Date of Adoption: November 26, 2002.
Purpose: To amend chapter 51-11 WAC, the 2001 Washington State Energy Code, as [it] relates to residential multi-unit buildings, and to clarify requirements for duct tape usage.
Citation of Existing Rules Affected by this Order: Amending WAC 51-11-0108, 51-11-0201, 51-11-0503, 51-11-0601, 51-11-0625 (Tables 6-1 and 6-2), and 51-11-0800.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020.
Under RCW 34.05.350 the agency for good cause finds that immediate adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule is necessary for the preservation of the public health, safety, or general welfare, and that observing the time requirements of notice and opportunity to comment upon adoption of a permanent rule would be contrary to the public interest.
Reasons for this Finding: The State Building Code Council (council), based on the following good cause, finds that an emergency affecting the general welfare of the state of Washington exists. The council further finds that immediate amendment of a certain council rule is necessary for the public welfare and that observing the time requirements of notice and opportunity to comment would be contrary to the public interest.
The declaration of emergency affecting the general welfare of the state of Washington is based on the following findings:
The Washington State Energy Code amendments to Chapter 6 contained herein as adopted by the council under emergency rule making pursuant to RCW 34.05.350, will provide economic relief to apartment builders or building owners by allowing an increase in glazing area for Group R-1 Occupancy buildings.
To conserve energy and provide relief from rising energy costs, in 2001 the State Building Code Council amended the residential building envelope requirements under their authority in RCW 19.27A.045. The council simplified the code language by making the same thermal envelope requirements applicable to all buildings regardless of space heat source, with minor exceptions.
This change may have had unanticipated consequences for residential apartment buildings over five stories in height. The original cost benefit analysis reviewed by the technical advisory group and the council did not include high-rise apartment buildings. The thermal envelope measures required for one and two family homes were found to be cost effective. These same measures may not always result in an immediate energy savings benefit for apartment buildings. The council finds that greater glazing area is related to the economic viability of apartment buildings. The council finds the rule proposed in 2001 may be an economic burden on the building and design industries, which could result in an increase in the cost of housing for multi-family residential buildings including hotels, apartments and condominiums.
This rule also contains amendments relative to the use of duct tape. The previous language was found to be confusing, and in some cases contradictory. The amendments provide clear instruction on when tapes are allowable and how they are to be installed.
The council has adopted this amendment as a permanent rule; however, the permanent rule will not be effective until the end of the 2003 legislative session as per RCW 19.27.074. Immediate adoption of this amendment is necessary to avoid delay in the construction of high-rise multi-family residential buildings, and to avoid adversely affecting the state's building industry, building owners, and building tenants by possibly imposing an unanticipated economic penalty.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 0, Amended 2, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 4, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 4, Repealed 0.
Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making:
Pilot Rule Making:
or Other Alternative Rule Making:
Effective Date of Rule: January 1, 2003.
November 26, 2002
for James M. Lewis
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-01-126, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95)
WAC 51-11-0108 Conflicts with other codes. In addition to the requirements of this Code, all occupancies shall conform to the provisions included in the State Building Code (chapter 19.27 RCW) and Uniform Building Code and Standards Adoption and Amendment rules (chapter 51-30 WAC). In case of conflicts among codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 (1), (2), (3), and (4) and this Code, the first named code shall govern over the following. Provided, in the case of conflict between the duct insulation requirements of this Code and the duct sealing and insulation requirements of Table 6-D of the ((
Uniform)) State Mechanical Code (chapter 51-32 WAC), the
duct insulation requirements of this Code, or where
applicable, a local jurisdiction's energy code shall govern.
Where, in any specific case, different sections of this Code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Wherever in this Code reference is made to the appendix, the provisions in the appendix shall not apply unless specifically adopted.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, § 51-11-0108, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0108, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]
201.1 Application of Terms: For the purposes of this Code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives, shall be as set forth in this chapter. Where terms are not defined, they shall have their ordinary accepted meanings within the context with which they are used. In the event there is a question about the definition of a term, the definitions for terms in the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 and the edition of Webster's dictionary referenced therein shall be considered as the sources for providing ordinarily accepted meanings.
