WSR 04-14-028

PERMANENT RULES

DEPARTMENT OF

LABOR AND INDUSTRIES

[ Filed June 29, 2004, 12:20 p.m. , effective January 1, 2005 ]


     

     Purpose: This rule making is part of our four-year plan to rewrite for clarity all of our general occupational safety and health rules. Machine guarding requirements located in chapters 296-24, 296-78, and 296-302 WAC were reviewed to identify unnecessary design requirements, outdated terminology, incorporate necessary policies and requirements, rewriting and reorganizing for clarity and consolidate into one rule, chapter 296-806 WAC. Also, several references were updated as a result of this being a new chapter.

     The following are repealed sections and requirements were moved to chapter 296-806 WAC:

     Chapter 296-24 WAC, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding.

• Repealed this part.
     WAC 296-24-150 Machinery and machine guarding--General requirements for all machines--Scope and application.
• The scope and application relating to machine safety has been moved to WAC 296-806-100.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-15001 Machine guarding.
• Requirements relating to general types of machine guarding have been moved to WAC 296-806-20028, 296-806-20030, 296-806-20032, 296-806-20036, 296-806-20042.
• Requirements relating to circular meat cutting saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-42560.
• Requirements relating to special hand tools have been moved to WAC 296-806-20018.
• Requirements relating to the point of operation guarding on guillotine cutters, shears, power presses, milling machines, power saws, jointers and forming rolls and calenders have been moved to WAC 296-806-20028.
• Requirements relating to the point of operation guarding on portable power tools have been moved to chapter 296-807 WAC.
• Requirements relating to guarding barrels, containers and drums have been moved to WAC 296-806-30028.
• Requirements relating to exposure of blades have been moved to WAC 296-806-30016.
• Requirements relating to cams have been moved to WAC 296-806-30012.
• Requirements relating to guarding garbage disposals have been moved to WAC 296-806-43502.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-15003 Anchoring fixed machinery.
• Requirements relating to anchoring fixed machinery have been moved to WAC 296-806-20002.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-15005 Means to prevent slipping.
• Requirements relating to slipping hazards around machinery have been moved to WAC 296-806-20004.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-15007 Machines shall be stopped when making repairs.

• Requirements relating to machines being stopped when making repairs have been moved to WAC 296-806-20020.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-15009 Counterweights.
• Requirements relating to counterweights have been moved to WAC 296-806-20034.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-165 Fixed and portable power tool requirements.
• Requirements relating to saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16501 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to machine safety have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16503 Machine construction general.
• Requirements relating to controlling machine vibration have been moved to WAC 296-806-20014.
• Requirements relating to arbors and mandrels have been moved to WAC 296-806-30002.
• Requirements relating to automatic cutoff saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-48024.
• Requirements relating to construction of saw frames and tables have been moved to WAC 296-806-20016.
• Requirements relating to construction of circular saw fences have been moved to WAC 296-806-48006.
• Requirements relating to construction of gages have been moved to WAC 296-806-48010.
• Requirements relating to construction of hinged saw tables have been moved to WAC 296-806-48006.
• Requirements relating to guarding of belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts have been moved to WAC 296-806-300.
• Requirements relating to grounding are located in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
• Requirements relating to accidental contact under and behind the saw table have been moved to WAC 296-806-48008.
• Requirements relating to revolving double arbor saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-48036.
• Requirements relating to prohibiting saws, cutter heads, or tool collars being placed or mounted on a machine arbor have been moved to WAC 296-806-30002.
• Requirements relating to providing combs (featherboards) or suitable jigs have been moved to WAC 296-806-48002.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16505 Machine controls and equipment.
• Requirements relating to mechanical or electrical power controls have been moved to WAC 296-806-20008.
• Requirements relating to belts and shafting have been moved to WAC 296-806-30008.
• Requirements relating to motors restarting after power failures have been moved to WAC 296-806-20010.
• Requirements relating to the location of power controls and operating controls have been moved to WAC 296-806-20008.
• Requirements relating to motors being inoperative while repairs or adjustments being made have been moved to chapter 296-803 WAC, Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy).
• Requirements relating to operating treadles being protected from unexpected or accidental tripping have been moved to WAC 296-806-20010.
• Requirements relating to guarding feeder attachments have been moved to WAC 296-806-20030 and 296-806-48016.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16507 Hand-fed ripsaws.
• Requirements relating to hand-fed ripsaws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16509 Hand-fed crosscut table saws.
• Requirements relating to hand-fed crosscut table saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16511 Circular resaws.
• Requirements relating to circular resaws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16513 Self-feed circular saws.
• Requirements relating to self-feed circular saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16515 Swing cutoff saws.
• Requirements relating to swing cutoff saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16517 Radial saws.
• Requirements relating to radial saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16519 Bandsaws and band resaws.
• Requirements relating to bandsaws and band resaws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16521 Jointers.
• Requirements relating to jointers have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16523 Tenoning machines.
• Requirements relating to tenoning machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16525 Boring and mortising machine.
• Requirements relating to guarding the operating treadle have been moved to WAC 296-806-20010.
• Requirements relating to boring and mortising machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16527 Shaper and similar equipment.
• Requirements relating to shapers and similar equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16529 Planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines.

• Requirements relating to planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16531 Profile and swing-head lathes and heel turning machine.
• Requirements relating to profile and swing head lathes have been moved to WAC 296-806-45012.
• Requirements relating to cutting heads on turning heads have been moved to WAC 296-806-45014.
• Requirements relating to shoe lasts, spoke lathes, doweling machines and heel turning machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-45016.
• Requirements relating to lathes used for turning long pieces of stock have been moved to WAC 296-806-45018.
• Requirements relating to exhaust systems being used have been moved to WAC 296-806-45012.
• Requirements relating to wood turning lathes have been moved to WAC 296-806-20032.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16533 Sanding machines.
• Requirements relating to sanding machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-475.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16535 Veneer cutters and wringers.
• Requirements relating to veneer slicer knives have been moved to WAC 296-806-48080.
• Requirements relating to veneer clippers having automatic feeds have been moved to WAC 296-806-48082.
• Requirements relating to sprockets on chain or slat-belt conveyors have been moved to WAC 296-806-30014.
• Requirements relating to guillotine veneer cutters have been moved to WAC 296-806-48084.
• Requirements relating to emergency devices on power-driven guillotine veneer cutters have been moved to WAC 296-806-48086.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16537 Miscellaneous machines.
• Requirements relating to feed rolls of roll type glue spreaders have been moved to WAC 296-806-440.
• Requirements relating to drag saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to combination or universal machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-20028.
• Requirements relating to suitable guards and exhaust hoods being provided on the point of operation have been moved to WAC 296-806-20028.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-16539 Inspection and maintenance of machinery.
• Requirements relating to dull, badly set, improperly filed, or improperly tensioned saws being removed from service have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to knives and cutting heads being kept sharp, properly adjusted, and firmly secured have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to bearings being kept free from lost motion and be well lubricated have been moved to WAC 296-806-20022.
• Requirements relating to arbors of all circular saws shall be free from play have been moved to WAC 296-806-30002.
• Requirements relating to sharpening and tensioning of saw blades and cutters have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to cracked saws being removed from service have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to prohibiting wobble saws have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to push sticks or push blocks have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to knife blades of jointers have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Requirements relating to the shutdown of veneer slicers or rotary veneer-cutting machines to make adjustments are covered in chapter 296-803 WAC, Lockout/tagout.
• Requirements relating to prohibiting operators from riding the carriage of a veneer slicer have been moved to WAC 296-806-480.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-180 Abrasive wheel machinery.
• Requirements relating to abrasive wheel machinery have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-18001 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to machine safety have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-18003 General requirements.
• Requirements relating to abrasive wheel machinery have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-18005 Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery.
• Requirements relating to the guarding of abrasive wheel machinery have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-18007 Flanges.
• Requirements relating to flanges have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-18009 Mounting.
• Requirements relating to mounting have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-190 Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries.
• Requirements relating to mills have been moved to WAC 296-806-460.
• Requirements relating to calenders have been moved to WAC 296-806-410.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19001 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to machine safety have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19003 General requirements.
• Requirements relating to mill roll heights have been moved to WAC 296-806-460.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19005 Mill safety controls.
• Requirements relating to mill safety controls have been moved to WAC 296-806-460.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19007 Calender safety controls.
• Requirements relating to calender safety controls have been moved to WAC 296-806-410.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19009 Protection by location.
• Requirements relating to protection by location have been moved to WAC 296-806-410 and 296-806-460.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19011 Trip and emergency switches.
• Requirements relating to trip and emergency switches have been moved to WAC 296-806-410 and 296-806-460.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19013 Stopping limits.
• Requirements relating to stopping limits have been moved to WAC 296-806-410 and 296-806-460.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19015 Alarm.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-195 Mechanical power presses.
• Requirements relating to mechanical power presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19501 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to machine safety have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19503 General requirements.
• Requirements for general requirements relating to mechanical power presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19505 Mechanical power press guarding and construction, general.
• Requirements relating to mechanical power press guarding and construction have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19507 Safeguarding the point of operation.
• Requirements relating to safeguarding the point of operation have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19509 Design, construction, setting and feeding dies.

• Requirements relating to design, construction, setting and feeding dies have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19511 Inspection, maintenance and modification of presses.

• Requirements relating to inspection, maintenance and modification of presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19513 Operation of power presses.
• Requirements relating to the operation of power presses moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19514 Reports of injuries to employees operating mechanical power presses.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-19517 Presence sensing device initiation (PSDI).

• Requirements relating to presence sensing device initiation have been moved to WAC 296-806-455.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-197 Compactors.
• Requirements relating to compactors have been moved to WAC 296-806-415.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-200 Forging machines.
• Requirements relating to forging machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20001 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to machine safety have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20003 General requirements.
• Requirements relating to forging general requirements have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20005 Hammers, general.
• Requirements relating to hammers have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Requirements relating to foot operated devices have been moved to WAC 296-806-20010.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20007 Presses.
• Requirements relating to presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20009 Power-driven hammers.
• Requirements relating to power-driven hammers have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20011 Gravity hammers.
• Requirements relating to gravity hammers have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20013 Forging presses.
• Requirements relating to forging presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20015 Trimming presses.
• Requirements relating to trimming presses have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20017 Upsetters.
• Requirements relating to upsetters have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20019 Other forging equipment.
• Requirements relating to other forging equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20021 Other forge facility equipment.
• Requirements relating to other forge facility equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-430.
• Requirements relating to conveyors have been moved to WAC 296-806-420.
• Requirements relating to shot blasts are located in chapter 296-62 WAC.
• Requirements relating to grinding have been moved to WAC 296-806-405.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-205 Safeguarding power transmission parts.
• Requirements relating to safeguarding power transmission parts have been moved to WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20501 What is an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power?
• Requirements relating to an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power have been moved to WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20503 What requirements must guards meet?
• Requirements relating to guards have been moved to WAC 296-806-20042.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20505 What requirements must devices meet?
• Requirements relating to devices have been moved to WAC 296-806-20044.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20507 What requirements must safeguarding by distance meet?
• Requirements relating to safeguarding by distance have been moved to WAC 296-806-20056.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20509 What requirements must safeguarding by location meet?
• Requirements relating to safeguarding by location have been moved to WAC 296-806-30004, 296-806-30024, and 296-806-30030.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20511 What other responsibilities beyond safeguarding does an employer have to protect employees from power transmission parts?
• Requirements relating to removing, make flush, or guard with metal covers all projections on moving parts have been moved to WAC 296-806-30034.
• Requirements relating to filling or covering unused keyways have been moved to WAC 296-806-30036.
• Requirements relating to ensuring power transmission parts are inspected have been moved to WAC 296-806-20024.
• Requirements relating to lubricating power transmission parts have been moved to WAC 296-806-20026.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20513 When may a guardrail be used as a safeguard?
• Requirements relating to using a guardrail as a safeguard have been moved to WAC 296-806-20058.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20515 What are the additional requirements for flywheels?
• Requirements relating to flywheels have been moved to WAC 296-806-30018.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20517 What are the additional requirements for shafting?

• Requirements relating to shafting have been moved to WAC 296-806-30030 and 296-806-30032.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20519 What are the additional requirements for pulleys?

• Requirements relating to pulleys have been moved to WAC 296-806-30026.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20521 What are the additional requirements for belt and rope drives?
• Requirements relating to belt and rope drives have been moved to WAC 296-806-30004 and 296-806-30006.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20523 What are the additional requirements for gears?

• Requirements relating to gears have been moved to WAC 296-806-30020.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20525 What are the additional requirements for belt shifters?
• Requirements relating to belt shifters have been moved to WAC 296-806-30008.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20527 What are the additional requirements for sewing machines?
• Requirements relating to sewing machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-30004 and 296-806-485.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20529 Reserve.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20531 Reserve.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20533 Reserve.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20699 Appendices A through D are added to Part C of chapter 296-24 WAC, to describe the federal procedures for third-party validation and certification of presence sensing devices on mechanical power presses.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20700 Appendix A to WAC 296-24-195.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20710 Appendix B to WAC 296-24-195.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20720 Appendix C to WAC 296-24-195.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-24-20730 Appendix D to WAC 296-24-195.
• Repealed this section.
     The following are amended sections and references were updated:

     WAC 296-24-69003 Spot and seam welding machines (nonportable).
• Updated references.
     WAC 296-24-88020 Powered platform installations--Equipment.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-24-90003 General requirements.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-54-573 Logging machines--General.
• Updated references.
     WAC 296-59-130 Ski lift machinery guarding.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-56511 Head rigs and feed works.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-590 Gang saws and re-saws.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-605 Swing saws.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-615 Saw filing and grinding rooms and equipment.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-650 Boring and mortising machines.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-660 Lathe (pail and barrel).
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-665 Sanding machines.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-690 Veneer slicer and cutter.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-70503 Shake and shingle machinery--General.
• Updated references.
     WAC 296-78-71007 Footwalks and passageways.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-71017 Dry kilns.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-78-71505 Mechanical power transmission apparatus.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-79-030 Guards and guarding.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-115-050 General requirements.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-155-487 Manually propelled elevating work platforms.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-155-488 Self propelled elevating work platforms.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-155-525 Cranes and derricks.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-155-682 Requirements for equipment and tools.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-301-020 General safety requirements.
• Updated a reference.
     WAC 296-301-170 Clothing folding machine.
• Updated a reference.
     The following are repealed sections and requirements were moved to chapter 296-806 WAC:

     Chapter 296-302 WAC, Safety standards for bakery equipment.
• Repealed this chapter.
     WAC 296-302-010 Bakery equipment--General requirements.
• Requirements relating to bakery equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-425.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-015 Definitions.
• Definitions relating to bakery equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-500.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-020 General machine guarding.
• Requirements relating to electrical grounding of bakery equipment are located in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
• Requirements relating to gears have been moved to WAC 296-806-30020.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-025 Flour-handling equipment--Scope and application.
• Requirements relating to flour handling equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-425.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02501 General requirements for flour-handling.
• Requirements relating to lockout tagout items have been moved to chapter 296-803 WAC.
• Requirements relating to lifting more than fifty pounds have been moved to WAC 296-806-42544.
• Requirements relating to suitable walkways or platforms are located in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1.
• Requirements relating to oscillating and vibrating sifters have been moved to WAC 296-806-42582.
• Requirements relating to guarding mechanical transmission shafting, gearing, and sprocket drives have been moved to WAC 296-806-300.
• Requirements relating to guards being readily removable have been moved to WAC 296-806-300.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02503 Bag chutes and bag lifts (bag-arm elevators).
• Requirements relating to bag chutes have been moved to WAC 296-806-42518.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02505 Dumpbin and blender.
• Requirements relating to dumpbins and blenders have been moved to WAC 296-806-42544.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02507 Flour elevators.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02509 Bolting reels.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02511 Storage bins.
• Requirements relating to storage bins have been moved to WAC 296-806-42516.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02513 Screw conveyors.
• Requirements relating to screw conveyors have been moved to WAC 296-806-42522.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02515 Sifters.
• Requirements relating to sifters have been moved to WAC 296-806-42582.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02517 Flour scales.
• Requirements relating to flour scales have been moved to WAC 296-806-42548.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-02519 Automatic flour gates.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-03001 Horizontal dough mixers.
• Requirements relating to horizontal dough mixers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42562.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-03003 Vertical mixers.
• Requirements relating to vertical mixers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42564.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-035 Dividers.
• Requirements relating to dividers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42536.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-040 Moulders.
• Requirements relating to mechanical feed moulders have been moved to WAC 296-806-42566.
• Requirements relating to hand fed moulders have been moved to WAC 296-806-42568.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-045 Manually fed dough brakes.
• Requirements relating to manually fed dough brakes have been moved to WAC 296-806-42538.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-050 Miscellaneous equipment.
• Requirements relating to proof boxes have been moved to WAC 296-806-42514.
• Requirements relating to fermentation rooms have been moved to WAC 296-806-42506.
• Requirements relating to troughs have been moved to WAC 296-806-42532.
• Requirements relating to hand trucks have been moved to WAC 296-806-42526.
• Requirements relating to lift trucks have been moved to WAC 296-806-42526.
• Requirements relating to conveyors have been moved to WAC 296-806-42522.
• Requirements relating to ingredient premixers and emulsifiers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42552.
• Requirements relating to chain tackle have been moved to WAC 296-806-42520.
• Requirements relating to air-conditioning units have been moved to WAC 296-806-42502.
• Requirements relating to pan washing tanks have been moved to WAC 296-806-42512.
• Requirements relating to doughnut machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-42542.
• Requirements relating to open fat kettles have been moved to WAC 296-806-42554.
• Requirements relating to steam kettles have been moved to WAC 296-806-42556.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-05501 Slicers.
• Requirements relating to slicers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42528.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-05503 Wrappers.
• Requirements relating to wrappers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42530.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-060 Biscuit and cracker equipment.
• Requirements relating to metal, peanut, and fig grinders have been moved to WAC 296-806-42550.
• Requirements relating to sugar and spice pulverizers have been moved to WAC 296-806-42584.
• Requirements relating to cheese, fruit, and food cutters have been moved to WAC 296-806-42550.
• Requirements relating to reversible dough brakes have been moved to WAC 296-806-42540.
• Requirements relating to cross-roll brakes have been moved to WAC 296-806-42538.
• Requirements relating to box and roll type dough sheeters have been moved to WAC 296-806-42580.
• Requirements relating to rotary, die machines, pretzel rolling and pretzel-stick extruding machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-42578.
• Requirements relating to band ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-20030.
• Requirements relating to chocolate melting, refining, and mixing kettles have been moved to WAC 296-806-42558.
• Requirements relating to peanut cooling trucks have been moved to WAC 296-806-42576.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-065 Ovens--Scope and application.
• Requirements relating to ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570, 296-806-42572 and 296-806-42574.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06501 General location.
• Requirements relating to oven location have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06503 General requirements.
• Requirements relating to oven general requirements have been moved to WAC 296-806-42574.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06505 Construction.
• Requirements relating to construction of ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06507 Safeguards of mechanical parts.
• Requirements relating to safeguarding of mechanical oven parts have been moved to WAC 296-806-42572.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06509 Gas-burning systems.
• Requirements relating to gas-burning systems have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06511 Gas mixing machines.
• Requirements relating to gas mixing machines have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06513 Oil-burning equipment.
• Requirements relating to oil-burning equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-42470.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06515 Solid-fuel firing equipment.
• Requirements relating to solid-fuel firing equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06517 Electrical heating equipment.
• Requirements relating to electrical heating equipment have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06519 Direct-fired ovens.
• Requirements relating to direct-fired ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06521 Direct recirculating ovens.
• Requirements relating to direct recirculating ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06523 Flue-type ovens.
• Requirements relating to flue-type ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06525 Indirect-fired multiple burner ovens.
• Requirements relating to indirect-fired multiple burner ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06527 Steam-tube ovens.
• Requirements relating to steam-tube ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06529 Indirect recirculating ovens.
• Requirements relating to indirect recirculating ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     WAC 296-302-06531 Electric ovens.
• Requirements relating to electric ovens have been moved to WAC 296-806-42570.
• Repealed this section.
     The following are amended sections and references were updated:

     WAC 296-303-030 Moving parts.
• Updated references.
     WAC 296-305-06519 Fire station equipment and tools.
• Updated references.
     The following are new sections:

     WAC 296-806-100 Scope.
• Created this section to explain the requirements relating to machine safety.
     WAC 296-806-200 Summary.
• Created this summary page to include all the sections located in WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300 that relate to requirements for all machines.
     WAC 296-806-20002 Secure machines designed to stay in one place.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15003.
     WAC 296-806-20004 Protect employees from slipping hazards around machinery.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15005.
     WAC 296-806-20006 Arrange work areas to avoid creating hazards.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-85503.
     WAC 296-806-20008 Make sure operating controls meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16505.
     WAC 296-806-20010 Protect employees from unintentional machine operation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16505.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16525.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20005.
     WAC 296-806-20012 Make sure emergency stop controls meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-13501.
     WAC 296-806-20014 Control machine vibration.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16503.
     WAC 296-806-20016 Prevent overspeed conditions.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16503.
     WAC 296-806-20018 Make sure hand feeding and retrieval tools meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-20020 Protect employees who are adjusting or repairing machinery.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15007.
     WAC 296-806-20022 Keep power transmission equipment in good working condition.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-20024 Inspect power transmission parts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-20026 Protect employees lubricating moving machinery.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-20028 Safeguard employees from the point of operation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16537.
     WAC 296-806-20030 Safeguard employees from nip or shear point hazards.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16505.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-20032 Safeguard employees from rotating or revolving parts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-20034 Safeguard employees from reciprocating or other moving parts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15009.
     WAC 296-806-20036 Safeguard employees from flying objects.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-20038 Safeguard employees from falling objects.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-20040 Safeguard employees from moving surfaces with hazards.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20501.
     WAC 296-806-20042 Make sure guards meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20503.
     WAC 296-806-20044 Make sure devices meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20505.
     WAC 296-806-20046 Make sure light curtains meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B11.19 - 1990.
     WAC 296-806-20048 Make sure pressure-sensitive mats meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B11.19 - 1990.
     WAC 296-806-20050 Make sure restraint or pullback devices meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B11.19 - 1990.
     WAC 296-806-20052 Make sure two-hand devices meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B11.19 - 1990.
     WAC 296-806-20054 Make sure devices used with barrier guards meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B11.19 - 1990.
     WAC 296-806-20056 Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20507.
     WAC 296-806-20058 Make sure guardrails used for safeguarding meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20513.
     WAC 296-806-300 Summary.
• This section was combined with WAC 296-806-200.
     WAC 296-806-30002 Fit arbors and mandrels to the machine.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16503.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16539
     WAC 296-806-30004 Safeguard belt and rope drives.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20509.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20521.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20527.
     WAC 296-806-30006 Make sure belt or rope drives meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20521.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20525.
     WAC 296-806-30008 Protect employees while shifting belts on belt and pulley drives.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16505.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20525.
     WAC 296-806-30010 Make sure belt tighteners meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20525.
     WAC 296-806-30012 Safeguard cams, connecting rods, tail rods, and extension piston rods.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-30014 Safeguard chain and sprocket drives.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-30016 Safeguard fan blades.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-30018 Safeguard flywheels.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20515.
     WAC 296-806-30020 Safeguard gears.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20523.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-020.
     WAC 296-806-30022 Safeguard projections on moving parts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-30024 Safeguard pulleys.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20509.
     WAC 296-806-30026 Make sure pulleys meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20519.
     WAC 296-806-30028 Safeguard revolving drums, barrels, and containers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-30030 Safeguard shafting.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20509.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20517.
     WAC 296-806-30032 Make sure shafting meets these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20517.
     WAC 296-806-30034 Safeguard unused keyways.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-30036 Make sure revolving collars meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20511.
     WAC 296-806-30038 Safeguard counterweights.
• Requirements relating to counterweights were moved from WAC 296-24-15009.
     WAC 296-806-400 Summary.
• Created this summary page to include all the sections located in WAC 296-806-400 that relate to requirements for specific machines or operations.
     WAC 296-806-405 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-40502 Make sure abrasive wheels and machines are properly designed and constructed.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40504 Make sure machines have safety guards.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40506 Make sure safety guards meet specific requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40508 Provide a tongue guard on bench, pedestal, floorstand, and cylindrical grinders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40510 Use a work rest for off-hand grinding.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40512 Make sure abrasive wheels are safe to use.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40514 Mount wheels properly.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40516 Use proper flanges.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40518 Make sure flanges are in good condition.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40520 Use specific flanges for Type 1 cutting-off wheels.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40522 Use specific flanges for Type 27A cutting-off wheels.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40524 Use blotters when required.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-40526 Meet specific blotter requirements when using modified Types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo).
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-180 through 296-24-18009.
     WAC 296-806-410 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-41002 Provide calender safety controls.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-41004 Follow these stopping limit requirements for calenders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-415 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-197.
     WAC 296-806-41502 Safeguard hazardous moving parts of stationary compactors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-197.
     WAC 296-806-41504 Follow these requirements for compactor controls.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-197.
     WAC 296-806-41506 Follow these requirements for compactor access doors and covers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-197.
     WAC 296-806-41508 Follow these requirements for compactors that cycle automatically.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-197.
     WAC 296-806-420 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-42002 Follow these requirements for conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42004 Provide emergency stops on conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42006 Label conveyor controls.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42008 Prohibit riding on conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42010 Provide safe access to conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42012 Provide backstop or anti-runaway devices on incline, decline, or vertical conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42014 Make only safe alterations to conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42016 Inspect and replace worn conveyor parts.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42018 Follow these requirements for replacing conveyor parts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42020 Follow these requirements for spill guards.

• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42022 Provide pedestrian overpasses for conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B20.1 - 1957.
     WAC 296-806-42024 Guard openings to hoppers and chutes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42026 Install guideposts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42028 Guard nip points on belt conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42030 Install emergency stop controllers on overland belt conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42032 Install belt conveyor overpasses.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42034 Safeguard chain conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42036 Guard return strands on chain conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42038 Guard chain conveyors that are used as a transfer mechanism.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42040 Prevent material from falling off of elevator conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42042 Provide protection where employees must load shakers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42044 Provide grating over silo and bunker openings for shuttle conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42046 Guard wheels and rails on mobile conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42048 Prevent hazardous motion on mobile conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42050 Provide a detector for mobile conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42052 Provide safe access on mobile conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42054 Guard pusher-bar conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42056 Prohibit walking on roller-type conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-21515.
     WAC 296-806-42058 Use speed controls for roller and wheel conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42060 Safeguard belt-driven live roller conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42062 Guard screw conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42064 Provide slack-cable switches on hoists.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42066 Block the skip bucket and counterweight guides.

• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42068 Protect against wire rope coming off sheaves.

• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42070 Safeguard slat and roller-slat conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42072 Provide a safe method for disengaging the tow pin.

• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42074 Protect employees from moving carts on towed conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42076 Provide clearances and warnings for carts on towed conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-42078 Mark projections above the floor.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ASME B20.1 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-425 Summary.
• Requirements relating to food processing equipment have been moved from chapter 296-302 WAC.
     WAC 296-806-42502 Provide locks on chamber doors of large air conditioning units.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42504 Use proper door locks on rack-type bread coolers.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42506 Provide see-through panels on fermentation room doors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42508 Cover exposed hot pipes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from 29 CFR 1910.263.
     WAC 296-806-42510 Provide extension piping on stationary lubrication fittings.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02501.
     WAC 296-806-42512 Provide hoods for pan washing tanks.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42514 Safeguard proof boxes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42516 Safeguard storage bins.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02511.
     WAC 296-806-42518 Follow these design requirements for bag lifts (bag arm elevators) and chutes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02503.
     WAC 296-806-42520 Follow these requirements for chain tackle.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42522 Safeguard conveyors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02513.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42524 Use properly designed covers for screw conveyors (augers).
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02513.
     WAC 296-806-42526 Safeguard pallet jacks and hand trucks.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42528 Safeguard bakery slicers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-05501.
     WAC 296-806-42530 Safeguard bakery wrapping machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-05503.
     WAC 296-806-42532 Provide troughs with antifriction-bearing casters.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42534 Follow these requirements for trough hoists and similar equipment.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42536 Follow these requirements for dividers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-035.
     WAC 296-806-42538 Safeguard manually-fed dough and cross-roll brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-045.
     WAC 296-806-42540 Provide a guard or tripping device on reversible dough brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42542 Follow these requirements for doughnut machines.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42544 Follow these requirements for dumpbins and blenders.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02505.
     WAC 296-806-42546 Follow these requirements for flour-handling machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-025.
     WAC 296-806-42548 Follow these requirements for traveling or track-type flour scales.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02517.
     WAC 296-806-42550 Follow these requirements for food grinders and cutters.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42552 Provide covers with interlocks on ingredient premixers, emulsifiers, and similar machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42554 Follow these requirements for open fat kettles.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42556 Follow these requirements for steam kettles.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-050.
     WAC 296-806-42558 Follow these requirements for chocolate melting, refining, and mixing kettle.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42560 Safeguard meat-processing equipment (circular meat-cutting saws).
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-42562 Follow these requirements for horizontal dough mixers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-03001.
     WAC 296-806-42564 Follow these requirements for vertical mixers.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-03003.
     WAC 296-806-42566 Follow these requirements for mechanical-feed moulders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-040.
     WAC 296-806-42568 Follow these requirements for hand-fed moulders.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-040.
     WAC 296-806-42570 Design, install, and construct your ovens according to these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-065 through 296-302-06531.
     WAC 296-806-42572 Properly locate emergency "stop" buttons and main shut off valves for ovens.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-065 through 296-302-06531.
     WAC 296-806-42574 Inspect and test safety devices on ovens.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-065 through 296-302-06531.
     WAC 296-806-42576 Follow these requirements for peanut-cooling trucks.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42578 Follow these requirements for pretzel rolling, pretzel stick extruding, rotary, and die machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42580 Safeguard box and roll-type dough sheeters.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-42582 Provide proper enclosures for sifters.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02501.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-02515.
     WAC 296-806-42584 Follow these requirements for sugar and spice pulverizers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-302-060.
     WAC 296-806-430 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43002 Follow these safety requirements when using lead and lead casts.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43004 Properly inspect and maintain forging equipment.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43006 Use safety blocks on hammers and presses.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43008 Make sure tongs meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43010 Protect employees when removing scale.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43012 Provide adequate foundations for hammers and presses.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43014 Follow these requirements for manually operated valves and switches.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43016 Use die keys and shims made of proper-grade material.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43018 Provide a safety cylinder head.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43020 Provide a shutoff valve.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43022 Provide a means for cylinder draining.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43024 Follow these requirements for pressure pipes.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43026 Follow these requirements when using board hammers.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-43028 Protect against sparks from saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-200 through 296-24-20021.
     WAC 296-806-435 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-43502 Safeguard garbage (waste) disposal equipment.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-15001.
     WAC 296-806-440 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16537.
     WAC 296-806-44002 Provide guards and automatic shut-offs on glue spreaders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16537.
     WAC 296-806-445 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-44502 Safeguard ironworkers point of operation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-44504 Follow these requirements for adjustable restrictors when safeguarding ironworkers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-450 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45002 Provide shields or guards on metal lathes for chip or coolant hazards.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45004 Safeguard work-holding devices (chucks).
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45006 Follow these requirements for chip control and handling.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45008 Safeguard power-clamping devices.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45010 Restrain extended workpieces on horizontal lathes.

• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.6.
     WAC 296-806-45012 Guard cutting heads on profile lathes and swing-head lathes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16531.
     WAC 296-806-45014 Guard cutting heads on turning lathes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16531.
     WAC 296-806-45016 Guard automatic turning lathes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16531.
     WAC 296-806-45018 Guard wood lathes used for turning long pieces of stock.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16531.
     WAC 296-806-455 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45502 Make sure mechanical power presses are properly designed and constructed.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45504 Safeguard presses that use unitized tooling.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45506 Protect operators from guidepost hazards.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45508 Safeguard the point of operation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45510 Make sure point-of-operation guards are properly designed and constructed.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45512 Make sure barrier guards meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45514 Make sure point-of-operation devices are effective.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45516 Make sure presence-sensing devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45518 Make sure pull-back devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45520 Make sure restraint (holdout) devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45522 Make sure two-hand control devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45524 Make sure two-hand trip devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45526 Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45528 Establish die setting procedures.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45530 Handle dies safely.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45532 Protect die setters during setup and tryout.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45534 Train press operators.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45536 Operate mechanical power presses safely.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45538 Provide tools and other means to protect press operators.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45540 Inspect and maintain presses.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-45542 Make sure presses and operating practices used in PSDI (presence sensing device initiation) mode of operation meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19517.
     WAC 296-806-460 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-46002 Meet height requirements for mill rolls.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-46004 Provide mill safety controls.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-46006 Follow these stopping limit requirements for mills.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-190 through 296-24-19015.
     WAC 296-806-465 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11 and OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46502 Provide auxiliary safety aids on press brakes.

• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46504 Safeguard the point of operation on press brakes.

• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46506 Follow this requirement when using safe distance safeguarding.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46508 Develop a safe distance safeguarding program for press brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46510 Follow these requirements for safe distance training for press brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46512 Require safe distance refresher training for press brake operations.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46514 Conduct periodic safe distance inspections on press brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-46516 Supervise the safe distance program for press brakes.
• Requirements in this section were moved from OSHA CPL 2-1.25.
     WAC 296-806-470 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11 and chapter 296-24 WAC.
     WAC 296-806-47002 Follow these requirements for machine initiation.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.12 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-47004 Safeguarding nip points of roll-forming and bending machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from ANSI B 11.12 - 1996.
     WAC 296-806-475 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16533.
     WAC 296-806-47502 Guard drum sanders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16533.
     WAC 296-806-47504 Guard disk sanders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16533.
     WAC 296-806-47506 Guard belt sanders.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16533.
     WAC 296-806-47508 Follow these requirements for feed roll guarding.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16533.
     WAC 296-806-480 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48002 Protect employees using saws and cutting heads.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48004 Make sure saws and cutting heads are sharpened and tensioned by qualified people.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48006 Make sure saws are safe to use.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48008 Make sure all circular saws meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48010 Make sure circular saw gages meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48012 Safeguard hand-fed circular table saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48014 Provide kickback protection for employees using hand-fed circular table ripsaws when ripping wood products.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48016 Safeguard self-feed circular saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48018 Provide kickback protection for self-feed circular ripsaws when ripping wood products.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48020 Guard circular resaws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48022 Provide spreaders for circular resaws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48024 Protect employees from automatic saw hazards.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48026 Guard inverted swing (jump) saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48028 Guard miter saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48030 Guard radial saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48032 Limit the travel of radial saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48034 Provide kickback protection for radial saws used for ripping wood products.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48036 Guard revolving double arbor doors.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48038 Guard swing saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48040 Limit the travel of swing saws.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48042 Make sure bandsaws meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48044 Protect employees from drag saw hazards.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-165 through 296-806-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48046 Maintain and balance knives and cutting heads.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16539.
     WAC 296-806-48048 Make sure boring and mortising machines meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16525.
     WAC 296-806-48050 Follow these requirements for chipper mills.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-78-84007.
     WAC 296-806-48052 Follow these requirements for hog mills.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-78-84007.
     WAC 296-806-48054 Protect employees from falling into chipper and hog mills.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-78-84007.
     WAC 296-806-48056 Make sure jointers with horizontal cutting heads meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16521.
     WAC 296-806-48058 Guard horizontal cutting heads on hand-fed jointers.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16521.
     WAC 296-806-48060 Guard vertical cutting heads on jointers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16521.
     WAC 296-806-48062 Make sure molding, sticking and matching machines meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16529.
     WAC 296-806-48064 Guard hand-fed panel raisers and other similar machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16527.
     WAC 296-806-48066 Make sure planers with a horizontal cutting head meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16521.
     WAC 296-806-48068 Guard planers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16529.
     WAC 296-806-48070 Guard planer feed rolls.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16529.
     WAC 296-806-48072 Provide kickback protection on planers running stock of varied thickness.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16529.
     WAC 296-806-48074 Make sure shapers meet these requirements.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16527.
     WAC 296-806-48076 Guard tenoning machine feed chains and sprockets.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16523.
     WAC 296-806-48078 Guard tenoning machines.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16523.
     WAC 296-806-48080 Guard veneer cutters and wringer knives.

• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-48082 Guard veneer clippers.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-48084 Follow these requirements for guarding guillotine cutters.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-48086 Provide mechanisms to stop power-driven guillotine cutters.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-48088 Prohibit riders on veneer slicer carriages.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-16535.
     WAC 296-806-485 Summary.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20527.
     WAC 296-806-48502 Guard sewing machine needles.
• Requirements in this section were moved from WAC 296-24-20527.
     WAC 296-806-500 Definitions.
• The following definitions have been added or moved from chapters 296-24 and 296-302 WAC: Abrasive wheel, adjustable barrier guard, air-lift hammer, anti-repeat, arbor, authorized person, awareness barrier, barricade, barrier guard, belt conveyors, belt pole, belt shifter, bench grinder, bending, blade, blanking, blind hole, blotter, board hammer, bolster plate, brake, chain conveyor, channel blanking, chipper, chuck, clutch, comb, concurrent, cone pulley, cone and plug wheels (types 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19), control system, coping-notching, counterbalance, cutting-off wheels, cutting tool or saw blade, cycle, dado, device, die or dies, die enclosure guard, die setter, die setting, die shoe, die shutheight, divider, dough sheeter, dressed, drilling/boring machine, dross, dump bin and blender, face of the slide, feather board/comb, feeding, fence, fixed barricade, fixed barrier guard, fixed blade, fixed blanking, fixture/jig, flanges, floating blanking (floating window), floorstand grinder, forging, forging presses, full revolution clutch, gage, gap (throat), gate or movable barrier device, guard (abrasive wheels), guard, guidepost, hazard, hazard area, hog, horizontal lathe, idler (pulley), inch, indirect recirculating ovens, interlocked barrier guard, inverted swing and jump saws, ironworker, jig, jog, jointer, jump saw, kerf, kickback, live roller conveyor, mandrel, manlift, manual feeding, maximum exposure angle, miter gage, miter saw, mode, modified types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo), molding machine, mortiser, moulder, mounted wheels, movable barrier device, nip-point belt and pulley guard, off-hand grinding, overland conveyor, part revolution clutch, pedestal grinder, pinch point, planer, point of operation, power-driven hammers, power transmission parts, presence-sensing device, presence-sensing device initiation (PSDI), pull-back device, push block, pusher-bar conveyor, push stick, racks, reinforced wheels, repeat, restraint device, return-belt idlers, ripping, rivet-making machines, riving knife, SFPM, safeguarding by location, safeguarding by distance, safeguarding device, safety block, safety cylinder, safety cylinder head, scale, screw conveyor, shaper, sheeter, sifter, single stroke mechanism, slat and roller slat conveyor, slide, snagging, spreader, steam hammers, stripper, surface feet per minute (SFPM), sweep device, swing saw/overhead swing cutoff saw, tenoning machine, terrazzo, threaded hole wheels, tongs, tooling, tongue guard, top grinding, towed conveyor, trimming presses, trip (or tripping), trued, turnover bar, two-hand device, two-hand trip device, type A movable gate, type B movable gate, type 1 wheel, type 2 wheel, type 6 wheel, type 11 wheel, type 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19 wheels, type 27 wheel, type 27A cutting-off wheel, type 28 wheel, type 29 wheel, unitized tooling, upsetters (or forging machines, or headers), wood products.

     Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 296-24-69003 Spot and seam welding machines (nonportable), 296-24-88020 Powered platform installations--Equipment, 296-24-90003 General requirements, 296-54-573 Logging machines--General, 296-59-130 Ski lift machinery guarding, 296-78-56511 Head rigs and feed works, 296-78-590 Gang saws and re-saws, 296-78-605 Swing saws, 296-78-615 Saw filing and grinding rooms and equipment, 296-78-650 Boring and mortising machines, 296-78-660 Lathe (pail and barrel), 296-78-665 Sanding machines, 296-78-690 Veneer slicer and cutter, 296-78-70503 Shake and shingle machinery--General, 296-78-71007 Footwalks and passageways, 296-78-71017 Dry kilns, 296-78-71505 Mechanical power transmission apparatus, 296-79-030 Guards and guarding, 296-115-050 General requirements, 296-155-487 Manually propelled elevating work platforms, 296-155-488 Self propelled elevating work platforms, 296-155-525 Cranes and derricks, 296-155-682 Requirements for equipment and tools, 296-301-020 General safety requirements, 296-301-170 Clothing folding machine, 296-303-030 Moving parts and 296-305-06519 Fire station equipment and tools; and repealing WAC 296-24-150 Machinery and machine guarding -- General requirements for all machines -- Scope and application, 296-24-15001 Machine guarding, 296-24-15003 Anchoring fixed machinery, 296-24-15005 Means to prevent slipping, 296-24-15007 Machines shall be stopped when making repairs, 296-24-15009 Counterweights, 296-24-165 Fixed and portable power tool requirements, 296-24-16501 Definitions, 296-24-16503 Machine construction general, 296-24-16505 Machine controls and equipment, 296-24-16507 Hand-fed ripsaws, 296-24-16509 Hand-fed crosscut table saws, 296-24-16511 Circular resaws, 296-24-16513 Self-feed circular saws, 296-24-16515 Swing cutoff saws, 296-24-16517 Radial saws, 296-24-16519 Bandsaws and band resaws, 296-24-16521 Jointers, 296-24-16523 Tenoning machines, 296-24-16525 Boring and mortising machine, 296-24-16527 Shaper and similar equipment, 296-24-16529 Planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines, 296-24-16531 Profile and swing-head lathes and heel turning machine, 296-24-16533 Sanding machines, 296-24-16535 Veneer cutters and wringers, 296-24-16537 Miscellaneous machines, 296-24-16539 Inspection and maintenance of machinery, 296-24-180 Abrasive wheel machinery, 296-24-18001 Definitions, 296-24-18003 General requirements, 296-24-18005 Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery, 296-24-18007 Flanges, 296-24-18009 Mounting, 296-24-190 Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries, 296-24-19001 Definitions, 296-24-19003 General requirements, 296-24-19005 Mill safety controls, 296-24-19007 Calender safety controls, 296-24-19009 Protection by location, 296-24-19011 Trip and emergency switches, 296-24-19013 Stopping limits, 296-24-19015 Alarm, 296-24-195 Mechanical power presses, 296-24-19501 Definitions, 296-24-19503 General requirements, 296-24-19505 Mechanical power press guarding and construction, general, 296-24-19507 Safeguarding the point of operation, 296-24-19509 Design, construction, setting and feeding dies, 296-24-19511 Inspection, maintenance and modification of presses, 296-24-19513 Operation of power presses, 296-24-19514 Reports of injuries to employees operating mechanical power presses, 296-24-19517 Presence sensing device initiation (PSDI), 296-24-197 Compactors, 296-24-200 Forging machines, 296-24-20001 Definitions, 296-24-20003 General requirements, 296-24-20005 Hammers, general, 296-24-20007 Presses, 296-24-20009 Power-driven hammers, 296-24-20011 Gravity hammers, 296-24-20013 Forging presses, 296-24-20015 Trimming presses, 296-24-20017 Upsetters, 296-24-20019 Other forging equipment, 296-24-20021 Other forge facility equipment, 296-24-205 Safeguarding power transmission parts, 296-24-20501 What is an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power?, 296-24-20503 What requirements must guards meet, 296-24-20505 What requirements must devices meet?, 296-24-20507 What requirements must safeguarding by distance meet?, 296-24-20509 What requirements must safeguarding by location meet?, 296-24-20511 What other responsibilities beyond safeguarding does an employer have to protect employees from power transmission parts?, 296-24-20513 When may a guardrail be used as a safeguard?, 296-24-20515 What are the additional requirements for flywheels?, 296-24-20517 What the additional requirements for shafting?, 296-24-20519 What are the additional requirements for pulleys?, 296-24-20521 What are the additional requirements for belt and rope drives?, 296-24-20523 What are the additional requirements for gears?, 296-24-20525 What are the additional requirements for belt shifters?, 296-24-20527 What are the additional requirements for sewing machines?, 296-24-20529 Reserve, 296-24-20531 Reserve, 296-24-20533 Reserve, 296-24-20699 Appendices A through D are added to Part C of chapter 296-24 WAC, to describe the federal procedures for third-party validation and certification of presence sensing devices on mechanical power presses, 296-24-20700 Appendix A to WAC 296-24-195, 296-24-20710 Appendix B to WAC 296-24-195, 296-24-20720 Appendix C to WAC 296-24-195, 296-24-20730 Appendix D to WAC 296-24-195, 296-302-010 Bakery equipment--General requirements, 296-302-015 Definitions, 296-302-020 General machine guarding, 296-302-025 Flour-handling equipment--Scope and application, 296-302-02501 General requirements for flour-handling, 296-302-02503 Bag chutes and bag lifts (bag-arm elevators), 296-302-02505 Dumpbin and blender, 296-302-02507 Flour elevators, 296-302-02509 Bolting reels, 296-302-02511 Storage bins, 296-302-02513 Screw conveyors, 296-302-02515 Sifters, 296-302-02517 Flour scales, 296-302-02519 Automatic flour gates, 296-302-03001 Horizontal dough mixers, 296-302-03003 Vertical mixers, 296-302-035 Dividers, 296-302-040 Moulders, 296-302-045 Manually fed dough brakes, 296-302-050 Miscellaneous equipment, 296-302-05501 Slicers, 296-302-05503 Wrappers, 296-302-060 Biscuit and cracker equipment, 296-302-065 Ovens--Scope and application, 296-302-06501 General location, 296-302-06503 General requirements, 296-302-06505 Construction, 296-302-06507 Safeguards of mechanical parts, 296-302-06509 Gas-burning systems, 296-302-06511 Gas mixing machines, 296-302-06513 Oil-burning equipment, 296-302-06515 Solid-fuel firing equipment, 296-302-06517 Electrical heating equipment, 296-302-06519 Direct-fired ovens, 296-302-06521 Direct recirculating ovens, 296-302-06523 Flue-type ovens, 296-302-06525 Indirect-fired multiple burner ovens, 296-302-06527 Steam-tube ovens, 296-302-06529 Indirect recirculating ovens, and 296-302-06531 Electric ovens.

     Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060.

      Adopted under notice filed as WSR 04-03-085 on January 20, 2004.

     Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: WAC 296-806-100 Scope.
• Moved the majority of the language in this section to a section in this chapter called, "How to use this book."
• The scope now reads:
"Machines and their moving parts create the potential for workplace injuries. Installed and used properly, safeguards can protect workers by helping to reduce or control machine hazards.
This chapter applies if you have machines or machine operations in your workplace. For requirements on handheld tools go to portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-200 Summary.
• Clarified the language in this section. The first paragraph now reads:
"This section applies to all machines in your workplace. It is organized into the following four categories:
• General requirements
• Safeguarding requirements
• Safeguarding methods
• Requirements for specific machine hazards."
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to determine if additional requirements are listed for machines or operations in your workplace:
- Additional requirements for some machines and machine operations, chapter 296-807 WAC."
• Clarified the language in the second reference, it now reads:
"For requirements that apply to handheld tools, see portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC."
• Incorporated the titles of the sections in the 300 summary to this section.
     WAC 296-806-20006 Arrange work areas to avoid creating hazards.

• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For requirements that apply to aisles and passageways, see WAC 296-24-73505."
     WAC 296-806-20010 Protect employees from unintentional machine operation.
• Added a note for clarity, it reads:
"Operating controls can be protected from unintentional movement by methods such as covers on foot treadles and collars around machinery start buttons."
     WAC 296-806-20010 Make sure emergency stop controls meet these requirements.
• Deleted the words "and other hazardous work areas" from the second subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-20020 Protect employees who are adjusting or repairing machinery.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For requirements about maintaining and servicing machinery where the unexpected start-up, energization, or release of stored energy could injure an employee are in lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), chapter 296-803 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-20026 Protect employees lubricating moving machinery.
• Added a note for clarity, it reads:
"Things such as clothing, hair, jewelry can get caught in machinery and be a hazard on the job."
• Added the words "you must" after the note.
     WAC 296-806-20028 Safeguard employees from the point of operation.
• Changed the heading of this section to "safeguarding requirements."
• Clarified the language in the first two paragraphs of the important statement. They now read:
"If a specific safeguarding method in this chapter is required for machinery or machine parts found in your workplace, follow the specific requirement.
In the absence of a specific safeguarding method required by this or some other chapter, you need to choose a method or combination of methods from the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058."
     WAC 296-806-20042 Make sure guards meet these requirements.
• Deleted the note. Deleted the words "you must."
     WAC 296-806-20044 Make sure devices meet these requirements.
• Added language to the second subbullet for clarity. It now reads:
"Be designed and constructed to prevent the operator from having any part of their body in the danger zone during the hazardous part of the operating cycle."
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For more information on installation of safety devices, see performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19 - 2003."
     WAC 296-806-20046 Make sure light curtains meet these requirements.
• Added an important statement at the beginning of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Important! All devices must meet the general requirements for devises found in make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044."
• Added a reference for clarity. It reads:
"For more information on light curtains and their requirements see performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19 - 2003."
     WAC 296-806-20048 Make sure pressure-sensitive mats meet these requirements.
• Added an important statement at the beginning of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Important! All devices must meet the general requirements for devises found in make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044."
     WAC 296-806-20050 Make sure restraint or pullback devices meet these requirements.
• Added an important statement at the beginning of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Important! All devices must meet the general requirements for devises found in make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044."
     WAC 296-806-20052 Make sure two-hand devices meet these requirements.
• Added an important statement at the beginning of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Important! All devices must meet the general requirements for devises found in make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044."
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For more information on proper installation of safety devices, see performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19 - 2003."
     WAC 296-806-20054 Make sure devices used with barrier guards meet these requirements.
• Added an important statement at the beginning of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Important! All devices must meet the general requirements for devises found in make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044."
     WAC 296-806-20056 Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements.
• Added the number of the table to this section.
• Reformatted the table in this section.
• Moved the language in the example to the end of this section for clarity.
     WAC 296-806-300 Summary.
• This section was combined with WAC 296-806-200.
     WAC 296-806-30004 Safeguard belt and rope drives.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"You may need to follow additional requirements for sewing machines. See sewing machines, WAC 296-806-485, later in this chapter for more information."
• Added another reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
     WAC 296-806-30012 Safeguard cams, connecting rods, tail rods, and extension piston rods.
• Added a reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
• Added the words "you must" before the second bullet.
     WAC 296-806-30016 Safeguard fan blades.

• Added another reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
• Added a bullet that reads:
"Protect employees from exposure to the blades of any fan less than seven feet above the floor or working surface."
• Clarified the language in the last reference, it now reads:
"For guard opening requirements, see Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Opening, in make sure guards meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20042."
     WAC 296-806-30020 Safeguard gears.

• Added a reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
     WAC 296-806-30024 Safeguard pulleys.

• Added a reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
     WAC 296-806-30034 Safeguard unused keyways.

• Added a reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
     WAC 296-806-30036 Make sure revolving collars meet these requirements.
• Added the words "make sure" to the beginning of the second bullet.
     WAC 296-806-30038 Safeguard counterweights.
• Added a reference after the first bullet. It reads:
"In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards
• Devices
• Safeguarding by distance
• Safeguarding by location."
     WAC 296-806-400 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow the "requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-405 Summary.
• Changed the title of this section to "Abrasive Wheels."
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
• "In addition to the requirements in this section you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.
• You need to refer to portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC for requirements relating to handheld abrasive wheel tools."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-40502 Make sure abrasive wheels and machines.
• Changed the date from "September 4, 2004" to "January 1, 2005" in both bullets.
     WAC 296-806-40518 Make sure flanges are in good condition.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Flanges that are refaced or trued need to satisfy minimum dimension requirements specified in Safety Requirements for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, ANSI B7.1 - 2000."
     WAC 296-806-410 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
• "In addition to the requirements in this section you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-415 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
• "In addition to the requirements in this section you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-41502 Safeguard hazardous moving parts of stationary compactors.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For additional requirements, when adjusting or clearing jams from compactors, see lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), chapter 296-803 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-41504 Follow these requirements for compactor controls.

• Replaced the word "of" with the word "from" in the last subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-420 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific conveyor or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Replaced the word "employees" with the word "people" in the exemption.
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-42002 Follow these requirements for conveyors.
• Changed the date from "September 4, 2004" to "January 1, 2005" in the second bullet.
     WAC 296-806-42004 Provide emergency stops on conveyors.
• Corrected bulleting errors.
• Clarified the language in the third bullet, it now reads:
"Make sure where there is the possibility of an employee falling onto a conveyor belt, that the emergency stopping device for conveyors feeding or dumping into a hazardous machine such as a barker, saw, hog, or chipper is at least one of the following:"
• Replaced the word "any" with the words "a sitting" in the last subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-42010 Provide safe access to conveyors.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Some additional requirements for protecting employees inspecting and maintaining conveyors can be found in:
• Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), WAC 296-806-803.
• Personal fall arrest systems, WAC 296-24-88050."
     WAC 296-806-42020 Follow these requirements for spill guards.

• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For specific requirements when conveyors pass over emergency exit routes, see exit routes, WAC 296-800-310."
     WAC 296-806-42022 Provide pedestrian overpasses for conveyors.
• Added the word "dangerous" in the last tertiary bullet.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For guardrail requirements see Railings, toeboards, and cover specifications, WAC 296-24-75011."
     WAC 296-806-42024 Guard openings to hoppers and chutes.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For guardrail requirements see Railings, toeboards, and cover specifications, WAC 296-24-75011."
     WAC 296-806-42028 Guard nip points on belt conveyors.
• Clarified the language in the exemption. It now reads:
"This rule does not normally require guards along the conveyor at the point where the belt rides on return rollers, such as return-belt idlers, unless hazardous conditions such as long, tight heavy belts exist."
     WAC 296-806-42038 Guard chain conveyors that are used as a transfer mechanism.
• Moved the WAC number to the end of the first subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-42060 Safeguard belt-driven live roller conveyors.
• Moved the WAC number to the end of the tertiary bullet.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For nip points and sheer hazards on power-driven (live) roller conveyors see Guard nip points on belt conveyors, WAC 296-806-42028."
     WAC 296-806-42062 Guard screw conveyors.
• Moved the WAC numbers to the end in the first two subbullets.
     WAC 296-806-425 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific food processing machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any facilities requirements in this section along with the "requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-42514 Safeguard proof boxes.
• Added a note at the end of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Guide rails are not required in proof boxes unless there are two doors with a pass through or pull through design."
     WAC 296-806-42516 Safeguard storage bins.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"You may need to follow other requirements found in confined spaces, chapter 296-811 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-42526 Safeguard pallet jacks and hand trucks.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Motorized hand trucks (pallet jacks) are classified as powered industrial trucks. Additional requirements for powered industrial trucks are found in chapter 296-863 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-42528 Safeguard bakery slicers.
• Added clarifying language to subsection (3). It now reads:
"Protect employees sharpening blades by installing a barrier guard that provides an opening large enough for the sharpening stone to reach and sharpen slicer blades."
     WAC 296-806-42536 Follow these requirements for dividers.
• Added a note at the end of this section for clarity. It reads:
"Dividers as discussed in this section utilize pistons, knives and blades to cut and divide large quantities of dough. This does not apply to small vibrating or oscillating rounders."
     WAC 296-806-42560 Safeguard meat-processing equipment (circular meat-cutting saws).
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"When bandsaws are used to cut meat, follow the requirements in make sure bandsaws meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-48042."
     WAC 296-806-42564 Follow these requirements for vertical mixers.

• Clarified the language in subsection (1). It now reads:
"Provide a safeguarding device to protect employees from the point of operations, if the nature of the work exposes them to contact with:"
     WAC 296-806-430 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-43002 Follow these safety requirements when using lead and lead casts.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For requirements about personal protective equipment (PPE), see the safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-160.
For ventilation requirements when using portable lead pot units, see the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-43020 Provide a shutoff valve.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For requirements about lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), see chapter 296-803 WAC."
     WAC 296-806-43024 Follow these requirements for pressure pipes.

• Changed the date from "September 4, 2004" to "January 1, 2005" in the last two subbullets.
     WAC 296-806-43028 Protect against sparks.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Other saw requirements may be found in saws and cutting heads, WAC 296-806-480."
     WAC 296-806-435 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-43502 Safeguard garbage (waste) disposal equipment.
• Clarified the language in this section. It now reads:
"(1) Protect employees exposed to the hazards of screw conveyor disposals with a properly designed and mounted trimboard cover that remains in place during operation.
(2) Provide guarding to protect employees from contact with knives or blades of disposal units.
• The guards need to be strong enough so that an employee's downward thrusting motion will not cause the guard material to open larger than two inches.
Reference:
• You may need to follow additional requirements found in make sure guards meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20042, to keep employees from contacting the knives or blades of disposals."
     WAC 296-806-440 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-445 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-44502 Safeguard ironworkers point of operation.
• Moved the WAC numbers to the end of the bullet.
     WAC 296-806-450 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-455 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"See forging machines, for forging press and hammer requirements, WAC 296-806-430.
See ironworkers, for requirements for ironworkers, WAC 296-806-445.
See press brakes, for power press brake requirements, WAC 296-806-465."
     WAC 296-806-45502 Make sure mechanical power presses are properly designed and constructed.
• Changed the date from "September 4, 2004" to "January 1, 2005" in the two bullets.
     WAC 296-806-45508 Safeguard the point of operation.
• Added the words "before use" to the end of the exemption.
     WAC 296-806-45510 Make sure point-of-operation guards are properly designed and constructed.
• Added a WAC number to the end of the second subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-45512 Make sure barrier guards meet these requirements.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"See provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, for additional safeguards that are required if the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation to feed or remove parts, and the point of operation is protected by a Type B gate or movable barrier device."
     WAC 296-806-45514 Make sure point-of-operation devices are effective.
• Added a bullet that reads:
"Make sure the motor start button is protected against accidental contact."
     WAC 296-806-45516 Make sure presence-sensing devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"See provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, for additional safeguards that are required if the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation to feed or remove parts, and the point of operation is protected by a presence-sensing device."
     WAC 296-806-45518 Make sure pull-back devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For record-keeping requirements for maintenance or repair work, see Inspect and maintain presses, WAC 296-806-45540."
     WAC 296-806-45522 Make sure two-hand control devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"See provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, for additional required safeguards."
     WAC 296-806-45526 Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation.
• Changed the date from "September 4, 2004" to "January 1, 2005" in the third and fourth subbullets.
     WAC 296-806-45540 Inspect and maintain presses.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For requirements for these monitoring devices, see provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526."
     WAC 296-806-460 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-46004 Provide mill safety controls.
• Added a subbullet to end of subsection (1). It reads:
"Easy to operate whether pushed or pulled."
     WAC 296-806-465 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-46508 Develop a safe distance safeguarding program for press brakes.
• Clarified the language in the subbullet. It now reads:
"Include methods for maintaining the minimum safe distance requirements in Follow this requirement when using safe distance safeguarding, WAC 296-806-46506."
     WAC 296-806-46512 Require safe distance refresher training for press brake operators.
• Changed the title of this section to "Require safe distance retraining for press brake operators."
• Replaced the words "refresher training" with the word "retraining" in subsection (1).
• Replaced the words "refresher training" with the word "retraining" in subsection (2).
     WAC 296-806-46516 Supervise the safe distance program for press brakes.
• Moved the WAC number to the end of the third subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-470 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-807-475 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Added language to the exemption. It now reads:
"This section does not apply to hand-held sanders. See Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC, for requirements that apply to hand-held tools."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-47502 Guard drum sanders.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Exhaust hoods are required on sanders when dust levels exceed exposure limits. For requirements about air contaminants, see respiratory hazards, chapter 296-841 WAC."
• Added language to the exemption. It now reads:
"When a table is used for the application of material to be finished, you do not need to enclose the portion of the drum above the table that is necessary to do the work."
     WAC 296-806-47504 Guard disk sanders.
• Added language to the exemption. It now reads:
"When a table is used for the application of material to be finished, you do not need to enclose the portion of the disk above the table that is necessary to do the work."
     WAC 296-806-480 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then be sure to follow any of the following requirements that apply:
• General requirements for all saws and cutting heads in this section
• General requirements for all saws in this section
• General requirements for all cutting heads in this section
• "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Changed the language in the reference. It now reads:
"For requirements on hand-held tools go to portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC."
• Deleted the reference.
• Deleted the exemption.
     WAC 296-806-48002 Protect employees using saws and cutting heads.

• Added a bullet that reads:
"Provide safeguarding to protect employees from the hazards of feed rolls."
     WAC 296-806-48028 Guard miter saws.
• Added the words "by making" to the first bullet in subsection (3).
     WAC 296-806-48030 Guard radial saws.
• Added a reference in the second bullet to the illustration. It reads:
"See guard radial saws, illustration 480-2."
• Added a bullet at the end of this section before the exemption. It reads:
"OR
• Is a manually adjusted (wing) guard that:
- Is made of material strong enough to withstand the forces put on it. Suggested materials include polycarbonates or expanded metal.
- Has edges that are smooth so no hazards from the guard exist.
- Extends a minimum of eight inches to both the front and arbor-end sides.
- Is adjustable in a vertical plane to the different thicknesses of stock so the gap is 3/8 inch or less between the bottom of the guard and the top of the stock."
     WAC 296-806-48032 Limit the travel of radial saws.
• Deleted the word "unguarded" from the second subbullet.
     WAC 296-806-48034 Provide kickback protection for radial saws used for ripping wood products.
• Added a reference in the second bullet to the illustration. It reads:
"See ripping with a radial arm saw, illustration 480-3."
     WAC 296-806-48038 Guard swing saws.
• Clarified the language in the first bullet of the exemption. It reads:
"Provide protection equivalent to a standard automatic adjusting guard."
     WAC 296-806-48050 Follow these requirements for chipper mills.

• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"Safety requirements for mobile chippers can be found in Pruning, Repairing, Maintaining and Removing Trees and Cutting Brush, section 9.6, ANSI Z133.1 - 2000."
     WAC 296-806-48054 Protect employees from falling into chipper and hog mills.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"See railing, toeboards and cover specifications for requirements on guardrails used as barriers, WAC 296-24-75011."
     WAC 296-806-48060 Guard vertical cutting heads on jointers.
• Clarified the language in this section. It now reads:
"Provide each jointer that has a vertical cutting head with an exhaust hood or other type of guard that completely encloses the revolving head except for a slot that is wide enough for the material being jointed."
     WAC 296-806-48084 Follow these requirements for guarding guillotine cutters.
• Moved the WAC number to the end of the third bullet in subsection (1).
     WAC 296-806-485 Summary.
• Added language to clarify what sections may be applicable. It reads:
"In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
- Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300."
• Deleted the reference.
     WAC 296-806-48502 Guard sewing machine needles.
• Clarified the language in the reference, it now reads:
"For specific requirements about safeguarding sewing machine belts, see Guard belt and rope drives, WAC 296-806-30004."
     WAC 296-806-500 Definitions.
• Deleted the words "see also drop hammer and gravity hammer" from the definition of "air-lift hammer."
• Deleted the words "see also drop hammers" from the definition of "board hammer."
• Replace the word "or" with the word "of" in the definition of "fixed barricade."
• Deleted the word "finished" from the definition of "racks."

     A final cost-benefit analysis is available by contacting Trista Zugel, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44001, Olympia, WA 98504, phone (360) 902-6805, fax (360) 902-4202, e-mail zugy235@lni.wa.gov.

     Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

     Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

     Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 279, Amended 27, Repealed 130.

     Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 279, Amended 27, Repealed 130.

     Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0;      Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 279, Amended 27, Repealed 130.

     Date Adopted: June 29, 2004.

Paul Trause

Director

OTS-6877.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 73-5, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, filed 5/7/73)

WAC 296-24-69003   Spot and seam welding machines (nonportable).   (1) Voltage. All external weld initiating control circuits shall operate on low voltage, not over 120 volts.

     (2) Capacitor welding. Stored energy or capacitor discharge type of resistance welding equipment and control panels involving high voltage (over 550 volts) shall be suitably insulated and protected by complete enclosures, all doors of which shall be provided with suitable interlocks and contacts wired into the control circuit (similar to elevator interlocks). Such interlocks or contacts shall be so designed as to effectively interrupt power and short circuit all capacitors when the door or panel is open. A manually operated switch or suitable positive device shall be installed, in addition to the mechanical interlocks or contacts, as an added safety measure assuring absolute discharge of all capacitors.

     (3) Interlocks. All doors and access panels of all resistance welding machines and control panels shall be kept locked and interlocked to prevent access, by unauthorized persons, to live portions of the equipment.

     (4) Guarding. All press welding machine operations, where there is a possibility of the operator's fingers being under the point of operation, shall be effectively ((guarded by the use of a device such as an electronic eye safety circuit, two hand controls or protections similar to that prescribed for punch press operation, WAC 296-24-19501 through 296-24-19513)) safeguarded according to the machine safety requirements in WAC 296-806-20044 through 296-806-20054. All chains, gears, operating bus linkage, and belts shall be protected by adequate guards, in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-20501 through 296-24-20533)) the machine safety requirements in WAC 296-806-20042.

     (5) Shields. The hazard of flying sparks shall be, wherever practical, eliminated by installing a shield guard of safety glass or suitable fire-resistant plastic at the point of operation. Additional shields or curtains shall be installed as necessary to protect passing persons from flying sparks. (See WAC 296-24-70003 (1)(c).)

     (6) Foot switches. All foot switches shall be guarded to prevent accidental operation of the machine.

     (7) Stop buttons. Two or more safety emergency stop buttons shall be provided on all special multispot welding machines, including 2-post and 4-post weld presses.

     (8) Safety pins. On large machines, four safety pins with plugs and receptacles (one in each corner) shall be provided so that when safety pins are removed and inserted in the ram or platen, the press becomes inoperative.

     (9) Grounding. Where technically practical, the secondary of all welding transformers used in multispot, protection and seam welding machines shall be grounded. This may be done by permanently grounding one side of the welding secondary current circuit. Where not technically practical, a center tapped grounding reactor connected across the secondary or the use of a safety disconnect switch in conjunction with the welding control are acceptable alternates. Safety disconnect shall be arranged to open both sides of the line when welding current is not present.

[Order 73-5, § 296-24-69003, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-69003, filed 5/7/73.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 00-08-078, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00)

WAC 296-24-88020   Powered platform installations -- Equipment.   (1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to equipment which are part of a powered platform installation, such as platforms, stabilizing components, carriages, outriggers, davits, hoisting machines, wire ropes and electrical components.

     (a) Equipment installations must be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;

     (b) The design must provide for a minimum live load of 250 pounds (113.6 kg) for each occupant of a suspended or supported platform;

     (c) Equipment that is exposed to wind when not in service must be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 100 miles per hour (44.7 m/s) at 30 feet (9.2 m) above grade; and

     (d) Equipment that is exposed to wind when in service must be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 50 miles per hour (22.4 m/s) for all elevations.

     (2) Construction requirements. Bolted connections must be self-locking or must otherwise be secured to prevent loss of the connections by vibration.

     (3) Suspension methods. Elevated building maintenance equipment must be suspended by a carriage, outriggers, davits or an equivalent method.

     (a) Carriages. Carriages used for suspension of elevated building maintenance equipment must comply with the following:

     (i) The horizontal movement of a carriage must be controlled so as to ensure its safe movement and allow accurate positioning of the platform for vertical travel or storage;

     (ii) Powered carriages must not exceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per minute (0.3 m/s);

     (iii) The initiation of a traversing movement for a manually propelled carriage on a smooth level surface must not require a person to exert a horizontal force greater than 40 pounds (444.8 n);

     (iv) Structural stops and curbs must be provided to prevent the traversing of the carriage beyond its designed limits of travel;

     (v) Traversing controls for a powered carriage must be of a continuous pressure weatherproof type. Multiple controls when provided must be arranged to permit operation from only one control station at a time. An emergency stop device must be provided on each end of a powered carriage for interrupting power to the carriage drive motors;

     (vi) The operating control(s) must be so connected that in the case of suspended equipment, traversing of a carriage is not possible until the suspended portion of the equipment is located at its uppermost designed position for traversing; and is free of contact with the face of the building or building guides. In addition, all protective devices and interlocks are to be in the proper position to allow traversing of the carriage;

     (vii) Stability for underfoot supported carriages must be obtained by gravity, by an attachment to a structural support, or by a combination of gravity and a structural support. The use of flowing counterweights to achieve stability is prohibited.

     (A) The stability factor against overturning must not be less than 2 for horizontal traversing of the carriage, including the effects of impact and wind.

     (B) The carriages and their anchorages must be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform, and this calculated value must include the effect of one and one-half times the stall capacity of the hoist motor. All parts of the installation must be capable of withstanding without damage to any part of the installation the forces resulting from the stall load of the hoist and one-half the wind load.

     (C) Roof carriages which rely on having tie-down devices secured to the building to develop the required stability against overturning must be provided with an interlock which will prevent vertical platform movement unless the tie-down is engaged;

     (viii) An automatically applied braking or locking system, or equivalent, must be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of power-traversed or power assisted carriages;

     (ix) A manual or automatic braking or locking system or equivalent, must be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of manually propelled carriages;

     (x) A means to lock out the power supply for the carriage must be provided;

     (xi) Safe access to and egress from the carriage must be provided from a safe surface. If the carriage traverses an elevated area, any operating area on the carriage must be protected by a guardrail system in compliance with the provisions of subsection (5)(a)(vi) of this section. Any access gate must be self-closing and self-latching, or provided with an interlock;

     (xii) Each carriage work station position must be identified by location markings and/or position indicators; and

     (xiii) The motors must stall if the load on the hoist motors is at any time in excess of three times that necessary for lifting the working platform with its rated load.

     (b) Transportable outriggers.

     (i) Transportable outriggers may be used as a method of suspension for ground rigged working platforms where the point of suspension does not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Tie-in guide system(s) must be provided which meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-88015(2).

     (ii) Transportable outriggers must be used only with self-powered, ground rigged working platforms.

     (iii) Each transportable outrigger must be secured with a tie-down to a verified anchorage on the building during the entire period of its use. The anchorage must be designed to have a stability factor of not less than 4 against overturning or upsetting of the outrigger.

     (iv) Access to and egress from the working platform must be from and to a safe surface below the point of suspension.

     (v) Each transportable outrigger must be designed for lateral stability to prevent roll-over in the event an accidental lateral load is applied to the outrigger. The accidental lateral load to be considered in this design must be not less than 70 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

     (vi) Each transportable outrigger must be designed to support an ultimate load of not less than 4 times the rated load of the hoist.

     (vii) Each transportable outrigger must be so located that the suspension wire ropes for two point suspended working platforms are hung parallel.

     (viii) A transportable outrigger must be tied-back to a verified anchorage on the building with a rope equivalent in strength to the suspension rope.

     (ix) The tie-back rope must be installed parallel to the centerline of the outrigger.

     (c) Davits.

     (i) Every davit installation, fixed or transportable, rotatable or nonrotatable must be designed and installed to insure that it has a stability factor against overturning of not less than 4.

     (ii) The following requirements apply to roof rigged davit systems:

     (A) Access to and egress from the working platform must be from a safe surface. Access or egress must not require persons to climb over a building's parapet or guard railing; and

     (B) The working platform must be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.

     (iii) The following requirements apply to ground rigged davit systems:

     (A) The point of suspension must not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Guide system(s) must be provided which meet the requirements of WAC 296-24-88015(2);

     (B) Access and egress to and from the working platform must only be from a safe surface below the point of suspension.

     (iv) A rotating davit must not require a horizontal force in excess of 40 pounds (177.9 n) per person to initiate a rotating movement.

     (v) The following requirements shall apply to transportable davits:

     (A) A davit or part of a davit weighing more than 80 pounds (36 kg) must be provided with a means for its transport, which must keep the center of gravity of the davit at or below 36 inches (914 mm) above the safe surface during transport;

     (B) A davit must be provided with a pivoting socket or with a base that will allow the insertion or removal of a davit at a position of not more than 35 degrees above the horizontal, with the complete davit inboard of the building face being serviced; and

     (C) Means must be provided to lock the davit to its socket or base before it is used to suspend the platform.

     (4) Hoisting machines.

     (a) Raising and lowering of suspended or supported equipment must be performed only by a hoisting machine.

     (b) Each hoisting machine must be capable of arresting any overspeed descent of the load.

     (c) Each hoisting machine must be powered only by air, electric or hydraulic sources.

     (d) Flammable liquids must not be carried on the working platform.

     (e) Each hoisting machine must be capable of raising or lowering 125 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

     (f) Moving parts of a hoisting machine must be enclosed or guarded in compliance with ((Part C of chapter 296-24 WAC)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (g) Winding drums, traction drums and sheaves and directional sheaves used in conjunction with hoisting machines must be compatible with, and sized for, the wire rope used.

     (h) Each winding drum must be provided with a positive means of attaching the wire rope to the drum. The attachment must be capable of developing at least 4 times the rated load of the hoist.

     (i) Each hoisting machine must be provided with a primary brake and at least one independent secondary brake, each capable of stopping and holding not less than 125 percent of the lifting capacity of the hoist.

     (i) The primary brake must be directly connected to the drive train of the hoisting machine, and must not be connected through belts, chains, clutches, or set screw type devices. The brake must automatically set when power to the prime mover is interrupted.

     (ii) The secondary brake must be an automatic emergency type of brake that, if actuated during each stopping cycle, must not engage before the hoist is stopped by the primary brake.

     (iii) When a secondary brake is actuated, it must stop and hold the platform within a vertical distance of 24 inches (609.6 mm).

     (j) Any component of a hoisting machine which requires lubrication for its protection and proper functioning must be provided with a means for that lubrication to be applied.

     (5) Suspended equipment.

     (a) General requirements.

     (i) Each suspended unit component, except suspension ropes and guardrail systems, must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least 4 times the maximum intended live load applied or transmitted to that component.

     (ii) Each suspended unit component must be constructed of materials that will withstand anticipated weather conditions.

     (iii) Each suspended unit must be provided with a load rating plate, conspicuously located, stating the unit weight and rated load of the suspended unit.

     (iv) When the suspension points on a suspended unit are not at the unit ends, the unit must be capable of remaining continuously stable under all conditions of use and position of the live load, and must maintain at least a 1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit upset.

     (v) Guide rollers, guide shoes or building face rollers must be provided, and must compensate for variations in building dimensions and for minor horizontal out-of-level variations of each suspended unit.

     (vi) Each working platform of a suspended unit must be secured to the building facade by one or more of the following methods, or by an equivalent method:

     (A) Continuous engagement to building anchors as provided in WAC 296-24-88015 (2)(a);

     (B) Intermittent engagement to building anchors as provided in WAC 296-24-88015 (2)(c)(i);

     (C) Button guide engagement as provided in WAC 296-24-88015 (2)(c)(ii);

     (D) Angulated roping and building face rollers as provided in WAC 296-24-88015 (2)(c)(iii).

     (vii) Each working platform of a suspended unit must be provided with a guardrail system on all sides which must meet the following requirements:

     (A) The system must consist of a top guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;

     (B) The top guardrail must not be less than 38 inches (950 mm) high and must be able to withstand at least a 200-pound (890 n) force in any downward or outward direction;

     (C) The midrail must be able to withstand at least a 75-pound (333 n) force in any downward or outward direction; and

     (D) The areas between the guardrail and toeboard on the ends and outboard side, and the area between the midrail and toeboard on the inboard side, must be closed with a material that is capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds (45.4 KG.) applied horizontally over any area of one square foot (.09 m2). The material must have all openings small enough to reject passage of life lines and potential falling objects which may be hazardous to persons below.

     (E) Toeboards must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard.

     (F) Toeboards must be 4 inches (9 cm) minimum in length from their top edge to the level of the platform floor.

     (G) Toeboards must be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have no more than one-half inch (1.3 cm) clearance above the platform floor.

     (H) Toeboards must be solid or with an opening not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.

     (b) Two and four-point suspended working platforms.

     (i) The working platform must be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and must be provided with a minimum of a 12 inch (305 mm) wide passage at or past any obstruction on the platform.

     (ii) The flooring must be of a slip-resistant type and must contain no opening that would allow the passage of life lines, cables and other potential falling objects. If a larger opening is provided, it must be protected by placing a material under the opening which must prevent the passage of life lines, cables and potential falling objects.

     (iii) The working platform must be provided with a means of suspension that will restrict the platform's inboard to outboard roll about its longitudinal axis to a maximum of 15 degrees from a horizontal plane when moving the live load from the inboard to the outboard side of the platform.

     (iv) Any cable suspended from above the platform must be provided with a means for storage to prevent accumulation of the cable on the floor of the platform.

     (v) All operating controls for the vertical travel of the platform must be of the continuous-pressure type, and must be located on the platform.

     (vi) Each operating station of every working platform must be provided with a means of interrupting the power supply to all hoist motors to stop any further powered ascent or descent of the platform.

     (vii) The maximum rated speed of the platform must not exceed 50 feet per minute (0.3 ms) with single speed hoists, nor 75 feet per minute (0.4 ms) with multispeed hoists.

     (viii) Provisions must be made for securing all tools, water tanks, and other accessories to prevent their movement or accumulation on the floor of the platform.

     (ix) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the provisions of WAC 296-24-585 and 296-24-592 must be provided and securely attached on all working platforms.

     (x) Access to and egress from a working platform, except for those that land directly on a safe surface, must be provided by stairs, ladders, platforms and runways conforming to the provisions of Parts J-1 and J-2 of chapter 296-24 WAC. Access gates must be self-closing and self-latching.

     (xi) Means of access to or egress from a working platform which is 48 inches (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface must be provided with a guardrail system or ladder handrails that conform to the provisions of Parts J-1 and J-2 of chapter 296-24 WAC.

     (xii) The platform must be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the emergency egress of employees. A horizontal lifeline or a direct connection anchorage must be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C, for each employee on such a platform.

     (xiii) A vertical lifeline must be provided as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C, for each employee on a working platform suspended by 2 or more wire ropes, if the failure of one wire rope or suspension attachment will cause the platform to upset. If a secondary wire rope suspension is used, vertical lifelines are not required for the fall arrest system, provided that each employee is attached to a horizontal lifeline anchored to the platform.

     (xiv) An emergency electric operating device must be provided on roof powered platforms near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device located on the working platform, or failure of the cable connected to the platform. The emergency electric operating device must be mounted in a secured compartment, and the compartment must be labeled with instructions for use. A means for opening the compartment must be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency electric operating device or in an equipment secure and accessible location.

     (c) Single point suspended working platforms.

     (i) The requirements of (b)(i) through (xi) of this subsection must also apply to a single point working platform.

     (ii) Each single point suspended working platform must be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system, which will prevent the working platform from falling should there be a failure of the primary means of support, or if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the egress of the employees. A horizontal life line or a direct connection anchorage must be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C, for each employee on the platform.

     (d) Ground-rigged working platforms.

     (i) Ground-rigged working platforms must comply with all the requirements of (b)(i) through (xiii) of this subsection.

     (ii) After each day's use, the power supply within the building must be disconnected from a ground-rigged working platform, and the platform must be either disengaged from its suspension points or secured and stored at grade.

     (e) Intermittently stabilized platforms.

     (i) The platform must comply with (b)(i) through (xiii) of this subsection.

     (ii) Each stabilizer tie must be equipped with a "quick connect-quick disconnect" device which cannot be accidently disengaged, for attachment to the building anchor, and must be resistant to adverse environmental conditions.

     (iii) The platform must be provided with a stopping device that will interrupt the hoist power supply in the event the platform contacts a stabilizer tie during its ascent.

     (iv) Building face rollers must not be placed at the anchor setting if exterior anchors are used on the building face.

     (v) Stabilizer ties used on intermittently stabilized platforms must allow for the specific attachment length needed to effect the predetermined angulation of the suspended wire rope. The specific attachment length must be maintained at all building anchor locations.

     (vi) The platform must be in continuous contact with the face of the building during ascent and descent.

     (vii) The attachment and removal of stabilizer ties must not require the horizontal movement of the platform.

     (viii) The platform-mounted equipment and its suspension wire ropes must not be physically damaged by the loads from the stabilizer tie or its building anchor. The platform, platform-mounted equipment and wire ropes must be able to withstand a load that is at least twice the ultimate strength of the stabilizer tie.

Note: See Figure 2 in Appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.


     (f) Button-guide stabilized platforms.

     (i) The platform must comply with (b)(i) through (xiii) of this subsection.

     (ii) Each guide track on the platform must engage a minimum of two guide buttons during any vertical travel of the platform following the initial button engagement.

     (iii) Each guide track on a platform that is part of a roof rigged system must be provided with a storage position on the platform.

     (iv) Each guide track on the platform must be sufficiently maneuverable by platform occupants to permit easy engagement of the guide buttons, and easy movement into and out of its storage position on the platform.

     (v) Two guide tracks must be mounted on the platform and must provide continuous contact with the building face.

     (vi) The load carrying components of the button guide stabilization system which transmit the load into the platform must be capable of supporting the weight of the platform, or provision must be made in the guide track connectors or platform attachments to prevent the weight of the platform from being transmitted to the platform attachments.

Note: See Figure 3 in Appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.


     (6) Supported equipment.

     (a) Supported equipment must maintain a vertical position in respect to the face of the building by means other than friction.

     (b) Cog wheels or equivalent means must be incorporated to provide climbing traction between the supported equipment and the building guides. Additional guide wheels or shoes must be incorporated as may be necessary to ensure that the drive wheels are continuously held in positive engagement with the building guides.

     (c) Launch guide mullions indexed to the building guides and retained in alignment with the building guides must be used to align drive wheels entering the building guides.

     (d) Manned platforms used on supported equipment must comply with the requirements of (b)(i), (ii), and (iv) through (xi) of this subsection, covering suspended equipment.

     (7) Suspension wire ropes and rope connections.

     (a) Each specific installation must use suspension wire ropes or combination cable and connections meeting the specification recommended by the manufacturer of the hoisting machine used. Connections must be capable of developing at least 80 percent of the rated breaking strength of the wire rope.

     (b) Each suspension rope must have a "Design Factor" of at least 10. The "Design Factor" is the ratio of the rated strength of the suspension wire rope to the rated working load, and must be calculated using the following formula:

F =


S(N)


W

Where:
F = Design factor
S = Manufacturer's rated strength of one suspension rope
N = Number of suspension ropes under load
W = Rated working load on all ropes at any point of travel

     (c) Suspension wire rope grade must be at least improved plow steel or equivalent.

     (d) Suspension wire ropes must be sized to conform with the required design factor, but must not be less than 5/16 inch (7.94 mm) in diameter.

     (e) No more than one reverse bend in 6 wire rope lays must be permitted.

     (f) A corrosion-resistant tag must be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspension wire rope is to be used at a specific location and will remain in that location. This tag must bear the following wire rope data:

     (i) The diameter (inches and/or mm);

     (ii) Construction classification;

     (iii) Whether nonpreformed or preformed;

     (iv) The grade of material;

     (v) The manufacturer's rated strength;

     (vi) The manufacturer's name;

     (vii) The month and year the ropes were installed; and

     (viii) The name of the person or company which installed the ropes.

     (g) A new tag must be installed at each rope renewal.

     (h) The original tag must be stamped with the date of the resocketing, or the original tag must be retained and a supplemental tag must be provided when ropes are resocketed. The supplemental tag must show the date of resocketing and the name of the person or company that resocketed the rope.

     (i) Winding drum type hoists must contain at least 3 wraps of the suspension wire rope on the drum when the suspended unit has reached the lowest possible point of its vertical travel.

     (j) Traction drum and sheave type hoists must be provided with a wire rope of sufficient length to reach the lowest possible point of vertical travel of the suspended unit, and an additional length of the wire rope of at least 4 feet (1.2 m).

     (k) The lengthening or repairing of suspension wire ropes is prohibited.

     (l) Babbitted fastenings for suspension wire rope are prohibited.

     (8) Control circuits, power circuits and their components.

     (a) Electrical wiring and equipment must comply with Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC, except as otherwise required by this section.

     (b) Electrical runway conductor systems must be of a type designed for use in exterior locations, and must be located so that they do not come into contact with accumulated snow or water.

     (c) Cables must be protected against damage resulting from overtensioning or from other causes.

     (d) Devices must be included in the control system for the equipment which will provide protection against electrical overloads, three phase reversal and phase failure. The control system must have a separate method, independent of the direction control circuit, for breaking the power circuit in case of an emergency or malfunction.

     (e) Suspended or supported equipment must have a control system which will require the operator of the equipment to follow predetermined procedures.

     (f) The following requirements must apply to electrical protection devices:

     (i) On installations where the carriage does not have a stability factor of at least 4 against overturning, electrical contract(s) must be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the suspended or supported equipment must be operative only when the carriage is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.

     (ii) Overload protection must be provided in the hoisting or suspension system to protect against the equipment operating in the "up" direction with a load in excess of 125 percent of the rated load of the platform; and

     (iii) An automatic detector must be provided for each suspension point that will interrupt power to all hoisting motors for travel in the "down" direction, and apply the primary brakes if any suspension wire rope becomes slack. A continuous-pressure rigging-bypass switch designed for use during rigging is permitted. This switch must only be used during rigging.

     (g) Upper and lower directional switches designed to prevent the travel of suspended units beyond safe upward and downward levels must be provided.

     (h) Emergency stop switches must be provided on remote controlled, roof-powered manned platforms adjacent to each control station on the platform.

     (i) Cables which are in constant tension must have overload devices which will prevent the tension in the cable from interfering with the load limiting device required in (f)(ii) of this subsection, or with the platform roll limiting device required in subsection (5)(b)(iii) of this section. The setting of these devices must be coordinated with other overload settings at the time of design of the system, and must be clearly indicated on or near the device. The device must interrupt the equipment travel in the "down" direction.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-08-078, § 296-24-88020, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 00-08-078, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00)

WAC 296-24-90003   General requirements.   (1) Application. These standards apply to the construction, maintenance, inspection, and operation of manlifts in relation to accident causing hazards. Manlifts covered by these standards consist of platforms or brackets and accompanying handholds mounted on, or attached to an endless belt, operating vertically in one direction only and being supported by, and driven through pulleys, at the top and bottom. These manlifts are intended for conveyance of persons only. It is not intended that these standards cover moving stairways, elevators with enclosed platforms ("Paternoster" elevators), gravity lifts, nor conveyors used only for conveying material. These standards apply to manlifts used to carry only personnel trained and authorized by the employer in their use.

     (2) Exceptions for new and existing equipment. The purpose of these standards is to provide reasonable safety for life and limb.

     (3) Design requirements. All new manlift installations and equipment installed after the effective date of these standards must meet the design requirements of the "American National Safety Standard for Manlifts ANSI A90.1-1969," and the requirements of this section.

     (4) Reference to other codes. The following codes are applicable to this section. Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus ANSI B15.1-1953 (R 1958) ((and chapter 296-24 WAC Part C)); chapter 296-806 WAC Machine safety; chapter 296-24 WAC Part L; Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956 and Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toeboards, ANSI A12.1-1967 and chapter 296-24 WAC Parts J-1 and J-2.

     (5) Floor openings.

     (a) Allowable size. Floor openings for both the "up" and "down" runs must be not less than 28 inches nor more than 36 inches in width for a 12-inch belt not less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches for a 14-inch belt; and not less than 36 inches nor more than 40 inches for a 16-inch belt and must extend not less than 24 inches, nor more than 28 inches from the face of the belt.

     (b) Uniformity. All floor openings for a given manlift must be uniform in size and must be approximately circular, and each must be located vertically above the opening below it.

     (6) Landing.

     (a) Vertical clearance. The clearance between the floor or mounting platform and the lower edge for the conical guard above it required by WAC 296-24-90003(7) must not be less than 7 feet 6 inches. Where this clearance cannot be obtained no access to the manlift must be provided and the manlift runway must be enclosed where it passes through such floor.

     (b) Clear landing space. The landing space adjacent to the floor openings must be free from obstruction and kept clear at all times. This landing space must be at least 2 feet in width from the edge of the floor opening used for mounting and dismounting.

     (c) Lighting and landing. Adequate lighting not less than 5-foot candles, must be provided at each floor landing at all times when the lift is in operation.

     (d) Landing surface. The landing surfaces at the entrances and exits to the manlift must be constructed and maintained as to provide safe footing at all times.

     (e) Emergency landings. Where there is a travel of 50 feet or more between floor landings, one or more emergency landings must be provided so that there will be a landing (either floor or emergency) for every 25 feet or less of manlift travel.

     (i) Emergency landings must be accessible from both the "up" and "down" rungs of the manlift and must give access to the ladder required in WAC 296-24-90003(12).

     (ii) Emergency landings must be completely enclosed with a standard railing and toeboard.

     (iii) Platforms constructed to give access to bucket elevators or other equipment for the purpose of inspection, lubrication, and repair may also serve as emergency landings under this rule. All such platforms will then be considered part of the emergency landing and must be provided with standard railings and toeboards.

     (7) Guards on underside of floor openings.

     (a) Fixed type. On the ascending side of the manlift floor openings must be provided with a bevel guard or cone meeting the following requirements:

     (i) The cone must make an angle of not less than 45° with the horizontal. An angle of 60° or greater must be used where ceiling heights permit.

     (ii) The lower edge of this guard must extend at least 42 inches outward from any handhold on the belt. It must not extend beyond the upper surface of the floor above.

     (iii) The cone must be made of not less than No. 18 U.S. gauge sheet steel or material of equivalent strength or stiffness. The lower edge must be rolled to a minimum diameter of one-half inch and the interior must be smooth with no rivets, bolts or screws protruding.

     (b) Floating type. In lieu of the fixed guards specified in WAC 296-24-90003 (7)(a) a floating type safety cone may be used, such floating cones to be mounted on hinges at least 6 inches below the under side of the floor and so constructed as to actuate a limit switch should a force of 2 pounds be applied on the edge of the cone closest to the hinge. The depth of this floating cone need not exceed 12 inches.

     (8) Protection of entrances and exits.

     (a) Guardrail requirement. The entrances and exits at all floor landings affording access to the manlift must be guarded by a maze (staggered railing) or a handrail equipped with self-closing gates.

     (b) Construction. The rails must be standard guardrails with toeboards meeting the provisions of the Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toeboards, ANSI A12.1-1967 and WAC 296-24-750 through 296-24-75011.

     (c) Gates. Gates, if used, must open outward and must be self-closing. Corners of gates must be rounded.

     (d) Maze. Maze or staggered openings must offer no direct passage between enclosure and outer floor space.

     (e) Except where building layout prevents, entrances at all landings must be in the same relative position.

     (f) If located in buildings to which the public has access, such manlift or manlifts must be located in an enclosure protected by self-closing spring-locked doors. Keys to such doors must be limited to authorized personnel.

     (9) Guards for openings.

     (a) Construction. The floor opening at each landing must be guarded on sides not used for entrance or exit by a standard railing and toeboard or by panels or wire mesh of not less than Number 10 U.S. gage, expanded metal of not less than Number 13 U.S. gage or sheet metal of equivalent strength.

     (b) Guardrails in stairwells. When belt manlift is installed in a stairwell a standard guardrail must be placed between the floor openings of the manlift and the stairways.

     (c) Height and location. Such rails or guards must be at least forty-two inches in height on the "up" running side and sixty-six inches on the "down" running side. If a guardrail is used the section of the guard above the rail may be of the construction specified in WAC 296-24-90003 (9)(a) or may consist of vertical or horizontal bars which will reject a ball six inches in diameter. Rails or guards must be located not more than one foot from the edge of the floor opening.

     (d) Safeguards required. Expanded metal, sheet metal or wood guards must be installed to cover the area from the floor to seven feet above the floor on each exposed side of the belt manlift at each floor landing, so persons cannot place their hands in the area where the step rollers travel.

     (10) Bottom arrangement.

     (a) Bottom landing. At the bottom landing the clear area must be not smaller than the area enclosed by the guardrails on the floors above, and any wall in front of the down-running side of the belt must be not less than 48 inches from the face of the belt. This space must not be encroached upon by stairs or ladders.

