LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Machine
safety, respirators and respiratory hazards, the department
recently adopted chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety; chapter 296-841 WAC, Respiratory hazards; and chapter 296-842 WAC,
Respirators. The department will update references to these
rules throughout the L&I WAC sections. See Purpose below.
THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED UNDER AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS USE OF THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Carmen Moore, Rule Coordinator, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44001, Olympia, WA 98504-4001 , AND RECEIVED BY May 24, 2005.
Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: The purpose of this proposal is to update references throughout L&I WAC sections: WAC 296-54-51150 Respiratory protection, 296-56-60110 Respiratory protection, 296-78-665 Sanding machines, 296-78-71015 Tanks and chemicals, 296-78-84005 Dry kilns, 296-79-29007 Bleach plant, 296-155-17625 Employee information and training, 296-155-525 Cranes and Derricks, 296-155-655 General protection requirements, 296-304-09007 Respiratory protection, 296-305-04001 Respiratory equipment protection, and 296-305-05503 Summary of training requirements. There are no anticipated effects.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: The department recently adopted chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety; chapter 296-841 WAC, Respiratory hazards; and chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators. The department needs to update references to these rules throughout other L&I WAC sections.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.
Name of Proponent: Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Michael Wood, Tumwater, (360) 902-5495.
March 22, 2005
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-54-51150 Respiratory protection. The employer must provide respiratory protection when required by ((
general occupational health standards,)) chapter 296-842 WAC,
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-54-51150, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-17-117, § 296-54-51150, filed 8/18/99, effective 12/1/99.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-56-60110 Respiratory protection. The respiratory protection requirements of ((
occupational health standards,)) chapter 296-842 WAC,
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-56-60110, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60110, filed 1/17/86; 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60110, filed 12/11/84.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-78-665 Sanding machines. (1) Each belt sanding machine shall have both pulleys enclosed in such a manner as to guard the points where the belt runs onto the pulleys. The edges of the unused run of belt shall be enclosed or otherwise guarded from contact by employees.
(2) Each drum sanding machine shall be provided with a guard so arranged as to completely enclose the revolving drum except such portion required for the application of the material to be finished. Guards with hinges to facilitate the insertion of sandpaper may be installed. The exhaust hood may form part or all of this guard. When so used, the hood shall conform to the specifications as given under exhaust systems in WAC 296-78-710.
(3) All standard stationary sanding machines shall be provided with exhaust systems in conformity with the section of this code dealing with exhaust systems.
(4) All portable sanding machines shall be provided with
means of removing excessive dust, or employees using equipment
shall be provided with such necessary respiratory protective
equipment as will conform to the requirements of ((
occupational health standards,)) chapter 296-842 WAC,
(5) The requirements of WAC ((
machines] [296-24-16533, general safety and health
standards])) 296-806-475, sanding machines, shall be
applicable to sanding machines.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-78-665, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-14-028, § 296-78-665, filed 6/29/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-10-071, § 296-78-665, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-665, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-665, filed 8/27/81.]
(2) Foundations of elevated tanks shall be accessible for inspections. When the tank platform is more than five feet above the ground a stairway or ladder shall be permanently attached.
(3) Every open tank over five feet in height shall be equipped with fixed standard ladders both inside and out, extending from the bottom to the rim of the tank arranged to be accessible to each other, so far as local conditions permit.
(4) The use of chemicals for treating of lumber for prevention of sap stain or mold or as preservatives, shall conform to the requirements of chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks).
(a) Storage, handling, and use of chemicals. Threshold
limits. Employees shall not be exposed to airborne
concentration of toxic dusts, vapors, mists or gases that
exceed the threshold limit values set forth in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part H, and chapter ((
296-62 WAC, Part E, general
occupational health standards)) 296-841 WAC, Respiratory
(b) Protective equipment. The use of chemicals shall be
controlled so as to protect employees from harmful exposure to
toxic materials. Where necessary, employees shall be provided
with and required to wear such protective equipment as will
afford adequate protection against harmful exposure as
required by WAC 296-800-160, and chapter 296-842 WAC,
general occupational health standards)) Respirators.
(5)(a) Means shall be provided and used to collect any excess of chemicals used in treating lumber so as to protect workers from accidental contact with harmful concentrations of toxic chemicals or fumes.
(b) Dip tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids shall be constructed, maintained and used in accordance with chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks).
(c) An evacuation plan shall be developed and implemented for all employees working in the vicinity of dip tanks using flammable and/or combustible liquids. A copy of the plan shall be available at the establishment for inspection at all times. Every employee shall be made aware of the evacuation plan and know what to do in the event of an emergency and be evacuated in accordance with the plan. The plan shall be reviewed with employees at least quarterly and documented.
(d) When automatic foam, automatic carbon dioxide or automatic dry chemical extinguishing systems are used, an alarm device shall be activated to alert employees in the dip tank area before and during the activation of the system. The following combinations of extinguishment systems when used in conjunction with the evacuation plan as stated above will be acceptable in lieu of bottom drains:
(i) A dip tank cover with an automatic foam extinguishing system under the cover, or an automatic carbon dioxide system, or an automatic dry chemical extinguishing system, or an automatic water spray extinguishing system;
(ii) An automatic dry chemical extinguishing system with an automatic carbon dioxide system or a second automatic dry chemical extinguishing system or an automatic foam extinguishing system;
(iii) An automatic carbon dioxide system with a second automatic carbon dioxide system or an automatic foam extinguishing system.
(e) The automatic water spray extinguishing systems, automatic foam extinguishing systems, and dip tank covers shall conform with the requirements of chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks). The automatic carbon dioxide systems and dry chemical extinguishing system shall conform with the requirements of WAC 296-24-615 and 296-24-620.
(6) Where workers are engaged in the treating of lumber with chemicals or are required to handle lumber or other materials so treated, the workers shall be provided with, at no cost to the worker, and required to use such protective equipment as will provide complete protection against contact with toxic chemicals or fumes therefrom.
(7) Sanitation requirements. The requirements of WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230 (safety and health core rules), shall govern sanitation practices.
(8) The sides of steam vats and soaking pits unless otherwise guarded shall extend forty-two inches above the floor level. The floor adjacent thereto shall be of nonslip construction.
(9) Large steam vats or soaking pits, divided into sections, shall be provided with substantial walkways between each section, each walkway to be provided with standard railings which may be removable if necessary.