Addition: See the Washington State Building Code.
Advanced framed ceiling: Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. (See Standard Framing and Section 1007.2 of this Code.)
Advanced framed walls: Studs framed on twenty-four inch centers with double top plate and single bottom plate. Corners use two studs or other means of fully insulating corners, and one stud is used to support each header. Headers consist of double 2X material with R-10 insulation between the header and exterior sheathing. Interior partition wall/exterior wall intersections are fully insulated in the exterior wall. (See Standard Framing and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)
AFUE. Annual fuel utilization efficiency: Unlike steady state conditions, this rating is based on average usage including on and off cycling as set out in the standardized Department of Energy Test Procedures.
Air conditioning, comfort: The process of treating air to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet requirements of the conditioned space.
ARI: Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.
ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic: Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See Manual.)
Below grade walls: Walls or the portion of walls which are entirely below the finish grade or which extend two feet or less above the finish grade.
Boiler capacity: The rate of heat output in Btu/h measured at the boiler outlet, at the design inlet and outlet conditions and rated fuel/energy input.
Building envelope: For Group R Occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 101.3.1. For other than Group R Occupancy, the elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, or to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from semi-heated spaces, or to or from spaces exempted by the provisions of Section 1301.
Building, existing: See the Washington State Building Code.
Building official: The official authorized to act in behalf of a jurisdiction code enforcement agency or its authorized representative.
Building project: A building or group of buildings, including on-site energy conversion or electric-generating facilities, which utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under one ownership.
Conditioned floor area: (See Gross conditioned floor area.)
Conditioned space: A cooled space, heated space (fully heated), heated space (semi-heated) or indirectly conditioned space.
Cooled space: An enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible capacity
a. exceeds 5 Btu/(h • ft2), or
b. is capable of maintaining space dry bulb temperature of 90°F or less at design cooling conditions.
COP - Coefficient of performance: The ratio of the rate of net heat output (heating mode) or heat removal (cooling mode) to the rate of total on-site energy input to the heat pump, expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. (See Net Heat Output, Net Heat Removal, Total On-Site Energy Input.)
a. Under overhead glazing: the area under overhead glazing whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the overhead glazing dimension in that direction plus either the floor to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.
b. At vertical glazing: the area adjacent to vertical glazing which receives daylighting from the glazing. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed daylighting analysis is provided, the daylighting zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylighting zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus either two feet on each side (the distance to an opaque partition) or one-half the distance to adjacent overhead or vertical glazing, whichever is least.
Daylight sensing control (DS): A device that automatically regulates the power input to electric lighting near the glazing to maintain the desired workplace illumination, thus taking advantage of direct or indirect sunlight.
Deadband: The temperature range in which no heating or cooling is used.
Design cooling conditions: The cooling outdoor design temperature from the 0.5% column for summer from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."
Design heating conditions: The heating outdoor design temperature from the 0.6% column for winter from the Puget Sound Chapter of ASHRAE publication "Recommended Outdoor Design Temperatures, Washington State, ASHRAE."
Door: All operable opening areas, which are not glazing, in the building envelope including swinging and roll-up doors, fire doors, smoke vents and access hatches.
Door area: Total area of door measured using the rough opening and including the door and frame.
Dwelling unit: See the Washington State Building Code.
EER. Energy efficiency ratio: The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions.
Economizer, air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling supply fan system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather.
Economizer, water: A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled directly, indirectly or both, by evaporation of water or by other appropriate fluid in order to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration.
Efficiency, HVAC system: The ratio of useful energy (at the point of use) to the energy input for a designated time period, expressed in percent.
Emissivity: The ability to absorb infrared radiation. A low emissivity implies a higher reflectance of infrared radiation.
