.07
m), plus or minus three inches (((
7.6)) 7.62 cm), in height. The
provisions of (a)(iii)(C), (D), and (F) of this subsection also
apply to personnel platforms when container spreaders are used.
(i) Positive safety latch-type hooks or moused hooks shall be used.
(j) Employees shall not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a load is engaged.
Additional requirements are located in WAC 296-24-23533.
(11) Routine inspection.
(a) Designated persons shall visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in functional operating components and shall report any defect found to the employer. The employer shall inform the operator of the findings.
(b) A designated person shall thoroughly inspect all functional components and accessible structural features of each crane or device at monthly intervals.
(c) Any defects found during such inspections which may create a safety hazard shall be corrected before further use. Repairs shall be performed only by designated persons.
(d) A record of monthly inspections shall be maintained for six months in or on the crane or derrick or at the terminal.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60083, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60083, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60083, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60083, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60083, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60083, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) An examination shall be carried out in conjunction with each annual unit proof load test. The accredited person, or their authorized representative, shall make a determination as to correction of deficiencies found. The examination shall include the following: (Refer to WAC 296-56-60093(8) for definition of accredited person.)
(a) All functional operating mechanisms shall be examined for improper function, maladjustment, and excessive component wear, with particular attention to sheaves, pins, and drums. The examinations shall include operation with partial load, in which all functions and movements, including maximum possible rotation in both directions, are checked.
(b) All safety devices shall be examined for malfunction.
(c) Lines, tanks, valves, drains, pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems shall be examined for deterioration or leakage.
(d) Rope reeving shall comply with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(e) Deformed, cracked, or excessively corroded members in crane structure and boom shall be repaired or replaced as necessary.
(f) Loose bolts, rivets, or other connections shall be corrected.
(g) Worn, cracked, or distorted parts affecting safe operation shall be corrected.
(h) All brakes, used to control the load, boom or travel of the crane, shall be tested. Air, hydraulic, or electrically operated brakes shall be of such design as to set and stop the load if the source of power fails.
(i) Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets shall be examined for excessive wear and free operation.
(j) Load, boom angle, or other indicators shall be checked over their full range. Defects in such indicators shall be immediately corrected.
(k) Where used, clamshell buckets or other similar equipment, such as magnets, shall be carefully examined in all respects, with particular attention to closing line wires and sheaves. The accredited person may supplement such examination by requesting any operational tests deemed appropriate.
(l) Careful examination of the junction areas of removable boom sections, particularly for proper seating, cracks, deformities, or other defects in securing bolts and in the vicinity of such bolts, shall be made.
(m) All platforms, steps and footwalks located on cranes where workers are exposed to the hazard of slipping shall be of a nonslip material. Wire rope used for railings on cranes shall be kept taut at all times.
|Note:||In critical areas such as footwalks along booms, a grating material should be used.|
(o) Such other examination or supplemental functional tests shall be made as may be deemed necessary by the accredited person under the circumstances.
(2) Wire rope.
(a) All wire rope shall be inspected at least once a month, dependent upon conditions to which the wire ropes are subjected, and at intervals not exceeding a twelve-month period. Records of inspection of wire rope shall be kept and shall be available to the department of labor and industries representative. Records shall be kept for one year. Refer to the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-24013.
(b) Wire rope shall not be used if in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds ten percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. Particular attention shall be given to the condition of those sections of wire rope adjacent to any terminal connections, those sections exposed to abnormal wear, and those sections not normally exposed for examination.
(c) Documentation available for inspection shall include wire rope test certificates relating to any replacements made since the last unit test or annual examination as required.
(d) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same construction as originally furnished by the equipment manufacturer or contemplated in the design, unless otherwise recommended by the equipment or wire rope manufacturer due to actual working conditions. In the absence of specific requirements, wire rope shall be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and shall have the capacity to handle five times the heaviest expected load, verified by wire rope test certificate.
(e) Wire rope in use on equipment previously constructed and prior to initial certification of said equipment shall not be required to be tested but shall be subject to thorough examination at the time of initial certification of the equipment.
(3)(a) Accessory components. Container spreader bar twist locks shall be carefully examined periodically and at the time of annual examination and inspection. Cracked or deformed hooks shall be discarded immediately and not re-used.
(b) Crane hooks and container spreader bar twist lock. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection shall be performed at least once each year. When testing by x-ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.
(4) In the event that heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, the latest heat treatment certificate attesting to compliance with the manufacturer's specifications shall be part of the available documentation. Heat treatment shall be carried out in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer by persons competent to perform such work.
(5) Replacement parts shall be of equal or better quality than the original equipment and suitable for the purpose. Repairs or modifications shall be such as to render the equipment equal to or better than the original construction or design.
(6) In cases of foreign manufactured cranes, there shall be an owner's warranty that the design is adequate for the intended use. The warranty shall be based on a thorough examination of the design specifications by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.
(7) The certifications required by this section shall be performed in accordance with WAC 296-56-60093 by persons accredited by the assistant director of WISHA services.
(8) The marine terminal material handling devices listed below shall be certified in the following manner:
(a) Each crane and derrick shall be tested and examined as a unit annually. A copy of the certificate of tests and examinations shall be posted in the crane operator's cab.
(b) Bulk cargo spouts and suckers, together with any portable extensions and rigging or outriggers supporting them vertically, shall be examined annually. Certificates attesting to the required examination shall be made readily available for inspection.
(c) Vertical pocket or bucket conveyors such as banana, sugar, and grain marine legs (other than those within a grain elevator structure) used within a marine terminal facility shall be examined annually. The annual examination shall include all supporting structures, rigging, mechanical components and observation of all steps of operations. Certificates attesting to the required examinations shall be readily available for inspection.
(d)(i) House fall cargo-handling gear shall be proof load tested as a unit upon initial certification and every fourth year thereafter. An examination shall be carried out in conjunction with each unit proof load test and annually thereafter. The unit test shall consist of a proof load of twenty-five percent in excess of the rated safe working load. Examinations shall include all supporting structures and components. Certificates attesting to the required tests and examinations shall be readily available for inspection.
(ii) House fall span beams or other house fall block supports shall be marked with the safe working load, which shall not be exceeded.
(e) Special gear.
(i) Special stevedoring gear provided by the employer, the strength of which depends upon components other than commonly used stock items such as shackles, ropes or chains, shall be tested as a unit in accordance with the following table before initially being put into use (see Table A). In addition, any special stevedoring gear that suffers damage necessitating structural repair shall be inspected and retested after repair and before being returned to service.
|Safe Working Load||Proof Load|
|Up to 20 short tons . . . . . . . . . . . .||25 percent in excess|
|Over 20 to 50 short tons . . . . . . . . . . . .||5 short tons in excess|
|Over 50 short tons . . . . . . . . . . . .||10 percent in excess|
(iii) Every spreader not a part of ship's gear and used for hoisting intermodal containers shall be tested to a proof load equal to twenty-five percent in excess of its rated capacity. Additionally, any spreader which suffers damage necessitating structural repair shall be retested after repair and before being returned to service.
(iv) Certificates attesting to the required tests shall be available for inspection.
(v) All cargo handling gear covered by this section with a
SWL greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or ((
metric tons) shall be proof load tested according to Table A
every four years in accordance with subsection (7) of this
section or by a designated person.
(f) Wire rope and loose gear used for material handling shall be tested and certified before being placed into use in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-56-60097. Certificates attesting to the required tests, inspections and examinations shall be available.
(9) Disassembly and reassembly of equipment does not require recertification of the equipment provided that the equipment is reassembled and used in a manner consistent with its certification.
(10) Equipment certified in Washington and transferred to a site in another state does not require recertification in this state upon its return, until the next inspection or examination becomes due as if it had not been moved.
(11) Certification procedures shall not be construed as a substitute for, or cause for elimination of, normal operational inspection and maintenance routine throughout the year.
(12)(a) Every unit of equipment requiring annual certification shall have had such annual certification within the previous twelve months. Equipment requiring annual certification shall have had such annual certification within the previous twelve months, except that no annual certification is required within twelve months after any required certification. Annual examinations for certification may be accomplished up to one month early without effect on subsequent due dates.
(b) When certified equipment is out of service for six months or more beyond the due date of a certification inspection, an examination equivalent to an initial certification, including unit proof load test, shall be performed before the equipment re-enters service.
(13) Loose gear shall bear a legible mark indicating that it has been tested (see WAC 296-56-60097). Single sheave blocks shall be marked with safe working loads and proof test loads. Marks relating to testing shall be identifiable on the related certificates, which shall be available.
(14) The certification requirements of this section do not apply to the following equipment:
(a) Industrial trucks and small industrial crane trucks; and
(b) Any straddle truck not capable of straddling two or more intermodal containers sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width.
(15) Safe working load.
(a) The safe working load of gear as specified in this section shall not be exceeded.