(10) Covers shall be removed only from that portion of the steaming vats on which workers are working and a portable railing shall be placed at this point to protect the operators.
(11) Workers shall not ride or step on logs in steam vats.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-78-71015, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 02-15-102, § 296-78-71015, filed 7/17/02, effective 10/1/02; 01-11-038, § 296-78-71015, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-71015, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-78-71015, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-71015, filed 8/27/81.]
(a) Main kiln doors. Main kiln doors shall be provided with a method of holding them open while kiln is being loaded.
(b) Counterweights on vertical lift doors shall be boxed or otherwise guarded.
(c) Means shall be provided to firmly secure main doors, when they are disengaged from carriers and hangers, to prevent toppling.
(3) Kilns whose operation requires inside inspection
shall be maintained with not less than eighteen inches
clearance between loaded cars and the walls of the kiln. The
requirements for personal protective equipment specified in
WAC 296-800-160, safety and health core rules, and chapter 296-842 WAC, ((
general occupational health standards))
Respirators, shall be complied with.
(4) Kiln loads shall be equipped or arranged for easy attachment and detachment of transfer cables. Means for stopping kiln cars shall be available at all times.
(5) Cars shall not be moved until tracks are clear and workers are out of the bight of transfer lines.
(6) When kiln or dolly loads of lumber are permitted to coast through or adjacent to any work area, audible warning shall be given.
(7) Stickers shall not be allowed to protrude more than two inches from the sides of kiln stacks.
(8) Yards and storage areas shall be kept reasonably free of debris and unnecessary obstruction. Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted wherever there is danger from moving vehicles or equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-78-84005, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-78-84005, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-84005, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-78-84005, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-84005, filed 8/27/81.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-79-29007 Bleach plant. (1) Work areas used for preparation and processing of bleaching mixtures must be equipped with properly designed exhaust ventilation systems capable of clearing the area of toxic gases. See chapters 296-62 and 296-841 WAC((
, Part L)).
(2) Bleaching containers, such as cells, towers, etc., except the Bellmer type, must be completely covered on the top, with the exception of one small opening large enough to allow filling but too small to admit a person.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-79-29007, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-16-083, § 296-79-29007, filed 8/3/99, effective 11/3/99; Order 74-24, § 296-79-29007, filed 5/6/74.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-155-17625 Employee information and training. (1) General.
(a) The employer shall communicate information concerning lead hazards according to the requirements of WISHA's Hazard Communication Standard for the construction industry, chapter 296-800 WAC, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:
(b) For all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level on any day or who are subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), the employer shall provide a training program in accordance with subsection (2) of this section and assure employee participation.
(c) The employer shall provide the training program as initial training prior to the time of job assignment or prior to the start up date for this requirement, whichever comes last.
(d) The employer shall also provide the training program at least annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above the action level on any day.
(2) Training program. The employer shall assure that each employee is trained in the following:
(a) The content of this standard and its appendices;
(b) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;
(c) The training requirements for respiratory protection
as required by ((
chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E (see)) WAC 296-842-110, 296-842-19005, and 296-842-16005(( )));
(d) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant);
(e) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment including training of employees to follow relevant good work practices described in Appendix B, WAC 296-155-17652;
(f) The contents of any compliance plan in effect;
(g) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician; and
(h) The employee's right of access to records under Part B, chapter 296-62 WAC and chapter 296-800 WAC.
(3) Access to information and training materials.
(a) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.
(b) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to affected employees and their designated representatives, and the director.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-155-17625, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-155-17625, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; 99-10-071, § 296-155-17625, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17625, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]
Accessory - a secondary part or assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine.
Administrative or regulatory authority - a governmental agency, or the employer in the absence of governmental jurisdiction.
Angle indicator (boom) - an accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal.
Appointed - assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
Authorized person - means a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or be at a specific location or locations at the workplace.
Auxiliary hoist - a secondary hoist rope system used either in conjunction with, or independently of, the main hoist system.
Axis of rotation - the vertical axis around which the crane superstructure rotates.
Axle - the shaft or spindle with which or about which a wheel rotates. On wheel-mounted cranes it refers to a type of axle assembly including housings, gearing, differential, bearings, and mounting appurtenances.
Axle (bogie) - two or more axles mounted in tandem in a frame so as to divide the load between the axles and permit vertical oscillation of the wheels.
Ballast - weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads (the term ballast is normally associated with locomotive cranes).
Base, anchor bolt - a crane base that is bolted to a footing.
Base, expendable - for static-mounting cranes, a style of bottom mast section or member that is cast into a concrete footing block; all or part of this component is lost to future installations.
Base, fixed - a crane base that does not travel. It may be expendable, knee braced, or anchor bolted.
Base (mounting) - the traveling base on which the rotating superstructure of a locomotive or crawler crane is mounted.
Base, tower crane - the lowermost supporting component of the crane.
Base, travel - a crane base that is a ballasted platform mounted on trucks that ride along rails.
Boom (crane) - a member hinged at the rotating superstructure and used for supporting the existing tackle.
Boom angle - the angle above or below horizontal of the longitudinal axis of the base boom section.
Boom hoist mechanism - means for supporting the boom and controlling the boom angle.
Boom point - the outer extremity of the crane boom, containing the hoist sheave assembly.
Boom point sheave assembly - an assembly of sheaves and pin built as an integral part of the boom point.
Boom stop - a device used to limit the angle of the boom at the highest recommended position.
Brake - a device used for retarding or stopping motion.
Brace, tower - a structural attachment placed between a crane tower and an adjacent structure to pass loads to the adjacent structure and permit the crane to be erected to greater than free standing height.
Buffer - an energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel.
Cab - a housing which covers the rotating superstructure machinery, or the operator's or driver's station.
Climbing frame - a frame used with climbing cranes to transmit operational and climbing reactions to the host building frame.
Climbing ladder - a steel member with crossbars (used in parts) suspended from a climbing frame and used as jacking support points when some cranes climb.
Clutch - a means for engagement or disengagement of power.
Commercial truck vehicle - a commercial motor vehicle designed primarily for the transportation of property in connection with business and industry.
Counterweight - weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads.
Counterweight jib - a horizontal member of a crane on which the counterweights and usually the hoisting machinery are mounted.
Crane carrier - the undercarriage of a wheel-mounted crane specifically designed for transporting the rotating crane superstructure. It may or may not provide its own travel mechanism. It is distinguished from a commercial truck vehicle in that it is not designed to transport personnel, materials, or equipment other than the crane-rotating superstructure.