Energy: The capacity for doing work; taking a number of forms which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical and chemical; in customary units, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) or British thermal units (Btu). (See New energy.)
Energy, recovered: (See Recovered energy.)
Exterior envelope: (See Building envelope.)
Facade area: Vertical projected area including nonhorizontal roof area, overhangs, cornices, etc. measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the building face.
Floor over unconditioned space: A floor which separates a conditioned space from an unconditioned space which is buffered from exterior ambient conditions including vented crawl spaces and unconditioned basements or other similar spaces, or exposed to exterior ambient conditions including open parking garages and enclosed garages which are mechanically ventilated.
F-Factor: The perimeter heat loss factor expressed in Btu/hr • ft •°F.
F-Value: (See F-Factor.)
Garden window: A multi-sided glazing product that projects beyond the plane of the wall.
Glazed wall system: A category of site assembled fenestration products used in the NFRC 100 and NFRC 200 rating procedures that include curtainwalls.
Glazing: All areas, including the frames, in the shell of a conditioned space that let in natural light including windows, clerestories, skylights, sliding or swinging glass doors and glass block walls.
Glazing area: Total area of the glazing measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the daylight opening area is less than 50% of the door area, the glazing area is the daylight opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the door area.
Gross conditioned floor area: The horizontal projection of that portion of interior space which is contained within exterior walls and which is conditioned directly or indirectly by an energy-using system, and which has an average height of five feet or greater, measured from the exterior faces.
Gross exterior wall area: The normal projection of the building envelope wall area bounding interior space which is conditioned by an energy-using system and which separates conditioned space from: Unconditioned space, or semi-heated space, or exterior ambient conditions or earth; includes opaque wall, vertical glazing and door areas. The gross area of walls consists of all opaque wall areas, including foundation walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, vertical glazing areas and door areas, where such surfaces are exposed to exterior ambient conditions and enclose a conditioned space including interstitial areas between two such spaces. (See Below grade wall.)
Gross floor area: The sum of the areas of the several floors of the building, including basements, cellars, mezzanine and intermediate floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating buildings, but excluding: Covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces. Pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chimneys, roof overhangs and similar features.
Gross roof/ceiling area: A roof/ceiling assembly shall be considered as all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to exterior ambient conditions and encloses a conditioned space. The assembly does not include those components that are separated from a heated and/or cooled space by a vented airspace. The gross area of a roof/ceiling assembly consists of the total interior surface of such assembly, including overhead glazing.
Guest room: See the Washington State Building Code.
Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.
Heat storage capacity: The physical property of materials (mass) located inside the building envelope to absorb, store, and release heat.
Heated space (Fully heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is
a. Capable of maintaining a space dry-bulb temperature of 45°F or greater at design heating conditions; or
b. 8 Btu/(h • ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 12 Btu/(h • ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2.
Heated space (Semi-heated): An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which is heated by a heating system
a. whose output capacity is 3 Btu/(h • ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 1 and 5 Btu/(h • ft2) or greater in Climate Zone 2; and
b. is not a Heated Space (Fully Heated).
HSPF. Heating season performance factor: The total heating output (in Btu) of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total (watt hour) electric power input during the same period, as determined by test procedures consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy "Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, Including Heat Pumps" published in Standard RS-30. When specified in Btu per watt hour an HSPF of 6.826 is equivalent to a COP of 2.0.
Humidistat: A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.
HVAC: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning.
HVAC system components: HVAC system components provide, in one or more factory-assembled packages, means for chilling and/or heating water with controlled temperature for delivery to terminal units serving the conditioned spaces of the buildings. Types of HVAC system components include, but are not limited to, water chiller packages, reciprocating condensing units and water source (hydronic) heat pumps. (See HVAC system equipment.)
HVAC system efficiency: (See Efficiency, HVAC system.)