(b) All cargo handling gear provided by the employer with a
safe working load greater than five short tons (10,000 lbs. or
4.5)) 4.54 metric tons) shall have its safe working load
plainly marked on it.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60098, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60098, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60098, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60098, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60098, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Every intermodal container shall be legibly and permanently marked with:
(a) The weight of the container when empty, in pounds;
(b) The maximum cargo weight the container is designed to carry, in pounds; and
(c) The sum of the maximum weight of the container with cargo, in pounds (gross container capacity).
(2) No container shall be hoisted by any crane or derrick unless the following conditions have been met:
(a) The employer shall ascertain from the carrier whether a container to be hoisted is loaded or empty. Empty containers shall be identified before loading or discharge in such a manner as will inform every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of loading or discharging, and every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, that the container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests or markings on the container.
(b) In the case of a loaded container:
(i) The actual gross weight shall be plainly marked so as to be visible to the crane operator, other hoisting equipment operator, signalman, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation; or
(ii) The cargo stowage plan or equivalent permanently recorded display serving the same purpose, containing the actual gross weight and the serial number or other positive identification of that specific container, shall be provided to the crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, if any, and to every supervisor and foreman on the site and in charge of the operation.
(c) Every outbound loaded container which is received at a marine terminal ready to load aboard a vessel without further consolidation or loading shall be weighed to obtain the actual gross weight before being hoisted.
(d)(i) When container weighing scales are located at a marine terminal, any outbound container with a load consolidated at that terminal shall be weighed to obtain an actual weight before being hoisted.
(ii) If the terminal has no scales, the actual gross weight may be calculated on the basis of the container's contents and the container's empty weight. The weights used in the calculation shall be posted conspicuously on the container, with the name of the person making the calculation and the date.
(iii) Container weights shall be subject to random sample weight checks at the nearest weighing facility. In cases where such weight checks or experience otherwise indicate consistently inaccurate weights, the weight of containers so calculated at the source from which the inaccurate weights originated shall no longer be recognized as true gross weights. Such containers shall not be hoisted unless actual gross weights have been obtained by weighing.
(e) The following containers are exempted from the requirements of (c) and (d) of this subsection:
(i) Open type vehicle containers.
(ii) The container is marked on the outside in such a manner that an employee can readily discern that the container is carrying vehicles.
(iii) Containers built specifically for the carriage of compressed gases.
(iv) The container carries only completely assembled vehicles and no other cargo.
(v) The vehicles were loaded into the container at the marine terminal.
(f) The weight of loaded inbound containers from foreign ports shall be determined by weighing or by the method of calculation described in (d)(ii) of this subsection or by shipping documents.
(g) Any scale used within Washington state to weigh containers for the purpose of the requirements of this section shall meet the accuracy standards of the state or local public authority in which the scale is located.
(3) No container shall be hoisted if its actual gross weight exceeds the weight marked as required in subsection (1)(c) of this section, or if it exceeds the capacity of the crane or other hoisting device intended to be used.
(4)(a) Marked or designated areas shall be set aside within a container or roll-on roll-off terminal for passage of employees to and from active cargo transfer points, except where transportation to and from those points is provided by the employer.
(b) The employer shall direct employees to stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container. Employees shall stay clear of the area beneath a suspended container.
(5) Each employee working in the immediate area of container handling equipment or in the terminal's traffic lanes shall wear a high visibility vest (or equivalent protection).
Note to subsection (5): High visibility vests or equivalent protection means high visibility/retroreflective materials which are intended to provide conspicuity of the user by day through the use of high visibility (fluorescent) material and in the dark by vehicle headlights through the use of retroreflective material. The minimum area of material for a vest or equivalent protection is .5m(2)(760 in.(2)) for fluorescent (background) material and .13m(2)(197 in.(2)) for retroreflective material. Vests or equivalent protection, such as high visibility/retro-reflective coveralls, that are available for industrial use, may also be acceptable.
(6) Containers shall be handled using lifting fittings or
other arrangements suitable and intended for the purposes as set
forth in (a) and (c) of this subsection, ((
except)) unless when
damage to an intermodal container makes special means of handling
(a) Loaded intermodal containers of twenty feet (6.1 m) or more in length shall be hoisted as follows:
(i) When hoisting by the top fittings, the lifting forces shall be applied vertically from at least four top fittings or by means which will safely lift the container without damage. The lifting fittings provided shall be used.
(A) The container being lifted is an ISO closed box container;
(B) The condition of the box is sound;
(C) The speed of hoisting and lowering is moderated when heavily ladened containers are encountered;
(D) The lift angle is at eighty to ninety degrees;
(E) The distance between the lifting beam and the load is at least eight feet and 2.4 inches (2.5m); and
(F) The length of the spreader beam is at least 16.3 feet (5
m) for a twenty-foot container, and at least 36.4 feet (((
11.1 m) for a forty-foot container.
(ii) If hoisted from bottom fittings, the hoisting connections shall bear on the fittings only, making no other contact with the container. The angles of the four bridle legs shall not be less than thirty degrees to the horizontal in the case of forty foot (12.2 m) containers, thirty-seven degrees in the case of thirty foot (9.1 m) containers, or forty-five degrees in the case of twenty foot (6.1 m) containers.
(iii) Lifting containers by fork lift trucks or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for this type of handling.
(b) Other means of hoisting may be used only if the containers and hoisting means are designed for such use.
(c)(i) When using intermodal container spreaders that employ lanyards for activation of load-disengagement, all possible precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental release of the load.
(ii) Intermodal container spreader twistlock systems shall be designed and used so that a suspended load cannot accidentally be released.
(d) Flat bed trucks or container chassis used to move intermodal containers shall be equipped with pins, flanges, or other means to prevent the container from shifting.
(e) Flat bed, low boy trailers (mafis) and other similar equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be overloaded.
(f) Each tractor shall have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and shall have the brakes tested before commencing operations.
(7)(a) Intermodal containers shall be inspected for defects in structural members or fittings before handling.
(b) Any intermodal container found to be unsafe shall be identified as such, promptly removed from service and repaired before being returned to service.
(8) Containers shall not be hoisted unless all engaged chassis twist locks are released.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60103, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60103, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-56-60103, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60103, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60103, filed 12/11/84.]
(1)(a) Tanks in terminal areas used for
receiving or storing ((
brailwater)) bailwater for recirculating
into vessel holds in discharging operations shall be opened or
ventilated to minimize contamination of water circulated to the
vessel. (( Brailwater)) Bailwater tanks shall be thoroughly
drained upon completion of each day's operations and shall be
left open to the air. Drainage is unnecessary when
(( brailwater)) bailwater has been treated to remove hydrogen
sulfide-producing contaminants and the efficiency of such
treatment has been established.
(b) Before employees enter a dock tank, it shall first be drained, rinsed and tested for hydrogen sulfide and oxygen deficiency. Employees shall not enter the tank when the hydrogen sulfide level exceeds twenty ppm or oxygen content is less than nineteen and one-half percent, except in emergencies.
(c) Tests shall be conducted by designated personnel with suitable test equipment and respiratory protective equipment complying with the provisions of this chapter and chapter 296-62 WAC.
(2) Pipelines and hoses on the dock or terminal used for
receiving and circulating used ((
brailwater)) bailwater shall be
completely drained upon completion of each day's operation and
left open to the air.
(3) At least four units of respiratory protective equipment consisting of supplied-air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus complying with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC shall be available in a suitably labeled cabinet for immediate use in case of an emergency caused by oxygen deficiency or hydrogen sulfide. Any employee entering a tank in an emergency shall, in addition to respiratory protective equipment, wear a lifeline and safety harness to facilitate rescue. At least two other employees, similarly equipped, shall be continuously stationed outside the tank to observe and to provide rescue services.
(4) The plant superintendent and foremen shall be trained and knowledgeable about the hazards of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen deficiency. They shall be trained in the use of appropriate respiratory and other protective equipment, and in rescue procedures. Other supervisory plant personnel shall be informed of these hazards and instructed in the necessary safety measures, including use of respiratory and rescue equipment.
(5) Supervisory personnel shall be on hand at dockside to
supervise discharging of ((
brailwater)) bailwater from vessels.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60107, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60107, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60107, filed 12/11/84.]
(1)(a) When employees
perform work hazardous to the eyes, the employer shall provide
eye protection equipment marked or labeled as meeting the
manufacturing specifications of American National Standards
Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face
Protection, ANSI Z87.1-((
1968)) 1989, and shall direct that it be
(b) For employees wearing corrective spectacles, eye protection equipment required by (a) of this subsection shall be of a type which can be worn over spectacles. Prescription ground safety lenses may be substituted if they provide equivalent protection.
(c) For additional requirements covering eye protection against radiant energy, see WAC 296-56-60235(8).
(2) Eye protection equipment shall be maintained in good condition.
(3) Used eye protection equipment shall be cleaned and disinfected before reissuance to another employee.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60109, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60109, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60109, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Employees exposed to impact, falling or flying objects, or electric shocks or burns shall wear protective hats.