Cross-over points - in multiple layer spooling of rope on a drum, those points of rope contact where the rope crosses the preceding rope layer.
Designated - selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being competent to perform specific duties.
Drum - the cylindrical member around which a rope is wound for lifting and lowering the load or boom.
Dynamic (loading) - loads introduced into the machine or its components due to accelerating or decelerating forces.
Flange point - a point of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers.
Free standing height - that height of a crane which is supported by the tower (mast) alone without assistance from braces, guys, or other means.
Gage, track - the horizontal distance between two rails measured perpendicular to the direction of travel.
Gantry (A-frame) - a structural frame, extending above the superstructure, to which the boom support ropes are reeved.
High strength (traction) bolts - high strength tensile bolts used in the assembly of crane sections. The bolts are installed in tension by torquing or other means at a level greater than that produced by in- or out-of-service loads for the purpose of reducing the likelihood of bolt fatigue failure.
Hoist mechanism - a hoist drum and rope reeving system used for lifting and lowering loads.
Jib - an extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset to various angles in the vertical plane of the boom.
Jib backstop - a device which will restrain the jib from turning over backward.
Job site - work area defined by the construction contract.
Limiting device - a mechanical device which is operated by some part of a power driven machine or equipment to control loads or motions of the machine or equipment.
Load (working) - the external load in pounds (kilograms) applied to the crane, including the weight of load-attaching equipment such as lower load block, shackles, and slings.
Load block, lower - the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting ropes.
Load block, upper - the assembly of shackle, swivel, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended from the boom point.
Load ratings - crane ratings in pounds (kilograms) established by the manufacturer.
Mast (boom) - a frame hinged at or near the boom hinge for use in connection with supporting a boom. The head of the mast is usually supported and raised or lowered by the boom hoist ropes.
Mast (jib) - a frame hinged at or near the boom point for use in connection with supporting a jib.
Normal operating conditions.
Cab- or station-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices on the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.
Ground- or floor-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices that are mounted to the crane but operated with the operator off the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.
Remote-operated cranes - conditions during which a crane is performing functions within the manufacturer's operating recommendations. Under these conditions, the operator is at the operating control devices that are mounted to any part of the crane, and no other persons except those appointed are to be on the crane.
Out-of-service - the condition of a crane when unloaded, without power and with the controls unattended and prepared to endure winds above the in-service level.
Outriggers - extendable or fixed members attached to the mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends used to support the crane.
Pawl (dog) - a device for positively holding a member against motion in one or more directions.
Payload - that load or loads being transported by the commercial truck chassis from place to place.
Pendant - a rope or strand of specified length with fixed end connections.
Pitch diameter - the diameter of a sheave or rope drum measured at the center line of the rope.
Power-controlled lowering - a system or device in the power train, other than the load hoist brake, which can control the lowering rate of speed of the load hoist mechanism.
Qualified person - a person who, by possession of a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter and work.
Radius (load) - the horizontal distance from a projection of the axis of rotation to the base of the crane, before loading, to the center of the vertical hoist line or tackle with load applied.
Rail clamp - a tong-like metal device mounted on a locomotive crane car, which can be connected to the track.
Reeving - a rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
Remote control station - a location, not on the crane, from which the operator can control all the crane movements.
Repetitive pickup point - when operating on a short cycle operation, the rope being used on a single layer and being spooled repetitively over a short portion of the drum.
Rope - refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified.
Rotation resistant rope - a wire rope consisting of an inner layer of strand laid in one direction covered by a layer of strand laid in the opposite direction. This has the effect of counteracting torque by reducing the tendency of the finished rope to rotate.
Running rope - a rope which travels around sheaves or drums.
Shall - this word indicates that the rule is mandatory and must be followed.
Service, light - service that involves irregular operation with loads generally about one-half or less of the rated load; a service crane at a storage yard or building site would be an example.
Service, normal - service that involves operating occasionally at rated load but normally at less than eighty-five percent of the rated load and not more than ten lift cycles per hour except for isolated instances; a crane used for concrete placement at a building site would be an example.
Service, heavy - service that involves operating at eighty-five percent to one hundred percent of the rated load or in excess of ten lift cycles per hour as a regular specified procedure; some cranes operating at material yards or in industrial applications may fall into this category.
Sheave - a grooved wheel or pulley used with a rope to change the direction and point of application of a pulling force.
Should - this word indicates that the rule is a recommendation, the advisability of which depends on the facts in each situation.
Side loading - a load applied to an angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
Stabilizer - stabilizers are extendable or fixed members attached to the mounting base to increase the stability of the crane, but which may not have the capability of relieving all of the weight from wheels or tracks.
Standby crane - a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
Standing (guy) rope - a supporting rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the rope.
Structural competence - the ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
Superstructure - the rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon.
Swing - rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of rotation.
Swing mechanism - the machinery involved in providing rotation of the superstructure.
Swivel - a load carrying member with thrust bearings to permit rotation under load in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the load.
Swiveling - the rotation of the load attachment portion (hook or shackle) of a load block (lower) or hook assembly about its axis of suspension in relation to the load line(s).
Tackle - an assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for lifting, lowering, or pulling.
Telescoping boom - consists of a base boom from which one or more boom sections are telescoped for additional length.
Telescoping (tower crane) - a process whereby the height of a traveling or fixed base crane is increased typically by raising the inner tower and then adding sections at the top of the outer tower; there are also cranes that are telescoped by adding to the inner tower from below.
Tower (mast) - a vertical structural frame consisting of columns and bracing capable of supporting an upperstructure with its working and dynamic loads and transmitting them to the supporting surface or structure.
Traction (high strength) bolts - see high strength bolts.
Transit - the moving or transporting of a crane from one job site to another.
Travel - the function of the machine moving under its own power from one location to another on a job site.
Trolley - the device that travels along the load jib and contains the upper load block.
Two-blocking - the condition in which the lower load block or hook assembly comes in contact with the upper load block or boom point sheave assembly.
Weathervaning - wind induced rotation of a crane upperstructure, when out-of-service, to expose minimal surface area to the wind.
Wedge - a tapered wood or steel device used to provide stability to cranes during use as a climber. When the wedges are tightened against the four main legs of the tower, they convert overturning moments into horizontal forces to be resisted by the floor framing or slab.