     (b) Location of lower pulley. The lower (boot) pulley must be installed so that it is supported by the lowest landing served. The sides of the pulley support must be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.

     (c) Mounting platform. A mounting platform must be provided in front or to one side of the uprun at the lowest landing, unless the floor level is such that the following requirement can be met: The floor or platform must be at or above the point at which the upper surface of the ascending step completes its turn and assumes a horizontal position.

     (d) Guardrails. To guard against persons walking under a descending step, the area on the downside of the manlift must be guarded in accordance with WAC 296-24-90003(8). To guard against a person getting between the mounting platform and an ascending step, the area between the belt and the platform must be protected by a guardrail.

     (11) Top arrangements.

     (a) Clearance from floor. A top clearance must be provided of at least 11 feet above the top terminal landing. This clearance must be maintained from a plane through each face of the belt to a vertical cylindrical plane having a diameter 2 feet greater than the diameter of the floor opening, extending upward from the top floor to the ceiling on the up-running side of the belt. No encroachment of structural or machine supporting members within this space will be permitted.

     (b) Pulley clearance.

     (i) There must be a clearance of at least 5 feet between the center of the head pulley shaft and any ceiling obstruction.

     (ii) The center of the head pulley shaft must be not less than 6 feet above the top terminal landing.

     (c) Emergency grab rail. An emergency grab bar or rail and platform must be provided at the head pulley when the distance to the head pulley is over 6 feet above the top landing, otherwise only a grab bar or rail is to be provided to permit the rider to swing free should the emergency stops become inoperative.

     (12) Emergency exit ladder. A fixed metal ladder accessible from both the "up" and "down" run of the manlift must be provided for the entire travel of the manlift. Such ladder must be in accordance with ANSI A14.3-1956, Safety Code for Fixed Ladders and WAC 296-24-810 through 296-24-81013.

     (13) Superstructure bracing. Manlift rails must be secured in such a manner as to avoid spreading, vibration, and misalignment.

     (14) Illumination.

     (a) General. Both runs of the manlift must be illuminated at all times when the lift is in operation. An intensity of not less than 1-foot candle must be maintained at all points. (However, see WAC 296-24-90003 (6)(c) for illumination requirements at landings.)

     (b) Control of illumination. Lighting of manlift runways must be by means of circuits permanently tied into the building circuits (no switches), or must be controlled by switches at each landing. Where separate switches are provided at each landing, any switch must turn on all lights necessary to illuminate the entire runway.

     (15) Weather protection. The entire manlift and its driving mechanism must be protected from the weather at all times.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 00-08-078, § 296-24-90003, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-24-90003, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 76-6, § 296-24-90003, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, § 296-24-90003, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-90003, filed 5/7/73.]

OTS-6852.1


REPEALER

     The following sections of the Washington Administrative Code are repealed:
WAC 296-24-150 Machinery and machine guarding -- General requirements for all machines -- Scope and application.
WAC 296-24-15001 Machine guarding.
WAC 296-24-15003 Anchoring fixed machinery.
WAC 296-24-15005 Means to prevent slipping.
WAC 296-24-15007 Machines shall be stopped when making repairs.
WAC 296-24-15009 Counterweights.
WAC 296-24-165 Fixed and portable power tool requirements.
WAC 296-24-16501 Definitions.
WAC 296-24-16503 Machine construction general.
WAC 296-24-16505 Machine controls and equipment.
WAC 296-24-16507 Hand-fed ripsaws.
WAC 296-24-16509 Hand-fed crosscut table saws.
WAC 296-24-16511 Circular resaws.
WAC 296-24-16513 Self-feed circular saws.
WAC 296-24-16515 Swing cutoff saws.
WAC 296-24-16517 Radial saws.
WAC 296-24-16519 Bandsaws and band resaws.
WAC 296-24-16521 Jointers.
WAC 296-24-16523 Tenoning machines.
WAC 296-24-16525 Boring and mortising machines.
WAC 296-24-16527 Shapers and similar equipment.
WAC 296-24-16529 Planing, molding, sticking, and matching machines.
WAC 296-24-16531 Profile and swing-head lathes and heel turning machine.
WAC 296-24-16533 Sanding machines.
WAC 296-24-16535 Veneer cutters and wringers.
WAC 296-24-16537 Miscellaneous machines.
WAC 296-24-16539 Inspection and maintenance of machinery.
WAC 296-24-180 Abrasive wheel machinery.
WAC 296-24-18001 Definitions.
WAC 296-24-18003 General requirements.
WAC 296-24-18005 Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery.
WAC 296-24-18007 Flanges.
WAC 296-24-18009 Mounting.
WAC 296-24-190 Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries.
WAC 296-24-19001 Definitions.
WAC 296-24-19003 General requirements.
WAC 296-24-19005 Mill safety controls.
WAC 296-24-19007 Calender safety controls.
WAC 296-24-19009 Protection by location.
WAC 296-24-19011 Trip and emergency switches.
WAC 296-24-19013 Stopping limits.
WAC 296-24-19015 Alarm.
WAC 296-24-195 Mechanical power presses.
WAC 296-24-19501 Definitions.
WAC 296-24-19503 General requirements.
WAC 296-24-19505 Mechanical power press guarding and construction, general.
WAC 296-24-19507 Safeguarding the point of operation.
WAC 296-24-19509 Design, construction, setting and feeding of dies.
WAC 296-24-19511 Inspection, maintenance and modification of presses.
WAC 296-24-19513 Operation of power presses.
WAC 296-24-19514 Reports of injuries to employees operating mechanical power presses.
WAC 296-24-19517 Presence sensing device initiation (PSDI).
WAC 296-24-197 Compactors.
WAC 296-24-200 Forging machines.
WAC 296-24-20001 Definitions.
WAC 296-24-20003 General requirements.
WAC 296-24-20005 Hammers, general.
WAC 296-24-20007 Presses.
WAC 296-24-20009 Power-driven hammers.
WAC 296-24-20011 Gravity hammers.
WAC 296-24-20013 Forging presses.
WAC 296-24-20015 Trimming presses.
WAC 296-24-20017 Upsetters.
WAC 296-24-20019 Other forging equipment.
WAC 296-24-20021 Other forge facility equipment.
WAC 296-24-205 Safeguarding power transmission parts.
WAC 296-24-20501 What is an employer's duty to protect employees from hazards of power transmission parts?
WAC 296-24-20503 What requirements must guards meet?
WAC 296-24-20505 What requirements must devices meet?
WAC 296-24-20507 What requirements must safeguarding by distance meet?
WAC 296-24-20509 What requirements must safeguarding by location meet?
WAC 296-24-20511 What other responsibilities beyond safeguarding does an employer have to protect employees from power transmission parts?
WAC 296-24-20513 When may a guardrail be used as a safeguard?
WAC 296-24-20515 What are the additional requirements for flywheels?
WAC 296-24-20517 What are the additional requirements for shafting?
WAC 296-24-20519 What are the additional requirements for pulleys?
WAC 296-24-20521 What are the additional requirements for belt and rope drives?
WAC 296-24-20523 What are the additional requirements for gears?
WAC 296-24-20525 What are the additional requirements for belt shifters?
WAC 296-24-20527 What are the additional requirements for sewing machines?
WAC 296-24-20529 Reserve.
WAC 296-24-20531 Reserve.
WAC 296-24-20533 Reserve.
WAC 296-24-20699 Appendices A through D are added to Part C of chapter 296-24 WAC, to describe the federal procedures for third-party validation and certification of presence sensing devices on mechanical power presses.
WAC 296-24-20700 Appendix A to WAC 296-24-195.
WAC 296-24-20710 Appendix B to WAC 296-24-195.
WAC 296-24-20720 Appendix C to WAC 296-24-195.
WAC 296-24-20730 Appendix D to WAC 296-24-195.

OTS-6878.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-17-117, filed 8/18/99, effective 12/1/99)

WAC 296-54-573   Logging machines -- General.   (1) All logging machinery must have speed limiting devices, safety stops, or emergency shut down devices or shut off valves, with the controls located so that in the event of an emergency, the prime mover may be shut down from a safe place.

     (2) Machine operators must be experienced in operating the equipment they use.


EXCEPTION: Inexperienced employees may operate equipment to gain experience while in training but may do so only while working under the immediate supervision of an experienced authorized person.

     (3) All machine controls must be marked as to their purpose in the operation of the machine.

     (4) The rated capacity of any vehicle transporting a machine must not be exceeded.

     (5) Machines must be loaded, secured, and unloaded in a manner that will not create a hazard for any employee.


Note: This requirement includes the loading, securing and unloading of a machine on and off a transport vehicle.

     (6) The employer must not make any modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment without written approval of the manufacturer or a qualified engineer. If modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, must be changed accordingly. The original safety factor of the equipment must never be reduced.

     (7) Equipment must be classed and used according to the manufacturer's rating. Where low gear ratios or other devices are installed to increase the line pull in accordance with subsection (6) of this section, the size of the rigging must be increased accordingly so that it will safely withstand the increased strains.

     (8) Each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, must be maintained in serviceable condition and the following:

     (a) Each machine must be inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage must be repaired or the unserviceable machine is replaced before beginning work.

     (b) Operating and maintenance instructions must be available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated. Each machine operator and maintenance employee must comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.

     (c) Each machine must be operated only from the operator's station or as otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

     (d) Employees must not be allowed to ride on any load.

     (9) The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, must be operated with safe clearance from all obstructions.

     (10) While manual/mechanized falling is in progress, all logging machines must be operated at least two tree lengths away from trees being fell.


EXCEPTION: This provision does not apply to logging machines performing tree pulling operations or logging machines called upon by the cutter to ground hazard trees. All cutters must be notified of the logging machine entrance into the area and all falling within two tree lengths of the logging machine must stop.

     (11) If a hydraulic or pneumatic storage device can move the moving elements such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, after the machine is shut down, the pressure or stored energy from the element must be discharged as specified by the manufacturer.

     (12) Loads must not exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer, or other carrier.

     (13) Boom-type logging machines must have a boom stop to prevent over-topping of the boom.

     (14) Boom points of timber booms must be equipped with metal straps, plates, or other devices as needed to properly secure eyebolts and fittings used to support lines, blocks, or other rigging.

     (15) Logging machine sleds or bases must be strong enough to withstand any stresses imposed upon them.

     (16) Stationary logging machines must be securely anchored or otherwise stabilized to prevent unintended movement while yarding or skidding.

     (17) Logging machines and their components must be securely anchored to their bases.

     (18) Logging machines must be kept free of flammable waste materials and any materials that might contribute to slipping, tripping or falling.

     (19) A safe and adequate means of access and egress to all parts of logging machinery where persons must go must be provided and maintained in a safe and uncluttered condition. Machine access systems, meeting the specifications of the Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE J185, June 1988, "Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines," must be provided for each machine where the operator or any other employee must climb onto the machine to enter the cab or to perform maintenance. Walking and working surfaces of each machine and machine work station must have a slip-resistant surface to assure safe footing.

     (20) Enclosed-type cabs installed on mobile logging machines must have two means of exit. One may be an emergency exit and be available for use at all times regardless of the position of the side arms or other movable parts of the machine. An easily removable window is acceptable as the emergency exit if it is large enough for an employee to readily exit.


EXCEPTION: Mobile logging machines manufactured before July 1,1980 are not required to have two means of exit.

     (21) Before leaving the operator's station of a machine, the operator must ensure the machine is secured as follows:

     (a) The parking brake or brake locks must be applied;

     (b) The transmission must be placed in the manufacturer's specified park position; and

     (c) Each moving element such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, must be lowered to the ground or otherwise secured.

     (22) Storing employee property, tools, or other miscellaneous materials on or within three feet of any logging machine is prohibited if retrieving the items would expose an employee to the hazardous pinch point area between the rotating superstructure and the nonrotating undercarriage.

     (23) Employees must approach the hazardous pinch point area only after informing the operator of that intent and receiving acknowledgment from the operator that the operator understands the employee's intention. All logging machines must be stopped while any employee is in the hazardous pinch point area.

     (24) After adjustments or repairs are made, logging machines must not be operated until all guards are reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.

     (25) Fairleads must be properly aligned at all times and designed to prevent line damage.

     (26) Employee(s), except a mechanic or employee in training to operate equipment, must not ride on any mobile logging machine unless provided with seating, seat belts, and other protection equivalent to that provided for the operator.

     (27) Riding on arches, reaches or turn of logs is prohibited.

     (28) Tractors, skidders, arches, or logs being yarded by them must not run over or rub against anchored lines, tailhold stumps, or other rigging.

     (29) Ends of lines attached to drums on logging machines must be secured by end attachments that develop the ultimate strength of the line unless three wraps of line are maintained on the drum at all times.


EXCEPTION: This does not apply to tractors or skidders.

     (30) Wire rope must be wound on drum spools in a manner to prevent excessive wear, kinking, chafing or fouling.

     (31) Guylines required in rigging spars or towers must be evenly spooled to prevent fouling.

     (32) A guide pulley, tool, stick, iron bar or other mechanical or manual means must be used when guiding lines onto drums. Guiding lines onto drums with any part of the body in direct contact with the line is prohibited.

     (33) A limit switch must be installed on electric-powered log loaders to prevent the lift arms from traveling too far in the event the control switch is not released in time.

     (34) All forklift type log handling machines must be equipped with a grapple system and the arms must be closed whenever logs are being carried.

     (35) When forklift machines are used to load, unload, or handle trailers, a positive means of holding the lifting attachment on the fork must be installed and used.

     (36) Loads on forklift type log handling machines must be transported as low as safely operable without obstructing visibility.

     (37) Guyline drum controls and outrigger controls must be separated and clearly identified in a manner that will prevent the engaging of the wrong control.

     (38) Each machine must be equipped with guarding to protect employees from exposed moving elements, such as, but not limited to, shafts, belts, pulleys on chains, sprockets and gears in accordance with the requirements of this standard and chapter ((296-24 WAC, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety. Guards must be in place at all times when machines are in use.


Note: This does not apply to lifting or yarding components such as, but not limited to, cable nip points, sheaves and blocks.

     (39) Each machine used for debarking, limbing, and chipping must be guarded to protect employees from flying wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs, and other material in accordance with the requirements of this standard and chapter ((296-24 WAC, Part C, Machinery and machine guarding)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (40) Grab rails must be provided and maintained in good repair on all walkways of stationary units elevated more than four feet.

     (41) Towed equipment such as, but not limited to, skid pans, pallets, arches, and trailers, must be attached to each machine or vehicle to allow a full ninety degree turn; to prevent overrunning of the towing machine or vehicles; and to ensure that the operator is always in control of the towed equipment.

     (42) Timbers used for masts or booms shall be straight-grained, solid, and capable of withstanding the working load.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-17-117, § 296-54-573, filed 8/18/99, effective 12/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150 and 49.17.240. 79-10-081 (Order 79-14), § 296-54-573, filed 9/21/79.]

OTS-6879.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 88-11, filed 7/6/88)

WAC 296-59-130   Ski lift machinery guarding.   (1) Moving machine parts that are located within normal reach shall be fitted with safety guards in compliance with ((WAC 296-24-150 through 296-24-20533, Machinery and machine guarding)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (a) The coupling apparatus for the ski lift emergency drive may be provided with a removable or swing guard.

     (b) When removable or swing guards are used, the guard and mounting means shall be so designed and constructed as to sustain a two hundred fifty pound weight loading without displacement.

     (2) All guards shall be maintained in good condition and shall be secured in place when the equipment is in operation except for inspection and adjustment purposes.

     (3) The drive machinery and primary control apparatus shall be installed in a facility which can prevent access by unauthorized personnel. The access door shall have a sign which states that entry is restricted to authorized personnel.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-59-130, filed 7/6/88.]

OTS-6880.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-56511   Head rigs and feed works.   (1) A clear walkway shall be provided along the upper side of the log deck and around the head rig unless an overhead walkway is provided.

     (2) The sawyer shall be primarily responsible for the safety of the carriage crew and off-bearers. He shall exercise due care in the operation of the carriage and log turning devices.

     (3) Feedworks and log turning control levers shall be so arranged that they may be securely locked when not in use and shall be guarded against accidental contact.

     (4)(a) A positive means shall be provided to prevent unintended movement of the carriage. This shall involve a control locking device, a carriage tie-down, or both.

     (b) An emergency control or equally effective means shall be provided so that the sawyer may stop the head rig section of the mill without leaving the operator station.

     (5) An effective method of disengaging the head rig saws from the power unit shall be installed on all head rigs where the power unit is not directly controlled by the sawyer. The saws shall be disengaged from the source of power while repairs or changes are made.

     (6) A shield of lexan, makrolon, merlon, plestar, or equivalent transparent material, shall be installed between the sawyer's stand and the head saws in all circular mills. In band mills and chipper type installations, a wire screen of not less than twelve gauge wire, one-half inch mesh, mounted in a frame in compliance with ((the requirements of WAC 296-24-20531 of the general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, is an acceptable substitute for the type shield required in circular mills.

     (7) Safety glasses, safety shields or other suitable eye protection shall be provided for and use by head rig off-bearers.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-56511, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-590   Gang saws and re-saws.   (1) Gang saws and re-saws shall be fully guarded or housed in accordance with conditions. Cranks, pitman rods, and other moving parts shall be guarded.

     (2) Feed rolls shall be enclosed by a cover over the top, front, and open ends except where guarded by location. Drive mechanism to feed rolls shall be enclosed.

     (3) Feed rolls shall be enclosed and if the operator stands within thirty inches of the feed rolls, they shall be so guarded as to prevent operator coming into contact with them.

     (4) Circular re-saws or rip saws, except power feed rip saws with a roller or wheel back of the saw, shall be provided with splitters or spreaders.

     (5) A hood of metal or wood of sufficient strength to give protection against splinters or flying teeth shall be provided over all circular rip saws.

     (6) That portion of the saw extending below the table shall be so guarded as to prevent contact.

     (7) Circular rip saws shall be equipped with a standard anti-kickback device.

     (8) Carriage cradles of whole-log sash gang saws, Swedish gangs shall be of height to prevent logs from kicking out while being loaded.

     (9) Band re-saws. Band re-saws shall meet the specifications for band head saws as required in WAC 296-78-570(7).

     (10) Circular gang re-saws.

     (a) Banks of circular gang re-saws shall be guarded by a hood to contain teeth or debris which can be thrown by the saws.

     (b) Circular gang re-saws shall be provided with safety fingers or other anti-kickback devices.

     (c) Circular gang re-saws shall not be operated at speeds exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.

     (d) Feed belts and drive pulleys shall be guarded in accordance with ((the requirements of WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20533 of the general safety and health standard)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (e) Each circular gang re-saw, except self-feed saws with a live roll or wheel at back of saw, shall be provided with spreaders.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-590, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-605   Swing saws.   (1) Manually operated swing cut-off saws of the following types shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-16515, general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety:

     • Saws into which materials to be cut are fed or positioned and/or held in position by hand pressure during the cutting stroke; and/or

     • Saws on which the cutting stroke is propelled by hand pressure; and/or

     • Saws on which the operator is within arm's reach of the blade when the operator is standing at the operator's control station and the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel.

     (2) Operators of hand operated swing saws shall not stand directly in front of saw while making a cut.

     (3) Swing cut-off saws which are fed by powered live rolls, conveyor chains and/or belts and which are operated from a remote operator's station (defined as being beyond arm's reach of the blade when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel) shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with the following:

     (a) Overhead swing cut-off saws shall be guarded by a hood which shall cover the upper half of the cutting edge at least to the depth of the teeth.

     (b) The driving belts on overhead swing cut-off saws, where exposed to contact, shall be provided with guards as required by WAC 296-78-71505.

     (c) Saws shall be completely enclosed when in idle position.

     (d) Power operated swing saws shall have controls so arranged that the operators will not stand directly in front of saw when making cut.

     (e) All swing saws shall be equipped with a counter balance which shall be permanently fastened to the frame of the saw and so arranged or adjusted that it will return the saw beyond the rear edge of the table or roll case without a rebounding motion. Wire rope, chain or nonmetallic rope running to a weight over a sheave shall not be used for attaching counter balance.

     (f) No swing cut-off or trim saw shall be located directly in line with stock coming from an edger.

     (g) Swing limit stops shall be provided and so adjusted that at no time shall the forward swing of the saw extend the cutting edge of the saw beyond a line perpendicular with the edge of the saw table, roll case, guard or barrier.

     (h) Saws that are fed into the cut by means of air, steam, hydraulic cylinders, or other power device or arrangement shall be designed so they can be locked or rendered inoperative.

     (i) Foot treadle operated saws shall be provided with safeguards to prevent accidental contact.

     (j) Swing saws on log decks shall be equipped with a positive stop for the protection of persons who may be on the opposite side of the log haul chute.

     (k) Tables or roll casings for swing saws shall be provided with stops or lineup rail to prevent material being pushed off on opposite side.

     (4) Operators of hand operated swing saws shall not stand directly in front of saw while making cut.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-605, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-605, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-615   Saw filing and grinding rooms and equipment.   (1) Approaches to filing rooms shall be kept free from material and equipment at all times.

     (2) Enclosed grinding and filing rooms shall be ventilated as specified in the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-110 through 296-62-11019.

     (3) Each filing and grinding room shall be provided with two exits so arranged as to permit easy escape in case of fire.

     (4) Floor shall be cleaned regularly and shall be kept free from oil, grease and other materials that might cause employees to slip or fall.

     (5) Flooring around machines shall be kept in good repair at all times.

     (6) Saw grinding machine belts shall be provided with guards where these belts pass through the frame of the machine.

     (7) All grinding wheels on such machines shall be provided with a metal retaining hood which shall also cover the arbor ends if they are exposed to contact.

     (8) Filing room employees shall be provided with goggles, face shields, or other necessary protective equipment and are required to wear the same.

     (9) Guarding and mounting of abrasive wheels shall be in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-18003 through 296-24-18007 of the general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-615, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-650   Boring and mortising machines.   (1) Boring and mortising machines shall be provided with safety bit chucks without projecting set screws. Automatic machines shall be provided with point of operation guards. When necessary to prevent material from revolving with the bit, clamps or stops shall be provided and used to hold material firmly against the guides.

     (2) The requirements of WAC ((296-24-16525, general safety and health standards)) 296-806-48048, Make sure boring and mortising machines meet these requirements, shall be applicable to boring and mortising machines.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-650, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-650, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-660   Lathe (pail and barrel).   (1) Each profile, swing-head and back-knife lathe shall have all cutting heads covered by a solid metal guard.

     (2) If sheet metal is used, it shall be not less than ten U.S. gauge in thickness. If cast metal is used, it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch thick, or if aluminum is used, it shall be not less than five-eighths inch thick. The hood of the exhaust system may form part or all of the guard. When so used, the hood shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified above.

     (3) Pail and barrel lathes shall be guarded in accordance with the specifications for profile and back-knife lathes insofar as they are applicable.

     (4) The requirements of WAC ((296-24-16531, general safety and health standards)) 296-806-450, Lathes, shall be applicable to pail and barrel lathes.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-660, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-660, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99)

WAC 296-78-665   Sanding machines.   (1) Each belt sanding machine shall have both pulleys enclosed in such a manner as to guard the points where the belt runs onto the pulleys. The edges of the unused run of belt shall be enclosed or otherwise guarded from contact by employees.

     (2) Each drum sanding machine shall be provided with a guard so arranged as to completely enclose the revolving drum except such portion required for the application of the material to be finished. Guards with hinges to facilitate the insertion of sandpaper may be installed. The exhaust hood may form part or all of this guard. When so used, the hood shall conform to the specifications as given under exhaust systems in WAC 296-78-710.

     (3) All standard stationary sanding machines shall be provided with exhaust systems in conformity with the section of this code dealing with exhaust systems.

     (4) All portable sanding machines shall be provided with means of removing excessive dust, or employees using equipment shall be provided with such necessary respiratory protective equipment as will conform to the requirements of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.

     (5) The requirements of WAC ((296-24-16533, general safety and health standards)) 296-806-475 Sanding machines, shall be applicable to sanding machines.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, § 296-78-665, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-665, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-665, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-690   Veneer slicer and cutter.   (1) Each veneer slicer and each rotary veneer cutter shall have all revolving and other moving knives provided with guards.

     (2) The requirements of ((WAC 296-24-16535, general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, shall be applicable to veneer slicers and cutters.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-690, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-690, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-17-056, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96)

WAC 296-78-70503   Shake and shingle machinery -- General.   (1) Track or swing cutoff circular saw.

     (a) Manually operated track or swing circular cutoff saws of the following types shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-16515, general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety:

     • Saws into which materials to be cut are fed or positioned and/or held in position by hand pressure during the cutting stroke; and

     • Saws on which the cutting stroke is propelled by manual (hand) pressure; and

     • Saws on which the operator is within arm's reach of the blade when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel and the operator is standing at the operator's normal control station/location.

     (b) Large track or swing circular cutoff saws into which materials to be cut are fed by powered live rolls, conveyor belts and/or chains and which are operated from a remote operator's control station, defined as beyond arm's reach when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel, shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with the following:

     (i) A power operated track or swing cutoff circular saw shall have controls so arranged that operators are not positioned directly in front of the saw while making a cut.

     (ii) All track or swing cutoff circular saws shall be completely encased or guarded when the saw is in the retract position, except for that portion of the guard that must be left open for the operation of the saw.

     (iii) Track or swing cutoff circular saw guards shall be constructed of sheet metal not less than one-eighth inch thick, or a wood guard of not less than nominal two inch thick wood material, or equivalent.

     Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.

     (iv) The driving belt(s) on the track or swing cutoff circular saw shall be guarded in accordance with ((the general safety and health standard, WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20533)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (v) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the track cutoff saw from leaving the track.

     (2) Overhead deck splitter - panagraph.

     (a) Panagraph splitters shall have a shroud incorporated on the upper pressure plate to eliminate the possibility of the splitter moving from the operating area. This shroud shall be constructed of solid design with a minimum width of three inches and a minimum thickness of three-eighths inch.

     (b) Mechanically operated overhead splitters shall have handles moving opposite the stroke of the piston.

     (c) When the leading edge of the panagraph splitter is completely extended, the maximum clearance from the deck to the splitting edge shall be two inches.

     (3) Power splitter saw. Power splitters shall have spreaders behind the saw to prevent materials from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The top of the saw shall be completely covered.

     (4) Knee bolter circular saw.

     (a) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the bolter carriage from leaving the track.

     (b) Bolter saws shall be provided with a canopy guard of sheet metal not less than one-eighth inch thick, or cast iron guard not less than three-sixteenths inch thick or a wood guard of not less than nominal four inch thick wood material or equivalent.

     The bolter canopy guard shall completely enclose the rear portion of the saw. It shall be so arranged and adjusted as to cover the front of the saw; not to exceed twenty inches from the top of the carriage to the bottom of the guard on sixteen inch and eighteen inch block and twenty-six inches on twenty-four inch blocks, of the material being cut.

     (c) Bolter saws shall be provided with wipers of belting or other suitable material. These wipers shall be installed on both sides of the saw in such a manner as to deflect knots, chips, slivers, etc., that are carried by the saw.

     (d) A positive device shall be provided and used to manually lock and hold the feed table in the neutral position when not in use.

     (e) That portion of all bolter saws which is below and behind the saw table shall be guarded by the exhaust hood or other device. Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-70503, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-70503, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-71007   Footwalks and passageways.   (1) All footwalks and passageways subject to slipping hazards due to peculiarities of conditions or processes of the operation shall be provided with nonslip surfaces.

     (2) Walkways in accordance with WAC 296-78-71001(8) shall be provided over roll casings, transfer tables, conveyors or other moving parts except where stepping over such equipment is not in connection with usual and necessary traffic.

     (3) Walkways alongside of sorting tables shall be of sufficient width to provide safe working area. Such walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair at all times. They shall be kept free from obstructions and debris.

     (4) When employees are required to clear plug-ups in veneer trays or lumber sorting trays, adequate walkways with standard guardrails shall be provided for access to the trays whenever possible. When walkways are not provided, safety belts or harnesses with lanyards, tied off to substantial anchorages, shall be provided and used at all times.

     (5) Walkways and stairways with standard hand rails shall be provided wherever space will permit, for oilers and other employees whose duties require them to go consistently to elevated and hazardous locations.

     (a) Where such passageways are over walkways or work areas, standard toeboards shall be provided.

     (b) Protection as required by ((the general safety and health standard, WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20533)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, shall be provided against contact with transmission machinery or moving conveyors.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-71007, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)

WAC 296-78-71017   Dry kilns.   (1) Dry kilns shall be so constructed upon solid foundations that tracks will not sag. Dry kilns shall be provided with suitable walkways. Each kiln shall have doors that operate from the inside and be provided with escape doors of adequate height and width to accommodate an average size man, that also operates from the inside, and shall be located in or near the main door. Escape doors shall swing in the direction of exit. Kiln doors and door carriers shall be fitted with safety devices to prevent the doors or carriers from falling.

     (2) Ladders. A fixed ladder, in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-810 through 296-24-81013 of the general safety and health standards and WAC 296-800-290 of the safety and health core rules, or other means shall be provided to permit access to the roof. Where controls and machinery are mounted on the roof, a permanent stairway with standard handrail shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-800-290.

     (3) A heated room shall be provided for the use of the kiln operator in inclement weather. He should remain in such room for at least ten minutes after leaving a hot kiln before going to cold outside air.

     (4) Where operating pits are used, they shall be well ventilated, drained and lighted. Substantial gratings shall be installed at the kiln floor line. Steam lines shall be provided with insulation wherever exposed to contact by employees. Fans shall be enclosed by standard safeguards.

     (5) Mechanical equipment. All belts, pulleys, blowers, and other exposed moving equipment used in or about kilns shall be guarded in accordance with ((the requirements of WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20533 of the general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-78-71017, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-71017, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-71017, filed 8/27/81.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 81-21, filed 8/27/81)

WAC 296-78-71505   Mechanical power transmission apparatus.   (1) Machines and other equipment shall not be oiled while in motion, unless provided with guards or other devices to permit oiling without any possibility of contact with moving parts of machinery.

     (2) Inspections shall be made to assure that shaftings, bearings and machines are in proper alignment at all times and that bolts in shaft hangars, couplings and boxes are tight.

     (3) Isolated bearings or other equipment not reached by walkway shall be served by a ladder or other means of safe access.

     (4) Running belts under power on or off pulleys shall be accomplished by mechanical means which will not expose employees to moving elements of the operation.

     (5) Counterweights located on or near passageways or work areas shall be provided with enclosures. Overhead counterweights shall be provided with substantial safety chains or cables, or otherwise secured against falling.

     (6) The construction, operation, and maintenance of all mechanical power-transmission apparatus shall be in accordance with ((the requirements of WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20533 of the general safety and health standard)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (7) Baffles shall be erected, where necessary, to protect employees from breaking belts, chains, ropes or cables.

     (8) Overhead horizontal belts, chains or rope drives shall be provided with guards.

     (9) Hydraulic systems. Means shall be provided to block, chain, or otherwise secure equipment normally supported by hydraulic pressure so as to provide for safe maintenance.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-71505, filed 8/27/81.]

OTS-6881.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-16-083, filed 8/3/99, effective 11/3/99)

WAC 296-79-030   Guards and guarding.   For additional guarding requirements see chapter ((296-24 WAC, Part C)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (1) Safeguarding specific areas, machines or conditions. Certain equipment, tools, machines, and areas present definite hazards and must be safeguarded by compliance with the following requirements:

     (a) Broke shredders. Cutting heads must be completely enclosed except for opening at feed side sufficient only to permit entry of stock. The enclosure must be:

     • Bolted or locked in place, and

     • Of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding 1/2 inch.

     (b) Stitching or sewing machine. Carton or bag stitching machines must be properly safeguarded to prevent persons from coming in contact with the stitching head and other pinch or nip points.

     (c) Beaters and pulpers.

     (i) A guardrail of standard height must be installed when the top edge of vessels or tubs is less than standard height guardrails above the floor or operator's platform. If necessary for the protection of the person feeding equipment, an intermediate guardrail or other suitable protection shall be installed.

     (ii) Beater rolls must be provided with covers.

     (d) First dryer. A permanent guard or apron guard, or both, must be installed to protect workers from any exposed ingoing nip of the first dryer drum in each section if the area is accessible to workers while the dryer is in operation.

     (e) Floor and drain openings. Floor and drain openings in walkways and general work areas must be covered with material or gratings with openings no larger than 2" in the narrow dimension.

     (f) Mechanical devices to dump chip cars, trucks or trailers.

     • When using mechanical equipment to elevate the front end of the chip containers for dumping into a hopper, the shear area between the floor and the elevated section must be safeguarded.

     • The pit area must be adequately safeguarded or barricaded.

     • Safeguards must be installed around the exposed sides of a chip hopper.

     (2) Replacing guards. All permanent guards must be replaced or adequate temporary safeguards provided before a machine is put into operation.

     (3) Protection from moving materials. When material, such as chunks, slivers, cants, or logs, could be thrown or flipped by a saw, barker, or other machines, adequate barricades, screens, netting, or other safeguards must be provided and maintained.

     (4) Protection for areas where guards are impractical. When normal guarding is impractical:

     • The hazard must be reduced to a minimum by use of safety chains, lifelines, signs or other reasonable means, and

     • Areas which present a hazard which cannot be reasonably safeguarded must be identified by use of paint or other materials.

     (5) Knives and scissors.

     (a) Knives used for chip or hog fuel machines, or guillotine cutters, must be secured in properly constructed containers during transportation.

     (b) Workers must be furnished properly designed and constructed sheaths for safely carrying knives and scissors used for cutting or trimming pulp and paper.

     (c) Tables where paper is being cut must be equipped with sheaths or shelves for safe storage of knives and scissors.

     (d) Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact must be effectively guarded. Carriers must be provided and used when transporting or carrying sharp edged slitter knives.

     (e) Hand knives and sharpening steels used in paper preparation, must be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade. Utility knives with blade exposure two and one-half inches or less are exempted from this requirement.

     (6) Safeguard for foot operated treadle switch used to activate power driven equipment. Foot operated treadle switches used for activation of power driven equipment must be protected by a stirrup type guard or equivalent protection must be provided to prevent accidental activation.

     (7) Automatic pressure actuated stopping devices. Hand fed machines and other moving equipment which create shear or pinch points which cannot be reasonably guarded may be safeguarded by the installation of pressure activated bars or sensing devices which, when contacted, will automatically stop the machine or equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-16-083, § 296-79-030, filed 8/3/99, effective 11/3/99; Order 74-24, § 296-79-030, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, § 296-79-030, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

OTS-6882.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 03-18-090, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03)

WAC 296-115-050   General requirements.   (1) Application.

     (a) The following rules are applicable to all vessels operated within the scope of this chapter.

     (b) Where an existing vessel does not comply with a particular requirement of this section, the director may grant a temporary variance to allow time for modifications to be made.

     (c) Where an existing vessel does not comply with a specific requirement contained herein but the degree of protection afforded is judged to be adequate for the service in which the vessel is used, the director may grant a permanent variance.

     (2) Lifesaving equipment. Where equipment required by this section is required to be of an approved type, the equipment is required to be approved by the USCG.

     (3) Lifesaving equipment required.

     (a) All vessels carrying passengers must carry life floats or buoyant apparatus for all persons on board.

     (b) All life floats or buoyant apparatus must be international orange in color.

     (c) In the case of vessels operating not more than one mile from land, the director may permit operation with reduced amounts of life floats or buoyant apparatus, when, in his opinion, it is safe to do so.

     (d) Lifeboats, life rafts, dinghies, dories, skiffs, or similar type craft may be substituted for the required life floats or buoyant apparatus if the substitution is approved by the director.

     (e) Life floats, buoyant apparatus, or any authorized substitute must have the following equipment:

     (i) A life line around the sides at least equivalent to 3/8-inch manila, festooned in bights of at least three feet, with a seine float in the center of each bight.

     (ii) Two paddles or oars not less than four feet in length.

     (iii) A painter of at least thirty feet in length and of at least two-inch manila or the equivalent.

     (f) All vessels must have an approved adult type life preserver for each person carried, with at least ten percent additional of a type suitable for children.

     (g) Life preservers must be stowed in readily accessible places in the upper part of the vessel, and each life preserver shall be marked with the vessel's name.

     (h) All vessels must carry at least one life ring buoy of an approved type with sixty feet of line attached.

     (i) The life ring buoy must be carried in a readily accessible location and must be capable of being cast loose at any time.

     (4) Fire protection.

     (a) The general construction of a vessel must minimize fire hazards.

     (b) Internal combustion engine exhausts, boiler and galley uptakes, and similar sources of ignition must be kept clear of and suitably insulated from woodwork or other combustible material.

     (c) Lamp, paint, and oil lockers and similar storage areas for flammable or combustible liquids must be constructed of metal or lined with metal.

     (5) Fire protection equipment. Equipment required by this section, when required to be of an approved type, must be of a type approved by the USCG or other agency acceptable to the director.

     (6) Fire pumps.

     (a) All vessels carrying more than forty-nine passengers must carry an approved power fire pump, and all other vessels must carry an approved hand fire pump. These pumps must be provided with a suitable suction and discharge hose. These pumps may also serve as bilge pumps.

     (b) Vessels required to have a power fire pump must also have a fire main system, including fire main, hydrants, hose, and nozzles. The fire hose may be a good commercial grade garden hose of not less than 5/8 inch size.

     (7) Fixed fire extinguishing system.

     (a) All vessels powered by internal combustion engines using gasoline or other fuel having a flashpoint of 110°F or lower, must have a fixed fire extinguishing system to protect the machinery and fuel tank spaces.

     (b) This system must be an approved type using carbon dioxide and have a capacity sufficient to protect the space.

     (c) Controls for the fixed system must be installed in an accessible location outside the space protected.

     (8) Fire axe. All vessels must have one fire axe located in or near the pilothouse.

     (9) Portable fire extinguishers.

     (a) All vessels must have a minimum number of portable fire extinguishers of an approved type. The number required will be determined by the director.

     (b) Portable fire extinguishers must be inspected at least once a month. Extinguishers found defective must be serviced or replaced.

     (c) Portable fire extinguishers must be serviced at least once a year. The required service must consist of discharging and recharging foam and dry chemical extinguishers and weighing and inspecting carbon dioxide extinguishers.

     (d) Portable fire extinguishers must be hydrostatically tested at intervals not to exceed those specified in WAC 296-24-59211(2) and Table I (after August 31, 2001, see WAC 296-800-300).

     (e) Portable fire extinguishers of the vaporizing liquid type such as carbon tetrachloride and other toxic vaporizing liquids are prohibited and must not be carried on any vessel.

     (f) Portable fire extinguishers must be mounted in brackets or hangers near the space protected. The location must be marked in a manner satisfactory to the director.

     (10) Means of escape.

     (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, all vessels must be provided with not less than two avenues of escape from all general areas accessible to the passengers or where the crew may be quartered or normally employed. The avenues must be located so that if one is not available the other may be. At least one of the avenues should be independent of watertight doors.

     (b) Where the length of the compartment is less than twelve feet, one vertical means of escape will be acceptable under the following conditions:

     (i) There is no source of fire in the space, such as a galley stove or heater and the vertical escape is remote from the engine and fuel tank space; or

     (ii) The arrangement is such that the installation of two means of escape does not materially improve the safety of the vessel or those aboard.

     (11) Ventilation.

     (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel must be properly vented or ventilated. Where such openings would endanger the vessel under adverse weather conditions, means must be provided to close them.

     (b) All crew and passenger space must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space.

     (12) Crew and passenger accommodations.

     (a) Vessels with crew members living aboard must have suitable accommodations.

     (b) Vessels carrying passengers must have fixed seating for the maximum number of passengers permitted to be carried.

     (c) Fixed seating must be installed with spacing to provide for ready escape in case of fire or other casualty.

     (d) Fixed seating must be installed as follows, except that special consideration may be given by the director if escape over the side can be readily accomplished through windows or other openings in the way of the seats:

     (i) Aisles not over fifteen feet long must be not less than twenty-four inches wide.

     (ii) Aisles over fifteen feet long must be not less than thirty inches wide.

     (iii) Where seats are in rows the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than thirty inches.

     (e) Portable or temporary seating may be installed but must be arranged in general as provided for fixed seating.

     (13) Toilet facilities and drinking water.

     (a) Vessels must be provided with toilets and wash basins as specified in WAC 296-800-230, except that in the case of vessels used exclusively on short runs of approximately thirty minutes or less, the director may approve other arrangements.

     (b) All toilets and wash basins must be fitted with adequate plumbing. Facilities for men and women must be in separate compartments, except in the case of vessels carrying forty-nine passengers and less, the director may approve other arrangements.

     (c) Potable drinking water must be provided for all passengers and crew. The provisions of WAC 296-800-230 apply.

     (d) Covered trash containers must be provided in passenger areas.

     (14) Rails and guards.

     (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, rails or equivalent protection must be installed near the periphery of all weather decks accessible to passengers and crews. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, such as at narrow catwalks in the way of deckhouse sides, hand grabs may be substituted.

     (b) Rails must consist of evenly spaced courses. The spacing must not be greater than twelve inches except as provided in WAC 296-115-050 (14)(f). The lower rail courses may not be required where all or part of the space below the upper rail course is fitted with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh or the equivalent.

     (c) On passenger decks of vessels engaged in ferry or excursion type operation, rails must be at least forty-two inches high. The top rail must be pipe, wire, chain, or wood and must withstand at least two hundred pounds of side loading. The space below the top rail must be fitted with bulwarks, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or the equivalent.

     (d) On vessels in other than passenger service, the rails must be not less than thirty-six inches high, except that where vessels are used in special service, the director may approve other arrangements, but in no case less than thirty inches.

     (e) Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary in all passageways, at deckhouse sides, and at ladders and hatches where passengers or crew might have normal access.

     (f) Suitable covers, guards, or rails must be installed in the way of all exposed and hazardous places such as gears or machinery. (See ((WAC 296-24-150)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety for detailed requirements.)

     (15) Machinery installation.

     (a) Propulsion machinery.

     (i) Propulsion machinery must be suitable in type and design for the propulsion requirements of the hull in which it is installed. Installations meeting the requirements of the USCG or other classification society will be considered acceptable to the director.

     (ii) Installations using gasoline as a fuel must meet the requirements of applicable USCG standards.

     (iii) Installations using diesel fuel must meet the requirements of applicable USCG standards.

     (b) Auxiliary machinery and bilge systems.

     (i) All vessels must be provided with a suitable bilge pump, piping and valves for removing water from the vessel.

     (ii) Vessels carrying more that forty-nine passengers must have a power operated bilge pump. The source of power must be independent of the propulsion machinery. Other vessels must have a hand operated bilge pump, but may have a power operated pump if it is operated by an independent power source.

     (c) Steering apparatus and miscellaneous systems.

     (i) All vessels must be provided with a suitable steering apparatus.

     (ii) All vessels must be provided with navigation lights and shapes, whistles, fog horns, and fog bells as required by the USCG rules of navigation.

     (iii) All vessels must be equipped with a suitable number of portable battery lights for emergency purposes.

     (d) Electrical installations. The electrical installations of all vessels must be at least equal to applicable USCG standards, or as approved by the director.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 03-18-090, § 296-115-050, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and 1999 c 111. 00-23-100, § 296-115-050, filed 11/21/00, effective 1/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), § 296-115-050, filed 11/13/80.]

OTS-6883.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98)

WAC 296-155-487   Manually propelled elevating work platforms.   (1) All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing and use of manually propelled elevating work platforms shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.3-1990.

     (2) General requirements.

     (a) Any manually propelled elevating work platform, when raised to its maximum working height, on level ground, shall be capable of sustaining, without reaching instability, a minimum horizontal test force of fifty pounds or fifteen percent of the rated capacity, whichever is greater, applied to any point on the perimeter of the platform while the platform is carrying the rated work load.

     (b) Any manually propelled elevating work platform, unless designed for such use by the manufacturer, shall not be used on an inclined surface.

     (c) Any work platform designed by the manufacturer to be operated on an inclined surface shall also be capable of passing the stability tests outlined in (a) of this subsection while on such a surface. Procedures for maintaining stability shall be clearly outlined in the special warnings section of the operating instructions and users shall follow these instructions.

     (d) If outriggers or stabilizers must be employed to meet the tests for stability outlined in (a) of this subsection, the operating instructions shall require their use and such outriggers or stabilizers shall be provided and used.

     (e) The platform width shall not be less than eighteen inches and shall be provided with a surface to minimize slipping.

     (f) The platform shall be provided with a guardrail or other structure around its upper periphery and the guardrail shall be approximately forty-two inches high, plus or minus three inches, with a midrail approximately midway between the top rail and the platform surface.

     (i) The guardrail system shall be designed and constructed to withstand a load of twenty-five pounds per linear foot applied in a horizontal direction to the top rail or midrail.

     (ii) The top rail or midrail shall withstand a concentrated load of three hundred pounds applied vertically to the top of either rail midway between the supporting posts.

     (iii) Guardrail terminal posts shall withstand two hundred pounds applied in any direction at the top of the post.

     (g) The platform shall be provided with four-inch (nominal dimension) toeboards on all sides.

     (h) Toeboards may be omitted at the access openings.

     (i) The configuration of the work platform shall include access for personnel to use in reaching the platform deck when it is in the lowered position.

     (i) Any access system used in this way shall have rungs or steps located on uniform centers not to exceed sixteen inches.

     (ii) Steps or rungs shall be provided with a face that minimizes slipping.

     (3) Safety factor specifications.

     (a) Where the platform is supporting its rated work load by a system of wire ropes or chains, or both, the safety factor of the wire rope or chain shall not be less than eight to one, based on ultimate strength.

     (b) All critical components of a hydraulic or pneumatic system used in a work platform shall have a bursting strength that exceeds the pressure attained when the system is subjected to the equivalent of four times the rated work load. (Critical components are those in which failure would result in a free descent.)

     (c) All noncritical hydraulic components shall have a bursting strength safety factor of at least two to one.

     (4) Fail safe requirements.

     (a) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by an electromechanical assembly, the system shall be designed to prevent free descent in the event of a generator or power failure.