(2) Protective hats shall bear identifying marks or labels
indicating compliance with the manufacturing provisions of
American National Standard Safety Requirements for Industrial
Head Protection, ANSI Z89.1-((
(3) Protective hats previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before issuance by the employer to another employee.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60111, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60111, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Protective clothing.
(a) Employees performing work that requires special protective clothing shall be directed by the employer to wear the necessary special protective clothing.
(b) When necessary, protective clothing previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before reissuance.
(2) Personal flotation devices.
(a) The employer shall provide, and shall direct the wearing
of personal flotation devices for those employees, such as line
handlers, who are engaged in work in which they may ((
pulled into the water:
(i) When such employees are working in isolation: or
(ii) Where physical limitations of available working space creates a hazard of falling into the water; or
(iii) Where the work area is obstructed by cargo or other obstacles so as to prevent employees from obtaining safe footing for their work.
(b) Employees working on, over or along water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with and shall wear approved personal flotation devices.
(i) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning when:
(A) The water depth is known to be less than chest deep on the exposed individual;
(B) Working behind standard height and strength guardrails;
(C) Working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidental falling into the water;
(D) Wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water.
(ii) Prior to and after each use, personal flotation devices shall be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness. Defective personal flotation devices shall not be used.
(iii) To meet the requirement of (b) of this subsection, a personal flotation device shall be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23 (Coast Guard Table of Devices Equivalent to Personal Flotation Devices). Ski belt or inflatable type personal flotation devices are specifically prohibited.
(c) Life rings.
(i) Along docks, walkways or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with line attached shall be provided. The life rings shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.
(ii) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with line attached shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work.
(iii) Work assigned over water where the vertical drop from an accidental fall exceeds fifty feet, is subject to specific procedures approved by the department.
(iv) Lines attached to life rings shall be at least ninety feet (27.43 m) in length, at least one-quarter inch in diameter and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds.
(v) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty inch size (76.2 cm).
(vi) Life rings and attached lines must be maintained to retain at least seventy-five percent of their designed buoyancy and strength.
(3) Emergency facilities. When employees are exposed to hazardous substances which may require emergency bathing, eye washing or other facilities, the employer shall provide such facilities and maintain them in good working order.
(4) Employers shall instruct employees to report every injury, regardless of severity, to the employer.
Stretchers permanently equipped with bridles for
hoisting shall be readily accessible. A blanket or other
suitable covering shall be available.)) Stretchers.
(a) There shall be available for each vessel being worked one Stokes basket stretcher, or its equivalent, permanently equipped with bridles for attaching to the hoisting gear.
(b) Stretchers shall be kept close to vessels and shall be positioned to avoid damage to the stretcher.
(c) A blanket or other suitable covering shall be available.
(d) Stretchers shall have at least four sets of effective patient restraints in operable condition.
(e) Lifting bridles shall be of adequate strength, capable of lifting 1,000 pounds (454 kg) with a safety factor of five, and shall be maintained in operable condition. Lifting bridles shall be provided for making vertical patient lifts at container berths. Stretchers for vertical lifts shall have foot plates.
(f) Stretchers shall be maintained in operable condition. Struts and braces shall be inspected for damage. Wire mesh shall be secured and have no burrs. Damaged stretchers shall not be used until repaired.
(g) Stretchers in permanent locations shall be mounted to prevent damage and shall be protected from the elements if located out-of-doors. If concealed from view, closures shall be marked to indicate the location of the life saving equipment.
(6) Telephone or equivalent means of communication shall be readily available.
(7) Employees working on any bridge or structure leading to a detached vessel berthing installation shall wear United States Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices except where protected by railings, nets, or safety belts and lifelines.
(8) Life ladders. On all docks there shall be substantial built-in-place ladders, spaced at intervals not to exceed four hundred feet, to reach the lowest water use. When portable ladders are to be used, ladders may be bolted to the bullrail or dock structure, or ladders can be secured to an embedded eye bolt in a concrete dock surface. The immediate area where such ladders or fastenings are located shall be painted with a bright color or of a color which contrasts with the surrounding area. There shall be a ladder at each end of the dock.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60115, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60115, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60115, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60115, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60115, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Vehicle protection.
(a) Vehicle curbs, bull rails, or other effective barriers at least six inches (15.24 cm) in height and six inches in width, shall be provided at the waterside edges of aprons and bulkheads, except where vehicles are prohibited. Curbs or bull rails installed after January 1, 1985, shall be at least ten inches (22.9 cm) in height.
(b) The provisions of (a) of this subsection also apply at the edge of any fixed level above the common floor area from which vehicles may fall, except at loading docks, platforms and skids where cargo is moved by vehicles.
(2) Employee protection.
(a) Guardrails shall be provided at locations where employees are exposed to falls of more than four feet from floor or wall openings or waterside edges, including bridges or gangway-like structures leading to pilings, vessel mooring or berthing installations.
(b) Guardrails are not required:
(i) At loading platforms and docks;
(ii) At waterside edges used for cargo or mooring line handling;
(iii) On the working sides of work platforms, skids, or similar workplaces which abut the work area; or
(iv) On railroad rolling stock, highway vehicles, intermodal containers, or similar equipment.
(c) Where guardrails are impractical due to machinery requirements or work processes, an alternate means of fall protection, such as nets, shall be used.
(3) Criteria for guardrails. Guardrails shall meet the following criteria:
(a) They shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N) applied in any direction at mid-span of the top rail (when used), or at the uppermost point if there is no guard rail.
(b) If not of solid baluster, grillwork, slatted, or similar construction, guardrails shall consist of top rails and midrails. Midrails, when used, shall be positioned at approximately half the height of the top rail.
(c) The top surface of guardrails installed before October 3, 1983, shall be at least thirty-six inches (.091 m) high. Those installed after October 3, 1983, shall be forty-two inches (1.07 m) high, plus or minus two inches (5.1 cm), high.
(d) Any nonrigid railing such as chain or wire rope shall
have a maximum sag, at the mid-point between posts, of not more
than six inches (((
15.2)) 15.24 cm).
(e) Top rails shall be free of sharp edges and maintained in good repair.
(f) Rail ends shall not overhang. This does not prohibit scrollwork, boxed ends or similar nonhazardous projections.
(4) Toeboards. Toeboards shall be provided when employees
below could be exposed to falling objects such as tools. Toeboards shall be at least three and one-half inches (8.9 cm) in
height from top edge to floor level, and be capable of
withstanding a force of fifty pounds (((
220)) 222 N) applied in
any direction. Drainage clearance not in excess of one-eighth
inch under toeboards is permitted.
(5) Stair railings. Stair railings shall be capable of
withstanding a force of at least two hundred pounds (890 N)
applied in any direction, and shall not be more than thirty-six
0.9)) 0.91 m) nor less than thirty-two inches ((( 0.8))
0.81 m) in height from the upper top rail surface to the tread
surface in line with the leading edge of the tread. Railings and
midrails shall be provided at any stairway having four or more
risers, as follows:
(a) For stairways less than forty-four inches (1.12 m) wide, at least one railing; and
(b) For stairways more than forty-four inches (1.12 m) but less than eighty-eight inches (2.24 m) wide, a stair rail or handrail on each side, and if eighty-eight or more inches wide, an additional intermediate handrail.
(6) Condition. Railings shall be maintained free of sharp edges and in good repair.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60123, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60123, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60123, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60123, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Inspection. Manlifts shall be inspected monthly by a designated person. Safety switches shall be checked weekly. Manlifts found to be unsafe shall not be operated until repaired. Inspections shall include at least the following:
(a) Step fastenings;
(c) Rail supports and fastenings;
(d) Roller and slides;
(e) Belt and belt tension;
(f) Handholds and fastenings;
(g) Floor landings;
(j) Safety switches;
(k) Warning signs and lights;
(m) Drive pulley;
(n) Bottom (boot) pulley and clearance;
(o) Pulley supports;
(q) Drive mechanism;
(s) Electrical switches;
(t) Vibration and misalignment;
(u) "Skip" on up or down run when mounting the step (indicating worn gears); and
(v) Emergency exit ladders.
(2) Inspection records. Inspection records shall be kept for at least one year. The record of the most recent inspection shall be posted in the vicinity of the manlift or in the terminal.
(3) Emergency stop. An emergency stop device shall be available within easy reach from any position on the belt.
(4) Instructions. Manlift use instructions shall be conspicuously posted.
(5) Top floor warning sign and light. An illuminated sign and red light that are visible to the user shall be provided under the top floor opening of the manlift to warn the user to get off at that floor.
(6) Bottom floor warning sign. A sign visible to descending passengers shall be provided to warn them to get off at the bottom floor.
(7) Upper limit stop. An automatic stop device shall be provided to stop the manlift when a loaded step passes the top landing, except that manlifts installed after October 3, 1983, shall have two such devices.