Wheel base - the distance between centers of front and rear axles. For a multiple axle assembly the axle center for wheel base measurement is taken as the midpoint of the assembly.
Whipline (runner or auxiliary) - a secondary rope system usually of lighter load capacity than that provided by the main rope system.
Winch head - a power driven spool for handling of loads by means of friction between fiber or wire rope and the spool.
(2) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer, competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer.
(b) Rated load capacities, and recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings, or instruction, shall be conspicuously posted on all equipment. Instructions or warnings shall be visible to the operator while at the control station.
(c) Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site.
(d) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and periodically during use to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use.
(e) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the department. The employer shall maintain a permanent record of the dates and results of all inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.
(f) A tag line or guide rope shall be used on all loads that swing freely. Guide ropes or tag lines shall be held by experienced persons.
(g) Care shall be taken to guard against injury to workers, or damage to scaffolds or buildings, from swinging loads.
(h) The operator shall avoid carrying loads over people.
(i) When work is stopped or when the derrick is not in operation, the boom shall be lowered to a horizontal position or tied in place to prevent it whipping with the wind or other external force.
(j) Only authorized personnel shall make sling hitches on loads.
(k) Workers shall not be allowed to ride on loads handled by derricks.
(l) Operators shall observe signals only from duly authorized persons. Under no circumstances shall a load be moved until the signal is received from authorized personnel.
(m) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles,
drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating,
or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such
parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create
a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of chapter
[296-806 WAC, Machine safety] [296-24 WAC])) 296-806 WAC,
(n) A minimum distance of thirty inches clearance shall be maintained between the swing radius of the greatest extension of the crane superstructure or counterweights and a stationary object, including the crane itself, while the crane is in operation. When this clearance cannot be maintained, suitable barricades or safeguards shall be used to isolate the pinch point hazard area.
(o) All exhaust pipes shall be guarded or insulated where contact by employees, in the performance of normal duties, is possible.
(3) Additional requirements.
(a) Whenever internal combustion engine powered equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, tests shall be made and recorded to see that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres. (See chapter 296-62 WAC, the general occupational health standards and chapter 296-841 WAC, identifying and controlling respiratory hazards.)
(b) All cab glazing shall be safety glazing material. Windows shall be provided in the front and on both sides of the cab or operator's compartment with visibility forward and to either side. Visibility forward shall include a vertical range adequate to cover the boom point at all times. The front window may have a section which can be readily removed or held open, if desired. If the section is of the type held in the open position, it shall be secured to prevent inadvertent closure. A windshield wiper should be provided on the front window.
(c)(i) Where necessary for rigging or service requirements, a ladder or steps shall be provided to give access to a cab roof.
(ii) On cranes, guardrails, handholds and steps shall be provided for easy access to the car and cab in accordance with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 and Part J.
(iii) Platforms and walkways shall have anti-skid surfaces.
(d) Fuel tank filler pipe shall be located in such a position, or protected in such manner, as to not allow spill or overflow to run onto the engine, exhaust, or electrical equipment of any machine being fueled.
(i) An accessible fire extinguisher of 5BC rating, or
higher, shall be available at all operator stations or cabs of
|Note:||For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.|
(e) Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following:
(i) For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet;
(ii) For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV. over 50 kV., or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet;
(iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV., and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV. up to and including 345 kV., and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV;
(iv) A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning to insure that the required separation is maintained for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means;
(v) Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation;
(vi) Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visibly grounded;
(vii) Prior to work near transmitter tower where an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be deenergized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane.
(f) The following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltage:
(i) The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper rotating structure supporting the boom; and
(ii) Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials being handled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters. Crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load.
(iii) Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the immediate area prior to operations.
(g) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without the manufacturer's or a qualified engineer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.
(h) The employer shall comply with Power Crane and Shovel Association, Mobile Hydraulic Crane Standard No. 2.
(i) Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors shall meet the requirements of SAE J743a-1964.
(4) Crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes.
(a) All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more than 5° above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional type crane booms. The use of cable type belly slings does not constitute compliance with this standard.
(b) All crawler, truck or locomotive cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, inspection, construction, testing, maintenance and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1989, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes.
(5) Tower cranes.
(a) Tower cranes shall be erected, jumped and dismantled under the immediate supervision of a competent person, designated by the employer.
(b) Tower cranes shall be erected, maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, recommendations and procedures. All modifications shall be approved by the manufacturer and engineered by a professional engineer. The safety factors shall not be reduced by any modifications. The crane plates and charts shall be changed to reflect any modifications made.
(c) A professional engineer shall certify that the crane foundations and underlying soil are adequate support for the tower crane with its maximum overturning movement.
(d) Tower cranes shall be positioned whereby they can swing 360° without either the counterweight or jib striking any building, structure or other object, except:
(i) If the crane can strike an object or another crane, suitable limit switches shall be installed which will prohibit contact with such objects, or;
(ii) Direct voice communications shall be established between any operator of the tower crane(s) involved and a signalperson so stationed where the boom and/or counterweight movement, and the object with which it may contact can be observed so that the operator(s) can be warned of imminent danger.
(iii) A secondary means of positive communications shall be established as a back-up for possible direct voice communication failure.
(iv) Radio communication systems without tone coded squelch are prohibited. Citizens band radios shall not be used as a means of communications for tower cranes.
(e) Prior to installing a climbing tower crane within an existing building or new construction, a structural engineer shall certify that the building is designed to withstand the torque and floor loading created by the crane to be installed.
(f) Tower cranes erected on a new foundation shall be tested in accordance with ANSI B30.3-1990 Chapter 3-1.
(i) The test shall consist of suspending a load of not less than 110% of the rated capacity for 15 minutes. The load shall be suspended from the furthest point of the length of boom (jib) to be used. The results of this test shall be within the manufacturer's recommendations and/or specifications.
(ii) A record of each test shall be made and signed by the person responsible for conducting the test. Such records shall be maintained on the construction site for the duration of the construction work for which it was erected and subsequently made a part of the firm's permanent equipment records. Records shall be made available to authorized representatives of the department, upon request.
(g) A capacity chart shall be furnished by each crane manufacturer which shall include a full and complete range of crane load ratings at all stated operating radii for each allowable speed and each recommended counterweight load.
(i) Such chart shall be posted in the operator's cab or at the remote control stand in use. In lieu of the chart at the remote control stand, a minimum of two weight capacity signs shall be affixed to the jib or boom.