     (b) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder assembly, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent free descent in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line.

     (c) Where the platform is horizontally extendable beyond the base of the machine, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent descent in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line, wire rope, or chain.

     (d) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a single hoist cable, the system shall be protected by a broken-cable safety device which will prevent free descent of the platform.

     (e) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a manual-mechanical or manual-hydraulic assembly, the considerations established above shall apply.

     (f) The control system shall be designed so that a single malfunction in the control system will not result in unintended machine motion.

     (g) Hydraulically or pneumatically actuated outriggers or stabilizers, or both, shall be so constructed as to prevent their retraction in the event of failure of a hydraulic or pneumatic line.

     (5) Emergency lowering means. Any work platform equipped with a powered elevating assembly shall be supplied with clearly marked emergency lowering means readily accessible from ground or floor level.

     (6) Guarding. Mechanical power transmission apparatus shall be guarded in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-205, General safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (7) Directional controls.

     (a) All directional controls shall be marked for the direction they control and shall be of the type which automatically returns to the "off" or the neutral position when released.

     (b) Controls shall be protected against inadvertent operation.

     (8) Motor requirements.

     (a) Fuel lines of internal-combustion-engine-powered work platforms shall be supported to minimize chafing and positioned to minimize exposure to engine exhaust heat. Liquid fuel lines shall be hard lines except where isolation from vibration requires a flexible connection.

     (b) LP-gas engine fuel systems shall comply with the American National Standard for Storage and Handling of Liquified Petroleum Gases, ANSI/NFPA 58-1995.

     (c) The exhaust system shall be provided with a muffler that is positioned to minimize exposure to noise and exhaust gas of the operators and personnel located in proximity to the unit.

     (9) Prevention of lateral movement. Each work platform shall be provided with locking screws, floor locks, wheel-locking mechanisms, or other means of preventing unintended lateral motions while in use.

     (10) Specifications display. The following information shall be displayed on all work platforms in as permanent and as visible a manner as practical:

     (a) Warnings, cautions, or restrictions for safe operation in accordance with American National Standard Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs, ANSI Z535.2-1991.

     (b) Make, model, serial number, and manufacturer's name and address.

     (c) Rated work load.

     (d) Maximum platform height.

     (e) Nominal voltage rating of batteries or rated voltage of AC line.

     (f) Statement of the need for the operator's familiarity with the work platform before it is used.

     (11) Alternative configuration statement. When a work platform is designed with alternative configurations:

     (a) The manufacturer shall clearly describe these alternatives, including the rated capacity in each situation.

     (b) If the rated work load of a platform is the same in any designed configuration, these additional descriptions are not necessary.

     (12) Insulation marking. A statement of whether or not the work platform is electrically insulated. If insulated, the level of protection and the applicable test standard shall be stated in accordance with ANSI A92.2-1990.

     (13) Maintenance and operating manuals requirement. An operating and maintenance manual(s) shall be provided with each work platform and shall contain:

     (a) Descriptions, specifications, and ratings of the work platform, including the data specified in subsection (10) of this section.

     (b) The maximum hydraulic and pneumatic systems pressure and the maximum voltage of the electrical systems which are part of the work platform.

     (c) Instructions regarding operation and maintenance.

     (d) Replacement part(s) information.

     (14) Rated load display. The rated work load shall be clearly displayed at each entrance to the work platform.

     (15) Management responsibilities.

     (a) Employers responsibilities shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.3-1990.

     (b) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform.

     (c) Work platforms that are not in safe operating condition shall be removed from service until repaired.

     (d) Repairs shall be made by a qualified person in conformance with the manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals.

     (e) Operators shall be trained in care and use before operation, care and use during operation, horizontal relocation, and additional requirements as specified in ANSI A92.3-1990.

     (f) Modifications or alterations of work platforms shall be made only with written permission of the manufacturer or any other equivalent entity.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-05-046, § 296-155-487, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98)

WAC 296-155-488   Self propelled elevating work platforms.   (1) All applicable rules for design, construction, maintenance, operation, testing and use of self propelled elevating work platforms shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.6-1990.

     (2) Minimum rated work load.

     (a) The minimum rated work load of work platforms shall not be less than two hundred fifty pounds.

     (b) All structural load-supporting elements of the work platform shall have a structural safety factor of not less than two based on the minimum yield strength of the material.

     (c) All structural load-supporting elements of the work platform that are made of nonductile material (such as cast iron and fiberglass) shall have a structural safety factor of not less than five based on the minimum ultimate strength of the material.

     (d) Design and stability tests shall be in accordance with ANSI A92.6-1990.

     (e) Each production unit on level ground shall sustain a load test with a platform load at least one hundred fifty percent of the rated capacity imposed. The test shall include the movement of the platform through its entire range of motion.

     (3) Driving interlock.

     (a) The unit shall use interlock means that will prevent driving the unit unless the platform height, platform configuration, or any combination of these, are adjusted to meet the stability test requirements.

     (b) A work platform limited in driveable height by the interlock means may be elevated and used while stationary up to the maximum platform heights at which it will maintain stability during the following static test. At the maximum platform height, on level ground, with the platform carrying the rated work load, apply a horizontal test force of one hundred fifty pounds or fifteen percent of the rated platform load (whichever is greater) at the point on the perimeter of the platform most likely to cause overturning.

     (4) Platform outrigger interlocks. Where outriggers, stabilizers, or extendable axles are required to meet the side load test, interlocks shall prevent the platform from being raised above the height at which these devices are required unless the required devices are extended. Interlocks shall also prevent the retraction of these devices while the platform is above that level.

     (5) Platform requirement.

     (a) A guardrail or other structure shall be provided around its upper periphery, which shall be approximately forty-two inches plus or minus three inches in height, a midrail, and toeboards which shall be not less than four inches high (nominal dimension). Guardrail and midrail chains, or the equivalent, may be substituted across an access opening. Toeboards may be omitted at the access opening.

     (b) The work platform shall have a minimum width of eighteen inches. Proper access shall be provided for personnel to use in reaching the platform deck when it is in the lowered position.

     (c) A floor surface shall be provided for both the platform and the access that will minimize slipping.

     (6) System safety factors.

     (a) When the platform supports its rated work load by a system of wire ropes or chains, or both, the safety factor of the wire rope or chains shall not be less than eight to one, based on ultimate strength.

     (b) All critical hydraulic components, all pneumatic components, and all hoses of hydraulic or pneumatic systems shall have a minimum bursting strength of at least four times the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

     (c) Noncritical hydraulic components shall have a minimum bursting strength of at least twice the operating pressure for which the system is designed.

     (7) Safety design requirements.

     (a) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by an electromechanical assembly, the system shall be designed to prevent free descent in the event of a generator or power failure.

     (b) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder assembly, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent free descent in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

     (c) Where the platform is horizontally extendable beyond the base of the machine, the system shall be so equipped as to prevent descent in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

     (d) Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a single hoist cable, the system shall be protected by a broken-cable safety device that will prevent free descent of the platform.

     (e) In addition to the primary operator controls, the work platform shall be equipped with an emergency stop device located at the primary control station that will deactivate all powered functions.

     (f) Hydraulically or pneumatically actuated outriggers or stabilizers, or both, shall be designed to prevent their retraction in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic line failure.

     (g) Any work platform equipped with a powered elevating assembly shall be supplied with clearly marked emergency lowering means readily accessible from ground level.

     (h) Mechanical power transmission apparatus shall be guarded in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-205, General safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (8) Directional controls.

     (a) Directional controls shall move in the direction of the function they control. The controls shall be of the type that automatically return to the off or the neutral position when released.

     (b) Such controls shall be protected against inadvertent operation and shall be clearly marked.

     (9) Engine requirement.

     (a) Fuel lines of internal-combustion-engine-powered work platforms shall be supported to keep chafing to a minimum. They shall be located to keep exposure to engine and exhaust heat to a minimum.

     (b) Liquid fuel lines shall be hard except where flexible connections are required for isolation from vibration.

     (c) LP gas fuel systems shall use flexible LP gas hose or hard lines.

     (d) Exhaust lines shall be equipped with mufflers. The lines shall be located to minimize the exposure of noise and fumes to operators and personnel near the units.

     (10) Each work platform shall be equipped with a mechanical parking brake, which will hold the unit on any slope it is capable of climbing. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed.

     (11) Specifications display. The following information shall be displayed on all work platforms in a clearly visible, accessible area and in as permanent a manner as possible:

     (a) Warnings, cautions, or restrictions for safe operation in accordance with ANSI Z535.2-1991.

     (b) Make, model, serial number, and manufacturer's name and address.

     (c) Rated work load.

     (d) Maximum platform height.

     (e) Nominal voltage of the batteries if battery powered.

     (f) A notice to study the operating/maintenance manual before using the equipment.

     (g) Alternative configuration statement. If a work platform is susceptible to several alternative configurations, then the manufacturer shall clearly describe these alternatives, including the rated capacity in each situation. If the rated work load of a work platform is the same in any configuration, these additional descriptions are not necessary.

     (h) A clear statement of whether or not the platform and its enclosure are electrically insulated. If insulated, the level of protection and the applicable test standard shall be stated, in accordance with ANSI 92.2-1990.

     (i) The rated work load shall be clearly displayed at each entrance to the platform.

     (12) Lift manual requirement. Each work platform shall be provided with an appropriate manual. The manual shall contain:

     (a) Descriptions, specifications, and ratings of the work platform, including the data specified in subsection (11)(h) and (i) of this section.

     (b) The maximum system pressure and the maximum voltage of the electrical systems that are part of the work platform.

     (c) Instructions regarding operation, maintenance, and weld specifications.

     (d) Replacement parts information.

     (13) Inspection and maintenance.

     (a) Each work platform shall be inspected, maintained, repaired and kept in proper working order in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals.

     (b) Any work platform not in safe operating condition shall be removed from service until it is repaired.

     (c) All repairs shall be made by a qualified service person in conformance with the manufacturer's maintenance and repair manuals.

     (14) Operator requirements. Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform. Before using the work platform, the operator shall:

     (a) Read and understand the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules, and be trained by a qualified person on the contents of the manufacturer's instructions and safety rules.

     (b) Read and understand all decals, warnings, and instructions on the work platform.

     (c) On a daily basis, before the work platform is used, it shall be given a thorough inspection, which shall include:

     (i) Inspection for defects such as cracked welds, hydraulic leaks, damaged control cable, loose wire connections, and tire damage.

     (ii) Inspection of functional controls for proper operation.

     (d) Any suspect items discovered through inspection shall be carefully examined and a determination made by a qualified service person as to whether they constitute a safety hazard. All unsafe items shall be corrected before further use of the work platform.

     (e) Before the work platform is used, the operator shall survey the area for hazards such as:

     (i) Untamped earth fills.

     (ii) Ditches.

     (iii) Dropoffs or holes.

     (iv) Bumps and floor obstructions.

     (v) Debris.

     (vi) Overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors.

     (vii) Other possible hazardous conditions.

     (15) Requirement for operations. The work platform shall be used only in accordance with the Manufacturer's Operating Instructions and Safety Rules, ANSI A92.6-1990, and this standard.

     (a) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to operate the work platform.

     (b) Before each elevation of the work platform, the operator shall:

     (i) Check for overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors. A minimum distance of ten feet from energized high-voltage conductors shall be maintained at all times between the conductors and the operator and platform equipment.

     (ii) Ensure that the work platform is elevated only on a firm and level surface.

     (iii) Ensure that the load and its distribution on the platform are in accordance with the manufacturer's rated capacity. The manufacturer's recommended load limits shall never be exceeded.

     (iv) Ensure that outriggers and stabilizers are used if the manufacturer's instructions require their use.

     (v) Ensure that guardrails are properly installed, and gates or openings are closed.

     (c) Before and during driving while the platform is elevated, the operator shall:

     (i) Be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of, the path of travel and assure that the path of travel is firm and level.

     (ii) Maintain a safe distance from obstacles, debris, dropoffs, holes, depressions, ramps, or other hazards to safe elevated travel.

     (iii) Maintain a safe distance from overhead obstacles.

     (d) The operator shall limit travel speed according to conditions. Conditions to be observed are: Ground surface, congestion, slope, location of personnel, and other factors that may create a hazard of collision or injury to personnel.

     (e) Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.

     (f) Personnel shall maintain a firm footing on the platform while working thereon unless they are secured by safety harness and lanyard devices fixed to manufacturer-approved hard points. Use of railings or planks, ladders or any other device on the work platform for achieving additional height shall be prohibited.

     (g) The operator shall immediately report defects or malfunctions which become evident during operation and shall stop use of the work platform until correction has been made.

     (h) Altering or disabling of safety devices or interlocks shall be prohibited.

     (i) Care shall be taken to prevent ropes, electric cords, hoses, etc., from tangling with the work platform when the platform is being elevated, lowered, or moved.

     (j) Work platform rated capacities shall not be exceeded when loads are transferred to the platform at elevated heights.

     (k) The operator shall ensure that the area surrounding the work platform is clear of personnel and equipment before lowering the platform.

     (16) Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage shall be avoided.

     (17) Batteries shall not be charged except in an open, well-ventilated area, free of flame, smoking, spark, or fire.

     (18) Modifications. All modifications and alterations to work platforms shall be certified in writing as being in conformance with ANSI A92.6-1990 by the manufacturer or any equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory.


(WAC 296-155-488, Illus. 1) Place illustration here.

Fig. 1

Examples of Work Platforms


[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-05-046, § 296-155-488, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 02-12-098, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02)

WAC 296-155-525   Cranes and derricks.   (1) Definitions applicable to this part:

     Accessory - a secondary part or assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.

     Administrative or regulatory authority - a governmental agency, or the employer in the absence of governmental jurisdiction.

     Angle indicator (boom) - an accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal.

     Appointed - assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.

     Authorized person - means a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or be at a specific location or locations at the workplace.

     Auxiliary hoist - a secondary hoist rope system used either in conjunction with, or independently of, the main hoist system.

     Axis of rotation - the vertical axis around which the crane superstructure rotates.

     Axle - the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On wheel-mounted cranes it refers to a type of axle assembly including housings, gearing, differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.

     Axle (bogie) - two or more axles mounted in tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit vertical oscillation of the wheels.

     Ballast - weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads (the term ballast is normally associated with locomotive cranes).

     Base, anchor bolt - a crane base that is bolted to a footing.

     Base, expendable - for static-mounting cranes, a style of bottom mast section or member that is cast into a concrete footing block; all or part of this component is lost to future installations.

     Base, fixed - a crane base that does not travel. It may be expendable, knee braced, or anchor bolted.

     Base (mounting) - the traveling base on which the rotating superstructure of a locomotive or crawler crane is mounted.

     Base, tower crane - the lowermost supporting component of the crane.

     Base, travel - a crane base that is a ballasted platform mounted on trucks that ride along rails.

     Boom (crane) - a member hinged at the rotating superstructure and used for supporting the existing tackle.

     Boom angle - the angle above or below horizontal of the longitudinal axis of the base boom section.

     Boom hoist mechanism - means for supporting the boom and controlling the boom angle.

     Boom point - the outer extremity of the crane boom, containing the hoist sheave assembly.

     Boom point sheave assembly - an assembly of sheaves and pin built as an integral part of the boom point.

     Boom stop - a device used to limit the angle of the boom at the highest recommended position.

     Brake - a device used for retarding or stopping motion.

     Brace, tower - a structural attachment placed between a crane tower and an adjacent structure to pass loads to the adjacent structure and permit the crane to be erected to greater than free standing height.

     Buffer - an energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel.

     Cab - a housing which covers the rotating superstructure machinery, or the operator's or driver's station.

     Climbing frame - a frame used with climbing cranes to transmit operational and climbing reactions to the host building frame.

     Climbing ladder - a steel member with crossbars (used in parts) suspended from a climbing frame and used as jacking support points when some cranes climb.

     Clutch - a means for engagement or disengagement of power.

     Commercial truck vehicle - a commercial motor vehicle designed primarily for the transportation of property in connection with business and industry.

     Counterweight - weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.

     Counterweight jib - a horizontal member of a crane on which the counterweights and usually the hoisting machinery are mounted.

     Crane carrier - the undercarriage of a wheel-mounted crane specifically designed for transporting the rotating crane superstructure. It may or may not provide its own travel mechanism. It is distinguished from a commercial truck vehicle in that it is not designed to transport personnel, materials, or equipment other than the crane-rotating superstructure.

     Cross-over points - in multiple layer spooling of rope on a drum, those points of rope contact where the rope crosses the preceding rope layer.

     Designated - selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being competent to perform specific duties.

     Drum - the cylindrical member around which a rope is wound for lifting and lowering the load or boom.

     Dynamic (loading) - loads introduced into the machine or its components due to accelerating or decelerating forces.

     Flange point - a point of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers.

     Free standing height - that height of a crane which is supported by the tower (mast) alone without assistance from braces, guys, or other means.

     Gage, track - the horizontal distance between two rails measured perpendicular to the direction of travel.

     Gantry (A-frame) - a structural frame, extending above the superstructure, to which the boom support ropes are reeved.

     High strength (traction) bolts - high strength tensile bolts used in the assembly of crane sections. The bolts are installed in tension by torquing or other means at a level greater than that produced by in- or out-of-service loads for the purpose of reducing the likelihood of bolt fatigue failure.

     Hoist mechanism - a hoist drum and rope reeving system used for lifting and lowering loads.

     Jib - an extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles in the vertical plane of the boom.

     Jib backstop - a device which will restrain the jib from turning over backward.

     Job site - work area defined by the construction contract.

     Limiting device - a mechanical device which is operated by some part of a power driven machine or equipment to control loads or motions of the machine or equipment.

     Load (working) - the external load in pounds (kilograms) applied to the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as lower load block, shackles, and slings.

     Load block, lower - the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes.

     Load block, upper - the assembly of shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.

     Load ratings - crane ratings in pounds (kilograms) established by the manufacturer.

     Mast (boom) - a frame hinged at or near the boom hinge for use in connection with supporting a boom. The head of the mast is usually supported and raised or lowered by the boom hoist ropes.

     Mast (jib) - a frame hinged at or near the boom point for use in connection with supporting a jib.

     Normal operating conditions.

     Cab- or station-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices on the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.

     Ground- or floor-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices that are mounted to the crane but operated with the operator off the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.

     Remote-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices that are mounted to any part of the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.

     Out-of-service - the condition of a crane when unloaded, without power and with the controls unattended and prepared to endure winds above the in-service level.

     Outriggers - extendable or fixed members attached to the mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends used to support the crane.

     Pawl (dog) - a device for positively holding a member against motion in one or more directions.

     Payload - that load or loads being transported by the commercial truck chassis from place to place.

     Pendant - a rope or strand of specified length with fixed end connections.

     Pitch diameter - the diameter of a sheave or rope drum measured at the center line of the rope.

     Power-controlled lowering - a system or device in the power train, other than the load hoist brake, which can control the lowering rate of speed of the load hoist mechanism.

     Qualified person - a person who, by possession of a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter and work.

     Radius (load) - the horizontal distance from a projection of the axis of rotation to the base of the crane, before loading, to the center of the vertical hoist line or tackle with load applied.

     Rail clamp - a tong-like metal device mounted on a locomotive crane car, which can be connected to the track.

     Reeving - a rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.

     Remote control station - a location, not on the crane, from which the operator can control all the crane movements.

     Repetitive pickup point - when operating on a short cycle operation, the rope being used on a single layer and being spooled repetitively over a short portion of the drum.

     Rope - refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified.

     Rotation resistant rope - a wire rope consisting of an inner layer of strand laid in one direction covered by a layer of strand laid in the opposite direction. This has the effect of counteracting torque by reducing the tendency of the finished rope to rotate.

     Running rope - a rope which travels around sheaves or drums.

     Shall - this word indicates that the rule is mandatory and must be followed.

     Service, light - service that involves irregular operation with loads generally about one-half or less of the rated load; a service crane at a storage yard or building site would be an example.

     Service, normal - service that involves operating occasionally at rated load but normally at less than eighty-five percent of the rated load and not more than ten lift cycles per hour except for isolated instances; a crane used for concrete placement at a building site would be an example.

     Service, heavy - service that involves operating at eighty-five percent to one hundred percent of the rated load or in excess of ten lift cycles per hour as a regular specified procedure; some cranes operating at material yards or in industrial applications may fall into this category.

     Sheave - a grooved wheel or pulley used with a rope to change the direction and point of application of a pulling force.

     Should - this word indicates that the rule is a recommendation, the advisability of which depends on the facts in each situation.

     Side loading - a load applied to an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.

     Stabilizer - stabilizers are extendable or fixed members attached to the mounting base to increase the stability of the crane, but which may not have the capability of relieving all of the weight from wheels or tracks.

     Standby crane - a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.

     Standing (guy) rope - a supporting rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the rope.

     Structural competence - the ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.

     Superstructure - the rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.

     Swing - rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.

     Swing mechanism - the machinery involved in providing rotation of the superstructure.

     Swivel - a load carrying member with thrust bearings to permit rotation under load in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the load.

     Swiveling - the rotation of the load attachment portion (hook or shackle) of a load block (lower) or hook assembly about its axis of suspension in relation to the load line(s).

     Tackle - an assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for lifting, lowering, or pulling.

     Telescoping boom - consists of a base boom from which one or more boom sections are telescoped for additional length.

     Telescoping (tower crane) - a process whereby the height of a traveling or fixed base crane is increased typically by raising the inner tower and then adding sections at the top of the outer tower; there are also cranes that are telescoped by adding to the inner tower from below.

     Tower (mast) - a vertical structural frame consisting of columns and bracing capable of supporting an upperstructure with its working and dynamic loads and transmitting them to the supporting surface or structure.

     Traction (high strength) bolts - see high strength bolts.

     Transit - the moving or transporting of a crane from one job site to another.

     Travel - the function of the machine moving under its own power from one location to another on a job site.

     Trolley - the device that travels along the load jib and contains the upper load block.

     Two-blocking - the condition in which the lower load block or hook assembly comes in contact with the upper load block or boom point sheave assembly.

     Weathervaning - wind induced rotation of a crane upperstructure, when out-of-service, to expose minimal surface area to the wind.

     Wedge - a tapered wood or steel device used to provide stability to cranes during use as a climber. When the wedges are tightened against the four main legs of the tower, they convert overturning moments into horizontal forces to be resisted by the floor framing or slab.

     Wheel base - the distance between centers of front and rear axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheel base measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.

     Whipline (runner or auxiliary) - a secondary rope system usually of lighter load capacity than that provided by the main rope system.

     Winch head - a power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and the spool.

     (2) General requirements.

     (a) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer, competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer.

     (b) Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to the operator while at the control station.

     (c) Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site.

     (d) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and periodically during use to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use.

     (e) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the department. The employer shall maintain a permanent record of the dates and results of all inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.

     (f) A tag line or guide rope shall be used on all loads that swing freely. Guide ropes or tag lines shall be held by experienced persons.

     (g) Care shall be taken to guard against injury to workers, or damage to scaffolds or buildings, from swinging loads.

     (h) The operator shall avoid carrying loads over people.

     (i) When work is stopped or when the derrick is not in operation, the boom shall be lowered to a horizontal position or tied in place to prevent it whipping with the wind or other external force.

     (j) Only authorized personnel shall make sling hitches on loads.

     (k) Workers shall not be allowed to ride on loads handled by derricks.

     (l) Operators shall observe signals only from duly authorized persons. Under no circumstances shall a load be moved until the signal is received from authorized personnel.

     (m) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of chapter ((296-24 WAC)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (n) A minimum distance of thirty inches clearance shall be maintained between the swing radius of the greatest extension of the crane superstructure or counterweights and a stationary object, including the crane itself, while the crane is in operation. When this clearance cannot be maintained, suitable barricades or safeguards shall be used to isolate the pinch point hazard area.

     (o) All exhaust pipes shall be guarded or insulated where contact by employees, in the performance of normal duties, is possible.

     (3) Additional requirements.

     (a) Whenever internal combustion engine powered equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, tests shall be made and recorded to see that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres. (See chapter 296-62 WAC, the general occupational health standards and other applicable standards.)

     (b) All cab glazing shall be safety glazing material. Windows shall be provided in the front and on both sides of the cab or operator's compartment with visibility forward and to either side. Visibility forward shall include a vertical range adequate to cover the boom point at all times. The front window may have a section which can be readily removed or held open, if desired. If the section is of the type held in the open position, it shall be secured to prevent inadvertent closure. A windshield wiper should be provided on the front window.

     (c)(i) Where necessary for rigging or service requirements, a ladder or steps shall be provided to give access to a cab roof.

     (ii) On cranes, guardrails, handholds and steps shall be provided for easy access to the car and cab in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 and Part J.

     (iii) Platforms and walkways shall have anti-skid surfaces.

     (d) Fuel tank filler pipe shall be located in such a position, or protected in such manner, as to not allow spill or overflow to run onto the engine, exhaust, or electrical equipment of any machine being fueled.

     (i) An accessible fire extinguisher of 5BC rating, or higher, shall be available at all operator stations or cabs of equipment.

Note: For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.

     (ii) All fuels shall be transported, stored, and handled to meet the rules of Part D of this chapter. When fuel is transported by vehicles on public highways, department of transportation rules concerning such vehicular transportation are considered applicable.

     (e) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following:

     (i) For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet;

     (ii) For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV. over 50 kV., or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet;

     (iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV., and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV. up to and including 345 kV., and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV;

     (iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning to insure that the required separation is maintained for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;

     (v) Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation;

     (vi) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded;

     (vii) Prior to work near transmitter tower where an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be deenergized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane.

     (f) The following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltage:

     (i) The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper rotating structure supporting the boom; and

     (ii) Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials being handled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters. Crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load.

     (iii) Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the immediate area prior to operations.

     (g) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without the manufacturer's or a qualified engineer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

     (h) The employer shall comply with Power Crane and Shovel Association, Mobile Hydraulic Crane Standard No. 2.

     (i) Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors shall meet the requirements of SAE J743a-1964.

     (4) Crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes.

     (a) All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more than 5° above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional type crane booms. The use of cable type belly slings does not constitute compliance with this standard.

     (b) All crawler, truck or locomotive cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, inspection, construction, testing, maintenance and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1989, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes.

     (5) Tower cranes.

     (a) Tower cranes shall be erected, jumped and dismantled under the immediate supervision of a competent person, designated by the employer.

     (b) Tower cranes shall be erected, maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, recommendations and procedures. All modifications shall be approved by the manufacturer and engineered by a professional engineer. The safety factors shall not be reduced by any modifications. The crane plates and charts shall be changed to reflect any modifications made.

     (c) A professional engineer shall certify that the crane foundations and underlying soil are adequate support for the tower crane with its maximum overturning movement.

     (d) Tower cranes shall be positioned whereby they can swing 360° without either the counterweight or jib striking any building, structure or other object, except:

     (i) If the crane can strike an object or another crane, suitable limit switches shall be installed which will prohibit contact with such objects, or;

     (ii) Direct voice communications shall be established between any operator of the tower crane(s) involved and a signalperson so stationed where the boom and/or counterweight movement, and the object with which it may contact can be observed so that the operator(s) can be warned of imminent danger.

     (iii) A secondary means of positive communications shall be established as a back-up for possible direct voice communication failure.

     (iv) Radio communication systems without tone coded squelch are prohibited. Citizens band radios shall not be used as a means of communications for tower cranes.

     (e) Prior to installing a climbing tower crane within an existing building or new construction, a structural engineer shall certify that the building is designed to withstand the torque and floor loading created by the crane to be installed.

     (f) Tower cranes erected on a new foundation shall be tested in accordance with ANSI B30.3-1990 Chapter 3-1.

     (i) The test shall consist of suspending a load of not less than 110% of the rated capacity for 15 minutes. The load shall be suspended from the furthest point of the length of boom (jib) to be used. The results of this test shall be within the manufacturer's recommendations and/or specifications.

     (ii) A record of each test shall be made and signed by the person responsible for conducting the test. Such records shall be maintained on the construction site for the duration of the construction work for which it was erected and subsequently made a part of the firm's permanent equipment records. Records shall be made available to authorized representatives of the department, upon request.

     (g) A capacity chart shall be furnished by each crane manufacturer which shall include a full and complete range of crane load ratings at all stated operating radii for each allowable speed and each recommended counterweight load.

     (i) Such chart shall be posted in the operator's cab or at the remote control stand in use. In lieu of the chart at the remote control stand, a minimum of two weight capacity signs shall be affixed to the jib or boom.

     (ii) The chart shall be visible and readable to the operator while at the normal operating position.

     (h) Operating controls shall be properly marked to indicate the function of the controls in each position.

     (i) An operating and maintenance manual written in the English language shall be provided with each tower crane.

     (j) Limit switches shall be installed and shall be kept properly adjusted. They shall be protected or isolated in a manner which will prevent unauthorized tampering. Limit switches shall provide the following functions:

     (i) Safely limit the travel of the trolley to prevent it from hitting the outer end of the jib.

     (ii) Limit the upward travel of the load block to prevent two-blocking.

     (iii) Lower over travel limiting devices shall be provided for all load hoists where the hook area is not visible to the operator.

     (iv) Limit the load being lifted in a manner whereby no more than 110% of the maximum rated load can be lifted or moved.

     (k) The crane shall not be used to pull vehicles of any type, remove piling, loosen form work, pull away loads which are attached to the ground or walls, or for any operation other than the proper handling of freely suspended loads.

     (l) When the operator may be exposed to the hazard of falling objects, the tower crane cab and/or remote control station shall have adequate overhead protection.

     (m) The operator shall be protected from the weather. If enclosed cabs are provided they shall provide clear visibility in all directions and glass shall be approved safety glass or the equivalent.

     (n) An approved and safe means shall be provided for access to operator's cab and machinery platform.

     (o) When necessary for inspection or maintenance purposes, ladders, walkways with railing or other devices shall be provided.

     (p) Each tower crane shall be provided with a slewing brake capable of preventing the jib or boom from rotating in either direction and stopping the rotation of the jib or boom while loaded, when desired. Such brake shall have a holding device which, when set, will hold the jib or boom in a fixed location without additional attention of the operator. When the crane is out of operation, the jib or boom shall be pointed downwind and the slewing brake shall be released so as to permit the jib or boom to weathervane, providing the jib or boom has a clear 360 degree rotation. Where a 360 degree rotation is not provided, the jib or boom shall be pointed downwind from the prevailing wind and the slewing brake set.

     (q) Each tower crane shall be provided with a braking system on the trolley capable of stopping and holding the trolley in any desired position while carrying a maximum load. This brake shall be capable of being locked in a fixed location without additional attention of the operator. An automatic brake or device shall be installed which will immediately stop and lock the trolley in position in the event of a breakage of the trolley rope.

     (r) All electrical equipment shall be properly grounded and protection shall be provided against lightning.

     (s) When the operator is actually operating the crane, the operator shall remain in a stationary position.

     (t) All crane brakes shall automatically set in event of power failure. Swing brakes shall also function in this manner or be capable of being set manually.

     (u) Climbing jack systems used for raising a tower crane shall be equipped with over-pressure relief valves, direct-reading pressure gauges, and pilot-operated hydraulic check valves installed in a manner which will prevent jack from retracting should a hydraulic line or fitting rupture or fail.

     (v) During periods of high winds or weather affecting visibility, i.e., fog, etc., only loads shall be handled that are consistent with good safety practices. Good safety practices shall be mutually agreed upon by the operator and the person in charge of the construction job, with due consideration given to manufacturer's specifications and recommendations.

     (w) Counterweights shall be securely fastened in place and shall not exceed the weight as recommended by the manufacturer for the length of jib being used. However, an amount of counterweight as recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.

     (x) Tower cranes shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations or more frequently if there is reason to suspect a possible defect or weakening of any portion of the structure or equipment.

     (y) Guy wires, wedges, braces or other supports shall be inspected at the beginning and at midpoint of each working shift to ascertain that they are functioning as intended.

     (6) Additional tower crane requirements.

     (a) An approved method must be instituted for transmitting signals to the operator. Standard hand signals for crane operations must be used, whenever possible; however, if conditions are such that hand signals are ineffective, radio-controlled or electric-whistle signal or two-way voice communication must be used. (See WAC 296-155-525 (5)(d).)

     (b) Tower cranes shall not be erected or raised when the wind velocity at the worksite exceeds 20 m.p.h. or that specified by the manufacturer.

     (c) Tower crane operators shall be trained and experienced in tower crane operations; however, for gaining experience, persons may operate the tower crane if under the immediate supervision of an experienced operator.

     (d) Adequate clearance shall be maintained between moving and rotating structures of the crane and fixed objects to allow the passage of employees without harm.

     (e) Employees required to perform duties on the horizontal boom of hammerhead tower cranes shall be protected against falling by guardrails or by a full body harness and lanyards attached to crane or to lifelines in conformance with Part C-1 of this chapter.

     (f) Buffers shall be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley.

     (g) Cranes mounted on rail tracks shall be equipped with limit switches limiting the travel of the crane on the track and stops or buffers at each end of the tracks.

     (h) All hammerhead tower cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.

     (i) Access ladders inside the telescoping sections of tower cranes are exempt from those sections of the safety standards pertaining to cleat length and cleat spacing, but shall conform to manufacturer's recommendations and specifications.

     (7) Overhead and gantry cranes.

     (a) The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block, and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor.

     (b) Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels.

     (c) Except for floor-operated cranes, a gong or other effective audible warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism.

     (d) All overhead and gantry cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed in ANSI B30.2.0-1990, Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes.

     (8) Derricks. All derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed in American National Standard Institute B30.6-1990, Safety Code for Derricks.

     (9) Floating cranes and derricks.

     (a) Mobile cranes mounted on barges.

     (i) When a mobile crane is mounted on a barge, the rated load of the crane shall not exceed the original capacity specified by the manufacturer.

     (ii) A load rating chart, with clearly legible letters and figures, shall be provided with each crane, and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator.

     (iii) When load ratings are reduced to stay within the limits for list of the barge with a crane mounted on it, a new load rating chart shall be provided.

     (iv) Mobile cranes on barges shall be positively secured.

     (b) Permanently mounted floating cranes and derricks.

     (i) When cranes and derricks are permanently installed on a barge, the capacity and limitations of use shall be based on competent design criteria.

     (ii) A load rating chart with clearly legible letters and figures shall be provided and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator.

     (iii) Floating cranes and floating derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.

     (c) Protection of employees working on barges. The employer shall comply with the applicable requirements for protection of employees as specified in WAC 296-155-630.

     (10) Mobile cranes and excavation machines.

     (a) In all power driven shovel operations the person in charge shall issue instructions necessary to prevent accidents, to detect and correct unsafe acts and dangerous conditions, and to enforce all safety rules and regulations.

     The person in charge shall also issue instructions on the proper method of using tools and handling material.

     (b) Where the ground is soft or uneven, timbering and planking shall be used to provide firm foundation and distribute the load.

     (c) In case of a breakdown, the shovel shall be moved away from the foot of the slope before repairs are made.

     (d) All persons shall keep away from the range of the shovel's swing and shall not be permitted to stand back of the shovel or in line with the swing of the dipper during operation or moving of shovel.

     (e) Unauthorized persons shall not be allowed on the shovel during operations, and the operator shall not converse with other persons while operating machine.

     (f) The shovel dipper shall rest on the ground or on blocking during shut down periods.

     (g) Shovels shall be inspected daily and all defects promptly repaired.

     (h) All rubber tired mobile cranes shall be equipped with outriggers and sufficient blocking to properly stabilize crane while operating.

     (i) Rubber tired mobile cranes shall be equipped with rear view mirrors.

     (j) Positive boom stops shall be provided on all mobile cranes of the wheel and crawler type.

     (k) Length of a crane boom and amount of counterweight shall not exceed manufacturer's rated capacity for equipment involved; except on isolated cases where permission is granted by the department.

     (l) On all cranes where wedge brackets are used as terminal connections, the proper size wedge shall be used.

     (m) On all mobile cranes, the hoist and boom drums shall be provided with a positive operated pawl or dog which shall be used in addition to the brake to hold the load and boom when they are suspended. Counterweight operated dogs are prohibited.

     (n) Oiling and greasing shall be done under safe conditions with machine at rest, except when motion of machine is necessary.

     (o) All steps, running boards, and boom ladder shall be of substantial construction and in good repair at all times.

     (p) Operators shall not leave the cab while master clutch is engaged.

     (q) Fire extinguishers shall be readily accessible and within reach of operator at all times.

     (r) All shovel and crane cabs shall be kept clean and free of excess oil and grease on floor and machinery. Oily and greasy rags shall be disposed of immediately after use and not allowed to accumulate.

     (s) Tools shall not be left on the cab floor. Spare cans of oil or fuel, and spare parts, shall not be stored in cabs, except in approved racks provided for that purpose.

     (t) Mats or planking shall be used in moving shovels or cranes over soft or uneven ground.

     (u) Cranes or shovels setting on steep grades shall be securely blocked or secured with a tail hold.

     (v) Smoking shall be prohibited while fueling or oiling machines.

     (w) Gasoline powered motors shall be stopped during refueling.

     (x) Handling of movable feed line (bologna) shall be accomplished with insulated hooks and lineman's rubber gloves.

     (y) Where cables cross roads they shall be elevated or placed in a trench.

     (z) On all power shovels, including back-hoe types, of one-half cubic yard capacity or over, and on all dragline cranes or all-purpose cranes of the crawler or wheel type, two persons shall constitute the minimum working crew. It is mandatory that one be a qualified operator of the equipment in use. The job title of the other crew member may be oiler, rigger, signal person, or a laborer. The primary purpose of the second crew member is to signal the operator when the operator's vision is impaired or obscured and to be on-hand in case of emergency.

     (i) Second-crew persons shall be properly trained in their second-person required skills.

     (ii) The second crew member shall be close enough to the machine in operation to be aware of any emergency, if one arises, and to assure the machine is operated with necessary and appropriate signals to the operator.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. 02-12-098, § 296-155-525, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02; 01-17-033, § 296-155-525, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 95-17-036, § 296-155-525, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; Order 76-29, § 296-155-525, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-525, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 00-21-102, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01)

WAC 296-155-682   Requirements for equipment and tools.   (1) Bulk cement storage. Bulk storage bins, containers, and silos shall be equipped with the following:

     (a) Conical or tapered bottoms; and

     (b) Mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material.

     (2) No employee shall be permitted to enter storage facilities unless the ejection system has been shut down and locked out in accordance with WAC 296-155-429.

     (3) Safety belts, harnesses, lanyards, lifelines or droplines, independently attached or attended, shall be used as prescribed in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1.

     (4) Concrete mixers. Concrete mixers with one cubic yard (.8 m3) or larger loading skips shall be equipped with the following:

     (a) A mechanical device to clear the skip of materials; and

     (b) Guardrails installed on each side of the skip.

     (5) Power concrete trowels. Powered and rotating type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the hands of the operator are removed from the equipment handles.

     (6) Concrete buggies. Concrete buggy handles shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy.


Note: Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended.


     (7) Runways.

     (a) Runways shall be constructed to carry the maximum contemplated load with a safety factor of four, have a smooth running surface, and be of sufficient width for two buggies to pass. Single runs to have a minimum width of forty-two inches with turnouts. Runways to have standard railings. Where motor driven concrete buggies are used, a minimum four-inches by four-inches wheel guard shall be securely fastened to outside edge of runways.

     (b) All concrete buggy runways which are 12 inches or more above a work surface or floor, or ramps with more than 4 percent incline shall be considered "elevated" runways.


Exception: Small jobs utilizing only one concrete buggy, or larger jobs utilizing a "one-way traffic pattern" may be exempt from the requirements for "turnouts" or for "sufficient width for two buggies to pass."
Exemption: Runways less than 12 inches above the floor or ground which are utilized by hard-powered buggies only, may be exempt from the requirements for guardrails and wheelguards.
     (8) Concrete pumps and placing booms.

     (a) Definitions.

     "Concrete delivery hose" means a flexible concrete delivery hose which has two end couplings.

     "Concrete pump" means a construction machine that pumps concrete.

     "Controls" means the devices used to operate a machine.

     "Delivery systems" means the pipe, hoses and components, through which the concrete is pumped.

     "Grooved end" means a pipe clamp pipe connection where a groove is machined or rolled directly into the outside of the pipe wall (for example: Victualic).

     "Material pressure" means the pressure exerted on the concrete inside the delivery system.

     "Placing boom and placing unit" means a manual or power driven, slewable working device which:

     • Consists of one or more extendable or folding parts for supporting the concrete delivery system, and directs the discharge into the desired location; and

     • May be mounted on trucks, trailers, or special vehicles.

     "Qualified person" means someone who:

     • Possesses a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing; or

     • Has extensive knowledge, training, and experience; or

     • Successfully demonstrated the ability to resolve problems relating to the work.

     "Restraining devices" means a sling, cable, or equivalent device used to minimize excess movement of a delivery system in case of separation.

     "Whip hoses" means a suspended hose that has only one coupling and is used to direct the delivery of concrete.

     (b) Equipment requirements.

     (i) Equipment identification tag.

     The employer must ensure the following identification is furnished if originally identified by the manufacturer and on all pumps manufactured after January 1, 1998:

     • The manufacturer's name;

     • The year of manufacture;

     • The model and serial number;

     • The maximum material pressure;

     • The maximum allowable pressure in the hydraulic system; and

     • The maximum weight per foot of delivery system including concrete.

     (ii) Manufacturer's manual.

     The employer must have the manufacturer's operation/safety manual or equivalent available for each concrete pump or placing boom.

     (iii) Unsafe condition of equipment.

     If during an equipment inspection a condition is revealed that might endanger workers, the equipment must not be returned to service until the condition is corrected.

     (iv) Controls.

     Controls must have their function clearly marked.

     (v) Hydraulic systems.

     (A) Concrete pumps and placing booms hydraulic systems must have pressure relief valves to prevent cylinder and boom damage.

     (B) Hydraulic systems must have hydraulic holding valves if hose or coupling failure could result in uncontrolled vertical movement.

     (vi) Certification.

     In the event of failure of a structural member, overloading, or contact with energized electric power lines and before return to service, the equipment must be certified safe by:

     • The manufacturer; or

     • An agent of the manufacturer; or

     • A professional engineer.

     (vii) Marking weight. A permanent, legible notice stating the total weight of the unit must be marked on:

     • Trailer or skid mounted concrete pumps;

     • Placing booms; and

     • All major detachable components over five hundred pounds.

     (viii) Lifting a pump.

     A concrete pump must be lifted using the lift points specified by the manufacturer or a professional engineer.

     (ix) Emergency shutoff.

     A concrete pump must have a clearly labeled emergency stop switch that stops the pumping action.

     (x) Inlet and outlet guarding.

     (A) The waterbox must have a fixed guard to prevent unintentional access to the moving parts.

     (B) The agitator must be guarded with a point of operation guard in accordance with ((WAC 296-24-19507, Table 0-10)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, and the guard must be:

     • Hinged or bolted in place;

     • At least three inches distance from the agitator;

     • Be capable of supporting a load of two hundred fifty pounds.

     (C) A person must not stand on the guard when the pump or agitator is running.

     (xi) Outriggers.

     (A) Outriggers must be used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.

     (B) Concrete pump trucks manufactured after January 1, 1998, must have outriggers or jacks permanently marked to indicate the maximum loading they transmit to the ground.

     (xii) Load on a placing boom.

     (A) The manufacturer's or a licensed, registered, structural engineer's specifications for the placing boom must not be exceeded by:

     • The weight of the load;

     • The length and diameter of suspended hose;

     • The diameter and weight of mounted pipe.

     (B) A concrete placing boom must not be used to drag hoses or lift other loads.

     (C) All engineering calculations regarding modifications must be:

     • Documented;

     • Recorded; and

     • Available upon request.

     (xiii) Pipe diameter thickness. The pipe wall thickness must be measured in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction, and:

     • Be sufficient to maintain a burst pressure greater than the maximum pressure the pump can produce;

     • The pipe sections must be replaced when measurements indicate wall thickness has been reduced to the limits specified by the manufacturer.

     (xiv) Pipe clamps.

     (A) Concrete must not be pumped through a delivery system with grooved ends, such as those for Victualic-type couplers.

     (B) Pipe clamps must have a pressure rating at least equal to the pump pressure rating.

     (C) Pipe clamps contact surfaces must be free of concrete and other foreign matter.

     (D) If quick connect clamps are used, they must be pinned or secured to keep them from opening when used in a vertical application.

     (xv) Delivery pipe.

     (A) Delivery pipe between the concrete pump and the placing system must be supported and anchored to prevent movement and excessive loading on clamps.

     (B) Double ended hoses must not be used as whip hoses.

     (C) Attachments must not be placed on whip hoses (i.e., "S" hooks, valves, etc.).

Table 1, Nonmandatory
     Recommended maximum yards per hour through hose


Hose Diameter Hose Length (12' and less) Max. yards per hour Hose Length (12' and longer) Max. yards per hour
2" 30 30
3" 90 50
4" 160 110
5" See manufacturer specs See manufacturer specs

     • The above figures are based on a minimum of a 4" slump and a 5 sack mix.

     • Variables in mix design can have an effect on these ratings.

     • Aggregate should not exceed 1/3 the diameter of the delivery system.

     (xvi) Restraining. A restraining device must:

     • Be used on attachments suspended from the boom tips; and

     • Have a load rating not less than one-fifth of its ultimate breaking strength.

     (xvii) Equipment inspection.

     (A) An inspection must be conducted annually for the first five years and semiannually thereafter and must include the following:

     • Nondestructive testing of all sections of the boom by a method capable of ensuring the structural integrity of the boom;

     • Be conducted by a qualified person or by a private agency.

     (B) The inspection report must be documented and a copy maintained by the employer and in each unit inspected. It must contain the following:

     • The identification, including the serial numbers and manufacturer's name, of the components and parts inspected and tested;

     • A description of the test methods and results;

     • The names and qualifications of the people performing the inspection;

     • A listing of necessary repairs; and

     • The signature of the manufacturer, an agent of the manufacturer, or a qualified person.


Note: See WAC 296-155-628 (8)(d) for the inspection worksheet criteria.

     (xviii) Equipment repair.