(8) Handholds and steps. Each step shall be provided with a corresponding handhold.
(9) Emergency ladder. A fixed emergency ladder accessible from any position on the lift and meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60209 shall be provided for the entire run of the manlift.
(a) Clear and unobstructed landing spaces shall be provided at each level. Manlifts constructed after October 3, 1983, that have a distance of fifty feet (15.24 m) or more between floor landings shall have an emergency landing every twenty-five feet (7.62 m) or less of manlift travel.
(b) Open sides of emergency landings shall be protected by guardrails.
(c) Floor landing entrances and exits shall be guarded by mazes, self-closing gates, or equivalent protection.
(d) Landings shall be of sufficient size and strength to
support two hundred fifty pounds (((
1120)) 1112 N).
(11) Floor opening guards. The ascending sides of manlift floor openings shall be provided with cones or bevel guards to direct the user through the openings.
(12) Maintenance. Manlifts shall be equipped, maintained, and used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, which shall be available at the terminal.
(13) Bottom pulley.
(a) The lower pulley shall be supported by the lowest landing.
(b) Sides of the bottom pulley support shall be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.
(14) Top clearance. A clearance of at least eleven feet
3.3)) 3.35 m) shall be provided between the top landing and
(15) Brakes. Manlifts shall be equipped with brakes that are:
(b) Electrically released; and
(c) Capable of stopping and holding the manlift when the descending side is loaded with the maximum rated load.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60133, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60133, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Scope. This section applies to all fixed ladders except:
(a) Ladders forming an integral part of railway cars, highway carriers, cargo containers, or other transportation carrier equipment;
(b) Climbing devices such as step bolts or structural members of tanks and towers;
(c) Ladders built into or vertically attached to tubular scaffold framing; and
(d) Ladders used only for fire fighting or emergency purposes are exempt from the provisions of subsection (5) of this section. All other requirements of this section apply.
(a) "Cage" (basket guard) means a barrier enclosing or nearly enclosing a ladder's climbing space and fastened to one or both of the ladder's side rails or to another structure.
(b) "Fixed ladder" means a ladder, including individual rung ladders, permanently attached to a structure, building, or piece of equipment.
(c) "Ladder safety device" means a support system limiting an employee's drop or fall from the ladder, and which may incorporate friction brakes, lifelines and lanyards, or sliding attachments.
(d) "Well" means a permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well.
(a) Ladders with broken, split, or missing rungs, steps or rails, broken welds or connections, corrosion or wastage, or other defect which may affect safe use shall be removed from service.
(b) Ladder repairs shall provide strength at least
equivalent to that of the original ladder.
(4) Ladder specifications.
(a)(i) Ladders installed before October 3, 1983, shall be
capable of withstanding without damage a minimum concentrated
load, applied uniformly over a three and one-half inch (((
8.9 cm) width at the rung center, of two hundred pounds (890 N).
(ii) Ladders installed after October 3, 1983, shall be
capable of withstanding two hundred fifty pounds (((
N) applied as described in (a)(i) of this subsection. If used by
more than one employee simultaneously, the ladder as a unit shall
be capable of simultaneous additional loading in two hundred
fifty pound ((( 1120)) 1112 N) increments for each additional
employee, applied to a corresponding number of rungs. The unit
shall have a safety factor of four based on ultimate strength, in
the designed service.
(b)(i) Ladders installed before October 3, 1983, shall have rungs evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half inches (22.9 to 41.9 cm) apart, center to center.
(ii) Ladders installed after October 3, 1983, shall have
rungs evenly spaced twelve inches apart, plus or minus two inches
30)) 30.5 cm, plus or minus (( 5)) 5.08 cm), center to center.
(c)(i) Ladders installed before October 3, 1983, shall have a width between side rails of at least ten inches (25.4 cm).
(ii) Ladders installed after October 3, 1983, shall have a width between side rails of at least twelve inches (30.48 cm).
(d) The minimum distance between the rung center line and
the nearest permanent object behind the rung shall be four inches
10.2)) 10.16 cm), except that in ladders installed after
October 3, 1983, the minimum distance shall be seven inches
((( 17.8)) 17.78 cm) unless physical limitations make a lesser
distance, not less than four and one-half inches ((( 11.5)) 11.43
(e) When a ladder passes through an opening or past overhead obstructions, a minimum twenty-four inch (.61 m) clearance shall exist between the climbing side and any obstruction. Where this distance is less than thirty inches (0.76 m), a deflection device shall be installed for guidance through the opening.
(f) The side rails of ladders shall extend at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) above the top landing surface, unless grab bars or equivalent holds are provided.
(g) Ladders whose pitch exceeds ninety degrees to the horizontal (slanting backward on the climbing side) shall not be used.
(5) Protection against falls.
(a) Fixed ladders more than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height shall be provided with a cage, well, or ladder safety device.
(b) When a well or cage is used, ladders with length of climb exceeding thirty feet (9.14 m) shall comply with the following provisions:
(i) The ladder shall consist of multiple sections not exceeding thirty feet (9.14 m) each;
(ii) Each section shall be horizontally offset from adjacent sections, except as specified in (b)(iv) of this subsection; and
(iii) A landing platform capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds per square foot (4.79 kPa) and fitted with guardrails complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3) shall be provided at least every thirty feet (9.14 m), except as specified in (b)(iv) of this subsection;
(iv) For ladders installed after October 3, 1983, offset sections and landing platforms are not required if hinged platforms capable of supporting one hundred pounds per square foot (4.79 kPa), and which are kept closed except when opened for passage, are within the cage or well at intervals not exceeding thirty feet (9.14 m).
(c) Ladders equipped with ladder safety devices shall have rest platforms:
(i) Capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds per square foot (4.79 kPa);
(ii) Located at intervals of one hundred fifty feet (((
45.7 m) or less; and
(iii) Protected by guardrails complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3) on three sides.
(d) Where used, ladder safety devices shall:
(i) Be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, which shall be available for inspection upon request;
(ii) Be repaired only with replacement parts having performance capability at least equal to that of the original parts;
(iii) Have a connection length between carrier centerlines and safety belts of 10 ± 2 inches (25.4 ± 5.08 cm); and
(iv) Be installed in a manner that does not reduce the ladder's structural capacity.
(e) Ladder cages or wells shall:
(i) Be of rigid construction that allows unobstructed use but prevents an employee from falling through or dislodging the cage or well by falling against it;
(ii) Have smooth inner surfaces;
(iii) Extend at least thirty-six inches (((
0.9)) 0.91 m)
above landings; and
(iv) Extend to within eight feet (((
2.4)) 2.44 m) above the
ground or base, except that a maximum of twenty feet (6.1 m) is
permitted where the cage or well would extend into traffic lanes.
(f) Ladders installed after January 1, 1985, on radio, microwave communications, electrical power and similar towers, poles and structures, including stacks and chimneys, shall meet the requirements of this subsection.
(6) Individual rung ladders. Ladders consisting of individual rungs that are attached to walls, conical manhole sections or river cells shall:
(a) Be capable of supporting a load of three hundred fifty pounds (1557 N) without deformation;
(b) Form a continuous ladder, uniformly spaced vertically
from twelve inches to sixteen inches (30.5 to ((
41)) 40.6 cm)
apart, with a minimum width of ten inches (25.4 cm), and
projecting at least four and one-half inches (11.43 cm) from the
(c) Be so constructed that an employee's foot cannot slide off the ends; and
(d) Be firmly attached and without sharp edges.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60209, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60209, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60209, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60209, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Scope and applicability. This section applies to all portable ladders, including job-made ladders for temporary use, unless otherwise specified.
(2) Standards for existing manufactured portable ladders.
(a) Rungs of manufactured portable ladders obtained before October 3, 1983, shall be capable of supporting a two hundred pound (890 N) load without deformation.
(b) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from nine to sixteen and one-half inches (22.9 to 41.9 cm), center to center.
(c) Rungs shall be continuous members between rails. Each rung of a double-rung ladder (two side rails and a center rail) shall extend the full width of the ladder.
(d) Width between side rails at the base of the ladder shall
be at least twelve inches (((
30)) 30.48 cm) for ladders ten feet
(3.05 m) or less in overall length, and shall increase at least
one-fourth inch ((( 0.6)) 0.64 cm) for each additional two feet
(0.61 m) of ladder length.
(3) Standards for manufactured portable ladders. Manufactured portable ladders obtained after October 3, 1983, shall bear identification indicating that they meet the appropriate ladder construction requirements of the following standards:
ANSI A14.1-1990 Safety Requirements for Portable Wood Ladders
ANSI A14.2-1990 Safety Requirements for Portable Metal Ladders
ANSI A14.5-1992 Safety Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders
(4) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made ladders shall:
(a) Have a minimum and uniform distance between rungs of
twelve inches (((
30)) 30.48 cm), center to center;
(b) Be capable of supporting a two hundred fifty pound (1112 N) load without deformation; and
(c) Have a minimum width between side rails of twelve inches
30)) 30.48 cm) for ladders ten feet (3.05 m) in height. Width
between rails shall increase at least one-fourth inch ((( 0.6))
0.64 cm) for each additional two feet (0.61 m) of ladder length.