(ii) The chart shall be visible and readable to the operator while at the normal operating position.
(h) Operating controls shall be properly marked to indicate the function of the controls in each position.
(i) An operating and maintenance manual written in the English language shall be provided with each tower crane.
(j) Limit switches shall be installed and shall be kept properly adjusted. They shall be protected or isolated in a manner which will prevent unauthorized tampering. Limit switches shall provide the following functions:
(i) Safely limit the travel of the trolley to prevent it from hitting the outer end of the jib.
(ii) Limit the upward travel of the load block to prevent two-blocking.
(iii) Lower over travel limiting devices shall be provided for all load hoists where the hook area is not visible to the operator.
(iv) Limit the load being lifted in a manner whereby no more than 110% of the maximum rated load can be lifted or moved.
(k) The crane shall not be used to pull vehicles of any type, remove piling, loosen form work, pull away loads which are attached to the ground or walls, or for any operation other than the proper handling of freely suspended loads.
(l) When the operator may be exposed to the hazard of falling objects, the tower crane cab and/or remote control station shall have adequate overhead protection.
(m) The operator shall be protected from the weather. If enclosed cabs are provided they shall provide clear visibility in all directions and glass shall be approved safety glass or the equivalent.
(n) An approved and safe means shall be provided for access to operator's cab and machinery platform.
(o) When necessary for inspection or maintenance purposes, ladders, walkways with railing or other devices shall be provided.
(p) Each tower crane shall be provided with a slewing brake capable of preventing the jib or boom from rotating in either direction and stopping the rotation of the jib or boom while loaded, when desired. Such brake shall have a holding device which, when set, will hold the jib or boom in a fixed location without additional attention of the operator. When the crane is out of operation, the jib or boom shall be pointed downwind and the slewing brake shall be released so as to permit the jib or boom to weathervane, providing the jib or boom has a clear 360 degree rotation. Where a 360 degree rotation is not provided, the jib or boom shall be pointed downwind from the prevailing wind and the slewing brake set.
(q) Each tower crane shall be provided with a braking system on the trolley capable of stopping and holding the trolley in any desired position while carrying a maximum load. This brake shall be capable of being locked in a fixed location without additional attention of the operator. An automatic brake or device shall be installed which will immediately stop and lock the trolley in position in the event of a breakage of the trolley rope.
(r) All electrical equipment shall be properly grounded and protection shall be provided against lightning.
(s) When the operator is actually operating the crane, the operator shall remain in a stationary position.
(t) All crane brakes shall automatically set in event of power failure. Swing brakes shall also function in this manner or be capable of being set manually.
(u) Climbing jack systems used for raising a tower crane shall be equipped with over-pressure relief valves, direct-reading pressure gauges, and pilot-operated hydraulic check valves installed in a manner which will prevent jack from retracting should a hydraulic line or fitting rupture or fail.
(v) During periods of high winds or weather affecting visibility, i.e., fog, etc., only loads shall be handled that are consistent with good safety practices. Good safety practices shall be mutually agreed upon by the operator and the person in charge of the construction job, with due consideration given to manufacturer's specifications and recommendations.
(w) Counterweights shall be securely fastened in place and shall not exceed the weight as recommended by the manufacturer for the length of jib being used. However, an amount of counterweight as recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.
(x) Tower cranes shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations or more frequently if there is reason to suspect a possible defect or weakening of any portion of the structure or equipment.
(y) Guy wires, wedges, braces or other supports shall be inspected at the beginning and at midpoint of each working shift to ascertain that they are functioning as intended.
(6) Additional tower crane requirements.
(a) An approved method must be instituted for transmitting signals to the operator. Standard hand signals for crane operations must be used, whenever possible; however, if conditions are such that hand signals are ineffective, radio-controlled or electric-whistle signal or two-way voice communication must be used. (See WAC 296-155-525 (5)(d).)
(b) Tower cranes shall not be erected or raised when the wind velocity at the worksite exceeds 20 m.p.h. or that specified by the manufacturer.
(c) Tower crane operators shall be trained and experienced in tower crane operations; however, for gaining experience, persons may operate the tower crane if under the immediate supervision of an experienced operator.
(d) Adequate clearance shall be maintained between moving and rotating structures of the crane and fixed objects to allow the passage of employees without harm.
(e) Employees required to perform duties on the horizontal boom of hammerhead tower cranes shall be protected against falling by guardrails or by a full body harness and lanyards attached to crane or to lifelines in conformance with Part C-1 of this chapter.
(f) Buffers shall be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley.
(g) Cranes mounted on rail tracks shall be equipped with limit switches limiting the travel of the crane on the track and stops or buffers at each end of the tracks.
(h) All hammerhead tower cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.
(i) Access ladders inside the telescoping sections of tower cranes are exempt from those sections of the safety standards pertaining to cleat length and cleat spacing, but shall conform to manufacturer's recommendations and specifications.
(7) Overhead and gantry cranes.
(a) The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block, and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor.
(b) Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels.
(c) Except for floor-operated cranes, a gong or other effective audible warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism.
(d) All overhead and gantry cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed in ANSI B30.2.0-1990, Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes.
(8) Derricks. All derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed in American National Standard Institute B30.6-1990, Safety Code for Derricks.
(9) Floating cranes and derricks.
(a) Mobile cranes mounted on barges.
(i) When a mobile crane is mounted on a barge, the rated load of the crane shall not exceed the original capacity specified by the manufacturer.
(ii) A load rating chart, with clearly legible letters and figures, shall be provided with each crane, and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator.
(iii) When load ratings are reduced to stay within the limits for list of the barge with a crane mounted on it, a new load rating chart shall be provided.
(iv) Mobile cranes on barges shall be positively secured.
(b) Permanently mounted floating cranes and derricks.
(i) When cranes and derricks are permanently installed on a barge, the capacity and limitations of use shall be based on competent design criteria.
(ii) A load rating chart with clearly legible letters and figures shall be provided and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator.
(iii) Floating cranes and floating derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer.
(c) Protection of employees working on barges. The employer shall comply with the applicable requirements for protection of employees as specified in WAC 296-155-630.
(10) Mobile cranes and excavation machines.
(a) In all power driven shovel operations the person in charge shall issue instructions necessary to prevent accidents, to detect and correct unsafe acts and dangerous conditions, and to enforce all safety rules and regulations.
The person in charge shall also issue instructions on the proper method of using tools and handling material.