HVAC system equipment: HVAC system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory-assembled packages, means for air circulation, air cleaning, air cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification; and optionally, either alone or in combination with a heating plant, the functions of heating and humidifying. The cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporatively cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages shall be designed by the manufacturer to be used together. The equipment may provide the heating function as a heat pump or by the use of electric elements. (The word "equipment" used without modifying adjective may, in accordance with common industry usage, apply either to HVAC system equipment or HVAC system components.)
Indirectly conditioned space: An enclosed space within a building that is not a heated or cooled space, whose area weighted heat transfer coefficient to heated or cooled spaces exceeds that to the outdoors or to unconditioned spaces; or through which air from heated or cooled spaces is transferred at a rate exceeding three air changes per hour. Enclosed corridors between conditioned spaces shall be considered as indirectly conditioned space. (See Heated Space, Cooled Space and Unconditioned Space.)
Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density.
Insulation baffle: A rigid material, resistant to wind driven moisture, the purpose of which is to allow air to flow freely into the attic or crawl space and to prevent insulation from blocking the ventilation of these spaces, or the loss of insulation. Example materials for this purpose are sheet metal, or wax impregnated cardboard.
a. Exterior Insulation Position: a wall having all or nearly all of its mass exposed to the room air with the insulation on the exterior of the mass.
b. Integral Insulation Position: a wall having mass exposed to both room and outside air, with substantially equal amounts of mass on the inside and outside of the insulation layer.
c. Interior Insulation Position: a wall not meeting either of the above definitions; particularly a wall having most of its mass external to the insulation layer.
IPLV -- Integrated part-load value: A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER or COP expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment as specified in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) procedures.
Luminaire: A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the electric power supply.
Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention. (See Automatic.)
Microcell: A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.
NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.
NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.
Net heat output: The change in the total heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (not including supplementary heat and heat from boilers).
Net heat removal: The total difference in heat content of the air entering and leaving the equipment (without heat) or the difference in total heat content of the water or refrigerant entering and leaving the component.
New energy: Energy, other than recovered energy, utilized for the purpose of heating or cooling. (See energy.)
Nominal R-value: The thermal resistance of insulation as specified by the manufacturer according to recognized trade and engineering standards.
Nonrenewable energy sources: All energy sources that are not renewable energy sources including natural gas, oil, coal, wood, liquified petroleum gas, steam, and any utility-supplied electricity.
Nonresidential: All buildings and spaces in the Uniform Building Code (UBC) occupancies other than Group R.
Occupancy: See the Washington State Building Code.
Occupancy sensor: A device that detects occupants within an area, causing any combination of lighting, equipment or appliances to be turned on or shut off.
Opaque envelope areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose conditioned space, except openings for doors, glazing and building service systems.
Open blown: Loose fill insulation pneumatically installed in an unconfined attic space.
Outdoor air (outside air): Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously circulated through a building.
Overhead glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of less than 60° from the horizontal plane.
Packaged terminal air conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies or sections intended to serve a room or zone. (For the complete technical definition, see Standard RS-10.)
Permeance (perm): The ability of a material of specified thickness to transmit moisture in terms of amount of moisture transmitted per unit time for a specified area and differential pressure (grains per hour • ft2 • inches of HG). Permeance may be measured using ASTM E-96-72 or other approved dry cup method as specified in RS-27.
Personal wireless service facility: A Wireless Communication Facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.
Pool cover: A vapor-retardant cover which lies on or at the surface of the pool.
Power: In connection with machines, the time rate of doing work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h).
Process energy: Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than the maintenance of building comfort or amenities for building occupants.
Radiant slab floor: A slab floor assembly on grade or below, containing heated pipes, ducts, or electric heating cables that constitute a floor or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the structure.
Readily accessible: See the Washington State Mechanical Code.
Recooling: The removal of heat by sensible cooling of the supply air (directly or indirectly) that has been previously heated above the temperature to which the air is to be supplied to the conditioned space for proper control of the temperature of that space.
Recovered energy: Energy utilized which would otherwise be wasted (i.e. not contribute to a desired end use) from an energy utilization system.