(5) Maintenance and inspection.
(a) The employer shall maintain portable ladders in safe condition. Ladders with the following defects shall not be used and either shall be tagged as unusable if kept on the premises or shall be removed from the worksite:
(i) Broken, split or missing rungs, cleats, or steps;
(ii) Broken or split side rails;
(iii) Missing or loose bolts, rivets, or fastenings;
(iv) Defective ropes; or
(v) Any other structural defect.
(b) Ladders shall be inspected for defects prior to each day's use, and after any occurrence, such as a fall, which could damage the ladder.
(6) Ladder usage.
(a) Ladders made by fastening rungs or devices across a single rail are prohibited.
(b) Ladders shall not be used:
(i) As guys, braces, or skids; or
(ii) As platforms, runways, or scaffolds.
(c) Metal and wire-reinforced ladders with wooden side rails shall not be used when employees on the ladder might come into contact with energized electrical conductors.
(d) Individual sections from different multisectional ladders or two or more single straight ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to achieve additional length.
(e) Except for combination ladders, self-supporting ladders shall not be used as single straight ladders.
(f) Unless intended for cantilever operation, nonself-supporting ladders shall not be used to climb above the top support point.
(g) Ladders shall extend at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) above the upper support level if employees are to leave or mount the ladder at that level, except that where such extension is impractical other equivalent means such as grab bars may be used to provide a hand grip.
(h) Ladders shall be securely positioned on a level and firm base.
(i) Ladders shall be fitted with slip-resistant bases and secured at top or bottom to prevent the ladder from slipping.
(j) Ladders shall be placed so that employees climbing are not exposed to injury from projecting objects or doors that open toward the ladder.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60211, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60211, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60211, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60211, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Definition. "Fixed stairway" means interior or exterior stairs serving machinery, tanks, or equipment, and stairs to or from floors, platforms, or pits. The term does not apply to stairs intended only for fire exit purposes, to articulated stairs (the angle of which changes with the rise and fall of the base support) or to stairs forming an integral part of machinery.
(2) New installations.
(a) Fixed stairs installed after October 3, 1983, shall be
positioned within the range of thirty degrees to fifty degrees to
the horizontal with uniform riser height and tread width
throughout each run and be capable of a minimum loading of one
hundred pounds per square foot (((
448)) 445 N) and a minimum
concentrated load of three hundred pounds ((( 1344)) 1334 N) at
the center of any treadspan. Riser height shall be from six to
seven and one-half inches ((( 15.2)) 15.24 to (( 19.0)) 19.05 cm),
stair width a minimum of twenty-two inches ((( 56)) 55.88 cm)
between vertical barriers, and tread depth a minimum of 12 ± 2
inches (30.48 ± 5.08 cm), and tread nosing shall be straight
(b) Stair landings shall be at least twenty inches (((
50.8 cm) in depth. Where doors or gates open on a stairway, a
landing platform shall be provided. Door swing shall not reduce
the effective standing area on the landing to less than eighteen
inches ((( 45.7)) 45.72 cm) in depth.
(c) Fixed stairs having four or more risers shall have stair railings or handrails complying with WAC 296-56-60123(3).
(d) The railing height from tread surface at the riser face
shall be 33 plus or minus 3 inches (((
83)) 83.82 cm plus or minus
(( 7.6)) 7.62 cm).
(e) Restricted areas. When physical features require stairs steeper than those provided for by (a) of this subsection, stairs at angles of fifty degrees to seventy-five degrees from the horizontal may be used if they:
(i) Are capable of supporting a single concentrated load of two hundred pounds (890 N) at the tread centers;
(ii) Have open treads at least four inches (((
cm) in depth and eighteen inches ((( 45.7)) 45.72 cm) in width
with a uniformly spaced vertical rise between treads of six to
nine and one-half inches ((( 15.2)) 15.24 to (( 24.1)) 24.13 cm);
(iii) Have handrails that meet the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3) on both sides that are not less than thirty inches (76.2 cm) in height from the tread surface at the riser face.
(f) Maintenance. Fixed stairways shall be maintained in safe condition and shall not be obstructed.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60215, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60215, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60215, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Definition. "Spiral stairway" means one with closed circular form, uniform sector-shaped treads and a supporting column.
(2) Requirements. Spiral stairways shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Stairways shall conform to the minimum dimensions of Figure F-1;
|Place illustration here.|
|Spiral Stairway -- Minimum Dimensions|
|A (Half-tread width)||B|
Normal use by
employees . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 inches (27.9 cm)
6 inches (15.2 cm)
|Limited access . . . . . . . . . . . .||9 inches (22.9 cm)||5 inches (12.7 cm)|
(c) Minimum loading capability shall be one hundred pounds per square foot (445 N), and minimum tread center concentrated loading shall be three hundred pounds (1334 N);
(d) Railing shall conform to the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3). If balusters are used, there shall be a minimum
of one per tread. Handrails shall be a minimum of one and
one-fourth inches (((
3.3)) 3.18 cm) in outside diameter; and
(e) Vertical clearance shall be at least six feet, six inches (1.98 m) above the top step.
(3) Maintenance. Spiral stairways shall be maintained in safe condition.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-02-024, § 296-56-60217, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60217, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60217, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60217, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Employee exits shall be clearly marked.
(2) If an employee exit is not visible from employees' work stations, directional signs indicating routes to the exit shall be posted.
(3) Exits shall be readily accessible and sufficient in number to provide employees with a convenient means of escape in emergencies. A clear passage to the exit shall be maintained.
(4) The minimum width of any employee exit shall be
twenty-eight inches (((
71.1)) 71.12 cm).
(5) All fire exits and aisleways of all docks and warehouses shall be clearly marked and kept clear. All main aisleways shall be wide enough to permit passage of a fire truck.
(6) There shall be a twenty-eight inch clearance maintained where employees use a passageway to an exit.
(7) Every building, structure or crane, new or old, shall be provided with an emergency means of egress to permit the prompt escape of occupants in case of fire or other emergency, at all locations with a vertical height of thirty feet or more. Cranes, buildings, or structures erected prior to January 1, 1985, shall comply with the provisions of this standard by July 1, 1986.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60219, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60219, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60219, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) General. The employer shall provide safe means of passage between different surface levels and across openings.
(a) "Dockboards (car and bridge plates)" mean devices for spanning short distances between rail cars or highway vehicles and loading platforms which do not expose employees to falls greater than four feet (1.2 m).
(b) "Ramps" means other flat-surface devices for passage between levels and across openings not included in "dockboards."
(3))) Dockboards (car and bridge plates).
(a) Dockboards shall be strong enough to support the loads imposed on them.
(b) Portable dockboards shall be anchored in position or be equipped with devices to prevent their movement.
(c) Hand holds or other effective means shall be provided on portable dockboards to permit safe handling.
(d) Positive means shall be used to prevent railcars or highway vehicles from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
(4))) (3) Ramps.
(a) Ramps shall be strong enough to support the loads imposed on them, provided with sideboards, properly secured and well maintained.
(b) Ramps shall be equipped with guardrails meeting the
requirements of WAC 296-56-60123(3) if the slope is more than
twenty degrees to the horizontal or if employees could fall more
than four feet (((
1.2)) 1.22 m).
(c) Ramps shall have slip-resistant surfaces.
(d) When necessary to prevent displacement by vehicle wheels, steel plates or similar devices, used to temporarily bridge or cover uneven surfaces or tracks, shall be anchored.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60223, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60223, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60223, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Definition. "Guarded" means shielded, fenced, or enclosed by covers, casings, shields, troughs, spillways or railings, or guarded by position or location. Examples of guarding methods are guarding by location (positioning hazards so they are inaccessible to employees) and point of operation guarding (using barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, or other such devices).
(a) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded.
(b) Where chips and dust produced by machine operation may result in a hazard to the operator, the machinery shall be equipped with an effective exhaust system at the point of origin, or other equally effective means shall be provided to protect the operator.
(c) Fixed machinery shall be secured to prevent shifting.
(d) A power cut-off device for machinery and equipment shall be provided at the operator's working position.
(e) Machines driven by belts and shafting shall be fitted with a belt-locking or equivalent protective device if the belt can be shifted.
(f) In operations where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provisions shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.
(g) The power supply to machines shall be turned off, locked out, and tagged out during repair, adjustment, or servicing.
(h) Machines shall be maintained in a safe working condition.
(i) Only designated employees shall maintain or repair machinery and equipment.
(j) Machines with defects that affect the safety of operation shall not be used.