(b) Where the ground is soft or uneven, timbering and planking shall be used to provide firm foundation and distribute the load.
(c) In case of a breakdown, the shovel shall be moved away from the foot of the slope before repairs are made.
(d) All persons shall keep away from the range of the shovel's swing and shall not be permitted to stand back of the shovel or in line with the swing of the dipper during operation or moving of shovel.
(e) Unauthorized persons shall not be allowed on the shovel during operations, and the operator shall not converse with other persons while operating machine.
(f) The shovel dipper shall rest on the ground or on blocking during shut down periods.
(g) Shovels shall be inspected daily and all defects promptly repaired.
(h) All rubber tired mobile cranes shall be equipped with outriggers and sufficient blocking to properly stabilize crane while operating.
(i) Rubber tired mobile cranes shall be equipped with rear view mirrors.
(j) Positive boom stops shall be provided on all mobile cranes of the wheel and crawler type.
(k) Length of a crane boom and amount of counterweight shall not exceed manufacturer's rated capacity for equipment involved; except on isolated cases where permission is granted by the department.
(l) On all cranes where wedge brackets are used as terminal connections, the proper size wedge shall be used.
(m) On all mobile cranes, the hoist and boom drums shall be provided with a positive operated pawl or dog which shall be used in addition to the brake to hold the load and boom when they are suspended. Counterweight operated dogs are prohibited.
(n) Oiling and greasing shall be done under safe conditions with machine at rest, except when motion of machine is necessary.
(o) All steps, running boards, and boom ladder shall be of substantial construction and in good repair at all times.
(p) Operators shall not leave the cab while master clutch is engaged.
(q) Fire extinguishers shall be readily accessible and within reach of operator at all times.
(r) All shovel and crane cabs shall be kept clean and free of excess oil and grease on floor and machinery. Oily and greasy rags shall be disposed of immediately after use and not allowed to accumulate.
(s) Tools shall not be left on the cab floor. Spare cans of oil or fuel, and spare parts, shall not be stored in cabs, except in approved racks provided for that purpose.
(t) Mats or planking shall be used in moving shovels or cranes over soft or uneven ground.
(u) Cranes or shovels setting on steep grades shall be securely blocked or secured with a tail hold.
(v) Smoking shall be prohibited while fueling or oiling machines.
(w) Gasoline powered motors shall be stopped during refueling.
(x) Handling of movable feed line (bologna) shall be accomplished with insulated hooks and lineman's rubber gloves.
(y) Where cables cross roads they shall be elevated or placed in a trench.
(z) On all power shovels, including back-hoe types, of one-half cubic yard capacity or over, and on all dragline cranes or all-purpose cranes of the crawler or wheel type, two persons shall constitute the minimum working crew. It is mandatory that one be a qualified operator of the equipment in use. The job title of the other crew member may be oiler, rigger, signal person, or a laborer. The primary purpose of the second crew member is to signal the operator when the operator's vision is impaired or obscured and to be on-hand in case of emergency.
(i) Second-crew persons shall be properly trained in their second-person required skills.
(ii) The second crew member shall be close enough to the machine in operation to be aware of any emergency, if one arises, and to assure the machine is operated with necessary and appropriate signals to the operator.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-155-525, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-14-028, § 296-155-525, filed 6/29/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. 02-12-098, § 296-155-525, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02; 01-17-033, § 296-155-525, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 95-17-036, § 296-155-525, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; Order 76-29, § 296-155-525, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-525, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]
(2) Underground installations.
(a) The location of utility installations, such as sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water lines, or any other underground installations that reasonably may be expected to be encountered during excavation work, shall be located prior to opening an excavation.
(b) Utility companies or owners shall be contacted within established or customary local response times, advised of the proposed work, and asked to locate the underground utility installation prior to the start of actual excavation.
(c) When excavation operations approach the location of underground installations, the exact location of the installations shall be determined by safe and acceptable means.
(d) While the excavation is open, underground installations shall be protected, supported, or removed as necessary to safeguard employees.
(3) Access and egress.
(a) Structural ramps.
(i) Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access or egress from excavations shall be designed by a competent person. Structural ramps used for access or egress of equipment shall be designed by a competent person qualified in structural design, and shall be constructed in accordance with the design.
(ii) Ramps and runways constructed of two or more structural members shall have the structural members connected together to prevent displacement.
(iii) Structural members used for ramps and runways shall be of uniform thickness.
(iv) Cleats or other appropriate means used to connect runway structural members shall be attached to the bottom of the runway or shall be attached in a manner to prevent tripping.
(v) Structural ramps used in lieu of steps shall be provided with cleats or other surface treatments on the top surface to prevent slipping.
(b) Means of egress from trench excavations. A stairway, ladder, ramp or other safe means of egress shall be located in trench excavations that are 4 feet (1.22 m) or more in depth so as to require no more than 25 feet (7.62 m) of lateral travel for employees.
(4) Exposure to vehicular traffic. Employees exposed to
[public])) vehicular traffic (( [must] [shall])) shall be
provided with(( [,])) and (( [must] [shall])) shall wear
(( [high-visibility] [, warning vests or other suitable]))
high-visibility garments (( [meeting the requirements of WAC 296-155-200, General requirements for personal protective
equipment (PPE)] [marked with or made of reflectorized or
high-visibility material])) meeting the requirements of WAC 296-155-200, General requirements for personal protective
(5) Exposure to falling loads. No employee shall be permitted underneath loads handled by lifting or digging equipment. Employees shall be required to stand away from any vehicle being loaded or unloaded to avoid being struck by any spillage or falling materials. Operators may remain in the cabs of vehicles being loaded or unloaded when the vehicles are equipped, in accordance with WAC 296-155-610 (2)(g), to provide adequate protection for the operator during loading and unloading operations.
(6) Warning system for mobile equipment. When mobile equipment is operated adjacent to an excavation, or when such equipment is required to approach the edge of an excavation, and the operator does not have a clear and direct view of the edge of the excavation, a warning system shall be utilized such as barricades, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation.
(7) Hazardous atmospheres.
(a) Testing and controls. In addition to the requirements set forth in parts B-1, C, and C-1 of this chapter (296-155 WAC) to prevent exposure to harmful levels of atmospheric contaminants and to assure acceptable atmospheric conditions, the following requirements shall apply:
(i) Where oxygen deficiency (atmospheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen) or a hazardous atmosphere exists or could reasonably be expected to exist, such as in excavations in landfill areas or excavations in areas where hazardous substances are stored nearby, the atmospheres in the excavation shall be tested before employees enter excavations greater than 4 feet (1.22 m) in depth.