     (A) Replacement parts must meet or exceed the original manufacturer's specifications or be certified by a registered professional structural engineer.

     (B) A properly certified welder must perform any welding on the boom, outrigger, or structural component.

     (xix) Compressed air cleaning of the piping system. To clean the piping system:

     (A) The pipe system must be securely anchored before it is cleaned out.

     (B) The flexible discharge hose must be removed.

     (C) Workers not essential to the cleaning process must leave the vicinity.

     (D) The compressed air system must have a shutoff valve.

     (E) Blow out caps must have a bleeder valve to relieve air pressure.

     (F) A trap basket or containment device (i.e., concrete truck, concrete bucket) must be available and secured to receive the clean out device.

     (G) Delivery pipes must be depressurized before clamps and fittings are released.

     (c) Qualification and training requirements.

     (i) Operator trainee--Qualification requirements. To be qualified to become a concrete pump operator, the trainee must meet the following requirements unless it can be shown that failure to meet the requirements will not affect the operation of the concrete pump boom.

     (A) Vision requirements:

     • At least 20/30 Snellen in one eye and 20/50 in the other. Corrective lenses may be used to fulfill this requirement;

     • Ability to distinguish colors, regardless of position, if color differentiation is required;

     • Normal depth perception and field of vision.

     (B) Hearing requirements: Hearing adequate to meet operational demands. Corrective devices may be used to fulfill this requirement.

     (ii) Operator trainee -- Training requirements. Operator trainee training requirements include, but are not limited to, the following:

     (A) Demonstrated their ability to read and comprehend the pump manufacturer's operation and safety manual.

     (B) Be of legal age to perform the duties required.

     (C) Received documented classroom training and testing (as applicable) on these recommended subjects:

     • Driving, operating, cleaning and maintaining concrete pumps, placing booms, and related equipment;

     • Jib/boom extensions;

     • Boom length/angle;

     • Manufacturer's variances;

     • Radii;

     • Range diagram, stability, tipping axis; and

     • Structural/tipping determinations.

     (D) Maintain and have available upon request a copy of all training materials and a record of training.

     (E) Satisfactorily completed a written examination for the concrete pump boom for which they are becoming qualified. It will cover:

     • Safety;

     • Operational characteristics and limitations; and

     • Controls.

     (iii) Operator--Qualification requirements. Operators will be considered qualified when they have:

     (A) Completed the operator trainee requirements listed in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection.

     (B) Completed a program of training conducted by a qualified person, including practical experience under the direct supervision of a qualified person.

     (C) Passed a practical operating examination of their ability to operate a specific model and type of equipment. Possess the knowledge and the ability to implement emergency procedures.

     (D) Possess the knowledge regarding the restart procedure after emergency stop has been activated.

     (E) Possess the proper class of driver's license to drive the concrete pump truck.

     (F) Demonstrate the ability to comprehend and interpret all labels, safety decals, operator's manuals, and other information required to safely operate the concrete pump.

     (G) Be familiar with the applicable safety requirements.

     (H) Understand the responsibility for equipment maintenance.

     (d) Concrete pump inspection worksheet criteria. Concrete pump trucks will be inspected using the following criteria: The manufacturer's required inspection criteria will be followed in all instances.


Note: DOT requirements for inspections - Ref. 49.C.F.R.396.11, Driver Vehicle Inspections and 396.13, Driver Pre-Trip Inspections; and WAC 296-155-610.


     (i) Hydraulic systems.

     (A) Oil level;

     (B) Hoses;

     (C) Fittings;

     (D) Holding valves;

     (E) Pressure settings;

     (F) Hydraulic cylinders;

     (G) Ensure that the emergency stop system is functioning properly;

     (H) All controls clearly marked.

     (ii) Electrical.

     (A) All systems functioning properly.

     (B) All remote control functions are operating properly. Ensure that the emergency stop system is functioning properly.

     (C) All controls clearly marked.

     (iii) Structural.

     (A) Visual inspection for cracks, corrosion, and deformations of the concrete pump with placing boom structure, and all load carrying components such as outriggers, cross frames, torsion box beams, and delivery line support structures that may lead to nondestructive testing.

     (B) Visual examination of all links, pivots, pins, and bolts.

     (C) Vertical and horizontal movement at the turret, turntable, rotation gear lash, bearing tolerances, not to exceed manufacturer's specifications.

     (iv) Piping systems.

     (A) Wall thickness must not exceed original manufacturer's specifications.

     (B) Mounting hardware for attaching delivery system.

     (C) Correct clamps and safety pins.

     (v) Safety decals.

     All safety decals shall be in place as required by the manufacturer.

     (9) Concrete buckets.

     (a) Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatic gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed to prevent premature or accidental dumping.

     (b) Concrete buckets shall be designed to prevent concrete from hanging up on top and the sides.

     (c) Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose shall be prohibited, and vibrator crews shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cableways.

     (d) When discharging on a slope, the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and the brakes set to prevent movement.

     (10) Tremies. Sections of tremies and similar concrete conveyances shall be secured with wire rope (or equivalent materials in addition to the regular couplings or connections).

     (11) Bull floats. Bull float handles, used where they might contact energized electrical conductors, shall be constructed of nonconductive material or insulated with a nonconductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection of a handle constructed of nonconductive material.

     (12) Masonry saws shall be constructed, guarded, and operated in accordance with WAC 296-155-367 (1) through (4).

     (13) Lockout/tagout procedures. No employee shall be permitted to perform maintenance or repair activity on equipment (such as compressors, mixers, screens, or pumps used for concrete and masonry construction activities) where the inadvertent operation of the equipment could occur and cause injury, unless all potentially hazardous energy sources have been locked out and tagged in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part I.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and chapter 49.17 RCW. 00-21-102, § 296-155-682, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, § 296-155-682, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-682, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-682, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-155-682, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-682, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]

OTS-6884.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 01-11-038, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01)

WAC 296-301-020   General safety requirements.   (1) Means of stopping machines. Every textile machine shall be provided with individual mechanical or electrical means for stopping such machines. On machines driven by belts and shafting a locking-type shifter or an equivalent positive device shall be used. On operations where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.

     (2) Handles. Stopping and starting handles shall be designed to the proper length to prevent the worker's hand or fingers from striking against any revolving part, gear guard, or any other part of the machine.

     (3) Machine guarding. An employer must ensure that power transmission parts are guarded according to the requirements of ((WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20527)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (4) Housekeeping. Aisles and working spaces shall be kept in good order in accordance with requirements of WAC 296-24-735 through 296-24-73505 and WAC 296-800-220.

     (5) Inspection and maintenance. All guards and other safety devices, including starting and stopping devices, shall be properly maintained.

     (6) Lighting and illumination. Lighting and illumination shall conform to the safety and health core rule book, WAC 296-800-210.

     (7) Identification of piping systems. Identification of piping systems shall conform to American National Standard A13.1-1956.

     (8) Identification of physical hazards. Identification of physical hazards shall be in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-135 through 296-24-13503, of the general safety and health standards.

     (9) Steam pipes. All pipes carrying steam or hot water for process or servicing machinery, when exposed to contact and located within seven feet of the floor or working platform shall be covered with a heat-insulating material, or guarded with equivalent protection.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-301-020, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-17-094 and 99-22-093, § 296-301-020, filed 8/17/99 and 11/2/99, effective 1/1/00; 98-10-073, 98-24-120 and 99-12-091, § 296-301-020, filed 5/4/98, 12/2/98 and 6/1/99, effective 1/1/00; Order 74-19, § 296-301-020, filed 5/6/74.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-17-094, filed 8/17/99, effective 12/1/99)

WAC 296-301-170   Clothing folding machine.   Cloth-folding machines shall meet the requirements of ((WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19513)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-17-094, § 296-301-170, filed 8/17/99, effective 12/1/99; Order 74-19, § 296-301-170, filed 5/6/74.]

OTS-6853.1


REPEALER
     The following chapter of the Washington Administrative Code is repealed:
WAC 296-302-010 Bakery equipment -- General requirements.
WAC 296-302-015 Definitions.
WAC 296-302-020 General machine guarding.
WAC 296-302-025 Flour-handling equipment -- Scope and application.
WAC 296-302-02501 General requirements for flour-handling.
WAC 296-302-02503 Bag chutes and bag lifts (bag-arm elevators).
WAC 296-302-02505 Dumpbin and blender.
WAC 296-302-02507 Flour elevators.
WAC 296-302-02509 Bolting reels.
WAC 296-302-02511 Storage bins.
WAC 296-302-02513 Screw conveyors.
WAC 296-302-02515 Sifters.
WAC 296-302-02517 Flour scales.
WAC 296-302-02519 Automatic flour gates.
WAC 296-302-03001 Horizontal dough mixers.
WAC 296-302-03003 Vertical mixers.
WAC 296-302-035 Dividers.
WAC 296-302-040 Moulders.
WAC 296-302-045 Manually fed dough brakes.
WAC 296-302-050 Miscellaneous equipment.
WAC 296-302-05501 Slicers.
WAC 296-302-05503 Wrappers.
WAC 296-302-060 Biscuit and cracker equipment.
WAC 296-302-065 Ovens -- Scope and application.
WAC 296-302-06501 General location.
WAC 296-302-06503 General requirements.
WAC 296-302-06505 Construction.
WAC 296-302-06507 Safeguards of mechanical parts.
WAC 296-302-06509 Gas-burning systems.
WAC 296-302-06511 Gas mixing machines.
WAC 296-302-06513 Oil-burning equipment.
WAC 296-302-06515 Solid-fuel firing equipment.
WAC 296-302-06517 Electrical heating equipment.
WAC 296-302-06519 Direct-fired ovens.
WAC 296-302-06521 Direct recirculating ovens.
WAC 296-302-06523 Flue-type ovens.
WAC 296-302-06525 Indirect-fired multiple burner ovens.
WAC 296-302-06527 Steam-tube ovens.
WAC 296-302-06529 Indirect recirculating ovens.
WAC 296-302-06531 Electric ovens.

OTS-6885.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 74-18, filed 5/6/74)

WAC 296-303-030   Moving parts.   (1) Machine guarding (other than point of operation). Moving parts of machines, such as gears, sprockets, belts, pulleys, and shafts, shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of ((WAC 296-24-20507 through 296-24-20513, of the general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (2) Prime-mover guarding. Moving parts of prime movers such as fly-wheels, cranks and connecting rods, tail rods or extension piston rods, and governor balls, shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of ((WAC 296-24-20505, of the general safety and health standards)) chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Order 74-18, § 296-303-030, filed 5/6/74.]

OTS-6886.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 96-11-067, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97)

WAC 296-305-06519   Fire station equipment and tools.   (1) Equipment and tools in maintenance shops shall be guarded as required by the guarding provisions of chapter ((296-24 WAC, Part C, Machine guarding)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, and ((Part H-1, Hand and portable powered tools)) chapter 296-807, Portable power tools.

     (2) Exposure of fan blades. When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than ten feet above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. The guard shall have openings no larger than one-half inch. This provision shall not apply to residential ceiling fans.

     (3) Abrasive wheels and grinders.

     (a) All abrasive wheels and grinders, shall be guarded as required by chapter ((296-24 WAC, Part C)) 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

     (b) Goggles or face shields shall be used when grinding.

     (c) Abrasive and composite blades shall be stored and protected against exposure to fuel and oil.

     (d) Work rests on bench mounted abrasive wheel grinders shall be used to support the work. These shall be of rigid construction and designed to be adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests shall be kept adjusted sufficiently close to the wheel with a maximum opening of one-eighth inch to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest. Adjustment of the work rest shall not be made while the wheel is turning.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 96-11-067, § 296-305-06519, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]

OTS-6837.4


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-100   Scope.   Machines and their moving parts create the potential for workplace injuries. Installed and used properly safeguards can protect workers by helping to reduce or control machine hazards.

     This chapter applies if you have machines or machine operations in your workplace. For requirements on hand-held tools go to Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC.

[]

REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-200   Summary.   This section applies to all machines in your workplace. It is organized into the following four categories:

     • General requirements.

     • Safeguarding requirements.

     • Safeguarding methods.

     • Requirements for specific machine hazards.

Reference: • In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to determine if additional requirements are listed for machines or operations in your workplace:
– Additional requirements for some machines and machine operations, WAC 296-806-400.
• For requirements that apply to hand-held tools, see Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC.
     Your responsibility:    

     To protect employees from machine hazards in your workplace.

     You must:

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
     WORKPLACE

     Secure machines designed to stay in one place

     WAC 296-806-20002.

     Protect employees from slipping hazards around machinery

     WAC 296-806-20004.

     Arrange work areas to avoid creating hazards

     WAC 296-806-20006.

     MACHINE CONTROLS AND OPERATION

     Make sure operating controls meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20008.

     Protect employees from unintentional machine operation

     WAC 296-806-20010.

     Make sure emergency stop controls meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20012.

     Control machine vibration

     WAC 296-806-20014.

     Prevent overspeed conditions

     WAC 296-806-20016.

     Make sure hand feeding and retrieval tools meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20018.

     Protect employees who are adjusting or repairing machinery

     WAC 296-806-20020.

     POWER TRANSMISSION PARTS

     Keep power transmission parts in good working condition

     WAC 296-806-20022.

     Inspect power transmission parts

     WAC 296-806-20024.

     Protect employees lubricating moving machinery

     WAC 296-806-20026.

SAFEGUARDING REQUIREMENTS
     SAFEGUARD MACHINERY

     Safeguard employees from the point of operation

     WAC 296-806-20028.

     Safeguard employees from nip or shear point hazards

     WAC 296-806-20030.

     Safeguard employees from rotating or revolving parts

     WAC 296-806-20032.

     Safeguard employees from reciprocating or other moving parts

     WAC 296-806-20034.

     Safeguard employees from flying objects

     WAC 296-806-20036.

     Safeguard employees from falling objects

     WAC 296-806-20038.

     Safeguard employees from hazards created by moving surfaces with hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, and protruding nails and bolts

     WAC 296-806-20040.

     SAFEGUARDING METHODS

     Guards

     Make sure guards meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20042.

     Devices

     Make sure devices meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20044.

     Make sure light curtains meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20046.

     Make sure pressure-sensitive mats meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20048.

     Make sure restraint or pullback devices meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20050.

     Make sure two-hand devices meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20052.

     Make sure devices used with barrier guards meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20054.

     Distance

     Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20056.

     Make sure guardrails used for safeguarding meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-20058.

     REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC MACHINE HAZARDS

     Fit arbors and mandrels to the machine

     WAC 296-806-30002.

     Safeguard belt and rope drives

     WAC 296-806-30004.

     Make sure belt or rope drives meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-30006.

     Protect employees while shifting belts on belt and pulley drives

     WAC 296-806-30008.

     Make sure belt tighteners meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-30010.

     Safeguard cams, connecting rods, tail rods, and extension piston rods

     WAC 296-806-30012.

     Safeguard chain and sprocket drives

     WAC 296-806-30014.

     Safeguard fan blades

     WAC 296-806-30016.

     Safeguard flywheels

     WAC 296-806-30018.

     Safeguard gears

     WAC 296-806-30020.

     Safeguard projections on moving parts

     WAC 296-806-30022.

     Safeguard pulleys

     WAC 296-806-30024.

     Make sure pulleys meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-30026.

     Safeguard revolving drums, barrels, and containers

     WAC 296-806-30028.

     Safeguard shafting

     WAC 296-806-30030.

     Make sure shafting meets these requirements

     WAC 296-806-30032.

     Safeguard unused keyways

     WAC 296-806-30034.

     Make sure revolving collars meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-30036.

     Safeguard counterweights

     WAC 296-806-30038.

[]

WORKPLACE
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20002   Secure machines designed to stay in one place.  

     You must:

     • Make sure machines designed to stay in one place are secured so they will not move or change position during use.

Exemption: Machines that have either rubber feet or foot pads made of nonskid (high coefficient of friction) or similar vibration dampening materials do not have to be secured as long as the machine will not tip, fall over, or walk (move).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20004   Protect employees from slipping hazards around machinery.  

     You must:

     • Make sure employees working around dangerous machines are protected from slipping on smooth, oily, or otherwise slippery floors by providing one of the following types of floor covering:

     – Nonslip matting.

     – Grating.

     – Nonslip composition flooring.

     – Some other effective floor treatment.

Reference: For additional requirements about housekeeping, personal protective equipment (PPE), and work practices, see the Safety and health core rules, chapter 296-800 WAC.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20006   Arrange work areas to avoid creating hazards.  

     You must:

     • Make sure work areas around machinery are designed with enough space so each operator:

     – Can clean and handle material without interference from other workers or machines.

     – Does not have to stand in the way of passing traffic.

     • Provide enough space so employees can bring in and remove materials safely.

Reference: For requirements that apply to Aisles and passageways, see WAC 296-24-73505.

[]

MACHINE CONTROLS AND OPERATIONS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20008   Make sure operating controls meet these requirements.  

Exemption: This rule does not apply to constant pressure controls used only for setup.
     You must:

     (1) Make sure each machine has a control that both:

     • Stops the machine;

     AND

     • Can be reached by the operator without leaving the operator's position.

     (2) Make sure the operator can easily reach all machine controls without reaching into a hazard area of the machine.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20010   Protect employees from unintentional machine operation.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure foot-operated controls are located or guarded so that unintentional movement to the "ON" position is unlikely.

     (2) Make sure machines will not automatically restart when power is restored after a power failure, if restarting would create a hazard for employees.

Note: Operating controls can be protected from unintentional movement by methods such as covers on foot treadles and collars around machinery start buttons.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20012   Make sure emergency stop controls meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure emergency stop controls, if required, meet all the following:

     – Are red in color.

     – Are easily reached from the operator's normal work position.

     – Are kept in a good working condition.

     – Have to be manually reset before a machine can be restarted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20014   Control machine vibration.  

     You must:

     • Prevent excessive machine vibration that could create a hazard to employees.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20016   Prevent overspeed conditions.  

     You must:

     • Operate tools and equipment within their rated speed.
Note: Actions that could cause an overspeed condition include:
• Installing a more powerful motor.
• Changing or increasing the power source.
• Changing attachment size or type, such as a blade or wheel.
– The attachment speed (rpm) and motor speed (rpm) should match.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20018   Make sure hand feeding and retrieval tools meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure hand feeding and retrieval tools:

     – Are suitable for the work to be done.

     – Do not create a hazard when used.

     – Are of a size and shape that will keep the operator's hands outside the hazardous area.

     – Are constructed so they will not shatter if they come in contact with the machine tool or tooling.

Note: Hand feeding and retrieval tools, such as push sticks or push blocks, can not be used instead of required safeguarding, unless a specific machine requirement allows it.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20020   Protect employees who are adjusting or repairing machinery.  

Exemption: This rule does not apply if the machine has to be in motion to properly adjust it.
     You must:

     • Make sure power-driven machinery is completely stopped before either:

     – Making adjustments or repairs;

     OR

     – Removing material or refuse from the machine.

Reference: For requirements about maintaining and servicing machinery where the unexpected start-up, energization, or release of stored energy could injure an employee are in Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), chapter 296-803 WAC.

[]

POWER TRANSMISSION PARTS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20022   Keep power transmission equipment in good working condition.  

     Definition:

     A power transmission part is a mechanical component of a system that provides motion to a part of a machine or piece of equipment.

     You must:

     • Make sure power transmission parts are kept in good working condition at all times.

     • Keep bearings free from lost motion and well lubricated.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20024   Inspect power transmission parts.  

     You must:

     • Inspect power transmission parts at least once every sixty days to make sure that all:

     – Safeguarding meets the requirements of this chapter.

     – Parts are in proper alignment.

     – Bolts and screws that hold power transmission parts together or support the system are tight.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20026   Protect employees lubricating moving machinery.  

     You must:

     (1) Protect employees who lubricate moving machinery by:

     • Providing tools, such as oil cans or grease guns, that have spouts or necks that are long enough to keep the employees' hands out of hazardous areas.

     • Requiring employees to wear closely fitted clothing.

Note: Things such as clothing, hair, and jewelry can get caught in machinery and be a hazard on the job.
     You must:

     (2) Make sure drip cups and pans are securely fastened to the machinery.

[]

SAFEGUARDING REQUIREMENTS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20028   Safeguard employees from the point of operation.  

     IMPORTANT:

     If a specific safeguarding method in this chapter is required for machinery or machine parts found in your workplace, follow the specific requirement.

     In the absence of a specific safeguarding method required by this or some other chapter, you need to choose a method or combination of methods from the safeguarding requirements found in Safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:

     • Guards.

     • Devices.

     • Safeguarding by distance.

     • Safeguarding by location.

     You must:

     • Protect employees from hazards created by the point of operation by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20030   Safeguard employees from nip or shear point hazards.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees from hazards created by nip or shear points by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20032   Safeguard employees from rotating or revolving parts.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees from hazards created by rotating or revolving parts by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20034   Safeguard employees from reciprocating or other moving parts.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees from hazards created by reciprocating or other moving parts by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20036   Safeguard employees from flying objects.        You must:

• Protect employees from hazards created by flying objects, including chips, sparks, and fluids by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20038   Safeguard employees from falling objects.        You must:

     • Protect employees from hazards created by falling objects by using one or more safeguarding methods.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20040   Safeguard employees from moving surfaces with hazards.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard employees from hazards created by moving surfaces with hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, and protruding nails and bolts.

[]

SAFEGUARDING METHODS

Guards
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20042   Make sure guards meet these requirements.        You must:

     • Make sure guards do not create additional hazards such as sharp edges or pinch points between the guard and moving machine parts.

     • Make sure guards are:

     – Made of durable materials.

     – Strong enough to withstand the forces to which they are exposed.

     – Securely fastened to the machine, if possible, or to the building structure if they cannot be attached to the machine.

     • Make sure guards protect employees by doing both of the following:

     – Preventing hands or other body parts from reaching through, over, under, or around the guard into the hazard area;

     AND

     – Preventing objects or debris from falling onto or being thrown towards an employee.

     • Make sure barrier guards:

     – Are properly installed, adjusted, and maintained.

     – Have no opening at any point larger than shown in Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Opening.

Reference: Metal cutting shears are allowed to be guarded with properly applied awareness barrier safeguarding as described in ANSI B11.4-1993, Sections 6.3.3.

Table 200-1
Largest Allowable Guard Opening (inches)

If the distance (A) from hazard to the guard is: Then the opening (B) in the guard or between the table and the guard can NOT be greater than:
1/2 to 1 1/2 1/4
1 1/2 to 2 1/2 3/8
2 1/2 to 3 1/2 1/2
3 1/2 to 5 1/2 5/8
5 1/2 to 6 1/2 3/4
6 1/2 to 7 1/2 7/8
7 1/2 to 12 1/2 1 1/4
12 1/2 to 15 1/2 1 1/2
15 1/2 to 17 1/2 1 7/8
17 1/2 to 31 1/2 2 1/8
Over 31 1/2 6

     This diagram illustrates the information found in Table 200-1. The size of the opening in the guard, or between the bottom edge of the guard and the feed table is small enough to prevent any part of the operator's body from reaching the hazardous area.


Illustration #1 - Distance from hazard to Guard (A)

Place illustration here.

[]

DEVICES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20044   Make sure devices meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure devices used to safeguard employees do either of the following:

     – Stop the motion of a moving part before an employee comes in contact with it and has to be manually reset before machines can be restarted;

     OR

     – Be designed and constructed to prevent the operator from having any part of their body in the danger zone during the hazardous part of the operating cycle.

Reference: For more information on installation of safety devices, see Performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19-2003.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20046   Make sure light curtains meet these requirements.  

     IMPORTANT:

     All devices must meet the general requirements for devices found in, Make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044.

     You must:

     • Make sure light curtains, when used:

     – Respond to the presence of an operator's hand, other body part, or a work piece.

     – Have indicators that are easily seen by the operator showing when the device is functioning or has been bypassed.

Note: Even if a shiny reflective object or work piece is used with a light curtain or other electro-optical device, it should still respond to the operator's hand or other body part.
     You must:

     • Make sure only authorized persons can make the following adjustments to light curtains:

     – Variations in operating conditions.

     – Fixed or channel blanking.

     – Floating blanking (sometimes referred to as floating channel or floating window features).

     • Safeguard access to the point of operation that is not protected by light curtains.

Reference: For more information on light curtains and their requirements, see Performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19-2003

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20048   Make sure pressure-sensitive mats meet these requirements.  

     IMPORTANT:

     All devices must meet the general requirements for devices found in, Make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-2004.

     You must:

     • Make sure pressure-sensitive mats:

     – Detect the presence or absence of the operator or others.

     – Send the stop command and prevent successive machine cycles if any single component fails.

     – Are connected with the machine control system so the device's stop signal immediately stops action of the machine tool and requires use of the start control before the machine can begin another cycle.

     – Are located so that the operator can not reach the recognized hazard before hazardous motion has stopped.

     – Have an indicator easily seen by the operator that shows the mat is operating.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20050   Make sure restraint or pullback devices meet these requirements.  

     IMPORTANT:

     All devices must meet the general requirements for devices found in, Make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044.

     You must:

     • Make sure restraint or pullback devices:

     – Prevent the operator from reaching into the point of operation or withdraw the operator's hands from the point of operation before motion of the machine creates a hazard.

     – Have fasteners, pins, and other items used to secure and maintain the setting of the device applied in a way that minimizes loosening, slipping, or failure during use.

     – Are worn inside gloves, if used, so if a glove becomes trapped inside a machine or tool, the device can still remove the operator's hand from the hazard area.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20052   Make sure two-hand devices meet these requirements.  

     IMPORTANT:

     All devices must meet the general requirements for devices found in, Make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044.

     You must:

     • Make sure two-hand devices:

     – Protect each hand device against accidental operation.

     – Require simultaneous operation of both hand devices to begin the cycle, including the first cycle (automatic mode).

     – Are provided with an antirepeat feature when used in single cycle mode.

     – Have a set of devices for each operator if more than one needs to be safeguarded.

     – Are located far enough from the nearest hazard so the operator can not reach the hazard before hazardous motion stops.

Reference: For more information on proper installation of safety devices, see Performance criteria for safeguarding, ANSI B11.19-2003.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20054   Make sure devices used with barrier guards meet these requirements.  

     IMPORTANT:

     All devices must meet the general requirements for devices found in, Make sure devices meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20044.

     You must:

     • Make sure movable barrier devices:

     – Return to the open position if they encounter an obstruction while enclosing the hazardous area.

     – Are designed so the operator or others cannot reach the hazard by reaching over, under, around or through the device when it is in the closed position.

     • Make sure interlocks used with barrier guards do all of the following:

     – Stop hazardous motion of machines when interlocks are open.

     – Are not easily bypassed.

     – Are designed and installed so that closing the interlocks will not cause a hazard to employees.

[]

DISTANCE
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20056   Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure means used to safeguard by distance do both of the following:

     – Prevent parts or material from falling on employees below;

     AND

     – Separate employees on fixed ladders, stairs, floors, or other walking or working surfaces from the hazard by:

     &sqbul; More than seven feet vertically;

     OR

     &sqbul; A horizontal distance that prevents employees from contacting or being injured by the hazard according to the distances in Table 200-2.

TABLE 200-2

     SAFE DISTANCES FROM FIXED BARRIERS TO HAZARDS

     Table 200-2 helps you identify either the required horizontal distance from the hazard to the barricade (B), or the required height of the barricade (C), as long as you know A and either variable, B or C.

Table 200-2
Safe Distances for Fixed Barricades (B)

Height of the Hazard (A) Height of the Barricade (C)
96 86 78 71 63 55 48 40
96 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
86 . . . . 10 14 16 20 20 24 24
78 . . . . . . . . 14 20 24 28 36 43
71 . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 36 36 40 43
63 . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 36 36 40 51
55 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 32 36 40 51
48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 36 40 55
40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 36 40 55
32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 36 51
24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 48
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 48
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 43

Note: The height and distance requirements of Table 200-2 are designed to safeguard workers from a fixed hazard. If a hazard involves flying chips, fluids, parts or materials, the barrier height, distance, and construction may need to be adjusted to provide adequate protection.


Illustration 2 - How to measure variables for Table 2

Place illustration here.

     Examples:

     • If the height of the hazard (A) is seventy-eight inches, and the horizontal distance from the hazard to the barricade (B) is fourteen inches, the required height of the barricade (C) is seventy-eight inches.

     • If the height of the hazard (A) is eighty-six inches, and the height of the barricade (C) is fifty-five inches, then the required horizontal distance from the hazard to the barricade (B) is twenty inches.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-20058   Make sure guardrails used for safeguarding meet these requirements.  

Note: Guardrails may be used to safeguard:
• Flywheels.
• Cranks and connecting rods.
• Tail rods and extension piston rods.
• Horizontal belts in a power generating room.
• Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys in an engine room occupied only by an attendant.
• Power transmission parts on a runway used only for oiling, maintenance, running adjustment, or repair work.
     You must:

     • Make sure top rails are:

     – Smooth-surfaced.

     – Strong enough to withstand a force of at least two hundred pounds.

     – Between thirty-nine and forty-five inches above the floor, platform, runway, or ramp.

     • Make sure guardrails have an intermediate rail (midrail) installed approximately halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp.

     • Make sure rails do not extend beyond the end posts of the guardrail and create a projection hazard.

     • Make sure toe boards, if required by this chapter to safeguard a machinery hazard, are:    

     – At least four inches high.

     – Securely fastened in place with no more than one-fourth inch between the bottom of the toe board and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp.

     – Made of substantial material that is either solid or that has openings in the material no larger than one inch.

[]

REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC MACHINE HAZARDS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30002   Fit arbors and mandrels to the machine.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that arbors and mandrels:

     – Have firm and secure bearing.

     – Are free from play.

     • Only place or mount attachments on a machine arbor that have been accurately machined to the correct size and shape.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30004   Safeguard belt and rope drives.  

Exemption:
• You do not need to safeguard the following types of belts when they are operating at two hundred and fifty linear feet per minute or less:
– Flat belts that are:
&sqbul; One inch wide or less.
&sqbul; Two inches wide or less and have no metal lacings or fasteners.
– Round belts one-half inch or less in diameter.
– Single-strand v-belts 13/32 inch wide or less.
• You do not need to safeguard belts that are in a room, vault, or similar space that contains only power transmission parts or equipment if the space:
– Is controlled by lock and key or has similarly restricted access that allows only authorized persons to enter.
– Is well lit.
– Has a dry, level, and firm floor.
– Has a well-marked route with a vertical clearance of at least five feet six inches for authorized employees to follow to perform their duties.
• You do not need to safeguard belt drives of light or medium duty sewing machines if all of the following apply:
– It uses either a flat or a round belt without metal lacings and fasteners.
– The belt is located above the table top.
– The table top is designed so that employees near the machine are not exposed to motion hazards while they work or as they pass by.
– The machine is not used to sew heavy materials such as leather, canvas, denim, or vinyl.
– The operators' hands are not in, near, or on the wheel, nip point, belt area, or other motion hazard when the machine is operating.
Reference: You may need to follow additional requirements for sewing machines. See, Sewing machines, WAC 296-806-485, later in this chapter for more information.
     You must:

     • Safeguard belt or rope drives that are seven feet or less above the floor or working surface.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.
Note: You may use a nip point and pulley guard on a vertical or inclined belt if it meets all of the following requirements:
• Two and one-half inches wide or less.
• Running at a speed of less than one thousand feet per minute.
• Free from metal lacings or fastenings.
     You must:

     • Safeguard overhead belts located more than seven feet above the floor or working surface if any of the following apply:

     – The belt is located over a passageway or work space and travels at a speed of eighteen hundred feet per minute or more.

     – The distance between the centers of its pulleys is ten feet or more.

     – The belt is wider than eight inches.

     • Safeguard the space between the upper and lower runs of a horizontal belt if there is enough room for an employee to pass between them by providing both:

     – A guard along the upper run to keep the belt from contacting the worker or anything they may be carrying;

     AND

     – A platform over the lower run that has a railing that is completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler or by a solid barrier.

Note: The passage between the two belts is considered safeguarded if you completely block it with a guardrail or other barrier.
Exemption: In a power generating room, only the lower run of a horizontal belt has to be safeguarded.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30006   Make sure belt or rope drives meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     (1) Use an idler when your machine uses a quarter-twist belt that can run in either direction.

     (2) Make sure, when it is necessary to apply dressing to moving belts or ropes, that you apply the dressing at a point where the belts or ropes leave the pulley.

     (3) Make sure that a belt shifted by hand is not fastened with metal or other material that creates a hazard.

     (4) Make sure a bearing support that is next to a friction clutch or cutoff coupling has self-lubricating bearings that do not need frequent attention.

     (5) Use a substantial belt perch, such as a bracket or roller, when it is not practical to use a loose pulley or idler to keep idle belts away from shafts.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30008   Protect employees while shifting belts on belt and pulley drives.  

Exemption: A belt shifter is not required on a belt and pulley system if:
• It was installed on or before August 17, 1971;
OR
• The belt and pulley drive meets all of these requirements:
– The belt is endless or laced with rawhide.
– A nip point guard in front of the cone safeguards the nip point of the belt and pulley.
– The nip point guard extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone and is formed to show the contour of the cone.
Definition: A nip point belt and pulley guard is a guard that encloses the pulley and has rounded or rolled edge slots for the belt to pass through.
     You must:

     (1) Provide a permanent mechanical belt shifter on belt drives that use either:

     • Tight and loose (drive and idler) pulleys;

     OR

     • A cone pulley.

     (2) Protect employees from the nip point of the belt and pulley by either:

     • The belt shifter or clutch handle;

     OR

     • A vertical guard in front of the pulley that extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.

     (3) Make sure a belt shifter or clutch handle is:

     • Rounded to keep the operator from being injured.

     • Easy to reach.

     • Positioned to reduce the chance of being accidentally moved.

     • Located either:

     – Over the machine;

     OR

     – Not higher than six feet six inches above the floor.

     (4) Make sure each belt shifter or clutch handle of the same type in your workplace moves in the same direction to stop a machine, that is, either all right or all left.

Exemption: A friction clutch handle on a countershaft carrying two clutch pulleys with open and crossed belts is not required to move in the same direction as all other clutch handles or belt shifters if:
• The clutch handle has three positions;
AND
• The machine is at rest when the clutch handle is in the center position.
     You must:

     (5) Use a belt shifter to shift a belt on and off a fixed pulley.

     • When a belt shifter cannot be used, you may use a belt pole if it is both:

     – Smooth;

     AND

     – Large enough to grasp securely.

Note: A belt pole is also known as a "belt shipper" or "shipper pole."
     You must:

     (6) Provide a locking-type belt shifter or other positive securing device on woodworking machines driven by belts and shafting.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30010   Make sure belt tighteners meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure belt tighteners:

     – Are substantially constructed and securely fastened.

     – Have bearings that are securely capped.

     – Have a mechanism to prevent them from falling.

     • Make sure belt tighteners used to activate machinery are securely held in the "OFF" position by either:

     – Gravity;

     OR

     – An automatic mechanism that must be released by hand.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30012   Safeguard cams, connecting rods, tail rods, and extension piston rods.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard cams, connecting rods, tail rods, or extension piston rods that could be contacted by employees.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.
     You must:

     • Make sure guardrails used to safeguard the side or ends of rods are at least fifteen inches away from the rod when it is fully extended.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30014   Safeguard chain and sprocket drives.  

Exemption: This section does not apply to hand-operated sprockets.
     You must:

     • Enclose chains and sprocket wheels that are seven feet or less above the floor or working surface.

     • Make sure chain and sprocket drive enclosures that extend over machine or other working areas protect workers from falling drive parts.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30016   Safeguard fan blades.  

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.
Exemption: A fan is considered guarded if it meets all of the following requirements:
– It is in a basement, tower, or room locked against unauthorized entrance.
– The vertical clearance in passageways between the floor and power transmission beams, ceiling, or any other objects, is not less than five feet six inches.
– The intensity of illumination must be a minimum of ten foot candles when the area is occupied.
– The footing is dry, firm, and level.
– The route followed by the oiler or authorized personnel is protected in such a manner as to prevent accident.
– The periphery of the fan blade is covered by a shroud.
     You must:

     • Protect employees from exposure to the blades of any fan less than seven feet above the floor or working surface.

     • Prevent rods, pipes, or other material being handled by workers, from contacting moving fan blades.

Reference: For guard opening requirements, see Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Opening in, Make sure guards meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20042.

[]

FLYWHEELS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30018   Safeguard flywheels.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard flywheels that have any part of the wheel seven feet or less above the floor or working surface with either:

     – An enclosure;

     OR

     – A guardrail, at least fifteen inches but no more than twenty inches from the rim.

     • Make sure enclosures that safeguard flywheels located above a working area are strong enough to hold the weight of the wheel, if a shaft or wheel mounting fails.

     • Provide a toeboard on guardrails used to safeguard flywheels that have any part of the wheel within twelve inches of the floor or working surface.

     • Do both of the following to safeguard spoked flywheels that are five feet or less in diameter with smooth rims, when enclosures or guardrails cannot be used:

     – Cover the spokes on the exposed side of the wheel with a disk guard that creates a smooth surface and edge;

     AND

     – Remove or cover keys or other dangerous projections on the wheel that are not covered by the disk guard.

Exemption: • You may leave an open space of four inches or less between the outside edge of the disk guard and the rim of the spoked flywheel to make it easier to turn the wheel over.
• You may use an adjustable guard for the flywheel of a gasoline or diesel engine for starting the engine or for making running adjustments. A slot opening for a jack bar is permitted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30020   Safeguard gears.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard gears that are seven feet or less above the floor or working surface.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.
Exemption: You do not need to guard hand-operated gears that are used only to adjust machine parts that stop when the gears are not being turned by hand.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30022   Safeguard projections on moving parts.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard projections on moving parts such as keys, setscrews, bolts, and nuts, by:

     – Removing them.

     – Making them flush.

     – Guarding with metal covers.

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to keys or setscrews that are:
• Within an enclosure.
• Below the plane of the rim of a pulley that is less than twenty inches in diameter.
• Located where employee contact is not possible.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30024   Safeguard pulleys.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard pulleys that have any part of the pulley seven feet or less above the floor or working surface.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.
Exemption: You do not need to safeguard pulleys that are in a room, vault, or similar space that contain only power transmission parts or equipment if the space:
• Is controlled by lock and key or has similarly restricted access that allows only authorized persons to enter.
• Is well lit.
• Has a dry, level, and firm floor.
• Has a well-marked route with a vertical clearance of at least five feet six inches for authorized employees to follow to perform their duties.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30026   Make sure pulleys meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure pulleys are designed and balanced for the speed at which they operate.

     (2) Make sure not to use pulleys that are cracked or have a piece broken out of the rim.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30028   Safeguard revolving drums, barrels, and containers.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard revolving drums, barrels, or containers by an enclosure that is interlocked with the drive mechanism so that they cannot revolve unless the enclosure is in place.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30030   Safeguard shafting.  

Exemption: You do not need to safeguard shafting that is in a room, vault, or similar space that contains only power transmission parts or equipment if the space:
• Is controlled by lock and key or has similarly restricted access that allows only authorized persons to enter.
• Is well lit.
• Has a dry, level, and firm floor.
• Has a well-marked route with a vertical clearance of at least five feet six inches for authorized employees to follow to perform their duties.
     You must:

     • Enclose shafting that is seven feet or less above the floor or working surface.

     • Make sure projecting shaft ends either:

     – Have a smooth edge, smooth end, and project no more than one-half the diameter of the shaft;

     OR

     – Are guarded by a nonrotating cap or safety sleeve.

     • Safeguard shafting under a bench or table by enclosing it in a stationary casing or by using a trough with sides that both:

     – Cover the shafting to within six inches of the bottom of the table or to within six inches of the floor or working surface, whichever is appropriate;

     AND

     – Extend two inches beyond the end of the shafting.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30032   Make sure shafting meets these requirements.  

     You must:

     (1) Keep shafting free of:

     • Excessive oil or grease.

     • Rust or pitting from corrosion.

     (2) Secure shafting against excessive endwise movement.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30034   Safeguard unused keyways.  

     You must:

     • Fill, cover, or otherwise safeguard all unused keyways.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30036   Make sure revolving collars meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure revolving collars are cylindrical.

     • Make sure screws or bolts used in the collar do not project beyond the outside of the collar.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-30038   Safeguard counterweights.  

     You must:

     • Provide safeguarding for all counterweights where employees are exposed to contact.

Reference: In the absence of a specific safeguarding method, follow the safeguarding requirements found in safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058. Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Guards.
• Devices.
• Safeguarding by distance.
• Safeguarding by location.

[]

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SOME MACHINES AND MACHINE OPERATIONS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-400   Summary.   If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow the "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with specific machines and their operations in your workplace.

     You must:

     Abrasive wheels and machines

     WAC 296-806-405.

     Calenders

     WAC 296-806-410.

     Compactors

     WAC 296-806-415.

     Conveyors

     WAC 296-806-420.

     Food processing equipment

     WAC 296-806-425.

     Forging machines

     WAC 296-806-430.

     Garbage (waste) disposals

     WAC 296-806-435.

     Glue spreaders

     WAC 296-806-440.

     Ironworkers

     WAC 296-806-445.

     Lathes

     WAC 296-806-450.

     Mechanical power presses

     WAC 296-806-455.

     Mills

     WAC 296-806-460.

     Press brakes

     WAC 296-806-465.

     Roll-forming and bending machines

     WAC 296-806-470.

     Sanding machines

     WAC 296-806-475.

     Saws and cutting heads

     WAC 296-806-480.

     Sewing machines

     WAC 296-806-485.

[]

ABRASIVE WHEELS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-405   Summary.  

     • In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards.

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     • You need to refer to Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC for requirements relating to hand-held abrasive wheel tools.

     This section applies to machines that are not hand held and that use an abrasive wheel.

     Definition:

     An abrasive wheel is a grinding tool consisting of bonded abrasive grains. This includes diamond and reinforced wheels.

     Your responsibility:

     To make sure abrasive wheel machines and wheels are safe to use.

     You must:

     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ABRASIVE WHEELS

     Make sure abrasive wheels and machines are properly designed and constructed

     WAC 296-806-40502.

     Make sure machines have safety guards

     WAC 296-806-40504.

     Make sure safety guards meet specific requirements

     WAC 296-806-40506.

     Provide a tongue guard on bench, pedestal, floorstand, and cylindrical grinders

     WAC 296-806-40508.

     Use a work rest for off-hand grinding

     WAC 296-806-40510.

     MOUNTING ABRASIVE WHEELS

     Make sure abrasive wheels are safe to use

     WAC 296-806-40512.

     Mount wheels properly

     WAC 296-806-40514.

     Use proper flanges

     WAC 296-806-40516.

     Make sure flanges are in good condition

     WAC 296-806-40518.

     Use specific flanges for Type 1 cutting-off wheels

     WAC 296-806-40520.

     Use specific flanges for Type 27A cutting-off wheels

     WAC 296-806-40522.

     Use blotters when required

     WAC 296-806-40524.

     Meet specific blotter requirements when using modified Types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo)

     WAC 296-806-40526.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40502   Make sure abrasive wheels and machines are properly designed and constructed.  

     You must:

     • Make sure abrasive wheels and machines, including safety guards and flanges, manufactured on or after January 1, 2005, meet the design and construction requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B7.1-2000, Safety Requirements for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels.

     • Make sure abrasive wheels and machines, including safety guards and flanges, manufactured before January 1, 2005, meet the design and construction requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B7.1-1970, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels.

Note: There may be a statement on the machine or in the instruction manual that the machine meets the appropriate ANSI standard. If in doubt, check with the manufacturer.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40504   Make sure machines have safety guards.        You must:

     • Use abrasive wheels only on machines that have safety guards.

     • Make sure the safety guard:

     – Is mounted so it maintains proper alignment with the wheel.

     – Is mounted with fasteners strong enough to keep the guard in position if a wheel breaks.

     – Covers the spindle end, nut, and flange projections.

Exemption: Safety guards are not required on machines that use:
• Wheels for internal grinding while advancing, retracting or within the work.
• Types 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19 cones and plugs and threaded hole pot balls where either:
– The work offers protection;
OR
– The size does not exceed three inches in diameter by five inches long.
• Notched, segmented, or continuous rim metal centered diamond lapidary wheels that are:
– Used with a coolant deflector;
AND
– Operated at 3,500 SFPM or less.
• Type 1 reinforced wheels that are:
– Three inches or less in diameter.
– One-fourth inch or less thick.
– Operating at peripheral speeds of 9,500 SFPM or less.
– Used by operators wearing safety glasses and face shields.
• Valve seating grinding wheels.
• Remotely operated machines in an enclosure that will retain the pieces of a broken wheel.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40506   Make sure safety guards meet specific requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the machine safety guards meet the requirements of Table 405-1, Guard Requirements.

     Definition:

     Maximum exposure angle is the largest part of a wheel that does not need to be covered by a safety guard.

Note: • The maximum exposure angle is measured by lines starting at the center of the spindle and extending to the ends of the guard at the wheel periphery.
• Visors and other accessory equipment are used in determining the size of the guard opening only if they are at least as strong as the safety guard.

Table 405-1
Guard Requirements

Machine Maximum exposure angle and other guard restrictions
Bench, pedestal, or floorstand grinders • Not higher than sixty-five degrees above the horizontal centerline of the wheel
• One-fourth (ninety degrees) of the wheel for grinding done at or above the horizontal centerline of the wheel
• One hundred twenty-five degrees if the work has to contact the wheel below the horizontal centerline of the wheel
Cylindrical grinders • One-half (one hundred eighty degrees) of the wheel
• Not higher than sixty-five degrees above the horizontal centerline of the wheel
Surface grinders • One hundred fifty degrees of the wheel
• Not higher than fifteen degrees below the horizontal
Cutting-off machines • One-half (one hundred eighty degrees) of the wheel
Swing frame grinders • One-half (one hundred eighty degrees) of the wheel
• Encloses the top one-half of the wheel
Swing frame grinders using cup wheels • One-half (one hundred eighty degrees) of the wheel
• Covers the wheel on the side towards the operator
Semiautomatic snagging machines • One-half (one hundred eighty degrees) of the wheel
• Covers the wheel on the side towards the operator
Machines used for top grinding •As small as possible up to one-sixth (sixty degrees) of the wheel

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40508   Provide a tongue guard on bench, pedestal, floorstand, and cylindrical grinders.  