(3) Hand-fed circular ripsaws and hand-fed circular crosscut table saws. Unless fixed or manually adjustable enclosures or guarding provides equivalent protection, hand-fed circular ripsaws and hand-fed circular crosscut table saws shall be guarded as follows:
(a) They shall be equipped with hoods completely enclosing those portions of the saw above the table and the material being cut;
(b) They shall have spreaders to prevent material from squeezing the saw. Spreaders shall be in true alignment with the saw. Spreaders may be removed only during grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting operations, and shall be replaced at the completion of such operations; and
(c) They shall have nonkickback fingers or dogs to oppose the tendency of the saw to pick up material or throw material toward the operator.
(4) Swing cutoff saws.
(a) Swing cutoff saws shall have hoods completely enclosing the upper half of the saw, the arbor end and the point of operation at all saw positions to protect the operator from material thrown up by the saw. The hood shall automatically cover the lower portion of the blade so that when the saw returns to the back of the table the hood rises on top of the fence, and when the saw is moved forward the hood drops on top, remaining in contact with the table or the material.
(b) Swing cutoff saws shall have a device to return the saw automatically to the back of the table without rebound. The device shall not be dependent upon rope, cord or springs.
(c) Devices shall be provided to prevent saws from swinging beyond the front or back edges of the table.
(d) Inverted swing cutoff saws shall have hoods covering the part of the saw protruding above the table top or the material being cut. Hoods shall automatically adjust to the thickness of, and remain in contact with, material being cut.
(5) Radial saws. Unless fixed or manually adjustable enclosures or guards provide equivalent protection, radial saws shall be guarded as follows:
(a) The upper hood of radial saws shall enclose the upper portion of the blade up to and including the end of the saw arbor and shall protect the operator from being struck by debris. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the blade diameter by a device automatically adjusting to the thickness of the stock and remaining in contact with the stock. The lower guard may be removed only when the saw is used for bevel cuts;
(b) Radial saws used for ripping shall have nonkickback fingers or dogs on both sides to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up material or throw material toward the operator;
(c) An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent travel of radial saw blades beyond the table's edge;
(d) Radial saws shall be installed so that the cutting head returns to the starting position without rebound when released; and
(e) The employer shall direct that employees perform ripping and ploughing against the saw turning direction. Rotation direction and an indication of the end of the saw to be used shall be conspicuously marked on the hood.
(6) Band saws and band resaws.
(a) Saw blades and band saw wheels shall be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table, to protect employees from point-of-operation hazards and flying debris.
(b) Band saws shall be equipped with brakes to stop the band saw wheel if the blade breaks.
(c) Band saws shall be equipped with a tension control device to keep the blade taut.
(7) Abrasive wheels and machinery.
(a) Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines having enclosure guards to restrain pieces of grinding wheels and to protect employees if the wheel breaks, except as provided in (b) and (c) of this subsection. Where the operator stands in front of the safety guard opening, the safety guard shall be adjustable or have an adjustable tongue or piece at the top of the opening. The safety guard or the tongue shall be adjusted so that it is always within one-fourth inch of the periphery of the wheel. Guards shall be aligned with the wheel and the strength of fastenings shall be greater than the strength of the guard.
(b) When the work provides equivalent protection, or when the machine is designed as a portable saw, guards may be constructed with the spindle end, nut and outer flange exposed. When the work entirely covers the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guard may be removed.
(c) Guarding is not required:
(i) For wheels used for internal work while the wheel is contained within the work being ground; or
(ii) For mounted wheels two inches (5 cm) and smaller in diameter used in portable operations.
(d) Work rests shall be used on fixed grinding machines. Work rests shall be rigidly constructed and adjustable for wheel
wear. They shall be adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum
opening of one-eighth inch (((
3.2)) 3.18 mm) and shall be
securely clamped. Adjustment shall not be made while the wheel
is in motion.
(e) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place.
(f) Grinding machine wheels shall turn at a speed that is compatible with the rated speed of the wheel.
(g) Flanges and blotters shall be used only with wheels designed for their use. Flanges shall be of a type ensuring retention of pieces of the wheel in case of breakage.
(h) Abrasive wheels with operational defects shall not be used.
(8) Rotating parts, drives and connections.
(a) Rotating parts, such as gears and pulleys, that are
located seven feet (((
2.1)) 2.13 m) or less above working
surfaces shall be guarded to prevent employee contact with moving
(b) Belt, rope and chain drives shall be guarded to prevent employees from coming into contact with moving parts.
(c) Gears, sprockets and chains shall be guarded to prevent employees coming into contact with moving parts. This requirement does not apply to manually operated sprockets.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60233, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60233, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60233, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Definition. "Hot work" means riveting, welding, flame cutting or other fire or spark-producing operation.
(2) Hot work in confined spaces. Hot work shall not be performed in a confined space until all requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M, are met.
(3) Fire protection.
(a) To the extent possible, hot work shall be performed in designated locations that are free of fire hazards.
(b) When hot work must be performed in a location that is not free of fire hazards, all necessary precautions shall be taken to confine heat, sparks, and slag so that they cannot contact flammable or combustible material.
(c) Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for the location shall be immediately available and shall be maintained in readiness for use at all times.
(d) When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire hazard remains. The employer shall instruct all employees involved in hot work operations as to potential fire hazards and the use of fire fighting equipment.
(e) Drums and containers which contain or have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed from the hot work area.
(f) When openings or cracks in flooring cannot be closed, precautions shall be taken to ensure that no employees or flammable or combustible materials are exposed to sparks dropping through the floor. Similar precautions shall be taken regarding cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows.
(g) Hot work shall not be performed:
(i) In flammable or potentially flammable atmospheres;
(ii) On or in equipment or tanks that have contained flammable gas or liquid or combustible liquid or dust-producing material, until a designated person has tested the atmosphere inside the equipment or tanks and determined that it is not hazardous; or
(iii) Near any area in which exposed readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper or cotton are stored. Bulk sulphur is excluded from this prohibition if suitable precautions are followed, the person in charge is knowledgeable and the person performing the work has been instructed in preventing and extinguishing sulphur fires.
(h)(i) Drums, containers or hollow structures that have contained flammable or combustible substances shall either be filled with water or cleaned, and shall then be ventilated. A designated person shall test the atmosphere and determine that it is not hazardous before hot work is performed on or in such structures.
(ii) Before heat is applied to a drum, container or hollow structure, an opening to release built-up pressure during heat application shall be provided.
(4) Gas welding and cutting.
(a) Compressed gas cylinders:
(i) Shall have valve protection caps in place except when in use, hooked up or secured for movement. Oil shall not be used to lubricate caps;
(ii) Shall be hoisted only while secured, as on a cradle or pallet, and shall not be hoisted by magnet, choker sling or cylinder caps;
(iii) Shall be moved only by tilting or rolling on their bottom edges;
(iv) Shall be secured when moved by vehicle;
(v) Shall be secured while in use;
(vi) Shall have valves closed when cylinders are empty, being moved or stored;
(vii) Shall be secured upright except when hoisted or carried;
(viii) Shall not be freed when frozen by prying the valves or caps with bars or by hitting the valve with a tool;
(ix) Shall not be thawed by boiling water;
(x) Shall not be exposed to sparks, hot slag, or flame;
(xi) Shall not be permitted to become part of electrical circuits or have electrodes struck against them to strike arcs;
(xii) Shall not be used as rollers or supports;
(xiii) Shall not have contents used for purposes not authorized by the supplier;
(xiv) Shall not be used if damaged or defective;
(xv) Shall not have gases mixed within, except by gas suppliers;
(xvi) Shall be stored so that oxygen cylinders are separated
from fuel gas cylinders and combustible materials by either a
minimum distance of twenty feet (((
6)) 6.1 m) or a barrier having
a fire-resistance rating of thirty minutes; and
(xvii) Shall not have objects that might either damage the safety device or obstruct the valve placed on top of the cylinder when in use.
(b) Use of fuel gas. Fuel gas shall be used only as follows:
(i) Before regulators are connected to cylinder valves, the valves shall be opened slightly (cracked) and closed immediately to clear away dust or dirt. Valves shall not be cracked if gas could reach possible sources of ignition;
(ii) Cylinder valves shall be opened slowly to prevent regulator damage and shall not be opened more than one and one-half turns. Any special wrench required for emergency closing shall be positioned on the valve stem during cylinder use. For manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one wrench shall be immediately available. Nothing shall be placed on top of a cylinder or associated parts when the cylinder is in use;
(iii) Pressure-reducing regulators shall be attached to cylinder valves when cylinders are supplying torches or devices equipped with shut-off valves;
(iv) Cylinder valves shall be closed and gas released from the regulator or manifold before regulators are removed;
(v) Leaking fuel gas cylinder valves shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If the leak continues, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous. If a regulator attached to a valve stops a leak, the cylinder need not be removed from the workplace but shall be tagged and may not be used again before it is repaired; and
(vi) If a plug or safety device leaks, the cylinder shall be tagged, removed from service, and moved to a location where the leak will not be hazardous.