Reheat: The application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air to provide cooling.
Renewable energy sources: Renewable energy sources of energy (excluding minerals) are derived from: (1) incoming solar radiation, including but not limited to, natural daylighting and photosynthetic processes; (2) energy sources resulting from wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and (3) energy derived from the internal heat of the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges.
Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or lower value automatically or manually to conserve energy.
Roof/ceiling assembly: (See Gross roof/ceiling area.)
SEER - Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio: The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period, in Btu's, divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours, during the same period, as determined by 10 CFR, Part 430.
Semi-heated space: Sub-category of Heated Space. (See Heated Space.)
Sequence: A consecutive series of operations.
Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions.
Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes other than comfort heating.
Shaded: Glazed area which is externally protected from direct solar radiation by use of devices permanently affixed to the structure or by an adjacent building, topographical feature, or vegetation.
Shading coefficient: The ratio of solar heat gain occurring through nonopaque portions of the glazing, with or without integral shading devices, to the solar heat gain occurring through an equivalent area of unshaded, 1/8 inch thick, clear, double-strength glass.
|Note:||Heat gains to be compared under the same conditions. See Chapter 28 of Standard RS-27, listed in Chapter 7 of this Code.|
Single family: One and two family residential dwelling units with no more than two units in a single building.
Skylight: (See Overhead glazing.)
Slab-below-grade: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.
Slab-on-grade, exterior: Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is less than or equal to twenty-four inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.
Small business: Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership, or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees, or which has a million dollars or less per year in gross sales, of window products.
Solar energy source: Source of natural daylighting and of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation.
Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the glazing product to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.
Split system: Any heat pump or air conditioning unit which is provided in more than one assembly requiring refrigeration piping installed in the field.
Standard framing: All framing practices not defined as "intermediate" or "advanced" shall be considered standard. (See Advanced framed ceiling, Advanced framed walls, Intermediate framed wall and Section 1005.2 of this Code.)
Substantial contact: A condition where adjacent building materials are placed in a manner that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported as to eliminate voids between materials, without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product.
System: A combination of central or terminal equipment or components and/or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as HVAC, service water heating or illumination.
Tapering: Installation of a reduced level of ceiling insulation at the eaves, due to reduced clearance.
Thermal by-pass: An area where the envelope surrounding the conditioned space is breached, or where an ineffective application compromises the performance of a thermal or infiltration barrier, increasing the structure's energy consumption by exposing finished surfaces to ambient conditions and additional heat transfer.
Thermal conductance (C): Time rate of heat flow through a body (frequently per unit area) from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady conditions (Btu/hr •ft2•°F).
Thermal resistance (R): The reciprocal of thermal conductance (hr • ft2 •°F/Btu).
Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/hr • ft2 •°F).
Thermal transmittance, overall (Uo): The overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope (Btu/hr • ft2 •°F). The Uo-factor applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the various parallel paths, such as glazing, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building components, such as walls, floors or roof/ceiling.
Thermostat: An automatic control device actuated by temperature and designed to be responsive to temperature.
Total on-site energy input: The combination of all the energy inputs to all elements and accessories as included in the equipment components, including but not limited to, compressor(s), compressor sump heater(s), circulating pump(s), purge devices, fan(s), and the HVAC system component control circuit.
Transmission coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system to that of an unshaded single pane of double strength window glass under the same set of conditions.
Transverse joint: The primary connection between air distribution system fittings.
U-factor: (See thermal transmittance.)
U-Value: (See U-factor.)
Uniform Building Code (UBC): (See Washington State Building Code.)
Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC): (See Washington State Mechanical Code.)
Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC): (See Washington State Plumbing Code.)
Unitary cooling and heating equipment: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. Where such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.
Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. When such equipment is provided in more than one assembly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together.
Vapor retarder: A layer of low moisture transmissivity material (not more than 1.0 perm dry cup) placed over the warm side (in winter) of insulation, over the exterior of below grade walls, and under floors as ground cover to limit the transport of water and water vapor through exterior walls, ceilings, and floors. Vapor retarding paint, listed for this application, also meets this definition.