     You must:

     • Make sure, if the operator stands in front of the opening in the safety guard, that the safety guard (tongue guard) at the top of the opening is adjusted to within one-fourth inch of the wheel.

     Definition:

     The tongue guard is an integral part of a safety guard that is located where the upper exposed part of the abrasive wheel meets the safety guard. It can be adjusted as necessary to maintain a set distance from the constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40510   Use a work rest for off-hand grinding.  
Exemption: You do not need to use a work rest if:
• The size, shape, weight or finishing area of the workpiece prevents its use;
OR
• Contact with the grinding wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle is necessary.
     You must:

     • Use a work rest to support the work.

     • Make sure the work rest is:

     – Rigidly constructed.

     – Adjustable to compensate for wheel wear.

     – Adjusted only when the wheel is stopped.

     – Securely clamped after each adjustment.

     – Kept within one-eighth inch of the wheel.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40512   Make sure abrasive wheels are safe to use.  

     You must:

     • Do the following before mounting a wheel:

     – Visually inspect the wheel for cracks or damage.

     – Perform a ring test for cracks if the size and shape of the wheel permits testing.

     – Make sure the spindle speed of the machine is not greater than the operating speed of the wheel.

     • Make sure a damaged or cracked wheel is not mounted or used.

Note: Wheels that have gouges, grooves, other damage, or material buildup on the grinding surface need to be dressed or trued to correct the problem. Wheels that cannot be trued are considered damaged and cannot be used.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40514   Mount wheels properly.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure wheels fit freely on the spindle, wheel sleeves, or adaptors, and remain free under all grinding conditions.

     (2) Make sure wheel, blotter and flange surfaces that contact each other are flat and free of foreign particles.

     (3) Make sure any reducing bushing used in the wheel hole:

     • Fits freely on the spindle and maintains proper clearance;

     AND

     • Does not exceed the width of the wheel or contact the flanges.

     (4) Make sure that multiple wheels mounted between a single set of flanges are either:

     • Cemented together;

     OR

     • Separated by spacers that have a diameter and bearing surface that is the same as the mounting flanges.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40516   Use proper flanges.  

     You must:

     • Mount all abrasive wheels between flanges that have a diameter at least one-third the diameter of the wheel.

Exemption: This flange requirement does not apply to the following wheels:
• Mounted wheels (wheels permanently bonded to a shaft or mandrel).
• Abrasive disc wheels (inserted nut, inserted washer and projecting stud type).
• Plate mounted wheels.
• Cylinder, cup, or segmental wheels mounted in chucks.
• Types 27, 28, and 29 wheels.
• Internal wheels less than two inches in diameter.
• Modified Type 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo).
• Types 1 and 27A cutting-off wheels.
     You must:

     • Make sure flanges are:

     – Dimensionally accurate.

     – Properly balanced.

     – Flat.

     – Free of rough surfaces or sharp edges.

     • Make sure the driving flange is:

     – Part of the spindle;

     OR

     – Securely fastened to the spindle.

     • Make sure, if a wheel is mounted between two flanges, that both flanges:

     – Are the same diameter;

     AND

     – Have equal bearing surfaces.

Exemption: The following wheels do not require same diameter, equal bearing surface flanges:
• Types 27, 28, and 29 wheels with adaptors.
• Modified Types 6 and 11 wheels with tapered K dimension.
• Internal wheels less than two inches in diameter.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40518   Make sure flanges are in good condition.        You must:

     • Make sure flange bearing surfaces are in good condition.

     • Replace or remachine a flange with a mounting surface that has any of the following problems:

     – Warped.

     – Burred on the bearing surface.

     – Excessively worn (thickness or diameter).

     – Out of true.

Reference: Flanges that are refaced or trued need to satisfy minimum dimension requirements specified in Safety Requirements for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, ANSI B7.1-2000.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40520   Use specific flanges for Type 1 cutting-off wheels.  

     You must:

     • Mount Type 1 cutting-off wheels between flanges that are:

     – Properly relieved with matching bearing surfaces.

     – At least one-fourth the wheel diameter.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40522   Use specific flanges for Type 27A cutting-off wheels.  

     You must:

     • Mount Type 27A cutting-off wheels between flanges that are:

     – Flat (unrelieved) with matching bearing surfaces;

     AND

     – At least one-fourth the wheel diameter.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40524   Use blotters when required.  

Exemption: You do not need to use a blotter with any of the following:
• Mounted wheels (wheels permanently bonded to a shaft or mandrel).
• Abrasive disc and Type 2 wheels which are mounted by inserted nuts, inserted washers, or projecting studs.
• Plate mounted wheels.
• Wheels mounted in chucks (such as cylinders and segmental wheels).
• Types 27, 28, and 29 wheels.
• Type 1 and Type 27A cutting-off wheels.
• Internal wheels less than two inches in diameter.
• Diamond and cubic boron nitride wheels with metal or carbon fiber cores.
     You must:

     • Use a blotter between each flange and the abrasive wheel surface to uniformly distribute flange pressure.

     • Make sure the blotter covers the entire flange contact area.

     • Use a new blotter each time a wheel is mounted unless the wheel has a blotter already attached to it by the manufacturer.

     • Make sure scuffed or damaged blotters are not used.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-40526   Meet specific blotter requirements when using modified Types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo).  

     You must:

     • Apply the blotter to the flat side only when mounting Modified Types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo).

[]

     Calenders
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-410   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies only to hazards associated with calenders in the rubber and plastics industry where two or more metal rolls are set vertically and revolving in opposite directions.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with calenders.

     You must:

     Provide calender safety controls

     WAC 296-806-41002.

     Follow these stopping limit requirements for calenders

     WAC 296-806-41004.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41002   Provide calender safety controls.  

Exemption: These rules do not apply to calenders if the machinery is permanently set up so employees:
• Cannot reach through, over, under, or around to come in contact with the roll bite;
OR
• Cannot be caught between a roll and nearby objects.
     You must:

     (1) Provide a safety trip control for the face of the calender that meets all of the following:

     • Provided in front and back of each calender.

     • Is accessible.

     • Operates readily upon contact.

     (2) Provide at least one of the following safety trip controls for the face of the calender:

     • Safety trip rods, tripwire cables or wire center cords that:

     – Are within reach of the operator and the bite (nip point).

     – Operate whether pushed or pulled.

     – Are located across each pair of in-running rolls extending the length of the face of the rolls.

     • Pressure sensitive body bars that:

     – Are approximately forty inches vertically above the working level.

     – Are horizontally at thirty-four inches from the in-running nip point.

     – Operate readily by pressure of the mill operator's body.

     (3) Include safety trip rods, cables or cords, in addition to the pressure sensitive body bars, if both of these apply:

     • In-running rolls are located below the bar;

     AND

     • The operator needs to duck under the bar.

     (4) Provide a safety cable or wire center cord on both sides of the calender that:

     • Operates readily when pushed or pulled.

     • Is connected to the safety trip.

Note: • The center cord should be all of the following:
– Twelve inches or less from the faces of the individual rolls.
– At least two inches from the calender frame.
– Anchored to the frame not more than six inches from the floor or operator's platform.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41004   Follow these stopping limit requirements for calenders.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that calenders are stopped within one and three-quarters percent of the fastest speed at which they operate when empty.

     – When calenders operate at more than two hundred fifty feet per minute, stopping distances above one and three-quarters percent of their fastest speed are allowed, but must have engineering support.

[]

COMPACTORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-415   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to all stationary compactors in your workplace.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with stationary compactors.

     You must:

     Safeguard hazardous moving parts of stationary compactors

     WAC 296-806-41502.

     Follow these requirements for compactor controls

     WAC 296-806-41504.

     Follow these requirements for compactor access doors and covers

     WAC 296-806-41506.

     Follow these requirements for compactors that cycle automatically

     WAC 296-806-41508.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41502   Safeguard hazardous moving parts of stationary compactors.  

     You must:

     • Prevent the compactor from operating while employees have any body parts in the compactor or hazard area.

     • Provide a safeguarding method that prevents employees from putting hands, fingers, or any body part into the compactor during operation.

Note: Examples of safeguarding methods include:
• Making sure the compactor will not compact material while the gate or door is open.
• Installing a guard, loading hopper, or enclosure at least forty-two inches high that prevents:
– Entry of hands, fingers, or any body part into the loading chamber during operation.
– An operator from being caught between moving parts of the equipment and material.
– The creation of any hazard between the guard and moving parts.
• You may also provide sustained manual pressure controls located so the operator cannot reach, but can still see, the point of operation if a guard is not used.
Reference: For additional requirements when adjusting or clearing jams from compactors, see Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), chapter 296-803 WAC.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41504   Follow these requirements for compactor controls.  

     You must:

     • Follow these requirements for compactor controls:

     – Each control must have its function clearly labeled.

     – Controls must be designed and located to prevent them from unintentionally activating.

     – Electric stop buttons, including emergency stop buttons, must be:


     &sqbul; Red in color, distinguishable from all other controls by size, and not recessed.

     – Emergency stop controls must be either:

     &sqbul; Readily accessible to the operator;

     OR

     &sqbul; Located within three feet (91.4 cm) of the point of operation or feed area or if chute fed, within three feet (91.4 cm) of the access door.

     – An electrical disconnect must be located within sight, no more than fifty feet (1,524 cm), from the operating control panel.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41506   Follow these requirements for compactor access doors and covers.  

     You must:

     • Make sure access covers meet at least one of the following:

     – Interlocked.

     – Secured by a lockable device.

     – Removable by hand tools only.

     • Make sure any loading chamber access door has an interlock system that prevents cycling motion when the door is open.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-41508   Follow these requirements for compactors that cycle automatically.  

     You must:

     • Use automatic cycling controls only on compactors where the loading chamber is located so that it cannot be accessed during operation.

[]

CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-420   Summary.   If your specific conveyor or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to hazards related to conveyors and conveying systems, including bulk material, package, or unit handling types. These requirements are designed to protect employees operating, maintaining, cleaning, and working around conveyors.

Exemption: This section does not apply to conveyor systems used primarily for moving people.
     Your responsibility:

     To make sure all conveyors in your workplace are constructed, operated, and maintained in a safe manner.

     You must:

     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONVEYORS

     Follow these requirements for conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42002.

     Provide emergency stops on conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42004.

     Label conveyor controls

     WAC 296-806-42006.

     Prohibit riding on conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42008.

     Provide safe access to conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42010.

     Provide backstop or antirunaway devices to incline, decline, or vertical conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42012.

     Make only safe alterations to conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42014.

     Inspect and replace worn conveyor parts

     WAC 296-806-42016.

     Follow these requirements for replacing conveyor parts

     WAC 296-806-42018.

     Follow these requirements for spill guards

     WAC 296-806-42020.

     Provide pedestrian overpasses for conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42022.

     Guard openings to hoppers and chutes

     WAC 296-806-42024.

     Install guideposts

     WAC 296-806-42026.

     BELT CONVEYORS

     Guard nip points on belt conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42028.

     Install emergency stop controllers on overland belt conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42030.

     Install belt conveyor overpasses

     WAC 296-806-42032.

     CHAIN CONVEYORS

     Safeguard chain conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42034.

     Guard return strands on chain conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42036.

     Guard chain conveyors that are used as a transfer mechanism

     WAC 296-806-42038.

     ELEVATOR CONVEYORS

     Prevent material from falling off of elevator conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42040.

     INCLINED RECIPROCATING CONVEYORS (SHAKERS)

     Provide protection where employees must load shakers

     WAC 296-806-42042.

     Provide grating over silo and bunker openings for shuttle conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42044.

     MOBILE CONVEYORS

     Guard wheels and rails on mobile conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42046.

     Prevent hazardous motion on mobile conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42048.

     Provide a detector for mobile conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42050.

     Provide safe access on mobile conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42052.

     PUSHER-BAR CONVEYORS

     Guard pusher-bar conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42054.

     ROLLER CONVEYORS

     Prohibit walking on roller-type conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42056.

     Use speed controls for roller and wheel conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42058.

     Safeguard belt-driven live roller conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42060.

     SCREW CONVEYORS

     Guard screw conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42062.

     SKIP HOISTS

     Provide slack-cable switches on hoists

     WAC 296-806-42064.

     Block the skip bucket and counterweight guides

     WAC 296-806-42066.

     Protect against wire rope coming off sheaves

     WAC 296-806-42068.

     SLAT AND ROLLER-SLAT CONVEYORS

     Safeguard slat and roller-slat conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42070.

     TOWED CONVEYORS

     Provide a safe method for disengaging the tow pin

     WAC 296-806-42072.

     Protect employees from moving carts on towed conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42074.

     Provide clearances and warnings for carts on towed conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42076.

     Mark projections above the floor

     WAC 296-806-42078.

    

[]

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42002   Follow these requirements for conveyors.        You must:

     • Construct, operate, and maintain all conveyors according to this chapter and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B20.1-1957.

     • Make sure all new conveyors constructed after January 1, 2005, meet the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B20.1-1996.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42004   Provide emergency stops on conveyors.        You must:

     • Make sure each conveyor has an emergency stopping device such as an emergency stop button, pull cord, or similar device.

     • Make sure each emergency stopping device meets all of the following requirements. They must:

     – Stop the conveyor a safe distance from the hazard.

     – Be easily identified.

     – Directly control that conveyor.

     – Require a manual reset.

     – NOT be overridden from another location.

     – NOT require other equipment to be stopped in order to stop the conveyor.

     • Make sure where there is the possibility of an employee falling onto a conveyor, that the emergency stopping device for conveyors feeding or dumping into a hazardous machine such as a barker, saw, hog, or chipper is at least one of the following:

     – Under the continuous control of an operator who cannot fall onto the conveyor and has full view of the material entrance;

     OR

     – Located where it can be reached from a sitting position on the conveyor where it feeds or dumps into the hazardous machine.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42006   Label conveyor controls.  

     You must:

     • Clearly label the function of each conveyor control.

Note: Controls and wiring that are no longer used should be removed from control stations.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42008   Prohibit riding on conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Prohibit employees from riding on conveyors.

Exemption: You do not need to prohibit riding on an assembly conveyor moving eighty feet or less per minute or a conveyor with a station specifically designed for operating personnel.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42010   Provide safe access to conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide a way to safely inspect and maintain conveyors located more than seven feet from the floor.

Reference: Some additional requirements for protecting employees inspecting and maintaining conveyors can be found in:
• Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), chapter 296-803 WAC.
• Personal fall arrest systems, WAC 296-24-88050.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42012   Provide backstop or antirunaway devices on incline, decline, or vertical conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all incline, decline, or vertical conveyors use backstop or antirunaway devices when there is a danger of conveyor reversal or runaway.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42014   Make only safe alterations to conveyors.        You must:

     • Make sure, when making conveyor alterations, that you do not affect safety characteristics such as emergency stop controls, guards, or the incline of the conveyor, if such changes would create a danger to workers.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42016   Inspect and replace worn conveyor parts.        You must:

     • Carefully inspect and replace any conveyor part that shows signs of significant wear before it becomes a hazard.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42018   Follow these requirements for replacing conveyor parts.  

     You must:

     • Make sure replacement conveyor parts are equal to or exceed the manufacturer's specifications.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42020   Follow these requirements for spill guards.  

     You must:

     • Install protective or spill guards wherever conveyors pass next to or over working areas or passageways.

     – These guards must be designed to catch and hold any materials that may become dislodged or fall off.

Reference: For specific requirements when conveyors pass over emergency exit routes, see Exit routes, WAC 296-800-310.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42022   Provide pedestrian overpasses for conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide a pedestrian overpass covering the full width of a passageway if one of these conditions exists:

     – The working strand of a conveyor crosses within three feet of floor level.

     – Workers must step over the strand and trough at or below floor level.

     • Provide a pedestrian overpass where workers cannot pass under the conveyor safely.

     – The sides of the crossing platform must have standard railings if one of the following exists:

     &sqbul; The overpass is more than four feet high.

     &sqbul; The conveyor feeds a dangerous machine such as saws, chippers, hogs, or galvanizing tanks.

Reference: For guardrail requirements see, Railing, toeboards, and cover specifications, WAC 296-24-75011.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42024   Guard openings to hoppers and chutes.  

     You must:

     • Guard all openings to hoppers, chutes, and elevator-type conveyors to prevent workers from:

     – Falling or stepping into them.

     – Making any kind of bodily contact with conveyors.

Note: Grating provided at floor level with no openings larger than two inches (50 mm) that is strong enough to withstand any load of personnel or trucks that may be imposed upon it is acceptable guarding.
     You must:

     • Do all of the following when dumping operations use chutes or hoppers that are flush with the floor and their use cannot be guarded:

     – Place a temporary guardrail around ground or floor-level hoppers when dumping operations are not in progress.

     – Post warning signs in a conspicuous location alerting personnel to the presence of an open pit in order to protect employees when dumping operations are in progress.

Reference: For guardrail requirements see, Railing, toeboards, and cover specifications, WAC 296-24-75011.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42026   Install guideposts.  

     You must:

     • Install guideposts to direct employees driving trucks, loaders, or other equipment to the pit, hopper, or chute.

[]

BELT CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42028   Guard nip points on belt conveyors.  

Exemption: This rule does not normally require guards along the conveyor at the point where the belt rides on return rollers, such as return-belt idlers, unless hazardous conditions such as long, tight heavy belts exist.


Return-belt idlers

Place illustration here.

These turn freely and just idle.

     You must:

     • Place nip point guards at all of these points:

     – Where the belt wraps around the pulley.

     – At terminals, take-ups, and snub rollers where the belt changes directions at transfers and deflectors.

     – At the discharge end.

     – At other points where workers may be injured by nip or shear points.

Note: The practice of applying a belt dressing or other foreign material to a rotating drive pulley or a conveyor belt is hazardous and should be avoided.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42030   Install emergency stop controllers on overland belt conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Install permanent emergency pull cords or similar emergency stop controllers at points where workers are normally stationed along overland belt conveyors.

Note: Personnel that patrol overland belt conveyors may use portable emergency stop controllers instead of permanently installed pull cords and push-button stations.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42032   Install belt conveyor overpasses.  

     You must:

     • Install a pedestrian overpass or underpass along the sides of long overland belt conveyors, where there is the most foot traffic.

     – The distance between overpasses should not exceed three hundred meters or one thousand feet.

[]

CHAIN CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42034   Safeguard chain conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide safeguards for drive, tail, and idler sprocket pulleys where the chain creates a nip or shear point.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42036   Guard return strands on chain conveyors.        You must:

     • Provide a way to catch and support the ends of a chain that break over a passageway.

     • Provide a strong enough trough to carry the weight from a broken chain on conveyors when return strands operate within seven feet of the floor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42038   Guard chain conveyors that are used as a transfer mechanism.  

     You must:

     • Guard chain conveyors whose moving chains cannot be enclosed without impairing their function by one of the following methods:

     – Distance as required in, Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements, WAC 296-806-20056.

     – Personnel barriers.

     – Warning signs where personnel barriers are not practical.

Note: Chain conveyors with moving chains that cannot be enclosed include those:
• Mounted within another conveyor.
• Raised and lowered as a transfer mechanism.

[]

ELEVATOR CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42040   Prevent material from falling off of elevator conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Install strong guards, screens, or barricades to prevent material from falling in any direction into the shaft way of elevator-type conveyors, except at loading and unloading areas.

     • Install automatic shaft way gates or suitable barriers at each floor level where material is loaded or unloaded.

[]

INCLINED RECIPROCATING CONVEYORS (SHAKERS)
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42042   Provide protection where employees must load shakers.  

     You must:

     • Provide standard guardrails or snap chains along loading sides of the shaker where personnel must load or unload material.

     – Snap chains must be at least thirty-nine inches high at their lowest point.

     • Make sure controls are located so the conveyor cannot be started by an employee on the moving part of the conveyor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42044   Provide grating over silo and bunker openings for shuttle conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide grating with openings to match the size of the material being discharged into silos or bunkers. Make sure openings are:

     – Small enough so that workers cannot fall through.

     – Protected by other effective means if the material size requires openings large enough for a worker to fall through.

[]

MOBILE CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42046   Guard wheels and rails on mobile conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Install sweeps in front of the nip points created by the wheels and rails to deflect objects that could derail the conveyor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42048   Prevent hazardous motion on mobile conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Make sure mobile conveyors have at least one of the following to prevent hazardous motion:

     – Brakes.

     – Rail clamps.

     – Other position-locking devices.

     • Provide limit switches that will stop travel when exceeding the design limits of rail-mounted mobile conveyors.

     • Provide rail stops to keep the conveyor from traveling past its designed end location.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42050   Provide a detector for mobile conveyors.        You must:

     • Provide a detector to stop conveyor movement when the operation creates a danger of running into a stockpile or other obstacle.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42052   Provide safe access on mobile conveyors.        You must:

     • Make sure that access stairways, ladders, and platforms are designed and located to avoid the shear or nip point hazards of the conveyor and moving machinery.

[]

PUSHER-BAR CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42054   Guard pusher-bar conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide a guard when hazards exist at each of these points:

     – At the discharge point where the bar passes through the bed.

     – Where there is a shear point between the return pusher bar and a frame member.

[]

ROLLER CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42056   Prohibit walking on roller-type conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Prohibit employees from walking on the rolls of roller-type conveyors.

     – Tread plates or other types of walkways can be used between the rollers as a walking surface for operators when performing their duties.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42058   Use speed controls for roller and wheel conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Avoid safety hazards created by unit or package speeds by one of the following methods:

     – Limiting the length of the sloped run.

     – Using speed retarders or brakes.

     – Other means of providing speed control.

     • Make sure rollers and wheels are free running to prevent locked wheels from steering or pulling materials to one side or off the conveyor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42060   Safeguard belt-driven live roller conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Guard belt and roller nip points by one of the following methods:

     – Space load-carrying rollers to prevent access to the belt and roller nip points.

     – Insert rods or plates between the rollers to prevent access to the belt and roller nip points.

     – Use rollers that pop out when something contacts the nip point.

     – Distance safeguarding found in:

     &sqbul; Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements, WAC 296-806-20056.

Reference: For nip points and sheer hazards on power-driven (live) roller conveyors see, Guard nip points on belt conveyors, WAC 296-806-42028.

[]

SCREW CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42062   Guard screw conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Enclose the rotating screw to prevent contact with the shear points where it passes the sides of the trough or casing.

     • Guard screw conveyors requiring an open housing by using one of the following:

     – Make sure safeguarding by distance meets these requirements, WAC 296-806-20056.

     – Make sure guardrails used for safeguarding meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20058.

     • Construct feed openings for shovel, front-end loader, or other manual or mechanical equipment so that the conveyor screw is covered by a grating.

     – If the nature of the material is such that a grating cannot be used, then the exposed section of the conveyor must be guarded by a railing and warning signs.

[]

SKIP HOISTS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42064   Provide slack-cable switches on hoists.        You must:

     • Provide and arrange slack cable switches to cut power to the drive and set the brake when the skip or counterweight hoisting ropes either:

     – Develop slack;

     OR

     – Lose tension due to sticking in the guides, over travel, or for any other reason.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42066   Block the skip bucket and counterweight guides.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the skip bucket and counterweight are blocked in their guides when the brake or any part of the drive train between the brake and the drum shaft are being repaired or replaced.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42068   Protect against wire rope coming off sheaves.  

     You must:

     • Fit all sheaves with sheave guards to prevent the wire rope from coming off under slack cable or similar conditions.

[]

SLAT AND ROLLER-SLAT CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42070   Safeguard slat and roller-slat conveyors.        You must:

     • Provide either of these safeguards at the tail end of a slat conveyor if the slats are above the centerline of the chain:

     – A guard over the hazardous tail end;

     OR

     – Warning signs if guards are impractical because of material flowing over the tail sprocket.

     • Provide either of these safeguards when there is a gap between the slats wide enough to permit access to cross members below the slats:

     – A continuous pan under the slats;

     OR

     – Keep all cross members a safe distance from the slats.

[]

TOWED CONVEYORS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42072   Provide a safe method for disengaging the tow pin.  

     You must:

     • Provide a method for the operator to disengage the tow pin from a conveyor pusher without being in front of the cart.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42074   Protect employees from moving carts on towed conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Make sure runaway carts are unable to exit ramps and enter work areas.

     • Have a barrier of sufficient strength and height on ramps with pedestrian or traffic aisles to prevent a runaway cart from entering the aisle.

     • Have signs warning employees not to enter ramps that do not have pedestrian or traffic aisles.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42076   Provide clearances and warnings for carts on towed conveyors.  

     You must:

     • Provide clearance space for personnel in all of the following:

     – Between the sides of carts.

     – Between any load overhanging the side of a cart.

     – Any fixed or moving object.

     • Identify the cart path with floor stripes that are:

     – Parallel to the cart path.

     – Arranged so one line is on each side of the path.

     – Located a safe distance from the edge of the cart or overhanging load.

     • Mark reduced clearance areas with appropriate warning signs.

Note: An example of a reduced clearance area is an area where a cart goes through a wall opening.
     You must:

     • Place an appropriate warning on those areas where a cart may unexpectedly change direction, such as switching off the main line into a transfer conveyor or a spur.

Note: An example of an appropriate warning would be to use diagonal stripes on the floor between clearance lines.
     You must:

     • Install a sign, signal, or other warning where carts start automatically.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42078   Mark projections above the floor.  

     You must:

     • Mark the area around projections above the floor with appropriate diagonal stripes, warning signs, or both.

Note: This is especially important if projections above the floor are unpredictable or occur intermittently.

[]

FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-425   Summary.   If your specific food processing machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any facilities requirements in this section along with the "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to:

     • All businesses that manufacture or process food, whether or not they are contained inside food stores;

     AND

     • The design, installation, operations, and maintenance of machinery and equipment used in the food processing industry.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with food processing facilities and machines.

     You must:

     FACILITIES

     Provide locks on chamber doors of large air conditioning units

     WAC 296-806-42502.

     Use proper door locks on rack-type bread coolers

     WAC 296-806-42504.

     Provide see-through panels on fermentation room doors

     WAC 296-806-42506.

     Cover exposed hot pipes

     WAC 296-806-42508.

     Provide extension piping on stationary lubrication fittings

     WAC 296-806-42510.

     Provide hoods for pan-washing tanks

     WAC 296-806-42512.

     Safeguard proof boxes

     WAC 296-806-42514.

     Safeguard storage bins

     WAC 296-806-42516.

     MATERIAL HANDLING

     Follow these design requirements for bag lifts (bag arm elevators) and chutes

     WAC 296-806-42518.

     Follow these requirements for chain tackle

     WAC 296-806-42520.

     Safeguard conveyors

     WAC 296-806-42522.

     Use properly designed covers for screw conveyors (augers)

     WAC 296-806-42524.

     Safeguard pallet jacks and hand trucks

     WAC 296-806-42526.

     SPECIFIC FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

     Safeguard bakery slicers

     WAC 296-806-42528.

     Safeguard bakery wrapping machines

     WAC 296-806-42530.

     Provide troughs with antifriction-bearing casters

     WAC 296-806-42532.

     Follow these requirements for trough hoists and similar equipment

     WAC 296-806-42534.

     Follow these requirements for dividers

     WAC 296-806-42536.

     Safeguard manually-fed dough and cross-roll brakes

     WAC 296-806-42538.

     Provide a guard or tripping device on reversible dough brakes

     WAC 296-806-42540.

     Follow these requirements for doughnut machines

     WAC 296-806-42542.

     Follow these requirements for dumpbins and blenders

     WAC 296-806-42544.

     Follow these requirements for flour-handling machines

     WAC 296-806-42546.

     Follow these requirements for traveling or track-type flour scales

     WAC 296-806-42548.

     Follow these requirements for food grinders and cutters

     WAC 296-806-42550.

     Provide covers with interlocks on ingredient premixers, emulsifiers, and similar machines

     WAC 296-806-42552.

     Follow these requirements for open fat kettles

     WAC 296-806-42554.

     Follow these requirements for steam kettles

     WAC 296-806-42556.

     Follow these requirements for chocolate melting, refining, and mixing kettles

     WAC 296-806-42558.

     Safeguard meat-processing equipment (circular meat-cutting saws)

     WAC 296-806-42560.

     Follow these requirements for horizontal dough mixers

     WAC 296-806-42562.

     Follow these requirements for vertical mixers

     WAC 296-806-42564.

     Follow these requirements for mechanical-feed moulders

     WAC 296-806-42566.

     Follow these requirements for hand-fed moulders

     WAC 296-806-42568.

     Design, install, and construct your ovens according to these requirements

     WAC 296-806-42570.

     Properly locate emergency "stop" buttons and main shut off valves for ovens

     WAC 296-806-42572.

     Inspect and test safety devices on ovens

     WAC 296-806-42574.

     Follow these requirements for peanut-cooling trucks

     WAC 296-806-42576.

     Follow these requirements for pretzel-rolling, pretzel-stick extruding, rotary, and die machines

     WAC 296-806-42578.

     Safeguard box and roll-type dough sheeters

     WAC 296-806-42580.

     Provide proper enclosures for sifters

     WAC 296-806-42582.

     Follow these requirements for sugar and spice pulverizers

     WAC 296-806-42584.

[]

FACILITIES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42502   Provide locks on chamber doors of large air conditioning units.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all door locks on air conditioning unit chambers, that are large enough for employees to enter, can be operated from both inside and outside the chamber.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42504   Use proper door locks on rack-type bread coolers.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all door locks can be operated from both inside and outside the bread cooler.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42506   Provide see-through panels on fermentation room doors.  

     You must:

     • Provide shatterproof, see-through panels, made of wire glass or plastic, on fermentation room doors.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42508   Cover exposed hot pipes.  

     You must:

     • Cover exposed hot (160°F or more) water and steam pipes with insulating material wherever necessary to prevent employee contact.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42510   Provide extension piping on stationary lubrication fittings.  

     You must:

     • Provide extension piping on stationary lubrication fittings to prevent workers from reaching into the hazardous area when lubricating moving machinery.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42512   Provide hoods for pan-washing tanks.  

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to dishwashers or sanitizers used in restaurants or retail establishments.
     You must:

     • Provide power-ventilated exhaust hoods over the tank.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42514   Safeguard proof boxes.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure all door locks can be operated from both inside and outside the proof box.

     (2) Provide guide rails to center the racks as they enter, pass through, and leave the proof box if pans, boards, or trays may be easily dislodged.

Note: Guide rails are not required in proof boxes unless there are two doors with a pass through or pull through design.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42516   Safeguard storage bins.  

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to under-the-counter ingredient bins found in retail stores.
     You must:

     (1) Provide locks or latches to keep storage bin covers closed, and gaskets or other equivalent devices, to make sure covers are dust tight.

     (2) Make sure employees lock covers in the open position when entering bins.

     • Covers for bins that employees may enter must have a metal fastener (hasp) and lock that can be locked in the "open" position.

     (3) Provide a standard stationary safety ladder on the inside and outside of storage bins with sides more than five feet deep.

     • The ends of ladders must be kept away from moving screw conveyors.

     • Outside ladders must reach from floor level to the top of the bin.

     • Inside ladders must reach from the top of the bin to the bottom of the bin.

     (4) Provide an electric interlock on the main entrance cover of large storage bins near the interior exit ladder.

     • The interlock needs to prevent feed and unloading screw motors from operating while the cover is open.

Reference: You may need to follow other requirements found in Confined spaces, chapter 296-811 WAC.

[]

MATERIAL HANDLING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42518   Follow these design requirements for bag lifts (bag arm elevators) and chutes.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure bag arm elevators with manual takeoff are designed to include:

     • Maximum operating capacity of seven bags per minute.     • Spacing of arms on the conveyor chain to obtain the full capacity of the elevator with the lowest possible chain speed.     • An electric limit switch at the unloading end that automatically stops the conveyor chain if any bag does not clear the conveyor arms.

     (2) Make sure bag chutes (gravity chutes for handling flour bags) that incline more than thirty degrees from horizontal:

     • Are designed to keep the speed of flour bags as low as possible.

     • Provide an upturn at the lower end of the chute to slow down the bags.

     (3) Prohibit the use of bag or barrel lifts as personnel lifts.

     (4) Prohibit manlifts in bakeries.

     Definition:

     Manlift

     A device consisting of a power driven endless belt moving in one direction only, and provided with steps or platforms and handholds attached to it for the transportation of personnel from floor to floor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42520   Follow these requirements for chain tackle.  

     You must:

     (1) Mark all chain tackle with the maximum load capacity so the marking is:

     • Prominently displayed.

     • Legible.

     • Permanent.

     (2) Mark all chain tackle with minimum support specifications so the marking is legible and permanent.

     (3) Use safety hooks with chain tackle.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42522   Safeguard conveyors.  

     You must:

     (1) Install stop bumpers on all delivery ends of conveyors when products are manually removed.

     (2) Make sure all conveyors have "stop" buttons at all operating stations.

     (3) Provide emergency stop bars or switches at any point where both of these exist:

     • The conveyor feeds into a machine;

     AND

     • Pinch points or catching hazards exist.

Reference: Additional requirements for conveyors are found in WAC 296-806-420.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42524   Use properly designed covers for screw conveyors (augers).  

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to screw conveyors where there are drop or hinged bottom sections that cannot remain airtight.
     You must:

     • Design covers for screw conveyors that are:

     – Removable in convenient sections.

     – Held in place with stationary clamps.

     &sqbul; Locate stationary clamps at intervals that will keep all covers dust tight.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42526   Safeguard pallet jacks and hand trucks.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure motorized and nonmotorized pallet jacks have a lock or other device that holds the handle in the vertical position when the hand truck is not in use.

     (2) Make sure hand truck casters are set back from corners:

     • Locate them back from corners so they do not present a hazard to employee's toes and heels, but not close enough to cause the hand truck to become unstable.

Reference: Motorized hand trucks (pallet jacks) are classified as powered industrial trucks. Additional requirements for powered industrial trucks are found in chapter 296-863 WAC.

[]

SPECIFIC FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42528   Safeguard bakery slicers.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide all slicers with a mechanical device to push the last loaf through the slicer knives.

     (2) Equip all slicers with an interlock to deenergize the motor whenever a door, panel, or other point of access to the cutting blades is open.

     (3) Protect employees sharpening blades by installing a barrier guard that provides an opening large enough for the sharpening stone to reach and sharpen slicer blades.

     (4) Provide automatic braking to stop slicers with endless band knives when the motor is not energized.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42530   Safeguard bakery wrapping machines.  

     You must:

     (1) Extend or locate mechanical control levers that start and stop slicing machine conveyors and wrapping machines so an operator can control both machines from either location.

Note: • The levers should be provided wherever necessary, but arranged so only one station can start the wrapping machine and conveyor assembly.
– Set up or guard controls to prevent accidental starting.
• The electronic control station for starting and stopping the electric motor that drives the wrapping machine and conveyor should be near the clutch-starting lever.
     You must:

     (2) Provide a protective cover plate over electric heaters on bakery wrapping machines.

     • The cover plate must be properly separated or insulated from heaters so the plate itself is not a burn hazard to operators.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42532   Provide troughs with antifriction-bearing casters.  

     You must:

     • Provide antifriction-bearing casters on troughs so operators can move and direct them with minimal effort.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42534   Follow these requirements for trough hoists and similar equipment.  

     You must:

     (1) Mark all hoists and similar equipment with the maximum loading capacity so the marking is:

     • Prominently displayed.

     • Legible.

     • Permanent.

     (2) Mark all hoists with minimum support specifications so that the marking is legible and permanent.

     (3) Provide safety catches for the chain so that it will hold the load in any position.

     (4) Use safety hooks with hoists.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42536   Follow these requirements for dividers.  

     You must:

     • Enclose or safeguard the moving parts in the back of the divider with all of the following:

     – A complete cover to enclose all moving parts OR an enclosure or guard for each individual part to remove separate hazards.

     – A limit switch to shut off the machine when the rear cover is open.

     – A hinged guard on the back that cannot be completely removed.

     &sqbul; If a catch or brace is provided for holding the cover open, make sure it will not release due to vibrations or minor bumping, causing the cover to drop on an employee.

Note: Dividers as discussed in this section utilize pistons, knives and blades to cut and divide large quantities of dough. This does not apply to small vibrating or oscillating rounders.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42538   Safeguard manually-fed dough and cross-roll brakes.  

     You must:

     (1) Guard the top roll with a heavy-gage metal shield that extends over the roll to within six inches of the hopper bottom board.

Note: The shield may be perforated to allow observation of the dough entering the rolls.
     You must:

     (2) Provide an emergency "stop" bar that includes a self-engaging brake.

     • Locate it so that if the operator falls forward or gets their hands caught in the rolls, their body will press against the bar, causing the rolls to stop instantly by opening the circuit to:

     – Deenergize the drive motor.

     – Activate a spring-set magnetic brake.

     • Activate the emergency "stop" bar before each shift to make sure it is functioning properly.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42540   Provide a guard or tripping device on reversible dough brakes.  

     You must:

     • Provide a guard or tripping device on each side of the rolls of reversible dough brakes.

     – The guard or device must be designed so that it stops the machine or reverses the direction of the rolls, if moved by the operator.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42542   Follow these requirements for doughnut machines.  

     You must:

     • Provide separate flues for venting both of the following:

     – Vapors from the frying section;

     AND

     – Products of combustion from the combustion chamber used to heat the fat.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42544   Follow these requirements for dumpbins and blenders.  

     Definition:

     Dumpbin and blender

     The part of the flour handling system where the containers of flour are emptied.

     You must:

     (1) Make sure dumpbin and blender hoods are large enough to prevent circulation of flour dust outside the hoods.

     (2) Provide a stop control device for dumpbins and blenders located close to the operator's work station.

     (3) Position dumpbins at an appropriate height from the floor so that operators can dump flour from bags without excessive strain or fatigue.

     (4) Provide a bag rest stop, when the edge of a dumpbin is more than twenty-four inches above the floor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42546   Follow these requirements for flour-handling machines.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the following safeguards are used when flour-handling systems are run in electrical unity with one another:

     – When the beginning of the system is located far from its final delivery end, make sure:

     &sqbul; All electric motors operating the system have one control at each end;

     AND

     &sqbul; Either control will stop all motors.

     – Arrange control circuits for magnetic controllers so opening any limit switch on an individual unit will deenergize all motors on that unit.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42548   Follow these requirements for traveling or track-type flour scales.  

     You must:

     • Provide bar handles for the moving of traveling or track-type flour scales.

Note: For easier grip, the bar should be at least one inch in diameter.
     You must:

     • Guard trolley track wheels.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42550   Follow these requirements for food grinders and cutters.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that food grinders and cutters:

     – Have an interlock so machines with removeable hoppers cannot be operated when the hopper is removed:

     – Limit access to hoppers where grid guards cannot be used by providing feed conveyors or baffle-type hoppers. Hoppers must be both:

     &sqbul; Enclosed and provided with hinged covers;

     AND

     &sqbul; Equipped with an electric interlock so the machine will not operate with the cover open.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42552   Provide covers with interlocks on ingredient premixers, emulsifiers, and similar machines.  

     You must:

     • Provide covers that attach to machines that have top openings.

Note: The covers should be arranged and interlocked so that power to the machine is shut off when the cover is opened far enough for the operator's fingers to come in contact with the beaters.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42554   Follow these requirements for open fat kettles.  

     You must:

     (1) Keep the floor around kettles in nonslip condition.

     (2) Make sure the top of the kettle is at least thirty-six inches above the floor or working level.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42556   Follow these requirements for steam kettles.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide positive locking devices to hold kettles in the desired position.

     (2) Provide safety devices for steam kettles according to:

     • The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, division I, Unfired Pressure Vessels, 2001, Kettles with Steam Jackets.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42558   Follow these requirements for chocolate melting, refining, and mixing kettles.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide a cover to enclose the top of the kettle.

     (2) Make sure the bottom outlet of each kettle is designed so the operator cannot:

     • Reach in to touch the revolving paddle.

     • Come in contact with the shear point between the paddle and the side of the kettle.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42560   Safeguard meat-processing equipment (circular meat-cutting saws).  

Exemption: These requirements do not apply to table-top slicers such as those used in delis and restaurants.
Reference: When bandsaws are used to cut meat, follow the requirements in, Make sure bandsaws meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-48042.
     You must:

     (1) Make sure all circular meat-cutting saws have both:

     • Constant pressure controls;

     AND

     • A brake that automatically begins to stop the blade when the switch is released.

     (2) Make sure each circular meat-cutting saw has a protective guard between the operator and the blade.

     (3) Provide suspended, counterbalanced circular meat-cutting saws with guards that cover at least one of the following:

     • Twenty-five degrees of the blade if the saw has two-hand controls;

     OR

     • Ninety degrees of the blade if the saw can be operated with one hand.

     (4) Provide saws that are not suspended with a guard that covers ninety degrees of the blade.

Note: The size of the guard depends on whether it is suspended or has one- or two-handed controls.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42562   Follow these requirements for horizontal dough mixers.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure mixers are equipped with both of the following:

     • An individual motor and control;

     AND

     • A conveniently located manual switch that prevents the mixer from being started during servicing or cleaning.

     (2) Locate electrical control stations so control operators have a full view of bowls in the "open" position.

     • These controls, other than a "stop" switch, must not be duplicated.

     (3) Provide mixers with a full enclosure over the bowl that remains closed whenever the agitator is in motion.

     • Minor openings in the enclosure during operation, such as ingredient doors and flour inlets, must each be less than one and one-half square feet in area.

Exemption: The full enclosure does not have to remain closed if the mixer has a dumping arrangement that provides safety devices where operators must use both hands in either of these situations:
• When the agitator is in motion under power and the bowl is open more than one-fifth of its total opening;
OR
• When starting the agitator, if the bowl is open more than one-fifth of its total opening.
     You must:

     (4) Make sure overhead covers or doors that can accidentally close are either:

     • Counterbalanced to remain in the "open" position;

     OR

     • Provided with a catch, brace, or other positive means to hold them open until the operator releases them.

     (5) Locate valves and controls that regulate the coolant in mixer jackets so they can be accessed without creating hazards to the operator.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42564   Follow these requirements for vertical mixers.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide a safeguarding device to protect employees from the point of operation, if the nature of the work exposes them to contact with:

     • The pinch point where the mixing tool meets the bowl.

     • The catching hazard of the mixing tool.

Note: • When evaluating exposure, the following conditions need to be considered:
– How the mixer functions such as visibility of the agitator or ability to accidentally switch the mixer on.
– How the worker performs operations such as adding ingredients without scraping the bowl or reaching into the bowl when the mixer is in motion.
– How close the worker gets to the hazard during operation.
– The worker's tools, clothing, jewelry, or hair that might get caught or fall into mixer.
– Type of guarding, if any.
– Slipping or tripping hazards in the area.
     You must:

     (2) Make sure mixers are equipped with both of the following:

     • An individual motor and control;

     AND

     • A conveniently located manual switch that prevents the mixer from being started during servicing or cleaning.

     (3) Make sure overhead panels or doors on mixers that can accidentally close are either:

     • Counterbalanced to remain in an open position;

     OR

     • Provided with catches, braces, or other positive means to hold them open until the operator releases them.

     (4) Make sure bowl-locking devices are the type that must be intentionally unlocked by the operator.

     (5) Provide devices for moving filled bowls that weigh more than eighty pounds in and out of the mixing position on the machine.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42566   Follow these requirements for mechanical-feed moulders.  

     You must:

     • Make sure hoppers for mechanical-feed moulders are designed and connected to the proofer so employee's hands cannot contact the in-running rolls.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42568   Follow these requirements for hand-fed moulders.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide hand-fed moulders with either of the following, so employee's hands cannot enter the hopper and contact in-running rolls:

     • A hopper that can be extended high enough to protect the employee;

     – The top edge of the hopper needs to be well rounded to prevent injury when struck or bumped by an employee's hand;

     OR

     • A belt feed device.

     (2) Provide each of these workers with a stopping device that can be easily reached:

     • The operator feeding the moulder.

     • The employee taking the dough away from the moulder.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42570   Design, install, and construct your ovens according to these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all ovens manufactured or installed before August 13, 1999 meet or exceed ANSI Z50.1-1947 design, manufacturing, and installation requirements.

     • Make sure all ovens manufactured or installed on or after August 13, 1999 meet the design, manufacturing, and installation requirements in ANSI/NFPA 86-1999.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42572   Properly locate emergency "stop" buttons and main shut off valves for ovens.  

     You must:

     (1) Locate emergency stop buttons on mechanical ovens close to where operators are stationed.

     (2) Locate main shutoff valves where they can be accessed in case of an emergency.

     • Main shutoff valves that permit turning off the fuel or steam in case of an emergency must operate independently of any automatic valves.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42574   Inspect and test safety devices on ovens.  

     You must:

     (1) Inspect ovens at least twice a month by a formally appointed, properly trained, bakery employee.

     • Include the following in your inspection:

     – All safety devices.

     – Testing of all safety shutoff valves, making sure they are positively tight.

     (2) Make sure a representative of the oven manufacturer performs an annual inspection.

     (3) Test all piping on ovens to make sure they are gas tight.

     (4) Test oven systems as follows:

     • Test duct systems on indirect recirculating ovens that operate under pressure for tightness at the following intervals:

     – When the oven is first started.

     – At least every six months after that.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42576   Follow these requirements for peanut-cooling trucks.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the entire top of the peanut-cooling truck has a grid-type cover.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42578   Follow these requirements for pretzel-rolling, pretzel stick extruding, rotary, and die machines.  

     You must:

     • Protect the operator's hands from getting caught in moving parts by doing at least one of the following:

     – Cover the entire opening of dough hoppers with grid-type guards.

     – Extend the hopper higher.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42580   Safeguard box and roll-type dough sheeters.  

     You must:

     (1) Guard exposed rolls with either of these methods:

     • Guard the nip point of exposed sheeting rolls at the point where the dough enters the rolls;

     OR

     • Provide an emergency "stop" bar that extends the length of unguarded rolls that will stop the rolls on contact with the operator, if a barrier guard interferes with machine operation.

     (2) Provide a stopping device for hoppers.

     • Provide an automatic "stop" bar or stopping device along the back edge of the hopper.