(i) Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be easily distinguishable from each other by color or sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel hoses shall not be interchangeable. Hoses having more than one gas passage shall not be used.
(ii) When oxygen and fuel gas hoses are taped together, not
more than four of each twelve inches (((
10.2)) 10.16 cm of each
(( 30.5)) 30.48 cm) shall be taped.
(iii) Hose shall be inspected before use. Hose subjected to flashback or showing evidence of severe wear or damage shall be tested to twice the normal working pressure but not less than two hundred p.s.i. (1378.96 kPa) before re-use. Defective hose shall not be used.
(iv) Hose couplings shall not unlock or disconnect without rotary motion.
(v) Hose connections shall be clamped or securely fastened to withstand twice the normal working pressure but not less than three hundred p.s.i. (2068.44 kPa) without leaking.
(vi) Gas hose storage boxes shall be ventilated.
(i) Torch tip openings shall only be cleaned with devices designed for that purpose.
(ii) Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches shall be inspected before each use for leaking shut-off valves, hose couplings and tip connections. Torches with such defects shall not be used.
(iii) Torches shall not be lighted from matches, cigarette lighters, other flames or hot work.
(e) Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators, including associated gauges, shall be maintained in safe working order.
(f) Operational precaution. Gas welding equipment shall be maintained free of oil and grease.
(5) Arc welding and cutting.
(a) Manual electrode holders.
(i) The employer shall ensure that only manual electrode holders intended for arc welding and cutting and capable of handling the maximum current required for such welding or cutting shall be used.
(ii) Current-carrying parts passing through those portions of the holder gripped by the user and through the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder shall be insulated against the maximum voltage to ground.
(b) Welding cables and connectors.
(i) Arc welding and cutting cables shall be insulated, flexible and capable of handling the maximum current required by the operation, taking into account the duty cycles.
(ii) Only cable free from repair or splice for ten feet (3 m) from the electrode holder shall be used unless insulated connectors or splices with insulating quality equal to that of the cable are provided.
(iii) When a cable other than the lead mentioned in (b)(ii) of this subsection wears and exposes bare conductors, the portion exposed shall not be used until it is protected by insulation equivalent in performance capacity to the original.
(iv) Insulated connectors of equivalent capacity shall be used for connecting or splicing cable. Cable lugs, where used as connectors, shall provide electrical contact. Exposed metal parts shall be insulated.
(c) Ground returns and machine grounding.
(i) Ground return cables shall have current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(ii) Structures or pipelines, other than those containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, may be used in the ground return circuit if their current-carrying capacity equals or exceeds the total maximum output capacities of the welding or cutting units served.
(iii) Structures or pipelines forming a temporary ground return circuit shall have electrical contact at all joints. Arcs, sparks or heat at any point in the circuit shall cause rejection as a ground circuit.
(iv) Structures or pipelines acting continuously as ground return circuits shall have joints bonded and maintained to ensure that no electrolysis or fire hazard exists.
(v) Arc welding and cutting machine frames shall be grounded, either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire at the source of the current. Grounding circuits shall have resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.
(vi) Ground connections shall be mechanically and electrically adequate to carry the current.
(d) When electrode holders are left unattended, electrodes shall be removed and holders placed to prevent employee injury.
(e) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water.
(f) The employer shall ensure that when arc welders or cutters leave or stop work or when machines are moved, the power supply switch is kept in the off position.
(g) Arc welding or cutting equipment having a functional defect shall not be used.
(h)(i) Arc welding and cutting operations shall be separated from other operations by shields, screens, or curtains to protect employees in the vicinity from the direct rays and sparks of the arc.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, they shall wear filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(i) The control apparatus of arc welding machines shall be enclosed, except for operating wheels, levers, and handles.
(j) Input power terminals, top change devices and live metal parts connected to input circuits shall be enclosed and accessible only by means of insulated tools.
(k) When arc welding is performed in wet or high-humidity conditions, employees shall use additional protection, such as rubber pads or boots, against electric shock.
(6) Ventilation and employee protection in welding, cutting and heating.
(a) Mechanical ventilation requirements. The employer shall ensure that general mechanical ventilation or local exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:
(i) General mechanical ventilation shall maintain vapors, fumes and smoke below a hazardous level;
(ii) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of movable hoods positioned close to the work and shall be of such capacity and arrangement as to keep breathing zone concentrations below hazardous levels;
(iii) Exhausts from working spaces shall be discharged into the open air, clear of intake air sources;
(iv) Replacement air shall be clean and respirable; and
(v) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation, cooling or cleaning clothing or work areas.
(b) Hot work in confined spaces. Except as specified in (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection, when hot work is performed in a confined space the employer shall, in addition to the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M, ensure that:
(i) General mechanical or local exhaust ventilations shall be provided; or
(ii) Employees in the space shall wear respirators in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.
(c) Welding, cutting or heating of toxic metals.
(i) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation that ensures that employees are not exposed to hazardous levels of fumes:
(A) Lead base metals;
(B) Cadmium-bearing filler materials; and
(C) Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
(ii) In confined or enclosed spaces, hot work involving the following metals shall only be performed with local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of this subsection or by employees wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E;
(A) Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials;
(B) Metals containing lead other than as an impurity, or coated with lead-bearing materials;
(C) Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; and
(D) Metals coated with mercury-bearing materials.
(iii) Employees performing hot work in confined or enclosed spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by local exhaust ventilation and wear supplied air respirators or self-contained breathing apparatus, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.
(iv) The employer shall ensure that employees performing hot work in the open air that involves any of the metals listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall be protected by respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E and those working on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by supplied air respirators, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.
(v) Any employee exposed to the same atmosphere as the welder or burner shall be protected by the same type of respiratory and other protective equipment as that worn by the welder or burner.
(d) Inert-gas metal-arc welding. Employees shall not engage in and shall not be exposed to the inert-gas metal-arc welding process unless the following precautions are taken:
(i) Chlorinated solvents shall not be used within two hundred feet (61 m) of the exposed arc. Surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is performed on them.
(ii) Employees in areas not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by appropriate filter lenses in accordance with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section. When welders are exposed to their own arc or to each other's arc, filter lenses complying with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section shall be worn to protect against flashes and radiant energy.
(iii) Employees exposed to radiation shall have their skin covered completely to prevent ultraviolet burns and damage. Helmets and hand shields shall not have leaks, openings or highly reflective surfaces.
(iv) Inert-gas metal-arc welding on stainless steel shall not be performed unless exposed employees are protected either by local exhaust ventilation or by wearing supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.
(7) Welding, cutting and heating on preservative coatings.
(a) Before hot work is commenced on surfaces covered by a preservative coating of unknown flammability, a test shall be made by a designated person to determine the coating's flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
(b) Appropriate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. Highly flammable coatings shall be stripped from the area to be heated. An uncoiled fire hose with fog nozzle, under pressure, shall be immediately available in the hot work area.
(c) Surfaces covered with preservative coatings shall be
stripped for at least four inches (((
10.2)) 10.16 cm) from the
area of heat application or employees shall be protected by
supplied air respirators in accordance with the requirements of
chapter 296-62 WAC.
(8) Protection against radiant energy.
(a) Employees shall be protected from radiant energy eye hazards by spectacles, cup goggles, helmets, hand shields or face shields with filter lenses complying with the requirements of this subsection.
(b) Filter lenses shall have an appropriate shade number, as indicated in Table G-1, for the work performed. Variations of one or two shade numbers are permissible to suit individual preferences.
(c) If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under the helmet, the shade numbers of both lenses equals the value shown in Table G-1 for the operation.
|Table G-1. -- Filter Lenses for Protection
Against Radiant Energy
|Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . .||2|
|Torch Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . .||3 or 4|
|Light cutting, up to 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||3 or 4|
|Medium cutting, 1-6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . .||4 or 5|
|Heavy cutting, over 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . .||5 or 6|
|Light gas welding, up to 1/8 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||4 or 5|
|Medium gas welding, 1/8-1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||5 or 6|
|Heavy gas welding, over 1/2 inch . . . . . . . . . . . .||6 or 8|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1/16 to
5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .
|Inert gas Metal-Arc Welding (non-ferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .||11|
|Shielded Metal-Arc Welding:|
|3/16 to 1/4-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .||12|
| 5/16 and 3/8-inch electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, § 296-56-60235, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-04-007, § 296-56-60235, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60235, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60235, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60235, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60235, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Scope. This section covers painting operations connected with maintenance of structures, equipment and gear at the marine terminal and of transient equipment serviced at the terminal. It does not apply to overall painting of terminal structures under construction, major repair or rebuilding of terminal structures, or portable spraying apparatus not used regularly in the same location.
(a) "Spraying area" means any area where flammable vapors, mists or combustible residues, dusts or deposits may be present due to paint spraying operations.