Vaulted ceilings: All ceilings where enclosed joist or rafter space is formed by ceilings applied directly to the underside of roof joists or rafters.
Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned.
Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.
Vertical glazing: A glazing surface that has a slope of 60° or greater from the horizontal plane.
Walls (exterior): Any member or group of members which defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and which have a slope of sixty degrees or greater with the horizontal plane, and separates conditioned from unconditioned space. Band joists between floors are to be considered a part of exterior walls.
Washington State Building Code: The building code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.
Washington State Mechanical Code: The mechanical code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.
Washington State Plumbing Code: The plumbing code as modified by the Washington State Building Code Council.
Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device. Each dwelling unit in residential buildings shall be considered a single zone.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, § 51-11-0201, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, § 51-11-0201, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, § 51-11-0201, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, § 51-11-0201, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0201, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]
503.1 General: This section covers the determination of
design requirements, system and component performance, control
requirements, insulating systems and duct ((
sealing. For all other duct construction requirements, refer
to the State Mechanical Code (chapter 51-42 WAC).
503.2 Calculations of Heating and Cooling Loads, and System Sizing Limits: The design parameters specified in Chapter 3 shall apply for all computations.
503.2.1 Calculation Procedures: Heating and cooling design loads for the purpose of sizing HVAC systems are required and shall be calculated in accordance with accepted engineering practice, including infiltration and ventilation.
503.2.2 Space Heating and Space Cooling System Sizing Limits: Building mechanical systems for all buildings which provide space heating and/or space cooling shall be sized no greater than two hundred percent (200%) of the heating and cooling design loads as calculated above.
The following limited exemptions from the sizing limit shall be allowed; however, in all cases heating
and/or cooling design load calculations shall be submitted.
1. For equipment which provides both heating and cooling in one package unit, including heat pumps
with electric heating and cooling and gas-pack units with gas heating and electric cooling, compliance
need only be demonstrated for either the space heating or space cooling system size.
2. Natural gas- or oil-fired space heating equipment whose total rated space heating output in any one
dwelling unit is
a. 40,000 Btu/h or less is exempt from the sizing limit,
b. larger than 40,000 Btu/h may exceed the two hundred (200%) percent sizing limit provided that the
installed equipment has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of not less than ninety (90%)
3. Stand-by equipment may be installed if controls and other devices are provided which allow
redundant equipment to operate only when the primary equipment is not operating.
503.3 Simultaneous Heating and Cooling: Systems and equipment that provide simultaneous heating and cooling shall comply with the requirements in, as appropriate, Section 1422 or Section 1435.
503.4 HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements: All heating equipment shall meet the requirements of the 1987 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and be so labeled. Equipment shall also comply with Section 1411.
503.6 Balancing: The HVAC system design shall provide a means for balancing air and water systems. Balancing the system shall include, but not be limited to, dampers, temperature and pressure test connections and balancing valves.
503.7 Cooling with Outdoor Air (Economizer Cycle): Systems and equipment that provide mechanical cooling shall comply with Section 1413 and, as appropriate, Section 1423 or 1433.
503.8.1 Temperature Control: Each system shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature. Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows:
503.8.1.1: When used to control heating only: Fifty-five degrees to seventy-five degrees F.
503.8.1.2: When used to control cooling only: Seventy degrees to eighty-five degrees F.
503.8.1.3: When used to control both heating and cooling, it shall be capable of being set from fifty-five degrees to eighty-five degrees F and shall be capable of operating the system heating and cooling in sequence. The thermostat and/or control system shall have an adjustable deadband of not less than ten degrees F.
503.8.2 Humidity Control: If a system is equipped with a means for adding moisture to maintain specific selected relative humidities in space or zones, a humidistat shall be provided. Humidistats shall be capable of being set to prevent new energy from being used to produce space-relative humidity above thirty percent.