     – If machine construction does not allow for this, place the bar or device where it will be most effective.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42582   Provide proper enclosures for sifters.  

     You must:

     • Make sure enclosures on flour sifters:

     – Are dust tight.

     – Allow for ease of interior inspection.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-42584   Follow these requirements for sugar and spice pulverizers.  

     You must:

     (1) Remove static electricity by grounding all drive belts used in sugar and spice pulverizers by using metal combs.

     (2) Follow the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 61-1999, standard for pulverizing sugar and spice grinding in order to prevent fires and dust explosions in agricultural and food products facilities.

     (3) Provide magnetic separators to reduce fire and explosion hazards.

[]

FORGING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-430   Summary.   If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     The requirements in this section apply to machines used in the forming of hot metal, such as hot trimming presses, forging hammers, hot forging presses, upsetters, hot bending and hot metal presses, and equipment used in boltheading and rivet making, as well as other forging equipment. For specific forging machine requirements, see Table 430-1.

Exemption: This section does not apply to cold forging operations.
     Your responsibility:

     To make sure all forging and associated equipment in your workplace are constructed, operated, and maintained in a safe manner.

     You must:

     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FORGING MACHINES

     Follow these safety requirements when using lead and lead casts

     WAC 296-806-43002.

     Properly inspect and maintain forging equipment

     WAC 296-806-43004.

     Use safety blocks on hammers and presses

     WAC 296-806-43006.

     Make sure tongs meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-43008.

     Protect employees when removing scale

     WAC 296-806-43010.

     Provide adequate foundations for hammers and presses

     WAC 296-806-43012.

     Follow these requirements for manually operated valves and switches

     WAC 296-806-43014.

     HAMMERS

     Use die keys and shims made of proper-grade material

     WAC 296-806-43016.

     Provide a safety cylinder head

     WAC 296-806-43018.

     Provide a shutoff valve

     WAC 296-806-43020.

     Provide a means for cylinder draining

     WAC 296-806-43022.

     Follow these requirements for pressure pipes

     WAC 296-806-43024.

     Follow these requirements when using board hammers

     WAC 296-806-43026.

     OTHER FORGE FACILITY EQUIPMENT

     Protect against sparks from saws

     WAC 296-806-43028.


Table 430-1
Specific Requirements for Forging Machines

Steam hammers Airlift hammers Board hammers Saws
WACs needed in addition to those included under "General Requirements for Forging Machines"
WAC 296-806-43016 Use die keys and shims made of proper-grade material X X
WAC 296-806-43018 Provide a safety cylinder head X X
WAC 296-806-43020 Provide a shutoff valve X X
WAC 296-806-43022 Provide a means for cylinder draining X X
WAC 296-806-43024 Follow these requirements for pressure pipes X X
WAC 296-806-43026 Follow these requirements when using board hammers X
WAC 296-806-43028 Protect against sparks from saws X

[]

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FORGING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43002   Follow these safety requirements when using lead and lead casts.  

     You must:

     (1) Provide thermostats for heating elements to prevent overheating.

     (2) Provide a means of exhaust for fixed or permanent lead pot installations.

     (3) Provide a covered container to store dross skimmings.

     (4) Keep equipment clean, especially from accumulations of yellow lead oxide.

Reference: • For requirements about, Personal protective equipment (PPE), see the Safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-160.
• For ventilation requirements when using portable lead pot units, see the General occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43004   Properly inspect and maintain forging equipment.  

     You must:

     • Keep all forge shop equipment in safe operating condition.

     • Train personnel in proper inspection and maintenance procedures.

     • Establish periodic and regular safety inspections.

     • Schedule frequent and regular safety inspections of all guards and point-of-operation protection devices.

     • Keep written records of safety inspections that include all of the following:

     – Date of the inspection.

     – Signature of the person doing the inspection.

     – Serial number or other identification for the piece of equipment inspected.

     • Safeguard all overhead machinery parts so they do not fly off or fall, if the equipment breaks.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43006   Use safety blocks on hammers and presses.  

     You must:

     • Use safety blocks on hammers and presses when dies are being changed and maintenance or repair work is being done on the machine.

     • Provide safety blocks or wedges that meet or exceed the specifications and dimensions shown in Table 430-2.


Table 430-2
     Strength and Dimensions for Wood Safety Blocks or Wedges

Size of timber inches using actual dimensions 4x4 6x6 8x8 10x10 12x12
Square inches in cross section 16 36 64 100 144
Minimum allowable crushing strength parallel to grain, p.s.i. 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Note: Adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 479. Hardwoods recommended are those whose ultimate crushing strengths in compression parallel to grain are 5,000 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) or greater.
Maximum static load within short column range 80,000 180,000 320,000 500,000 720,000 Note: Slenderness ratio formula for short columns is L/d = 11, where L = length of timber in inches and d = least dimension in inches; this ratio should not exceed 11.
Safety factor 10 10 10 10 10
Maximum recommended weight of forging hammer for timber used 8,000 18,000 32,000 50,000 72,000
Maximum allowable length of timber in inches 44 66 88 100 132

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43008   Make sure tongs meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure tongs used with hammers, presses, upsetters, and forging equipment used in boltheading and rivet making, meet the following requirements:

     – They are long enough so the worker can use the tongs without standing behind them, in order to avoid injury, in case of kickback.

     – The handle ends are not sharp.

Note: • The worker should be instructed about proper body positions when using tongs.
• Tongs should be checked periodically to see that they remain at the proper hardness level for the job.
• Rings or equivalent devices that are used for locking tongs should be inspected periodically to make sure they are safe.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43010   Protect employees when removing scale.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees at every hammer and press by:

     – Making sure they do not place a hand or arm between the dies by providing them with devices that reach the full length of the die when removing scale. Examples include:

     &sqbul; Oil swabs.

     &sqbul; Scale removers.

     &sqbul; Other devices that remove scale by reaching the full length of the die.

     – Stopping flying scale through construction and arrangement of a scale guard that is of substantial construction at the back of every hammer and press.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43012   Provide adequate foundations for hammers and presses.  

     You must:

     • Provide foundations adequate to support the imposed weight and normal work stress for hammers and presses.

     – Hammers and presses must remain on their foundations.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43014   Follow these requirements for manually operated valves and switches.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all manually operated valves and switches are clearly identified and readily accessible for all of the following:

     – Presses.

     – Upsetters.

     – Forging equipment involved in boltheading and rivet making.

[]

HAMMERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43016   Use die keys and shims made of proper-grade material.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that die keys and shims are made from a grade of material that will not easily crack or splinter.

Note: Die keys and shims should not project more than two inches in front and four inches in back of the ram or die.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43018   Provide a safety cylinder head.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that every steam, airlift, or air hammer has a safety cylinder head that acts as a cushion if the rod breaks or pulls out of the ram.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43020   Provide a shutoff valve.  

     You must:

     • Provide each steam and airlift hammer with a quick-closing emergency valve in the admission pipeline that is distinctly marked and in a convenient location.

     – This valve needs to be closed and locked in the "off" position when the hammer is being adjusted, repaired, or serviced, or the dies are being changed.

Reference: For requirements about Lockout/tagout (control of hazardous energy), see chapter 296-803 WAC.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43022   Provide a means for cylinder draining.  

     You must:

     • Provide a means for draining cylinders on steam hammers.

     • Provide airlift hammers with both main head and clamp cylinder drains.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43024   Follow these requirements for pressure pipes.  

     You must:

     • Provide steam or air pressure piping on power-driven hammers that meets or exceeds the requirements in:

     – ANSI B31.1.0-1967, Power Piping, with addenda ANSI B31.1.06-1971, for hammers constructed before January 1, 2005.

     – ANSI B31.1.0-2001, Power Piping, with addenda ANSI B31.1.0A-2001, for hammers constructed on or after January 1, 2005.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43026   Follow these requirements when using board hammers.  

     You must:

     • Securely fasten a suitable enclosure to gravity-dropped board hammers to prevent damaged or detached boards from falling.

     • Properly secure all major assemblies and fittings that can loosen and fall.

[]

OTHER FORGE FACILITY EQUIPMENT
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43028   Protect against sparks from saws.  

     You must:

     • Provide all saws with a sheet metal guard that is positioned to stop sparks.

     – The guard must be constructed of at least one-eighth inch sheet metal.

Note: It is advisable to provide all saws with a means to trap sparks below the saw and to use a tank of water below the saw to reduce the fire hazard.
Reference: Other saw requirements may be found in, Saws and cutting heads, WAC 296-806-480.

[]

GARBAGE (WASTE) DISPOSALS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-435   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to the hazards associated with garbage (waste) disposals found in the workplace. These requirements are designed to protect employees from hazards associated with the point of operation and flying materials.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with garbage (waste) disposals.

     You must:

     Safeguard garbage waste disposal equipment

     WAC 296-806-43502.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-43502   Safeguard garbage (waste) disposal equipment.  

     You must:

     (1) Protect employees exposed to the hazards of screw conveyor disposals with a properly designed and mounted trimboard cover that remains in place during operation.

     (2) Provide guarding to protect employees from contact with knives or blades of disposal units.

     • The guards need to be strong enough so that an employee's downward thrusting motion will not cause the guard material to open larger than two inches.

Reference: • You may need to follow additional requirements found in, Make sure guards meet these requirements, WAC 296-806-20042, to keep employees from contacting the knives or blades of disposals.

[]

GLUE SPREADERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-440   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to safeguarding and emergency controls used to protect employees from the hazards associated with cleaning and operating glue spreaders.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with glue spreaders.

     You must:

     Provide guards and automatic shutoffs on glue spreaders

     WAC 296-806-44002.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-44002   Provide guards and automatic shutoffs on glue spreaders.  

     You must:

     • Enclose the in-running side of glue spreaders, leaving enough space to insert stock.

     • Provide an emergency stop control, such as a panic bar or similar device, that can be reached from the infeed and outfeed sides of the spreader to shut off the power in an emergency.

Note: You may need two controls to reach the emergency stop control from both the infeed and outfeed sides.

[]

IRONWORKERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-445   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to the hazards associated with hydraulic and mechanical ironworkers.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with ironworkers.

     You must:

     Safeguard ironworkers point of operation

     WAC 296-806-44502.

     Follow these requirements for adjustable restrictors when safeguarding ironworkers

     WAC 296-806-44504.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-44502   Safeguard ironworkers point of operation.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard the different operating stations on ironworkers according to requirements for all machines, safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058.

Exemption: If the point-of-operation opening is one-fourth inch or less, safeguarding is not required.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-44504   Follow these requirements for adjustable restrictors when safeguarding ironworkers.  

     You must:

     • Use adjustable restrictors for safeguarding only when guards, devices, or awareness barriers are not feasible.

[]

LATHES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-450   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to the hazards associated with metal and woodworking lathes.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with metal and woodworking lathes.

     METAL LATHES

     You must:

     Provide shields or guards on metal lathes for chip or coolant hazards

     WAC 296-806-45002.

     Safeguard work-holding devices (chucks)

     WAC 296-806-45004.

     Follow these requirements for chip control and handling

     WAC 296-806-45006.

     Safeguard power-clamping devices

     WAC 296-806-45008.

     Restrain extended workpieces on horizontal lathes

     WAC 296-806-45010.

     WOODWORKING LATHES

     Guard cutting heads on profile lathes and swing-head lathes

     WAC 296-806-45012.

     Guard cutting heads on turning lathes

     WAC 296-806-45014.

     Guard automatic turning lathes

     WAC 296-806-45016.

     Guard wood lathes used for turning long pieces of stock

     WAC 296-806-45018.

[]

METAL LATHES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45002   Provide shields or guards on metal lathes for chip or coolant hazards.  

     You must:

     • Provide a shield or other equally effective guard to prevent chips or coolant from being thrown or splashed on the operator, aisle, or other assigned work area, when exposed to these hazards.

     – Examples of guards include permanent chip and coolant shields.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45004   Safeguard work-holding devices (chucks).  

     You must:

     • Provide a fixed or movable guard, device, awareness barrier, or peripheral cover over areas exposed to the operator on work-holding devices or chucks when:

     – It is in the clamped mode and has parts that extend beyond the outside diameter of the holding device.

     – It has an irregular shape to the periphery of its body.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45006   Follow these requirements for chip control and handling.  

     You must:

     • Make sure employees' hands do not contact chips that are being generated, such as long stringy chips.

Note: Chips may be removed by using things such as tools, pullers, brushes, and shovels.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45008   Safeguard power-clamping devices.  

     You must:

     • Protect the operator from the hazards of thrown material when the clamping device does not have adequate pressure to hold the material.

Note: • Examples of safeguarding methods include:
– Interlocks.
– Retaining covers:
&sqbul; That contain the workpiece if it falls or flies out from the clamped work-holding device.
– Visual or audible warnings:
&sqbul; That are located so they can be seen or heard by the operator in the normal work area, making the operator aware that there is no pressure on the clamp side of the actuator.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45010   Restrain extended workpieces on horizontal lathes.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard employees from the hazards of work pieces that extend beyond the edges of the horizontal lathe by:

     – Restraining work pieces as needed to prevent whipping;

     AND

     – Isolating work pieces with an awareness barrier, fixed or movable guard, or railing.

[]

WOODWORKING LATHES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45012   Guard cutting heads on profile lathes and swing-head lathes.  

     You must:

     • Cover all cutting heads on profile lathes, swing-head lathes, and heel-turning machines with a metal guard.

     • Make sure guards are made of:

     – Sheet metal at least one-sixteenth inches thick.

     – Cast iron at least three-sixteenth inches thick.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45014   Guard cutting heads on turning lathes.  

     You must:

     • Install hoods or shields that cover as completely as possible all cutting heads, whether or not they rotate.

Note: The hood or shield should be hinged to the machine so it can be moved to make adjustments.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45016   Guard automatic turning lathes.  

     You must:

     • Install hoods that completely enclose the cutter blades, except at contact points where stock is being cut, on the following types of machines:

     – Shoe last and spoke lathes.

     – Doweling machines.

     – Heel-turning machines.

     – Automatic turning lathes with rotating knives.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45018   Guard wood lathes used for turning long pieces of stock.  

     You must:

     • Install long, curved guards extending over lathe tops where work pieces are held only between the two centers, to prevent stock from being thrown out of the machine.

[]

MECHANICAL POWER PRESSES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-455   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to mechanically powered machines that transmit force to cut, form, or assemble metal or other materials through tools or dies attached to or operated by slides.

Exemption: This section does not apply to:
• Power press brakes.
• Hydraulic power presses.
• Pneumatic power presses.
• Slow-acting horizontal mechanical presses with large beds (bulldozers).
• Hot bending and hot metal presses.
• Forging presses and hammers.
• Riveting machines.
• Cold headers and cold formers.
• Eyelet machines.
• High energy rate presses.
• Ironworkers and detail punches.
• Metal shears.
• Powdered metal presses.
• Press welders.
• Turret and plate punching machines.
• Wire termination machines.
• Welding presses.
Reference: • See, Forging machines, for forging press and hammer requirements, WAC 296-806-430.
• See, Ironworkers, for requirements for ironworkers, WAC 296-806-445.
• See, Press brakes, for power press brake requirements, WAC 296-806-465.
     Your responsibility:

     To make sure mechanical power presses meet the requirements of this section.

     You must:

     Design and construction

     Make sure mechanical power presses are properly designed and constructed

     WAC 296-806-45502.

     Safeguarding

     Safeguard presses that use unitized tooling

     WAC 296-806-45504.

     Protect operators from guidepost hazards

     WAC 296-806-45506.

     Safeguard the point of operation

     WAC 296-806-45508.

     Make sure point-of-operation guards are properly designed and constructed

     WAC 296-806-45510.

     Make sure barrier guards used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45512.

     Make sure point-of-operation devices are effective

     WAC 296-806-45514.

     Make sure presence-sensing devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45516.

     Make sure pull-back devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45518.

     Make sure restraint (holdout) devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45520.

     Make sure two-hand control devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45522.

     Make sure two-hand trip devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45524.

     Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation

     WAC 296-806-45526.

     Operations

     Establish a die setting procedure

     WAC 296-806-45528.

     Handle dies safely

     WAC 296-806-45530.

     Protect die setters during setup and tryout

     WAC 296-806-45532.

     Train press operators

     WAC 296-806-45534.

     Operate mechanical power presses safely

     WAC 296-806-45536.

     Provide tools and other means to protect press operators

     WAC 296-806-45538.

     Inspect and maintain presses

     WAC 296-806-45540.

     Make sure presses and operating practices used in the PSDI mode of operation meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-45542.

[]

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45502   Make sure mechanical power presses are properly designed and constructed.  

     You must:

     • Make sure mechanical power presses manufactured before January 1, 2005, meet the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B11.1-1971, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Mechanical Power Presses.

     • Make sure mechanical power presses manufactured, reconstructed, or modified on or after January 1, 2005, meet the requirements of ANSI B11.1-2001, Safety Requirements for Mechanical Power Presses.

[]

SAFEGUARDING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45504   Safeguard presses that use unitized tooling.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard the opening between the top of the punch holder and the face of the slide or striking pad by using properly installed, adjusted, and maintained guards or devices.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45506   Protect operators from guidepost hazards.        You must:

     • Use properly installed, adjusted, and maintained guards or devices to protect operators from the hazards created by:

     – Guideposts separating from their bushings.

     – Similar pinch points between the slide (moving die) and fixed die or press attachments.

Exemption: This requirement does not apply if the opening is one-fourth inch or less, before use.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45508   Safeguard the point of operation.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees from point-of-operation hazards by using properly installed, adjusted, and maintained guards or devices.

Exemption: This requirement does not apply if the point-of-operation opening is one-fourth inch or less, before use.
Note: • You may use a combination of guards and devices as long as employees are completely protected from point-of-operation hazards.
• Hand tools used for placing materials into the press, or removing them from the press, are not a substitute for point-of-operation guards or devices.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45510   Make sure point-of-operation guards are properly designed and constructed.  

     You must:

     • Make sure each guard:

     – Prevents the operator's hands or other body parts from reaching through, over, under, or around the guard into the point of operation.

     – Has no opening larger than the maximum permissible openings shown in Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Openings, WAC 296-806-20042.

     – Does not create a pinch point between the guard and moving machine parts.

     – Uses fasteners that cannot be easily removed by the operator.

     – Is easy to inspect.

     – Provides the best view of the point of operation for the type of work.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45512   Make sure barrier guards meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure a fixed barrier guard is attached to a fixed surface such as the stripper, die shoe, press frame, or bolster plate.

     • Make sure the interlocked barrier guard:

     – Is attached to a fixed surface such as the press frame or bolster plate.

     – Prevents cycling (stroking) of the press when the interlocked section of the guard is not in the protecting position.

     – Cannot open until hazardous motion of the slide has stopped.

     • Not use the hinged or movable sections of an interlocked barrier guard for manual feeding.

     • Make sure an adjustable barrier guard is:

     – Attached to a fixed surface such as the press frame, bolster plate, or die shoe.

     – Adjusted only by authorized persons who can apply Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Openings, WAC 296-806-20042.

Reference: See, Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, for additional safeguards that are required if the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation to feed or remove parts, and the point of operation is protected by a Type B gate or movable barrier device.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45514   Make sure point-of-operation devices are effective.  

     You must:

     • Make sure point-of-operation devices protect the operator from hazards as shown in Table 455-1, Point-of-Operation Devices.

     • Make sure the motor start button is protected against accidental contact.


Table 455-1
Point-of-Operation Devices

Type of device Type of operator protection that must be provided:
Presence-sensing device (part-revolution clutch press) If the operator's hands or other body part are in the point of operation:
• Prevents initiating a press cycle (stroke);
OR
• Stops the press during the closing portion of the cycle (stroke)
Presence-sensing device (full-revolution clutch press) Do NOT use for point-of-operation safeguarding
Pull-back device As the die closes:
• Withdraws the operator's hands if they are located in the point of operation;
OR
• Prevents the operator from reaching into the point of operation
Restraint (holdout) device Prevents the operator from reaching into the point of operation at all times
Two-hand control device

Two-hand trip device

• Requires operators to use both hands to activate controls that are far enough away from the point of operation so the slide completes the closing portion of the cycle (stroke) or stops before they can reach into the point of operation
Type A gate or movable barrier device Encloses the point of operation:
• Before a press cycle (stroke) can be initiated;
AND
• Remains closed until slide motion has stopped
Type B gate or movable barrier device Encloses the point of operation:
• Before a press cycle (stroke) can be initiated;
AND
• Remains closed until slide motion has stopped during the closing portion of the cycle (stroke)
Sweep device Do NOT use for point-of-operation safeguarding

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45516   Make sure presence-sensing devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the presence-sensing device is interlocked into the control circuit to prevent or stop slide motion if the operator's hand or other body part is within the sensing field of the device during the downstroke of the press slide.

     • Make sure muting of the device is done only during the upstroke of the press slide.

     • Make sure failure of any component of the device:

     – Does not prevent normal stopping action of the press.

     – Prevents initiation of another cycle (stroke) until corrected.

     – Is indicated by the system.

     • Use guards to protect all areas of entry to the point of operation not protected by the presence-sensing device.

     • Make sure the sensing field of the device is located farther from the point of operation than the minimum safety distance as determined by the following formula:

D = 63 x T     Where:

     D = minimum safety distance (in inches)

     T = stopping time of the press measured at approximately the 90 degree position of crankshaft rotation (in seconds)

Example: The number in the formula represents the hand speed of the operator (sixty-three inches per second). If your press has a stopping time of one-half second (.5 second), the calculations would be:
D = 63 x .5 = 31.5
The sensing field would need to be at least thirty-one and one-half inches from the point of operation.
Reference: See, Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, while feeding or removing parts, for additional safeguards that are required if the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation to feed or remove parts, and the point of operation is protected by a presence-sensing device.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45518   Make sure pull-back devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure presses requiring more than one operator have a separate pull-back device for each operator.

     • Make sure each pull-back device has attachments:

     – For each of the operator's hands.

     – That are connected to and operated only by the press slide or its attached die.

     – That are adjusted to either:

     &sqbul; Prevent the operator from reaching into the point of operation;

     OR

     &sqbul; Withdraw the operator's hands from the point of operation before the dies close.

     • Check each pull-back device that is being used for proper adjustment at these times:

     – At the start of each operator shift.

     – After a new die set-up.

     – When operators are changed.

     • Complete necessary maintenance or repair work before operating the press.

Reference: For recordkeeping requirements for maintenance or repair work, see Inspect and maintain presses, WAC 296-806-45540.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45520   Make sure restraint (holdout) devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure presses requiring more than one operator have separate restraint devices for each operator.

     • Make sure each restraint device has attachments:

     – For each of the operator's hands.

     – That are securely anchored.

     – That are adjusted so the operator cannot reach into the point of operation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45522   Make sure two-hand control devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure presses that require more than one operator:

     – Have separate two-hand controls for each operator.

     – Need concurrent application of all operators' controls to activate the slide.

     • Make sure the slide stops if any operator's hand is removed from a control button.

     • Make sure two-hand controls are fixed in position and can be moved only by authorized persons.

     • Make sure the controls are located farther from the point of operation than the minimum safety distance as determined by the following formula:

D = 63 x T     Where:

     D = minimum safety distance (in inches)

     T = stopping time of the press measured at approximately the 90 degree position of crankshaft rotation (in seconds)

Example: The number in the formula represents the hand speed of the operator (63 inches per second). If your press has a stopping time of one-half second (.5 second), the calculations would be:
D = 63 x .5 = 31.5
The controls would need to be at least 31 1/2 inches from the point of operation.
Reference: See, Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526, for additional required safeguards.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45524   Make sure two-hand trip devices used to safeguard the point of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure presses requiring more than one operator:

     – Have separate two-hand trips for each operator.

     – Need concurrent application of all operators' controls to activate the slide.

     • Make sure the two-hand trips are fixed in position and can be moved only by authorized persons.

     • Make sure the controls are located farther from the point of operation than the minimum safety distance as determined by the following formula:

D = 63 x T     Where:

     D = minimum safety distance (in inches)

     T = the maximum time the press takes for the die to close after the press has been tripped (in seconds)

Example: The number in the formula represents the hand speed of the operator (63 inches per second). If your press has a die closing time of one-half second (.5 second), the calculations would be:
D = 63 x .5 = 31.5
The trip devices would need to be at least 31 1/2 inches from the point of operation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45526   Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation.  

     IMPORTANT:

     This rule applies when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation to feed or remove parts, and the point of operation is protected by any of the following:

     • Presence-sensing device.

     • Two-hand control.

     • Type B gate or movable barrier device.

     You must:

     • Make sure the press has both a:

     – Stopping-performance monitor (previously called brake-system monitor);

     AND

     – Control system that monitors the performance of safety-related functions (previously called control reliability).

     • Make sure the stopping-performance monitor meets the requirements of:

     – American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B11.1-1982, Mechanical Power Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use for presses manufactured before January 1, 2005.

     – ANSI B11.1-2001, Safety Requirements for Mechanical Power Presses for presses manufactured on or after January 1, 2005.

     • Make sure the control system monitors the performance of safety-related functions so that failure of any component in the control system:

     – Does not prevent normal stopping action of the press.

     – Prevents initiation of another cycle (stroke) until the failure is corrected.

     – Can be detected by a simple test or is indicated by the control system.

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to control system components that do not affect protection from point-of-operation hazards.
     Definition:

     The control system includes the sensors, manual input and mode selection elements, interlocking and decision-making circuitry, and output elements of the press-operating devices and mechanisms.

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OPERATIONS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45528   Establish die setting procedures.  

     You must:

     • Develop and use procedures to protect employees from the hazards of die setting.

     • Make sure die setters are provided with at least the following information:

     – Rated press capacity requirements for the die.

     – Weight of the upper die and other slide attachments required for job setup and setting counterbalance air pressure.

     – Total die weight.

Note: This information may be stamped on the die or kept in a file that is readily available to the die setters.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45530   Handle dies safely.  

     You must:

     • Make sure dies requiring mechanical handling have handling equipment attachment points.

     • Use die stops or other means to prevent losing control of the die while setting or removing dies from presses that are inclined.

     • Make sure the upper and lower shoes will securely mount the die to the bolster and slide.

     • Use additional means of securing the upper shoe to the slide where clamp caps or set screws are used in conjunction with punch stems.

     • Make sure spring-loaded turnover bars are provided for presses designed to accept them.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45532   Protect die setters during setup and tryout.  

     You must:

     (1) Use safety blocks when an employee has to put their hands or other body part into the point of operation to adjust or repair dies.

     (2) Protect die setters doing die tryout from point-of-operation hazards by at least one of the following:

     • Properly installed, adjusted, and maintained guards or devices.

     • Proper use of INCH mode (part-revolution clutch press).

     • Proper use of JOG mode (full-revolution clutch press).

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45534   Train press operators.  

     You must:

     (1) Train operators to safely operate the press.

     (2) Make sure modified or reconstructed presses have instructions to establish new or changed guidelines for use and care of the press.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45536   Operate mechanical power presses safely.        You must:

     • Operate the press within the manufacturer's rated capacities.

Note: Rated capacities include, but are not limited to:
– Structural capacity.
– Torque capacity.
– Energy capacity.
– Thermal capacity.
– Attachment weight.
– Die shutheight.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45538   Provide tools and other means to protect press operators.  

     You must:

     • Make sure hand tools are provided and used to free and remove workpieces or scrap stuck in the die.

     • Provide means for handling scrap from roll feed or random length stock operations.

     • Provide and use means to keep operators and die setters from reaching into the point of operation or other hazard area to lubricate material or die components.

Note: • Means for lubricating include, but are not limited to:
– Brushes.
– Swabs.
– Lubricating rolls.
– Manual spray systems.
– Automatic spray systems.
• Handles on brushes or swabs should be long enough to keep persons using them clear of the point of operation.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45540   Inspect and maintain presses.  

     You must:

     (1) Make sure maintenance personnel are trained and competent to inspect and maintain power presses.

     (2) Keep records of all maintenance or repair work.

     (3) Inspect and test the following press systems at least weekly:

     • Clutch/brake mechanism.

     • Antirepeat feature.

     • Single stroke mechanism.

     • Keep records of inspections and tests.

Exemption: You do not have to do weekly inspections if your press has both:
– Performance of safety-related functions monitoring (previously called control reliability);
AND
– A stopping-performance monitor (previously called brake-system monitor) does not require weekly inspections.
Reference: For requirements for these monitoring devices, see Provide additional safeguards when the operator puts one or both hands into the point of operation, WAC 296-806-45526.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-45542   Make sure presses and operating practices used in the PSDI (presence sensing device initiation) mode of operation meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure presses and operating practices used in the PSDI mode meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.217(h), Presence Sensing Device Initiation (PSDI).

Note: 29 CFR 1910.217(h) contains requirements for certification and validation of mechanical power presses used in the PSDI mode of operation.

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MILLS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-460   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies only to mills in the rubber and plastics industry that have in-running metal rolls that are set horizontally and run toward each other.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with mills.

     You must:

     Meet height requirements for mill rolls

     WAC 296-806-46002.

     Provide mill safety controls

     WAC 296-806-46004.

     Follow these stopping limit requirements for mills

     WAC 296-806-46006.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46002   Meet height requirements for mill rolls.        You must:

     • Make sure that the tops of mill rolls installed after August 27, 1971, are at least fifty inches above the working level where the operator stands.

     – This distance applies to the actual working level, which could be:

     &sqbul; The general floor level.

     &sqbul; In a pit.

     &sqbul; On a platform.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46004   Provide mill safety controls.  

Exemption: These rules do not apply to mills if the machinery is permanently set up so employees:
• Cannot reach through, over, under, or around to come in contact with the roll bite;
OR
• Cannot be caught between a roll and nearby objects.
     You must:

     (1) Provide a safety trip control that is easy to reach, operates readily on contact, and is located in front and back of each mill. Each safety trip control must include at least one of the following:

     • Pressure-sensitive body bars that:

     – Are installed at the front and back of mills having a forty-six inch roll height or over.

     – Operate readily on contact from the pressure of the mill operator's body.

     • Safety trip rods that are:

     – Installed in the front and back of each mill and located within two inches of the front and rear rolls.

     – Installed so the top rods are no more than seventy-two inches above the level where the operator stands.

     – Easy to reach and operate when the rods are pushed or pulled.

     • Safety tripwire cables or wire center cords that are:

     – Installed in the front and back of each mill.

     – Located within two inches of the face of the rolls.

     – Installed so that cables are no more than seventy-two inches above the level where the operator stands.

     – Easy to operate whether pushed or pulled.

     (2) Make sure that all auxiliary equipment such as mill dividers, support bars, spray pipes, feed conveyors, and strip knives do not interfere with safety devices.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46006   Follow these stopping limit requirements for mills.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that mills are stopped within one and one-half percent of the fastest speed at which they operate when empty.

     – When mills operate at more than two hundred fifty feet per minute, stopping distances above one and one-half percent of their fastest speed are allowed, but must have engineering support.

[]

PRESS BRAKES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-465   Summary.   If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then follow any general requirements in this section along with the "Requirements for all machines" in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to all machines classified as power press brakes. Power press brakes use a ram and bed to bend material.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with power press brakes.

     You must:

     General requirements for press brakes

     Provide auxiliary safety aids

     WAC 296-806-46502.

     Safeguard the point of operation on press brakes

     WAC 296-806-46504.

     Safe distance safeguarding

     Follow this requirement when using safe distance safeguarding

     WAC 296-806-46506.

     Develop a safe distance safeguarding program

     WAC 296-806-46508.

     Follow these requirements for safe distance training

     WAC 296-806-46510.

     Require safe distance retraining

     WAC 296-806-46512.

     Conduct periodic safe distance inspections

     WAC 296-806-46514.

     Supervise the safe distance program

     WAC 296-806-46516.

[]

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESS BRAKES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46502   Provide auxiliary safety aids on press brakes.  

     IMPORTANT:

     This rule applies if the safeguarding method prevents the operator from holding the work piece during the closing of the stroke.

     You must:

     • Provide one of the following auxiliary safety aids that will allow operators to remove their hands from the work during the closing of the stroke:

     – Work supporting devices.

     – Magnetic material-position gages.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46504   Safeguard the point of operation on press brakes.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard the point of operation on press brakes by at least one of the following:

     – Physical guards.

     – Devices.

     – One-quarter inch maximum die opening.

     – Safe distance safeguarding if all of the following apply:

     &sqbul; Physical barriers and devices such as two-hand controls, holdouts, restraints, and presence sensors, are demonstrated to not be feasible.

     &sqbul; This safeguarding method is only for one-time fabrication, custom made parts, or small quantity runs of no more than four hours per month.

     &sqbul; A safety program is provided that includes safe work procedures, training, and supervision to make sure work is performed using safe distance measures.

     &sqbul; There is no workplace record of injuries from failing to maintain a safe distance.

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SAFE DISTANCE SAFEGUARDING
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46506   Follow this requirement when using safe distance safeguarding.  

     You must:

     • Make sure employees position themselves no closer than necessary and never closer than four inches from the power press brake point of operation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46508   Develop a safe distance safeguarding program for press brakes.  

     You must:

     • Develop, document, and use an effective safe distance safeguarding program.

     – Include methods for maintaining the minimum safe distance requirements in, Follow this requirement when using safe distance safeguarding, WAC 296-806-46506.

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NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46510   Follow these requirements for safe distance training for press brakes.  

     You must:

     (1) Train your employees in the safe distance safeguarding program and include all of the following:

     • The need for safety awareness between the power press brake operator and, when required, the helper.

     • The purpose and function of operating controls, operating mode controls, die space height adjustment positions, and other brake controls.

     • The hazards of placing any parts of the body into the point of operation.

     • The hazards related to each specific work piece bending operation.

     • The purpose and function of hand-feeding tools.

     • The dangers of unsafe work practices, inattention, horseplay, and misuse of equipment.

     • The importance of reporting unsafe conditions immediately to the supervisor.

     (2) Make sure employees are proficient in safe distance safeguarding after training, and follow both:

     • Safe-operating instructions and recommendations of power press brake manufacturers;

     AND

     • Industry-recognized safe working practices for power press brakes.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46512   Require safe distance retraining for press brake operations.  

     You must:

     (1) Require safe distance retraining when employees either:

     • Are seen operating the power press brake in an unsafe manner;

     OR

     • Fail to use safe distance procedures.

     (2) Require safe distance retraining when conditions in the workplace change that can affect safe operation of the power press brakes, such as introducing new or revised control methods and procedures.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46514   Conduct periodic safe distance inspections on press brakes.  

     You must:

     (1) Conduct periodic inspections of safe distance procedures at least annually to make sure that established procedures are being followed.

     (2) Make sure inspections are performed by a trained person who is not the person using the safe distance procedure.

     (3) You must identify all of the following during safe distance procedure inspections:

     • The date of the inspection.

     • The person performing the inspection.

     • The power press brake for which you are using the procedures.

     • Any deviations or inadequacies with procedures and requirements.

     • Joint reviews with each trained employee about their responsibilities under the safe distance program.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-46516   Supervise the safe distance program for press brakes.  

     You must:

     • Provide adequate supervision to make sure that:

     – Only trained employees operate power press brakes.

     – Employees use work practices learned in your training program.

     – Periodic safe distance inspections are conducted as outlined in, Conduct periodic safe distance inspections on press brakes, WAC 296-806-46514.

     – Any deviations from, or inadequacies in, program procedures or work practices are promptly corrected.

     – Designated safeguarding means are used, installed, and functioning properly.

     – Recommended hand-feeding tools are used, when needed.

     – To require retraining and other appropriate corrective action when necessary.

[]

ROLL-FORMING AND BENDING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-470   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to power driven roll-forming and bending machines that change the shape or the direction of materials by using rolls, rotary forming dies, and associated tooling.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with roll-forming and bending machines.

     You must:

     Follow these requirements for machine initiation

     WAC 296-806-47002.

     Safeguard nip points on roll-forming and bending machines

     WAC 296-806-47004.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47002   Follow these requirements for machine initiation.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all of the following occur before starting machines:

     – Select "normal" operation mode.

     – Safeguards are in place and functioning.

     – No workers are within the hazard zones.

     – Other proper work practices are followed.

     • Make sure in the "jog mode," the machine function is initiated by the operator either:

     – During set-up;

     OR

     – By threading the material through the forming rolls.

     • Make sure only assigned test employees perform machine testing and start-up.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47004   Safeguard nip points of roll-forming and bending machines.  

     You must:

     • Safeguard in-running nip points on roll-forming and bending machines with at least one of the following:

     – A point-of-operation guard or device.

     – An emergency stop device.

     &sqbul; An emergency stop device must be used when a point-of-operation guard or device is not feasible.

[]

SANDING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-475   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to sanding machines that remove material from stock with an abrasive sanding surface such as a belt, disk, or drum.

Exemption: This section does not apply to hand-held sanders. See, Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC, for requirements that apply to hand-held tools.
Reference: • If you have multiple specific machines and operations in your workplace, you need to follow all requirements in WAC 296-806-400 that apply.
– For example, if you use sanding machines and saws and cutting heads, you need to refer to both of these sections.
• In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:
– WAC 296-806-200, Requirements for all machines.
– WAC 296-806-300, Requirements for machine parts.
• See chapter 296-807 WAC, Portable power tools, for requirements that apply to hand-held sanders.
     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with drum, disk, and belt sanders.

     You must:

     Guard drum sanders

     WAC 296-806-47502.

     Guard disk sanders

     WAC 296-806-47504.

     Guard belt sanders

     WAC 296-806-47506.

     Follow these requirements for feed roll guarding

     WAC 296-806-47508.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47502   Guard drum sanders.  

     You must:

     • Make sure drum sanders have one of the following to enclose that part of the drum not used to work on the material:

     – Guard.

     – Exhaust hood.

Reference: Exhaust hoods are required on sanders when dust levels exceed exposure limits. For requirements about air contaminants, see Respiratory hazards, chapter 296-841 WAC.
Exemption: When a table is used for the application of material to be finished, you do not need to enclose the portion of the drum above the table that is necessary to do the work.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47504   Guard disk sanders.  

     You must:

     • Make sure disk sanders have an exhaust hood, when required, or a guard that encloses the part of the disk not used to work on the material.

Exemption: When a table is used for the application of material to be finished, you do not need to enclose the portion of the disk above the table that is necessary to do the work.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47506   Guard belt sanders.  

     You must:

     • Protect the operator by guarding:

     – Nip points where the sanding belt runs on the pulleys.

     – The unused run of the sanding belt.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-47508   Follow these requirements for feed roll guarding.  

     You must:

     • Make sure that feed rolls have a hood or guard to prevent the operator's hands from coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point.

     • Make sure that the guard meets ALL of the following:

     – Is constructed of heavy material, preferably metal.

     – The bottom of the guard comes down to within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the bottom or working surfaces of the feed rolls.

     &sqbul; When the three-eighths inch distance is increased to three-quarter inch, the lead edge of the hood must be extended to five and one-half inches or more in front of the nip point between the front roll and the work.

[]

SAWS AND CUTTING HEADS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-480   Summary.   If your specific machine or operation is not listed here, then be sure to follow any of the following requirements that apply:

     • General requirements for all saws and cutting heads in this section.

     • General requirements for all saws in this section.

     • General requirements for all cutting heads in this section.

     • "Requirements for all machines" found in this chapter, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

Reference: For requirements on hand-held tools, see Portable power tools, chapter 296-807 WAC.
     This section applies to fixed machines using saws or cutting heads that are used on any material.

     Your responsibility:

     To make sure machines using saws and cutting heads meet these requirements.

     You must:

     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL SAWS AND CUTTING HEADS

     Protect employees using saws and cutting heads

     WAC 296-806-48002.

     Make sure saws and cutting heads are sharpened and tensioned by qualified people

     WAC 296-806-48004.

     SAWS

     General Requirements for All Saws

     Make sure saws are safe to use

     WAC 296-806-48006.

     Requirements for All Circular Saws

     Make sure all circular saws meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48008.

     Make sure circular saw gages meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48010.

     Guard hand-fed circular table saws

     WAC 296-806-48012.

     Provide kickback protection for employees using hand-fed circular table ripsaws when ripping wood

     WAC 296-806-48014.

     Safeguard self-feed circular saws

     WAC 296-806-48016.

     Provide kickback protection for self-feed circular ripsaws when ripping wood

     WAC 296-806-48018.

     Guard circular resaws

     WAC 296-806-48020.

     Provide spreaders for circular resaws

     WAC 296-806-48022.

     Requirements for Specific Circular Saws

     Protect employees from automatic saw hazards

     WAC 296-806-48024.

     Guard inverted swing (jump) saws

     WAC 296-806-48026.

     Guard miter saws

     WAC 296-806-48028.

     Guard radial saws

     WAC 296-806-48030.

     Limit the travel of radial saws

     WAC 296-806-48032.

     Provide kickback protection for radial saws used for ripping wood

     WAC 296-806-48034.

     Guard revolving double arbor saws

     WAC 296-806-48036.

     Guard swing saws

     WAC 296-806-48038.

     Limit the travel of swing saws

     WAC 296-806-48040.

     Requirements for Band Saws and Drag Saws

     Make sure bandsaws meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48042.

     Protect employees from drag saw hazards

     WAC 296-806-48044.

     CUTTING HEADS

     General Requirements for All Cutting Heads

     Maintain and balance knives and cutting heads

     WAC 296-806-48046.

     BORING AND MORTISING MACHINES

     Make sure boring and mortising machines meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48048.

     CHIPPER AND HOG MILLS

     Follow these requirements for chipper mills

     WAC 296-806-48050.

     Follow these requirements for hog mills

     WAC 296-806-48052.

     Protect employees from falling into chipper and hog mills

     WAC 296-806-48054.

     JOINTERS

     Make sure jointers with horizontal cutting heads meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48056.

     Guard horizontal cutting heads on hand-fed jointers

     WAC 296-806-48058.

     Guard vertical cutting heads on jointers

     WAC 296-806-48060.

     MOLDING, STICKING AND MATCHING MACHINES

     Make sure molding, sticking and matching machines meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48062.

     PANEL RAISERS AND OTHER SIMILAR MACHINES

     Guard hand-fed panel raisers and other similar machines

     WAC 296-806-48064.

     PLANERS

     Make sure planers with a horizontal cutting head meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48066.

     Guard planers

     WAC 296-806-48068.

     Guard planer feed rolls

     WAC 296-806-48070.

     Provide kickback protection on planers running stock of varied thicknesses

     WAC 296-806-48072.

     SHAPERS

     Make sure shapers meet these requirements

     WAC 296-806-48074.

     TENONING MACHINES

     Guard tenoning machines feed chains and sprockets

     WAC 296-806-48076.

     Guard tenoning machines

     WAC 296-806-48078.

     VENEER MACHINERY

     Guard veneer cutters and wringer knives

     WAC 296-806-48080.

     Guard veneer clippers

     WAC 296-806-48082.

     Follow these requirements for guarding guillotine cutters

     WAC 296-806-48084.

     Provide mechanisms to stop power-driven guillotine cutters

     WAC 296-806-48086.

     Prohibit riders on veneer slicer carriages

     WAC 296-806-48088.

[]

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL SAWS AND CUTTING HEADS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48002   Protect employees using saws and cutting heads.  

     You must:

     • Provide safeguarding to protect employees from the hazards of feed rolls.

     • Provide types and sizes of push sticks or push blocks that are suitable for the work being done.

     • Use a comb (featherboard) or a suitable jig to protect employees when a standard guard cannot be used.

Note: Operations where you may need a comb or jig include:
• Dadoing.
• Grooving.
• Jointing.
• Moulding.
• Rabbeting.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48004   Make sure saws and cutting heads are sharpened and tensioned by qualified people.  

     You must:

     • Make sure people who sharpen or tension saw blades or cutters have demonstrated skill in this area.

[]

SAWS

General Requirements for All Saws
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48006   Make sure saws are safe to use.  

     You must:

     • Immediately remove from service a saw that has any of the following problems:

     – Cracked.

     – Dull.

     – Badly set.

     – Improperly filed.

     – Improperly tensioned.

     • Immediately clean any saw where gum has begun to stick on the sides.

     • Eliminate unintended fence and table movement during operation.

     • Keep hinged tables and fences firmly secured and in true alignment for all positions.

[]

Requirements for All Circular Saws
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48008   Make sure all circular saws meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees from contacting the portion of the saw beneath or behind the table by covering it with either:

     – An exhaust hood, if one is required;

     OR

     – A guard.

     • Prohibit workers from inserting wedges between the saw disk and the collar to form a wobble saw.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48010   Make sure circular saw gages meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure circular saw gages slide in grooves or tracks that are accurately machined to maintain exact alignment with the saw for all positions of the guide.

Note: Circular saw gages are also referred to as miter or positioning gages.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48012   Safeguard hand-fed circular table saws.        You must:

     • Guard each hand-fed circular saw with a hood that completely encloses both the portion of the saw that is above both:

     – The table;

     AND

     – The material being cut.

     • Make sure the hood is designed and constructed to do all of the following:

     – Protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth.

     – Strong enough to resist damage from reasonable operation, adjustments, and handling.

     – Made of material soft enough to not break saw teeth.

Note: Hoods should be made of material that:
• Does not shatter when broken.
• Is not explosive.
• Is less combustible than wood.
     You must:

     • Mount the hood so it does all of the following:

     – Operates positively and reliably.

     – Maintains true alignment with the saw.

     – Resists any side thrust or force that could throw it out of line.

     • Make sure the hood:

     – Allows the material to be inserted or sawed without any considerable resistance;

     AND

     – Does one of the following:

     &sqbul; Automatically remains in contact with the material being cut;

     OR

     &sqbul; Is manually adjusted to within one-quarter inch of the material being cut.

Exemption: Saws may be guarded with a fixed enclosure, fixed barrier guard, or a manually adjusted guard when specific conditions prevent using a standard automatic adjusting guard. Alternative guards have to both:
• Provide protection equivalent to a standard automatic adjusting guard;
AND
• Be used according to the manufacturer's instructions with sufficient supervision to comply with this requirement.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48014   Provide kickback protection for employees using hand-fed circular table ripsaws when ripping wood products.  