(b) "Spray booth" means an enclosure containing a flammable or combustible spraying operation and confining and limiting the escape of paint, vapor and residue by means of a powered exhaust system.
(c) "Approved" means, for the purpose of this section, that the equipment has been approved for the specified use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(3) Spray painting requirements for indoor and outdoor spraying areas and booths.
(a) Shut-off valves, containers or piping with attached hoses or flexible connections shall have shut-off valves closed at the connection when not in use.
(b) Pumps used to transfer paint supplies shall have automatic pressure-relieving devices.
(c) Hoses and couplings shall be inspected before use. Hoses showing deterioration, leakage or weakness in the carcass or at the couplings shall be removed from service.
(d)(i) No open flame or spark-producing equipment shall be
within twenty feet (((
6)) 6.1 m) of a spraying area unless it is
separated from the spraying area by a fire-retardant partition.
(ii) Hot surfaces shall not be located in spraying areas.
(iii) Whenever combustible residues may accumulate on electrical installations, wiring shall be in rigid conduit or in boxes containing no taps, splices or connections.
(iv) Portable electric lights shall not be used during spraying operations. Lights used during cleaning or repairing operations shall be approved for the location in which they are used.
(e) When flammable or combustible liquids are being transferred between containers, both containers shall be bonded and grounded.
(f)(i) Spraying shall be performed only in designated spray booths or spraying areas.
(ii) Spraying areas shall be kept as free from combustible residue accumulations as practical.
(iii) Residue scrapings, debris, rags, and waste shall be removed from the spraying area as they accumulate.
(g) Spraying with organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall only be conducted in sprinkler-equipped spray booths.
(h) Only the quantity of flammable or combustible liquids required for the operation shall be allowed in the spraying area, and in no case shall the amount exceed a one-day supply.
(i) Smoking shall be prohibited and "No Smoking" signs shall be posted in spraying and paint storage areas.
(4) Additional requirements for spraying areas and spray booths.
(a) Distribution or baffle plates shall be of noncombustible material and shall be removable or accessible for cleaning. They shall not be located in exhaust ducts.
(b) Any discarded filter shall be removed from the work area or placed in water.
(c) Filters shall not be used when the material being sprayed is highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition.
(d) Filters shall be noncombustible or of an approved type. The same filter shall not be used when spraying with different coating materials if the combination of materials may spontaneously ignite.
(e) Spraying areas shall be mechanically ventilated for removal of flammable and combustible vapor and mist.
(f) Mechanical ventilation shall be in operation during spraying operations and long enough thereafter to exhaust hazardous vapor concentrations.
(g) Rotating fan elements shall be nonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined with nonsparking material.
(h) Piping systems conveying flammable or combustible liquids to the spraying booth or area shall be made of metal and be both electrically bonded and grounded.
(i) Air exhausted from spray operations shall not contaminate makeup air or other ventilation intakes. Exhausted air shall not be recirculated unless it is first cleaned of any hazardous contaminants.
(j) Original closed containers, approved portable tanks, approved safety cans or a piping system shall be used to bring flammable or combustible liquids into spraying areas.
(k) If flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, the pump discharge line shall have a relief valve discharging either to a pump section or detached location, or the line shall be equipped with a device to stop the prime mover when discharge pressure exceeds the system's safe operating pressure.
(l) Wiring, motors and equipment in a spray booth shall be
of approved explosion-proof type for Class I, Group D locations
and conform with the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L
for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. Wiring, motors and
equipment within twenty feet (((
6)) 6.1 m) of any interior
spraying area and not separated by vapor-tight partitions shall
not produce sparks during operation and shall conform to the
requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC Part L for Class I, Division
2, Hazardous Locations.
(m) Outside electrical lights within ten feet (((
3)) 3.05 m)
of spraying areas and not separated from the areas by partitions
shall be enclosed and protected from damage.
(5) Additional requirements for spray booths.
(a) Spray booths shall be substantially constructed of noncombustible material and have smooth interior surfaces. Spray booth floors shall be covered with noncombustible material. As an aid to cleaning, paper may be used to cover the floor during painting operations if it is removed after the painting is completed.
(b) Spray booths shall be separated from other operations by at least 3 feet (0.91 m) or by fire-retardant partitions or walls.
(c) A space of at least 3 feet (0.91 m) on all sides of the spray booth shall be maintained free of storage or combustible materials.
(d) Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, pipings, airless high-pressure spray guns and conductive objects being sprayed shall be grounded.
(e) Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be located inside booths or ducts.
(f) Belts shall not enter ducts or booths unless the belts are completely enclosed.
(g) Exhaust ducts shall be made of steel, shall have sufficient access doors to permit cleaning, and shall have a minimum clearance of 18 inches (0.46 m) from combustible materials. Any installed dampers shall be fully opened when the ventilating system is operating.
(h) Spray booths shall not be alternately used to spray different types of coating materials if the combination of the materials may spontaneously ignite unless deposits of the first material are removed from the booth and from exhaust ducts before spraying of the second material begins.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60237, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-56-60237, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60237, filed 1/17/86; 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60237, filed 4/19/85; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60237, filed 12/11/84.]
(1) Liquid fuel. See WAC 296-24-475 through 296-24-47517.
(a) Only designated persons shall conduct fueling operations.
(b) In case of spillage, filler caps shall be replaced and spillage disposed of before engines are started.
(c) Engines shall be stopped and operators shall not be on the equipment during refueling operations.
(d) Smoking and open flames shall be prohibited in areas used for fueling, fuel storage or enclosed storage of equipment containing fuel.
(e) Equipment shall be refueled only at designated locations.
(f) Liquid fuels not handled by pump shall be handled and transported only in portable containers designed for that purpose. Portable containers shall be metal, have tight closures with screw or spring covers and shall be equipped with spouts or other means to allow pouring without spilling. Leaking containers shall not be used.
(g) Flammable liquids shall only be dispensed in the open from a tank or from other vehicles equipped for delivering fuel to another vehicle if:
(i) Dispensing hoses do not exceed fifty feet (((
15.24 m) in length; and
(ii) Any powered dispensing nozzles are of the automatic-closing type.
(h) Liquid fuel dispensing devices shall be provided with an easily accessible and clearly identified shut-off device, such as a switch or circuit breaker, to shut off the power in an emergency.
(i) Liquid fuel dispensing devices, such as pumps, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or be otherwise protected against collision damage.
(2) Liquefied gas fuels.
(a) Fueling locations.
(i) Liquefied gas powered equipment shall be fueled only at designated locations.
(ii) Equipment with permanently mounted fuel containers shall be charged outdoors.
(iii) Equipment shall not be fueled or stored near underground entrances, elevator shafts or other places where gas or fumes might accumulate.
(b) Fuel containers.
(i) When removable fuel containers are used, the escape of fuel when containers are exchanged shall be minimized by:
(A) Automatic quick-closing couplings (closing in both directions when uncoupled) in fuel lines; or
(B) Closing fuel container valves and allowing engines to run until residual fuel is exhausted.
(ii) Pressure-relief valve openings shall be in continuous contact with the vapor space (top) of the cylinder.
(iii) Fuel containers shall be secured to prevent their being jarred loose, slipping or rotating.
(iv) Containers shall be located to prevent damage to the container. If located within a compartment, that compartment shall be vented. Containers near the engine or exhaust system shall be shielded against direct heat radiation.
(v) Container installation shall provide the container with at least the vehicle's road clearance under maximum spring deflection, measured from the bottom of the container or to the lowest fitting on the container or housing, whichever is lower.
(vi) Valves and connections shall be protected from contact damage. Permanent protection shall be provided for fittings on removable containers.
(vii) Defective containers shall be removed from service.
(c) Fueling operations. See WAC 296-24-47517.
(i) Fueling operations for liquefied gas fuels shall also comply with the requirements of subsection (1) of this section.
(ii) Using matches or flames to check for leaks is prohibited.
(iii) Containers shall be examined before recharging and again before reuse for the following:
(A) Dents, scrapes and gouges of pressure vessels;
(B) Damage to valves and liquid level gauges;
(C) Debris in relief valves;
(D) Leakage at valves or connections; and
(E) Deterioration or loss of flexible seals in filling or servicing connections.
(d) Fuel storage. See WAC 296-24-47517(6).
(i) Stored fuel containers shall be located to minimize exposure to excessive temperatures and physical damage.
(ii) Containers shall not be stored near exits, stairways or areas normally used or intended for egress.
(iii) Outlet valves of containers in storage or transport shall be closed. Relief valves shall connect with vapor spaces.
(e) Vehicle storage and servicing.
(i) Liquefied gas fueled vehicles may be stored or serviced inside garages or shops only if there are no fuel system leaks.
(ii) Liquefied gas fueled vehicles under repair shall have container shut-off valves closed unless engine operation is necessary for repairs.
(iii) Liquefied gas fueled vehicles shall not be parked near open flames, sources of ignition or unventilated open pits.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60243, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60243, filed 12/11/84.]