Special uses requiring different relative humidities may be permitted when approved by the building
503.8.3 Zoning for Temperature Control:
503.8.3.1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings: At least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature shall be provided for each separate system. In addition, a readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor.
503.8.3.2 Multifamily Dwellings: For multifamily dwellings, each individual dwelling unit shall have at least one thermostat for regulation of space temperature. A readily accessible manual or automatic means shall be provided to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each room. Spaces other than living units shall meet the requirements of 503.8.3.3.
503.8.3.4 Control Setback and Shut-off:
Residential Occupancy Groups. One- and Two-Family and Multifamily dwellings -- The thermostat required in section 503.8.3.1 or section 503.8.3.2, or an alternate means such as a switch or clock, shall provide a readily accessible, manual or automatic means for reducing the energy required for heating and cooling during the periods of nonuse or reduced need, such as, but not limited to unoccupied periods and sleeping hours. Lowering thermostat set points to reduce energy consumption of heating systems shall not cause energy to be expended to reach the reduced setting.
503.8.3.5 Heat Pump Controls: Programmable thermostats are required for all heat pump systems. The cut-on temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-on temperature for the supplementary heat, and the cut-off temperature for the compression heating shall be higher than the cut-off temperature for the supplementary heat. Heat pump thermostats will be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day. The automatic setback thermostat shall have the capability of limiting the use of supplemental heat during the warm-up period.
503.9 Air Handling Duct System Insulation: Ducts, plenums and enclosures installed in or on buildings shall be thermally insulated per Table 5-11.
Duct insulation (except where required to prevent condensation) is not required in any of the following
1. When the heat gain or loss of the ducts, without insulation, will not increase the energy requirements
of the building.
2. Within the HVAC equipment.
3. Exhaust air ducts.
4. Supply or return air ducts installed in unvented crawl spaces with insulated walls, basements, or cellars
in one-and two-family dwellings.
503.10 Ducts ((
Construction: All duct work shall be
constructed in accordance with Standards RS-15, RS-16, RS-17,
RS-18, RS-19 or RS-20, as applicable, and the Uniform
503.10.1 Leakage Testing: High-pressure and medium-pressure ducts shall be leak tested in accordance with the ((
applicable standards in Chapter 7 of this Code)) 1985
Edition of the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with
the rate of air leakage not to exceed the maximum rate
specified in that standard.
503.10.2 Seams and Joints: All low-pressure supply and return((
, including)) duct transverse joints, and enclosed
stud bays or joist cavities/space used to transport air, shall
be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics
(adhesives), or mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems (( or
tapes)) installed in accordance with the manufacturer's
installation instructions. (( Tapes and mastics used with
rigid fibrous glass ducts shall be listed and labeled in
accordance with UL 181A. Tapes and mastics used with flexible
air ducts shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL
181B. Duct tape is not permitted as a sealant on any ducts.))
|EXCEPTIONS:||1. Ducts or building cavities used for air distribution that are located entirely within the conditioned space of the building are exempt from this section.|
|2. UL 181A listed tapes used with listed rigid fibrous glass ducts may be used as the primary sealant, when installed in accordance with the listing.|
|3. UL 181B listed tapes used with listed flexible air ducts may be used as the primary sealant, when installed in accordance with the listing.|
|4. Where enclosed stud bays or joist cavities/spaces are used to transport air sealing may be accomplished using drywall, drywall tape plus joint compound.|
|5. Tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions, providing detailed information specific to application on ducts, including approved duct materials and required duct surface cleaning.|
503.10.4 Duct Insulation: Ducts shall meet the
insulation requirements specified in Table 5-11.))
503.11 Pipe Insulation: All piping shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 5-12.
Piping installed within unitary HVAC equipment.