(ii) Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent
employee exposure to atmospheres containing less than 19.5
percent oxygen and other hazardous atmospheres. These
precautions include providing proper respiratory protection or
[in accordance with parts B-1 and C of this
chapter respectively])) in accordance with chapter 296-842 WAC.
(iii) Adequate precaution shall be taken such as providing ventilation, to prevent employee exposure to an atmosphere containing a concentration of a flammable gas in excess of 10 percent of the lower flammable limit of the gas.
(iv) When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels, testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe.
(b) Emergency rescue equipment.
(i) Emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a safety harness and line, or a basket stretcher, shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheric conditions exist or may reasonably be expected to develop during work in an excavation. This equipment shall be attended when in use.
(ii) Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes, or other similar deep and confined footing excavations, shall wear a harness with a lifeline securely attached to it. The lifeline shall be separate from any line used to handle materials, and shall be individually attended at all times while the employee wearing the lifeline is in the excavation.
|Note:||See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M for additional requirements applicable to confined space operations.|
(a) Employees shall not work in excavations in which there is accumulated water, or in excavations in which water is accumulating, unless adequate precautions have been taken to protect employees against the hazards posed by water accumulation. The precautions necessary to protect employees adequately vary with each situation, but could include special support or shield systems to protect from cave-ins, water removal to control the level of accumulating water, or use of a safety harness and lifeline.
(b) If water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by the use of water removal equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by a competent person to ensure proper operation.
(c) If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. Excavations subject to runoff from heavy rains will require an inspection by a competent person and compliance with subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection.
(9) Stability of adjacent structures.
(a) Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation operations, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure the stability of such structures for the protection of employees.
(b) Excavation below the level of the base or footing of any foundation or retaining wall that could be reasonably expected to pose a hazard to employees shall not be permitted except when:
(i) A support system, such as underpinning, is provided to ensure the safety of employees and the stability of the structure; or
(ii) The excavation is in stable rock; or
(iii) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the structure is sufficiently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the excavation activity; or
(iv) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that such excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees.
(c) Sidewalks, pavements, and appurtenant structure shall not be undermined unless a support system or another method of protection is provided to protect employees from the possible collapse of such structures.
(10) Protection of employees from loose rock or soil.
(a) Adequate protection shall be provided to protect employees from loose rock or soil that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling from an excavation face. Such protection shall consist of scaling to remove loose material; installation of protective barricades at intervals as necessary on the face to stop and contain falling material; or other means that provide equivalent protection.
(b) Employees shall be protected from excavated or other materials or equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations. Protection shall be provided by placing and keeping such materials or equipment at least 2 feet (.61 m) from the edge of excavations, or by the use of retaining devices that are sufficient to prevent materials or equipment from falling or rolling into excavations, or by a combination of both if necessary.
(a) Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be made by a competent person for evidence of a situation that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. An inspection shall be conducted by the competent person prior to the start of work and as needed throughout the shift. Inspections shall also be made after every rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence. These inspections are only required when employee exposure can be reasonably anticipated.
(b) Where the competent person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the hazardous area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety.
(12) Fall protection.
(a) Walkways shall be provided where employees or equipment are required or permitted to cross over excavations. Guardrails which comply with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K shall be provided where walkways are 4 feet or more above lower levels.
(b) Adequate barrier physical protection shall be provided at all remotely located excavations. All wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be barricaded or covered. Upon completion of exploration and similar operations, temporary wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be backfilled.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-155-655, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 04-24-089, § 296-155-655, filed 12/1/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 99-17-094, § 296-155-655, filed 8/17/99, effective 12/1/99; 99-10-071, § 296-155-655, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 96-24-051, § 296-155-655, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, § 296-155-655, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-655, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-655, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-655, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-655, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, § 296-155-655, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-655, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-304-09007 Respiratory protection. The employer must provide respiratory protection that meets the requirements of ((
the general occupational health standards,))
chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-304-09007, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 98-02-006, § 296-304-09007, filed 12/26/97, effective 3/1/98; Order 76-7, § 296-304-09007, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-25, § 296-304-09007, filed 5/7/74.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 05-03-093, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05)
WAC 296-305-04001 Respiratory equipment protection. (1) Fire fighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) shall:
(a) Be pressure demand type (positive pressure);
(b) Operate in the positive pressure mode only;
(c) Have a minimum of thirty minutes service duration;
(d) Be NIOSH certified; and
(e) Meet the requirements of the 1992 or 1997 edition of NFPA, Standard on Open Circuit Self Contained Breathing Apparatus for Fire Fighters 1981.
(2) Closed circuit SCBA shall:
(a) Be positive pressure;
(b) Be NIOSH certified; and
(c) Have a minimum thirty-minute service duration.
(3) Members using SCBA's shall operate in teams of two or more.
(4) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, fire
departments shall adopt, maintain and implement a written
respiratory protection program that addresses the requirements
of chapter 296-842 WAC, ((
Respiratory protection)) Respirators
and Part I-1, Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and
Actinolite. This includes program administration, medical
limitations, equipment limitations, equipment selection,
inspection, use, maintenance, training, fit testing
procedures, air quality, and program evaluation.
|Note:||Additional information on respirators and respirator usage can be found in ANSI Z88.2 - American National Standard for Respiratory Protection; ANSI Z88.5 - Practices for Respiratory Protection for Fire Service; various NFPA publications (1981, 1404, 1500, etc.), and the Washington State Fire Service Training Program for respiratory training and usage.|
(6) When the fire department makes its own breathing air or uses vendor purchased breathing air, the air quality from compressors, cascade systems cylinders, shall be tested at least quarterly as specified in subsection (21) of this section.
(7) Fit testing shall be conducted in accordance with
this section and chapter 296-842 WAC, ((
(a) Each new member shall be tested before being permitted to use SCBA's in a hazardous atmosphere.
(b) Only fire fighters with a properly fitting facepiece shall be permitted by the fire department to function in a hazardous atmosphere with SCBA. (Reference WAC 296-842-18005.)
(c) Fit testing shall be repeated:
(i) At least once every twelve months.
(ii) Whenever there are changes in the type of SCBA or facepiece used.
(iii) Whenever there are significant physical changes in the user. Example: Weight change of ten percent or more, scarring of face seal area, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or any other condition that may affect the fit of the facepiece seal.