     Definition:

     Ripping is a sawing operation made:

     • Through the thickness of the work piece with the grain of natural wood;

     • Along the long dimension of a rectangular work piece;

     AND

     • Usually parallel to that edge on reconstituted wood products.

     This can also be described as cutting stock to width. Two or more pieces result from the operation.

     You must:

     • Provide a spreader or riving knife that is:

     – Made of hard-tempered steel or its equivalent.

     – Thinner than the saw kerf.

     – Wide enough to provide sufficient stiffness and rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow that could bend or throw it out of position.

     – Attached so it remains in true alignment with the saw when the saw or table is tilted.

Note: • The spreader or riving knife should:
– Prevent material from either squeezing the saw or being thrown back at the operator.
– Be placed so there is one-half inch or less space between it and the back of the saw when the largest saw is mounted in the machine.
Exemption: You do not have to provide a spreader or riving knife when grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting. When you finish these operations, replace the spreader immediately.
     You must:

     • Provide nonkickback fingers or dogs that are:

     – Located so they prevent the saw from either picking up the material or throwing the material back towards the operator.

     – Designed to hold any thickness of material being cut.

Note: Kickbacks occur when a saw seizes the stock and hurls it back at the operator. This can happen when the stock twists and binds against the side of the blades or is caught in the teeth. Kickbacks occur more often when cutting parallel to the wood grain (ripping) than when cross cutting. Common contributors to kickbacks include:
• A blade that is not sharpened.
• A blade set at an incorrect height.
• Poor quality lumber, such as frozen lumber, lumber with many knots, or foreign objects, such as nails.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48016   Safeguard self-feed circular saws.  

     You must:

     • Provide saws and feed rolls with a hood or guard to protect the operator from contacting the in-running rolls.

     • Make sure the guard is constructed of heavy material, preferably metal.

     • Make sure the distance between the bottom of the guard and the plane formed by the bottom or working surface of the feed rolls meets the requirements of Table 200-1, Largest Allowable Guard Opening, in WAC 296-806-20042.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48018   Provide kickback protection for self-feed circular ripsaws when ripping wood products.  

     You must:

     • Provide saws with sectional nonkickback fingers that meet all of the following requirements:

     – They cover the full width of the feed roll.

     – They are located in front of the saw.

     – They are arranged so they keep continuous contact with the material being fed.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48020   Guard circular resaws.  

     You must:

     • Provide each circular resaw with a metal hood or shield that is:

     – Located above the saw.

     – Designed to protect the operator from flying splinters or broken saw teeth.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48022   Provide spreaders for circular resaws.  
Exemption: This requirement does not apply to self-feed saws with a roller or wheel at the back of the saw.
     You must:

     • Provide a spreader that is all of the following:

     – Securely fastened behind the saw.

     – Slightly thinner than the saw kerf.

     – Slightly thicker than the saw disk.

[]

Requirements for Specific Circular Saws
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48024   Protect employees from automatic saw hazards.  

     You must:

     • Make sure automatic saws that stroke continuously without the operator controlling each stroke are not used where employees could be exposed to:

     – Saw hazards during operations such as loading, clamping, cutting, or unloading.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48026   Guard inverted swing (jump) saws.  

     You must:

     (1) Guard jump saws with a hood that both:

     • Covers the part of the saw that is exposed above the top of the table or above the material being cut;

     AND

     • Automatically adjusts to the thickness of the material being cut and remains in contact with it.

     (2) Provide a holding device that will prevent stock from moving while cutting materials.

     (3) Provide warning signs, stickers, or placards when the pinching hazard created by the holding device cannot be eliminated by design.

     (4) Provide the following for automatically fed jump saws.

     • Place guards over the roller conveyor to prevent persons from walking into or over the saw.

     • Enclose jump saws when below the table or roller conveyor and not in actual use.

     • Install a positive stop to prevent the saw from passing the front edge of the roller conveyor or table.

     • Make sure the throat in the table or roller conveyor is only wide enough to permit unobstructed operation of the saw.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48028   Guard miter saws.  

     IMPORTANT:

     Miter saws include:

     • Miter.

     • Compound miter.

     • Slide miter.

     • Compound slide miter.

     You must:

     (1) Guard miter saws with an upper hood that completely encloses the upper half of the blade.

     (2) Provide a method to protect employees from contacting the blade underneath the table while in its recommended carrying position.

     (3) Guard the lower blade:

     • By making sure the teeth are guarded at least three-quarters of an inch beyond the root of the teeth, toward the center of the blade, except for a maximum forty-five degree exposure of quadrant C when in the full retract position. See Illustration 480-1, Miter Saw Guarding.

     • With a retractable guard that cannot be locked in any position.


Illustration 480-1

Miter Saw Guarding


Place illustration here.
This illustration shows miter saws in full retract position, and quadrant C, where 45 degrees, or half of quadrant C may be exposed when in the full retract position.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48030   Guard radial saws.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the radial saw has a hood that does all of the following:

     – Completely encloses the upper portion of the blade down to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor.

     – Protects the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth.

     – Deflects sawdust away from the operator.

     • Provide a lower blade guard that does all of the following (see Guard radial saws, illustration 480-2):

     – Guards the sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade to its full diameter.

     – Automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut.

     – Remains in contact with the stock to provide the maximum protection possible for the operation being performed;

     OR

     – Is manually adjusted (wing) guard that:

     &sqbul; Is made of material strong enough to withstand the forces put on it.

     &sqbul; Suggested materials include polycarbonates or expanded metal.

     &sqbul; Has edges that are smooth so no hazards from the guard exist.

     &sqbul; Extends a minimum of eight inches to both the front and arbor-end sides.

     &sqbul; Is adjustable in a vertical plane to the different thicknesses of stock so the gap is three-eighths inch or less between the bottom of the guard and the top of the stock.

    

Exemption: Saws may be guarded with a fixed enclosure, fixed barrier guard, or a manually adjusted guard when specific conditions prevent using a standard, automatic adjusting guard. Alternative guards have to both:
• Provide protection equivalent to a standard automatic adjusting guard;
AND
• Be used according to the manufacturer's instructions with sufficient supervision to meet this requirement.


Illustration 480-2 Guard radial saws

A manually adjusted awareness barrier guard that

extends 8 inches to the front and sides of the blade


Place illustration here.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48032   Limit the travel of radial saws.  

     You must:

     • Provide an adjustable stop that prevents:

     – Forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut;

     AND

     – Any part of the saw blade from extending beyond the front edge of the work support table.

     • Install the saw so that the front end is slightly higher than the rear in order to cause the cutting head to return to the starting position when released by the operator.

     • Make sure the cutting head or carriage does all of the following:

     – Returns gently to the rest or starting position when released by the operator.

     – Does not bounce or recoil when reaching the rest or starting position.

     – Remains in the rest or starting position.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48034   Provide kickback protection for radial saws used for ripping wood products.  

     You must:

     • Provide nonkickback fingers or dogs that are both:

     – Located on both sides of the saw to resist the tendency of the saw to pick up material or throw it back toward the operator;

     AND

     – Designed to hold any thickness of material being cut.

     • Make sure when ripping or ploughing that you feed the material from the end where the blade teeth enter the upper guard, which is against the direction in which the saw turns. See, Ripping with a radial arm saw, illustration 480-3.

     • Make sure the direction of saw rotation is clearly marked on the hood.

     • Fasten a permanent label at the rear of the guard hood, at about the level of the arbor, where the blade teeth exit the upper hood during saw operation that:

     – Reads, "DANGER: DO NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END."

     – Is colored standard danger red.

     – Is not less than one and one-half inches by three-quarters inch with standard proportional lettering.


RIPPING WITH A RADIAL ARM SAW

Place illustration here.

Illustration 480-3

Important requirements for ripping with a radial arm saw.


[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48036   Guard revolving double arbor saws.  

     You must:

     • Guard each revolving double arbor saw with a hood that completely encloses the portion of the saw that is above both:

     – The table;

     AND

     – The material being cut.

Note: Hoods should be made of material that:
• Does not shatter when broken.
• Is not explosive.
• Is less combustible than wood.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48038   Guard swing saws.  

     IMPORTANT:

     This section applies to swing saws mounted above the table.

     You must:

     • Provide saws with a hood that encloses all of the following:

     – Upper half of the saw.

     – Arbor end.

     – Point of operation in all positions of the saw.

     • Make sure the hood protects operators from flying splinters and broken saw teeth.

     • Make sure the lower blade guard will automatically cover the lower portion of the blade by dropping on top of and remaining in contact with the table or the material being cut.

Exemption: Saws may be guarded with a fixed enclosure, fixed barrier guard, or a manually adjusted guard when specific conditions prevent using a standard, automatic adjusting guard. Alternative guards have to:
• Provide protection equivalent to a standard automatic adjusting guard;
AND
• Be used according to the manufacturer's instructions with sufficient supervision to meet this requirement.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48040   Limit the travel of swing saws.  

     IMPORTANT:

     This section applies to swing saws that are mounted above the table.

     You must:

     • Provide saws with a device that:

     – Automatically returns the saw to the back of the table when the saw is released at any point in its travel.

     – Does not depend on a rope, cord, or spring to function properly.

     • Make sure devices that use a counterweight meets these requirements:

     – The bolts supporting the bar and the counterweight use cotter pins.

     – The counterweight is prevented from dropping by one of these methods:

     &sqbul; A bolt passing through both the bar and the counterweight.

     &sqbul; A bolt through the extreme end of the bar.

     &sqbul; A safety chain to hold it to the bar if the counterweight does not completely encircle the bar.

     • Provide limit chains or another equally effective device to prevent the saw from swinging either:

     – Beyond the front or back edge of the table;

     OR

     – Forward to a position where the gullets of the lowest saw teeth will rise above the table top.

[]

Requirements for Band Saws and Drag Saws
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48042   Make sure band saws meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Enclose or guard all portions of the blade except for the working portion of the blade between the guide rolls and the table.

     • Make sure the guard for the portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the wheel guard meets these requirements:

     – Protects the front and outer side of the blade.

     – Is self-adjusting to move with the guide.

     – Adjusts so the gap between the guide rolls and stock is as small as is practical.

     • Fully enclose band saw wheels with wheel guards that meet both of the following requirements:

     – The outside periphery of the wheel enclosure is solid;

     AND

     – The front and back of the wheels are enclosed by solid material, wire mesh, or perforated metal.

     • Make sure the material used for wheel guards meets these requirements:

     – Wire mesh and perforated metal guards:

     &sqbul; Are at least 0.037 inch (U.S. Gage No. 20) thick.

     &sqbul; Have openings in them that are three-eighths inch or less.

     – Solid material has strength and firmness equivalent to a wire mesh or perforated steel guard.

     • Make sure band saws have a tension control device to indicate the proper tension for standard saws used on the machine.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48044   Protect employees from drag saw hazards.        You must:

     • Protect employees passing near a drag saw by either:

     – Providing a four-foot clearance when the saw is at the extreme end of the stroke;

     OR

     – Enclosing the saw and its driving mechanism, if you cannot provide a four-foot clearance.

[]

CUTTING HEADS

General Requirements for All Cutting Heads
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48046   Maintain and balance knives and cutting heads.  

     You must:

     • Make sure knives and cutting heads are kept:

     – Sharp.

     – Properly adjusted.

     – Firmly secured.

     • Make sure knives are properly balanced when two or more are used in one cutting head.

[]

BORING AND MORTISING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48048   Make sure boring and mortising machines meet these requirements.  

Exemption: This section does not apply to drill presses, boring machines, or mortising machines if both of the following apply:
• The downward stroke of the chuck and bit is controlled manually by the operator;
AND
• The chuck and bit automatically rises to the start position when control is released.
     You must:

     • Completely enclose universal joints on spindles of boring machines to prevent accidental contact by the operator.

     • Make sure you do not use safety bit chucks that have projecting set screws.

     • Enclose the top of the cutting chain and driving mechanism.

     • Prevent a counterweight, when used, from dropping by one of the following, or an equivalent method:

     – Securing it to a bar by one of the following:

     &sqbul; A bolt passing through both the bar and the counterweight.

     &sqbul; A bolt through the extreme end of the bar.

     &sqbul; A safety chain to hold it to the bar if the counterweight does not completely encircle the bar;

     OR

     – Suspending it by a chain or wire rope and having it travel in a pipe or other suitable enclosure if it could fall and injure an employee.

Note: Boring bits should be provided with a guard that will enclose all portions of the bit and chuck above the material being worked.

[]

CHIPPER AND HOG MILLS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48050   Follow these requirements for chipper mills.  

Exemption: This section does not apply to mobile chippers.
Reference: Safety requirements for mobile chippers can be found in, Pruning, Repairing, Maintaining and Removing Trees and Cutting Brush, section 9.6, ANSI Z133.1-2000.
     You must:

     (1) Arrange the feed system so the operator does not stand in direct line with the chipper blades or spout (hopper).

     (2) Protect the operator from chips or chunks being thrown out while feeding the machine.

     (3) Enclose the chipper spout to a height or distance of at least forty inches from the floor or the operator's station, whichever is higher.

     (4) Provide a mirror or other device to allow monitoring of material when the operator cannot readily observe the material being fed into the chipper.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48052   Follow these requirements for hog mills.        You must:

     (1) Make sure that feed chutes are at least forty inches from the knives or feed roll.

     (2) Provide baffles or other suitable safeguards to prevent material from being thrown from the hog mill.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48054   Protect employees from falling into chipper and hog mills.  

     You must:

     • Protect employees working near the feed openings of chipper and hog mills from falling into the openings by providing at least one of the following:

     – A safety belt (or harness) and a lifeline short enough to prevent workers from falling into the mill.

     – Barriers or other types of protective guarding.

Reference: See, Railing, toeboards and cover specifications for requirements on guardrails used as barriers, WAC 296-24-75011.

[]

JOINTERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48056   Make sure jointers with horizontal cutting heads meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the cutting head on hand-fed jointers is cylindrical:

     – Install and adjust the knife blade so it does not protrude more than one-eighth inch beyond the body of the head.

     • Make sure the opening in the table meets all of the following:

     – Is kept as small as possible.

     – The clearance between the edge of the rear table and the cutting head is not more than one-eighth inch.

     – The table throat opening is not more than two and one-half inches when the tables are set or aligned with each other for zero cut.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48058   Guard horizontal cutting heads on hand-fed jointers.  

     You must:

     • Provide jointers with an automatic guard on the working side of the fence or gage that does all of the following:

     – Covers all sections of the head.

     – Effectively keeps the operator's hand from contacting the revolving knives.

     – Automatically adjusts to cover the unused portion of the head.

     – Remains in contact with the material at all times.

     • Provide jointers with a guard that covers the section of the head behind the gage or fence.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48060   Guard vertical cutting heads on jointers.  

     You must:

     • Provide each jointer that has a vertical cutting head with an exhaust hood or other type of guard that completely encloses the revolving head except for a slot that is wide enough for the material being jointed.

[]

MOLDING, STICKING AND MATCHING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48062   Make sure molding, sticking and matching machines meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all cutting heads, and saws if used, are covered by a guard that:

     – Is metal.

     – Forms all or part of the exhaust hood if an exhaust system is used.

     • Make sure a guard constructed from:

     – Sheet metal is at least one-sixteenth inch thick.

     – Cast iron is at least three-sixteenths inch thick.

     • Make sure feed rolls are guarded by a hood or other suitable guard that both:

     – Prevents the operator's hand from contacting the in-running rolls at any point;

     AND

     – Is attached to the frame carrying the rolls so it adjusts for any thickness of stock.

[]

PANEL RAISERS AND OTHER SIMILAR MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48064   Guard hand-fed panel raisers and other similar machines.  

     You must:

     • Guard the cutting heads of hand-fed panel raisers and other similar machines by enclosing the cutting head with either:

     – A fixed guard such as a cage;

     OR

     – An adjustable guard designed to keep the operator's hand away from the cutting edge.

[]

PLANERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48066   Make sure planers with a horizontal cutting head meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Make sure the cutting head on hand-fed planers is cylindrical.

     – Install and adjust the knife blade so it does not extend more than one-eighth inch beyond the body of the head.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48068   Guard planers.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all cutting heads, and saws if used, are covered by a guard that:

     – Is metal.

     – Forms all or part of the exhaust hood if an exhaust system is used.

     • Make sure a guard constructed from:

     – Sheet metal is at least one-sixteenth inch thick.

     – Cast iron is at least three-sixteenths inch thick.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48070   Guard planer feed rolls.  

     You must:

     • Make sure feed rolls are guarded by a hood or other suitable guard that:

     – Prevents the operator's hand from contacting the in-running rolls at any point.

     – Is attached to the frame carrying the rolls so it remains in adjustment for any thickness of stock.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48072   Provide kickback protection on planers running stock of varied thicknesses.  

     You must:

     • Provide kickback protection on planers running stock of varied thicknesses at the same time by providing either:

     – Sectional feed rolls that provide feeding contact pressure on the stock;

     OR

     – Suitable nonkickback fingers at the infeed end of each section.

Note: The sectional feed rolls need to have sufficient yield in their construction to provide contact pressure on:
– Any thickness of stock the machine is capable of processing.

[]

SHAPERS
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48074   Make sure shapers meet these requirements.  

     You must:

     • Guard the cutting head of the shaper by enclosing it with either:

     – A fixed guard, such as a cage;

     OR

     – An adjustable guard designed to keep the operator's hand away from the cutting edge.

     • Make sure the diameter of a circular shaper guard is at least as large as the greatest diameter of the cutter.

Note: A warning device of leather or other material attached to the spindle is NOT an acceptable substitute for a guard.
     You must:

     • Guard all sections of the cutting tool except for an opening to allow access to the work piece by the cutting tool.

Note: A ring guard is one means of satisfying the guarding requirement for cutting tools when involved in free hand or template shaping.
     You must:

     • Make sure all double-spindle shapers have a spindle starting and stopping device for each spindle.

[]

TENONING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48076   Guard tenoning machine feed chains and sprockets.  

     You must:

     • Guard feed chains and sprockets of all double-end tenoning machines by completely enclosing both of the following:

     – All sprockets;

     AND

     – Portions of the chain that are not used for conveying stock.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48078   Guard tenoning machines.  

     You must:

     • Make sure all cutting heads, and saws if used, are covered by a metal guard that:

     – Covers at least the unused part of the periphery of the cutting head.

     – Forms all or part of the exhaust hood if an exhaust system is used.

     • Make sure a guard constructed from:

     – Sheet metal is at least one-sixteenth inch thick.

     – Cast iron is at least three-sixteenths inch thick.

[]

VENEER MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48080   Guard veneer cutters and wringer knives.        You must:

     • Provide guards to prevent accidental contact with the front or rear knife edge.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48082   Guard veneer clippers.  

     You must:

     • Make sure employees do not accidentally contact the knife edge of veneer clippers by providing either:

     – An automatic feed;

     OR

     – Guarding at both the front and rear of the clippers.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48084   Follow these requirements for guarding guillotine cutters.  

Exemption: These requirements do not apply to continuous-feed trimmers.
     You must:

     (1) Provide one of the following to hand and foot powered guillotine cutters, so employees' hands cannot reach the cutting edge of the knife:

     • Rods.

     • Plates.

     • Other satisfactory means of protection such as those outlined in, Safeguarding methods, WAC 296-806-20042 through 296-806-20058.

     (2) Provide power-driven guillotine veneer cutters with either of the following:

     • Starting devices for each operator that require all of the following:

     – Both hands activating controls at the same time to start the cutting motion;

     – At least one hand on a control during the complete stroke of the knife;

     OR

     • An automatic guard that does all of the following:

     – Keeps the hands of the operator away from the danger zone every time the blade comes down.

     – Is used in combination with one-handed starting devices that require two separate movements of the device to start the cutting motion.

     – Is designed to return positively to the nonstarting position after each complete cycle of the knife.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48086   Provide mechanisms to stop power-driven guillotine cutters.  

Exemption: This requirement does not apply to continuous-feed trimmers.
     You must:

     • Provide power-driven guillotine cutters with both:

     – Brakes or other stopping mechanism;

     AND

     – An emergency device that will prevent the machine from operating if the brake fails when the starting mechanism is in the nonstarting position.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48088   Prohibit riders on veneer slicer carriages.  

     You must:

     • Prohibit employees from riding on veneer slicer carriages.

[]

SEWING MACHINES
NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-485   Summary.   In addition to the requirements in this section, you need to refer to the following sections of this chapter in order to fully protect your employees from machine hazards:

     • Requirements for all machines, WAC 296-806-200 and 296-806-300.

     This section applies to the hazards of needle injuries from domestic or light duty sewing machines.

     Your responsibility:

     To protect employees from hazards associated with sewing machines.

     You must:

     Guard sewing machine needles

     WAC 296-806-48502.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-48502   Guard sewing machine needles.  

Exemption: This section does not apply to domestic-type sewing machines having a presser-foot that is in the "down" position during operation of the machine.
     You must:

     • Provide a permanently attached guard on each sewing machine that:

     – Prevents the operator's fingers from passing under the needle.

     – Allows the needle to be conveniently threaded without removing the guard.

Reference: For specific requirements about safeguarding sewing machine belts can be found in, Safeguard belt and rope drives, WAC 296-806-30004.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 296-806-500   Definitions.  

     Abrasive wheel

     A grinding tool consisting of bonded abrasive grains. This includes diamond and reinforced wheels.

     Adjustable barrier guard

     A barrier guard with provisions for adjustment to accommodate various jobs or tooling set-ups.

     Air-lift hammer

     A type of gravity drop hammer in which the ram is raised for each stroke by an air cylinder. Because the length of stroke can be controlled, ram velocity, and therefore the energy delivered to the work piece, can be varied.

     Antirepeat

     A device that limits the machine to a single stroke if the activating means is held in the operative position.

     Arbor

     A rotating shaft used for mounting and transmitting torque to a cutting tool.

     Authorized person

     Someone the employer has given the authority and responsibility to perform a specific assignment.

     Awareness barrier

     A barrier device that allows more access to the hazard area, but still restricts access enough to warn of an approaching hazard.

     Barricade

     A barrier such as a guardrail, fence, or other framework designed to prevent employee access and exposure to a hazard.

     Barrier guard

     A barrier that provides a physical restriction from a hazard.

     Belt conveyors

     An endless belt of any material, operating over suitable pulleys to move materials placed on the belt.

     Belt pole

     A device used in shifting belts on and off fixed pulleys on line or countershaft where there are no loose pulleys. Belt poles are sometimes called "belt shippers" or "shipper poles."

     Belt shifter

     A device for mechanically shifting belts from tight to loose idler pulleys or vice versa, or for shifting belts on cones of speed pulleys.

     Bench grinder

     A bench mounted off-hand grinding machine with either one or two wheels mounted on a horizontal spindle.

     Bending

     The application of stress concentrated at specific points to permanently turn, press or force from a straight, level or flat condition to a curved or angular configuration.

     Blade

     A replaceable tool having one or more cutting edges for shearing, notching or coping.

     Blanking

     To bypass a portion of the sensing field of a presence-sensing device. The purpose is to allow objects such as tooling, feed stock, and work pieces to pass through the sensing field without sending a stop signal to the controlled machine. There are two blanking modes: Fixed and floating.

     Blind hole

     A hole drilled in an object, such as an abrasive wheel, that does not go all the way through the object.

     Blotter

     A compressible disc or washer, usually of blotting paper, plastic, cardboard, or gasket material, that is used between the wheel and the flanges to evenly distribute flange pressure on the wheel.

     Board hammer

     A type of gravity drop hammer where wood boards attached to the ram are raised vertically by action of contrarotating rolls, and then released. Energy for forging is obtained by the mass and velocity of the freely falling ram and the attached upper die.

     Bolster plate

     Plate attached to the press bed having holes, T-slots, or other means for attaching the lower die or die shoe.

     Brake

     Mechanism for stopping or preventing motion.

     Chain conveyor

     A conveyor in which one or more chains (including those with paddles or bars attached to them) move the conveyor. Specific examples of chain conveyors include drag, rolling, pusher bar, pusher chain and sliding chain conveyors.

     Channel blanking

     A feature that allows a safety light curtain system to be programmed to ignore objects. Also called "fixed blanking."

     Chipper

     A machine that cuts material into chips.

     Chuck

     A revolving clamp-like device used for holding and driving the work piece.

     Clutch

     A mechanism to couple the flywheel to the crankshaft. When engaged, it allows the driving force to be transmitted to the press slide.

     Comb

     See feather board.

     Concurrent

     Occurring at the same time.

     Cone pulley

     A pulley having two or more steps in a conical shape for driving machinery.

     Cone and plug wheels (Types 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19)

     Abrasive wheels manufactured with blind hole threaded bushings. They may be used on all surfaces except the flat mounting surface. Specific characteristics of the different cone and plug wheels are:

     • Type 16 cones have a curved side with a nose radius.

     • Type 17 cones have straight sides with or without a nose radius.

     • Type 18 and 18R plug wheels are cylindrical in shape with either a square or curved grinding end.

     • Type 19 cone wheels are a combination of cone and plug shapes.

     Control system

     Sensors, manual input and mode selection elements, interlocking and decision-making circuitry, and output elements of the press-operating devices and mechanisms.

     Coping-notching

     Where the edge or periphery of the work piece is sheared.

     Counterbalance

     Mechanism used to balance or support the weight of the connecting rods, slide, and slide attachments.

     Cutting-off wheels

     Abrasive wheels used to cut material such as masonry, pipe, etc.

     Cutting tool or saw blade

     A tool used on a metal sawing machine.

     Cycle

     The complete movement of the ram from its starting position and return to that same starting position.

     Dado

     A straight-sided groove, perpendicular to the face of the work piece, having a width greater than the thickness of a single saw blade.

     Device

     A control or attachment that is any of the following:

     • Restrains the operator from inadvertently reaching into the hazardous area.

     • Prevents normal or hazardous operation if any part of an individual's body is inadvertently within the hazardous area.

     • Automatically withdraws the operator's hands, if the operator's hands are inadvertently within the hazardous area during the hazardous portion of the machine cycle.

     • Maintains the operator or the operator's hands during the hazardous portion of the machine cycle at a safe distance from the hazardous area.

     Die or dies

     Tooling used in a press for shearing, punching, forming, drawing, or assembling metal or other material.

     Die enclosure guard

     Guard attached to the die shoe or stripper in a fixed position.

     Die setter

     A person who installs or removes dies from the press, and makes the necessary adjustments so the tooling functions properly and safely.

     Die setting

     Process of installing or removing dies, and adjusting the dies, other tooling and the safeguarding guards or devices.

     Die shoe

     Plate or block that a die holder is mounted on. It functions primarily as a base for the complete die assembly and, if used, is bolted or clamped to the bolster plate or the face of the slide.

     Die shutheight

     Actual or design dimension between the mounting surfaces of a die.

     Divider

     A machine that mechanically divides the dough into pieces of predetermined volume or weight.

     Dough sheeter

     See sheeter.

     Dressed

     When material is removed from the cutting surfaces of an abrasive wheel to expose new sharp cutting surfaces.

     Drilling/boring machine

     A single or multiple spindle machine that uses a rotating cylindrical tool such as a drill, a counterboring tool, and similar tools to produce a hole, blind hole, counterbore, countersink, and similar cavities in work pieces. A work support means is provided to feed the tool into the work piece or the work piece into the tool.

     Dross

     Waste product or impurities formed on the surface of molten metal.

     Dump bin and blender

     That part of the flour handling system where the containers of flour are emptied.

     Face of the slide

     Surface of the slide to which the punch or upper die is generally attached.

     Feather board/comb

     A work-guiding and hold-down device consisting of stock with a series of spring-like fingers along the edge, set and positioned at an angle to the work piece.

     Feeding

     Placing material in or removing it from the point of operation.

     Fence

     A device used to locate and guide a work piece relative to the cutting tool.

     Fixed barricade

     A guard attached to a fixed surface used to enclose a hazardous area and prevent employees from placing any part of their body into the point of operation.

     Fixed barrier guard

     A guard attached to the frame, bolster, or other surface to enclose all or part of the point of operation or other hazard area.

     Fixed blade

     A stationary blade having one or more cutting edges.

     Fixed blanking

     A feature that allows a safety light curtain system to be programmed to ignore objects. Also called "channel blanking."

     Fixture/jig

     A device used to locate, hold, or clamp one or more work pieces in a desired position.

     Flanges

     Collars, discs, or plates between or against which wheels are mounted. There are four types of flanges:

     • Adaptor.

     • Sleeve.

     • Straight relieved.

     • Straight unrelieved.

     Floating blanking (floating window)

     A feature that allows a safety light curtain system to be programmed to ignore the interruption of one or two beams within the light curtain. This allows the feeding of an object through the defined area at any point along the length of the curtain without causing it to produce a stop signal.

     Floorstand grinder

     A floor mounted, off-hand grinding machine with one or two wheels mounted on a horizontal spindle. The wheels are normally twenty-four inches or thirty inches in diameter and used for snagging operations.

     Forging

     Metal formed to a desired shape by impact or pressure in hammers, forging machines (upsetters), presses, rolls, and related forming equipment. Forging hammers, counterblow equipment, and high-energy-rate forging machines impart impact to the work piece, while most other types of forging equipment impart squeeze pressure in shaping the stock. Some metals can be forged at room temperature, but the majority of metals are made more plastic for forging with heat. Forged or drop forged parts are much stronger than poured or cast parts from foundries.

     Forging presses

     A class of forging equipment where the shaping of metal between dies is performed by mechanical or hydraulic pressure and usually is accomplished with a single workstroke of the press for each die station.

     Full revolution clutch

     Type of clutch that, when engaged, cannot be disengaged until the press has completed a single cycle (stroke).

     Gage

     See miter gage.

     Gap (throat)

     An opening or recess in the frame of the machine to permit positioning of material or work pieces.

     Gate or movable barrier device

     Safeguarding device that encloses the point of operation before press motion can be initiated.

     Guard (abrasive wheels)

     An enclosure designed to restrain the pieces of an abrasive wheel and furnish protection to the operator if the wheel is broken during operation.

     Guard

     A barrier that does at least one of the following:

     • Prevents the hands or other body part from reaching through, over, under, or around the guard into the hazard area.

     • Prevents objects or debris from falling onto or being ejected towards an employee.

     Guidepost

     The pin attached to the upper or lower die shoe. It operates within the bushing on the opposing die shoe to maintain the alignment of the upper and lower dies.

     Hazard

     A condition that could cause physical harm to a person.

     Hazard area

     An area or space that poses an immediate or impending physical hazard.

     Hog

     A machine used for cutting or grinding slabs and other coarse residue from the mill.

     Horizontal lathe

     A turning machine in which the work piece revolves about a horizontal axis. While the work is revolving, it is being shaped by cutting tools working either parallel to the axis of the work or at an angle to the axis of the work.

     Idler (pulley)

     A pulley or roller on a shaft that presses against or rests on a drive belt to guide it or take up slack.

     Inch

     Die setting mode that engages the driving clutch so a small portion of one cycle (stroke) occurs, depending upon the length of time the operator control is held actuated.

     Indirect recirculating ovens

     Ovens that are equipped with a gas-tight duct system, a furnace, and a circulating fan. Combustion gases are circulated through this enclosed system and mixed with fresh combustion gases generated by the burner in the combustion chamber. A vent or overflow removes a portion of the gases to make room for the fresh gases added by the burner. No unburned gases or products of combustion enter the baking chamber.

     Interlocked barrier guard

     Barrier attached to the press frame and interlocked with the press control system so the press stroke cannot be started normally unless the guard, or its hinged or movable sections, enclose the point of operation.

     Inverted swing and jump saws

     Saws with a saw blade starting position below the table, where the blade must travel through the horizontal plane of the tabletop to make the cut on the stock.

     Ironworker

     A machine with multiple workstations at which various operations may be performed singly or simultaneously, including but not limited to:

     • Punching;

     • Shearing;

     • Notching;

     • Coping; and

     • Forming.

     Jig

     See fixture.

     Jog

     Die setting mode where intermittent motion is imparted to the slide by momentary operation of the drive motor after the flywheel is at rest and the clutch is engaged.

     Jointer

     A machine that has a cylindrical cutter head with more than one knife or cutting edge. It has an adjustable in-feed means of work support, or an adjustable cutter head or knives, as well as a fence or other work piece guide.

     Jump saw

     A machine that utilizes a means of work support and hold down, and has a powered arbor on an arm that pivots about a point located behind the saw arbor at approximately the same height. At rest position the saw blade is below the work piece. See inverted swing and jump saws.

     Kerf

     The slot made by a saw blade as it saws through a work piece.

     Kickback

     The uncontrolled propulsion or self-feed type action of a work piece in the direction of the rotation or travel of the working portion of the saw, cutting tool, sanding belt, or sanding head.

     Live roller conveyor

     A series of rollers with objects moving over them through power to all or some of the rollers. The power is usually transmitted by a belt or chain.

     Mandrel

     Tooling or a machine component used to provide internal support. It can be a spindle or shaft on which a tool is mounted, such as a drill bit.

     Manlift

     A device consisting of a power-driven endless belt moving in one direction only, and provided with steps or platforms and handholds attached to it for the transportation of personnel from floor to floor.

     Manual feeding

     The operator puts material or the part being processed into the press for each cycle (stroke).

     Maximum exposure angle

     The largest part of a wheel that does not need to be covered by a safety guard.

     Miter gage

     A device used as a work piece pusher, guided by a table groove.

     Miter saw

     A cutoff saw with a means of work support. It utilizes a powered arbor on an arm that pivots about a point located behind the saw arbor at approximately the same height. The saw arbor may also slide vertically. In the at-rest position, the saw blade is above the maximum capacity work piece.

     Mode

     The state or condition of the control system that allows specific operations of the machine.

     Modified Types 6 and 11 wheels (terrazzo)

     Similar to Type 6 "straight cup" wheels and Type 11 "flaring cup" wheels except for the bottom of the cup. The bottom of the cup is flat in Type 6 and 11 wheels. The modified wheels have bottoms that are sloped downwards towards the mounting hole. These modified wheels need to be mounted using a special tapered flange furnished by the tool manufacturer. These wheels are used in the terrazzo trade.

     Molding machine

     A machine that uses more than one arbor-mounted cylindrical, rotating cutting tool. It also uses power feeding, where once a work piece is engaged, it carries the work piece linearly through the balance of the intended operations, without further operator action. Operations can be performed on all surfaces of a work piece. Work pieces can be hopper- or hand-loaded and are fed ribbon-style into the machine.

     Mortiser

     A machine designed to produce a square or rectangular cavity through use of a moving, forming, or reciprocating tool. Means are provided to clamp and support the stock, and either move the stock into the tool or the tool into the stock.

     Moulder

     A machine in which the dough pieces are shaped and formed prior to final proofing.

     Mounted wheels

     Bonded abrasive wheels of various shapes, usually two inches diameter or smaller, that are secured to plain or threaded steel shafts or mandrels.

     Movable barrier device

     See gate or movable barrier device.

     Nip-point belt and pulley guard

     A guard that encloses the pulley and has rounded or rolled edge slots for the belt to pass through.

     Off-hand grinding

     Grinding of a work piece that is held in the operator's hand.

     Overland conveyor

     A single or series of belt conveyors designed to carry bulk material long distances, usually following the general contour of the land.

     Part revolution clutch

     Type of clutch that can be disengaged before the press slide completes a full stroke.

     Pedestal grinder

     An off-hand grinding machine similar to a bench grinder mounted on or otherwise attached to a floor-mounted pedestal.

     Pinch point

     Any point, other than the point of operation, where it is possible for a part of the body to be caught between moving parts or between a moving part and stationary one.

     Planer

     A machine with at least one cylindrical cutter head, that includes one or more inserted knife or cutting edge. A planer has a cutter head mounted over a means of work support. It also uses either an adjustable work support or cutter head to size the stock. The work piece is usually power-fed.

     Point of operation

     The area on a machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed.

     Power-driven hammers

     Types of drop hammers in which the ram is raised for each stroke by a double-action steam, air, or hydraulic cylinder, and the energy delivered to the work piece is supplied by the velocity and weight of the ram and attached upper die driven downward by steam, air, or hydraulic pressure. Energy delivered during each stroke may be varied.

     Power transmission parts

     The mechanical components of a piece of equipment that, together with a source of power (sometimes referred to as a prime mover), provide the motion to a part of a machine or piece of equipment.

     Presence-sensing device

     A device that creates a sensing field, area, or plane to detect the presence of an individual or object.

     Presence-sensing device initiation (PSDI)

     Operating mode of a mechanical power press where a single cycle (stroke) is initiated by a presence-sensing device when it senses that the operator has finished feeding or removing parts and all parts of the operator's body are withdrawn from the sensing field of the device.

     Pull-back device

     A device attached to the operator's hands and connected to the upper die or slide of the press that will pull the operator's hands out of the point of operation as the dies close.

     Push block

     A nonmetallic device with one or more handles. A push block also has a flat bottom surface with either a heel or friction material on it, used as a hold-down and feed device. The purpose of this is to provide a safe distance between the hands and the cutting tool.

     Pusher-bar conveyor

     Two endless chains cross-connected at intervals by bars or pushers that propel the load along the bed or trough.

     Push stick

     A nonmetallic stick shaped device designed to provide a safe distance between the hands and the cutting tool. It has, as part of its design, a notched end with a heel and toe to hold down and feed the work piece past the cutting tool.

     Racks

     Carriers of pans, panned dough and bakery products. They are usually constructed of metal and mounted on casters or provided with trolleys for use on a monorail system.

     Reinforced wheels

     Organic bonded abrasive wheels which have webbing, fabric or filament to provide resistance to complete breaking of the wheel should it become cracked or damaged.

     Repeat

     An unintended or unexpected successive stroke of the press resulting from a malfunction.

     Restraint device

     A device with attachments for the operator's hands and wrists that prevent the operator from reaching into the hazardous area.

     Return-belt idlers

     A roller that supports the return run of the conveyor belt.

     Ripping

     A sawing operation made through the thickness of the work piece with the grain of natural wood, along the long dimension of a rectangular work piece, and usually parallel to that edge on reconstituted wood products. Two or more pieces result from the operation.

     Rivet-making machines

     The same as upsetters and bolt-headers when producing rivets with stock diameter of one inch or more.

     Riving knife

     See spreader.

     SFPM

     See surface feet per minute.

     Safeguarding by location

     Because of its location, no employee can inadvertently come in contact with a hazard during operation, maintenance, or servicing.

     Safeguarding by distance

     Employees are kept far enough from a hazard that they will not contact or be injured by the hazard.

     Safeguarding device

     See device.

     Safety block

     A prop inserted between the upper and lower dies or between the bolster plate and the face of the slide to prevent the slide from falling of its own weight.

     Safety cylinder

     This safety device may be of the direct cushion type integral with the main cylinder or it may be of the separate cushion type whereby a constant supply of live steam or air is applied behind a separate piston adjacent to the main cylinder. A spring, suitably constrained, may also be employed.

     Safety cylinder head

     An air cushion at the top of the hammer, just below the head, to protect the head from damage by the piston.

     Scale

     Any layer or leaf of metal resembling the scale of a fish in size and thinness; such as a scale of iron.

     Screw conveyor

     A screw or auger that revolves in a suitably shaped trough or casing, used to move material in one specific direction.

     Shaper

     A machine that uses one or more vertical spindles that are either fixed or able to be tilted, usually with an arbor mounted rotating cylindrical cutter, to form decorative or functional forms on a manually or power-fed work piece. The work piece is supported on a stationary or moving table. A guide, fixture, or template is used to control the operation. The spindle can be mounted above or below the work support means.

     Sheeter

     A machine that forms dough into a sheet by compression through one or more sets of driven rolls.

     Sifter

     A device that sifts flour. Sifter types are brush, oscillating, or vibrating.

     Single stroke mechanism

     Used on a full revolution clutch to limit the travel of the slide to one complete stroke at each engagement of the clutch.

     Slat and roller slat conveyor

     A conveyor employing one or more endless chains to which nonoverlapping, noninterlocking, spaced slats are attached.

     Slide

     Part of the press that moves back and forth in a straight line. Also called a ram, plunger, or platen.

     Snagging

     Grinding which removes relatively large amounts of material without regard to close tolerances or surface finish.

     Spreader

     A flat metal device slightly narrower than the saw kerf. It is designed to prevent the saw blade kerf in the work piece from closing on the sides of the blade during a sawing operation.

     Steam hammers

     A type of drop hammer where the ram is raised for each stroke by a double-action steam cylinder and the energy delivered to the work piece is supplied by the velocity and weight of the ram and attached upper die driven downward by steam pressure. Energy delivered during each stroke may be varied.

     Stripper

     A mechanism or die part for removing parts or material from the punch.

     Surface feet per minute (SFPM)

     A measure of the speed of a point on the periphery (outer edge) of an abrasive wheel. It is calculated using the formula:

     SFPM = .262 x diameter of the wheel (in inches) x RPM (revolutions per minute)

     Example:

     Wheel diameter = 24 inches

     Spindle speed = 1000 RPM

     SFPM = .262 x 24 x 1000 = 3,144 SFPM

     Sweep device

     A single or double arm (rod) attached to the upper die or slide of the press that is designed to move the operator's hands to a safe position as the dies close. Sweep devices are not allowed for point-of-operation safeguarding.

     Swing saw/overhead swing cutoff saw

     A machine with a means of work support using a powered arbor and circular saw blade that pivots about a point located above the saw arbor.

     Tenoning machine

     A machine designed to use two or more cylindrical cutters, or one or two circular saws, to size or prepare (or both) the ends of a work piece. The work piece is supported on a table or conveying means. A means for clamping the work piece is provided.

     Terrazzo

     A material of stone chips, such as marble, set in mortar and polished.

     Threaded hole wheels

     Abrasive wheels that have one central threaded bushing, securely anchored in place. They are mounted by being screwed onto a threaded machine spindle so that the wheel back seats firmly against an unrelieved flat back flange.

     Tongs

     Metal holder used to handle hot or cold forgings.

     Tongue guard

     An integral part of a safety guard that is located where the upper exposed part of the abrasive wheel meets the safety guard. It can be adjusted as necessary to maintain a set distance from the constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel.

     Tooling

     Elements for guiding or imparting a desired configuration to the material.

     Top grinding

     Grinding done above the horizontal centerline of the wheel.

     Towed conveyor

     An endless chain supported by trolleys from an overhead track or running in a track on the floor with means for towing floor-supported trucks, dollies, or carts.

     Trimming presses

     A class of auxiliary forging equipment that removes flash (metal splash) or excess metal from a forging. This trimming operation can also be done cold, as in can coining, a product-sizing operation.

     Trip (or tripping)

     Momentary actuation of the activating control to initiate the cycle (stroke).

     Trued

     When the cutting surfaces of an abrasive wheel have been reshaped to expose new sharp cutting surfaces.

     Turnover bar

     A bar used in die setting to manually turn the crankshaft of the press.

     Two-hand device

     A device that requires the concurrent use of both of the operator's hands to both initiate and continue the machine cycle during the hazardous portion of the machine cycle.

     Two-hand trip device

     A device that requires concurrent operation of the trip controls or levers by the operator's hands to initiate the machine cycle.

     Type A movable gate

     A device that encloses the hazardous area when the machine cycles and does not open until the end of the cycle.

     Type B movable gate

     A device that encloses the hazardous area when the machine cycles and opens when hazardous motion of the cycle is over. Type B devices are not allowed on full revolution type machinery.

     Type 1 wheel

     An abrasive wheel shaped like a disc with a mounting hole in the middle. Sometimes called a "straight wheel." It has diameter (D), thickness (T), and hole size (H) dimensions. Grinding is normally done on the periphery (outside curve) of the wheel (T dimension). Can be used for grinding, cutting-off, and tuck pointing.

     Type 2 wheel

     An abrasive wheel shaped like an open-ended, hollow cylinder. Sometimes called a cylinder wheel. It has diameter (measured from the outer wall of the cylinder), wheel thickness (height of the cylinder), and rim thickness (thickness of the cylinder wall). Grinding is done on the end of the cylinder (rim thickness dimension).

     Type 6 wheel

     An abrasive wheel shaped like a straight-sided cup or bowl with a mounting hole in the bottom of the cup. Sometimes called a "cup wheel." It has diameter (D), thickness (T), hole size (H), rim thickness (W), and back thickness (E) dimensions. Grinding is normally done on the cup rim (W dimension).

     Type 11 wheel

     An abrasive wheel shaped like a cup or bowl with a mounting hole in the bottom of the cup. The sides of the cup are not straight-sided but are angled outward. Sometimes called a "flaring cup wheel" since the sides are "flared" out. It has double diameter dimensions (top D and bottom J). It also has thickness (T), hole size (H), rim thickness (W) and back thickness (E) dimensions. Grinding is normally done on the cup rim (W dimension).

     Type 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19 wheels

     See cone and plug wheels.

     Type 27 wheel

     An abrasive wheel similar to a Type 1 wheel, but the center of the wheel around the mounting hole is pushed back (depressed). Sometimes called a "depressed center" wheel. It has diameter (D), thickness (U) and hole size (H) dimensions. The depressed center allows grinding on the flat surface of the wheel without interference from the flange or mounting hardware.

     Type 27A cutting-off wheel

     Similar to a Type 27 wheel. Specifically designed for use on cutting-off machines.

     Type 28 wheel

     An abrasive wheel similar to a Type 27 wheel, but the face of the wheel is angled upward and away from the mounting hole. The face of a Type 27 wheel is flat and perpendicular to the mounting hole. A Type 28 wheel is also called a "depressed center" wheel. It has diameter (D), thickness (U) and hole size (H) dimensions. The depressed center allows grinding without interference from the mounting. A Type 28 wheel has a saucer-shaped grinding rim and is designed for corner grinding and side grinding.

     Type 29 wheel

     An abrasive wheel that has reversed, saucer-shaped grinding rims (similar to a partially opened umbrella).

     Unitized tooling

     A die that has the upper and lower members incorporated into a self-contained unit that holds the die members in alignment.

     Upsetters (or forging machines, or headers)

     A type of forging equipment, related to the mechanical press, in which the main forming energy is applied horizontally to the work piece that is gripped and held by prior action of the dies.

     Wood products

     Wood products include wood and reconstituted wood products that generate chips or dust in the processing of a wood piece.

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