(d) The fit testing is done only in a negative-pressure mode. If the facepiece is modified for fit testing, the modification shall not affect the normal fit of the device. Such modified devices shall only be used for fit testing.
(e) The fit test procedures and test exercises described in WAC 296-62-07162, Asbestos, Appendix C, shall be followed unless stated otherwise in this chapter.
(f) Respirator fit test records shall include:
(i) Written guidelines for the respirator fit testing program including pass/fail criteria;
(ii) Type of respirator tested including manufacturer, model, and size;
(iii) Type of fit test and instrumentation or equipment used;
(iv) Name or identification of test operator;
(v) Name of person tested;
(vi) Date of test; and
(vii) Results of test.
|Note:||Fire fighters should be issued individual facepieces.|
(a) A negative pressure respirator, any self-contained breathing apparatus, or any respirator which is used in an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equipped with a facepiece shall not be worn if facial hair comes between the sealing periphery of the facepiece and the face or if facial hair interferes with the valve function.
(b) The wearer of a respirator shall not be allowed to wear contact lenses if the risk of eye damage is increased by their use.
(c) If a spectacle, goggle, or face shield must be worn with a facepiece, it shall be worn so as to not adversely affect the seal of the facepiece to the face. See WAC 296-62-07170(2).
(d) Straps or temple bars shall not pass between the seal or surface of the respirator and the user's face.
(9) At the end of suppression activities (to include fire overhaul) and before returning to quarters:
(a) Fire fighters shall be decontaminated prior to removal of respirators whenever fire fighting activities resulted in exposure to a hazardous substance.
(b) When exchanging air supply bottles during suppression or overhaul activities, reasonable precautions shall be taken to maintain uncontaminated atmosphere to the breathing zone and facepiece supply hose.
(10) Self-contained respiratory equipment shall be available and used by all fire fighters who enter into hazardous atmospheres during structural fire fighting activities.
(11) Positive pressure air line respirators may be used only for atmospheres other than IDLH and must be equipped with a five minute minimum capacity positive pressure escape bottle.
(a) If the service life of the auxiliary air supply is fifteen minutes or less it shall not be used for entry into an IDLH atmosphere but it may be used for escape purposes. The auxiliary air supply may be used for entry into an IDLH atmosphere only when the service life of the unit exceeds fifteen minutes and when not more than twenty percent of the noted air supply will be used during entry.
(b) The maximum length of hose for supplied air respirators is 300 feet (91 meters). Such hose shall be heavy duty nonkinking and NIOSH approved.
(12) Respirators shall be provided for, and shall be used by, all personnel working in areas where:
(a) The atmosphere is hazardous;
(b) The atmosphere is suspected of being hazardous; or
(c) The atmosphere may rapidly become hazardous;
(13) Anytime fire fighters are working inside a confined space, such persons shall be provided with SCBA or air line respirator with escape bottle, and shall use the equipment unless the safety of the atmosphere can be established by testing and continuous monitoring.
(14) Fire fighters using a properly functioning SCBA shall not compromise the protective integrity of the SCBA by removing the facepiece for any reason in hazardous atmospheres or in atmospheres where the quality of air is unknown.
(15) Fire fighters shall receive training for each type and manufacturer of respiratory equipment available for their use, the step-by-step procedure for donning the respirator and checking it for proper function. Required training shall include:
(a) Recognizing hazards that may be encountered;
(b) Understanding the components of the respirator;
(c) Understanding the safety features and limitations of the respirator; and
(d) Donning and doffing the respirator.
(16) After completing such training, each fire fighter shall practice at least quarterly, for each type and manufacture of respirator available for use, the step-by-step procedure for donning the respirator and checking it for proper function.
(17) Members shall be tested at least annually on the knowledge of respiratory protection equipment operation, safety, organizational policies and procedures, and facepiece seals, to the fire department's standard. Such records shall remain part of the member training file.
(18) Members shall be allowed to use only the make, model, and size respirator for which they have passed a fit test within the last twelve months.
(19) In cases where there is a reported failure of a respirator, it shall be removed from service, tagged and recorded as such, and tested before being returned to service.
(20) Fire fighters shall be thoroughly trained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions on emergency procedures such as use of regulator bypass valve, corrective action for facepiece and breathing tube damage, and breathing directly from the regulator (where applicable).
(21) Compressed gaseous breathing air in the SCBA cylinder shall meet the requirements of ANSI/CGA G7.1 - Commodity Specification for Air, with a minimum air quality of grade D, as well as meeting a water vapor level of 24 ppm or less.
(22) SCBA cylinders shall be hydrostatically tested within the periods specified by the manufacturer and the applicable governmental agencies.
Additional reference: Chapter 296-842 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-305-04001, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. 02-12-098, § 296-305-04001, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-05-080, § 296-305-04001, filed 2/17/99, effective 6/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 96-11-067, § 296-305-04001, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]
(2) Training on medical procedures shall conform to WAC 296-305-02501.
(3) Training on respiratory equipment shall conform to
chapter 296-842 WAC, ((
Respiratory protection)) Respirators,
and WAC 296-305-04001.
(4) Training on employee right-to-know procedures shall conform to WAC 296-800-170, chemical hazard communication program.
(5) Training on overhaul procedures and operations shall conform to WAC 296-305-05001.
(6) Training on wildland fires shall conform to WAC 296-305-07001 through 296-305-07019.
(7) Training on confined space entry and/or rescue shall conform to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M, Permit-required confined spaces and WAC 296-305-05003.
(8) Live fire training in structures shall conform to NFPA 1403 and this section.
(9) The employer shall provide training and education for all members commensurate with those duties and functions that members are expected to perform. Such training and education shall be provided to members before they perform emergency activities. Fire service leaders and training instructors shall be provided with training and education which is more comprehensive than that provided to the general membership of the fire department.
(10) The employer shall assure that training and education is conducted frequently enough to assure that each member is able to perform the member's assigned duties and functions satisfactorily and in a safe manner so as not to endanger members or other employees. All members shall be provided with training at least annually. In addition, members who are expected to perform interior structural fire fighting shall be provided with an education session or training at least quarterly.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. 05-03-093, § 296-305-05503, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; 03-11-060, § 296-305-05503, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. 01-11-038, § 296-305-05503, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 96-11-067, § 296-305-05503, filed 5/10/96, effective 1/1/97.]