Cold water pipes outside the conditioned space shall be insulated in accordance with the Washington State Plumbing Code (chapter 51-46 WAC).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, § 51-11-0503, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, § 51-11-0503, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045, and 19.27.020. 98-24-075, § 51-11-0503, filed 12/1/98, effective 7/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, § 51-11-0503, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, § 51-11-0503, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, § 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0503, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]
601.1 General: This chapter establishes design criteria in terms of prescribed requirements for building construction.
The provisions of this chapter are applicable to all Group R Occupancies. Occupancies shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 5 except for the modifications herein specified.
For wood frame assemblies, the building envelope requirements of this chapter may be met by installing one of the prescriptive packages in Table 6-1 or 6-2. Installed components shall meet the requirements of section 602. Compliance with nominal R-Values shall be demonstrated for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and/or insulated sheathing only and shall not include the thermal transmittance of other building materials or air films, but shall permit interruption by occasional framing members. Other than wood frame assemblies with continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing shall also be allowed to comply with nominal R-values.
For metal frame assemblies, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with Chapter 4 or Chapter 5 based on the assemblies in Chapter 10. Compliance with nominal R-values is not allowed, unless the full nominal R-value of the insulation is installed either inside or outside of the framing and is uninterrupted by framing.
|EXCEPTION:||Group R-1 occupancy buildings may use a maximum area weighted average U-factor for components not exceeding those prescribed in Paths III and V in Table 6-1 or Paths IV and VI in Table 6-2.|
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, § 51-11-0601, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, § 51-11-0601, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, § 51-11-0601, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0601, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]
602.1 Roof/Ceiling: Ceilings below vented attics and single-rafter, joist-vaulted ceilings shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for ceilings in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.
602.2 Exterior Walls Both Above and Below Grade: Above grade exterior walls shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. The following walls should be considered to meet R-21 without additional documentation:
1. 2 x 6 framed and insulated with R-21 fiberglass batts.
2. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-15 fiberglass batts plus R-4.0 foam sheathing.
3. 2 x 4 framed and insulated with R-13 fiberglass batts plus R-5.0 foam sheathing.
602.3 Exterior Walls (Below Grade): Below grade exterior walls surrounding conditioned space shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value specified for below grade walls in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable.
602.4 Slab-on-grade Floors: Slab-on-grade floors shall be insulated along their perimeter to not less than the nominal R-values specified for slab-on-grade floors in Table 6-1 or 6-2 as applicable. Slab insulation shall be installed in compliance with section 502.1.4.8. See Chapter 5, section 502.1.4.9, for additional requirements for radiant slab heating.
602.5 Floors Over Unconditioned Space: Floors over unconditioned spaces, such as vented crawl spaces, unconditioned basements, and parking garages shall be insulated to not less than the nominal R-value shown for floors over unconditioned spaces, in Table 6-1 or 6-2.
602.6 Exterior Doors: Doors shall comply with Sections 602.6.1 and 602.6.2.
|EXCEPTIONS:||1. Doors whose area and U-factor are included in the calculations for compliance with the requirements
for glazing in section 602.7 shall be exempt from the door U-factor requirements prescribed in Table
6-1 or 6-2.
|2. One unlabeled or untested exterior swinging door with the maximum area of 24 square feet may be
installed per unit for ornamental, security or architectural purposes. Products using this exception shall
not be included in either the U-factor or glazing area calculation requirements.
602.6.2 Exterior Door U-Factor: Doors, including fire doors, shall have a maximum area weighted average U-factor not exceeding that prescribed in Table 6-1 or 6-2.
602.7.1 Glazing Area: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall not exceed the percentage of gross conditioned floor area specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. This area shall also include any glazing in doors.
602.7.2 Glazing U-Factor: The total glazing area as defined in Chapter 2 shall have an area weighted average U-factor not to exceed that specified in Table 6-1 or 6-2. U-factors for glazing shall be determined in accordance with section 502.1.5. These areas and U-factors shall also include any doors using the exception of section 602.6.
If the U-factors for all vertical and overhead glazing products are below the appropriate U-factor specified, then no calculations are required. If compliance is to be achieved through an area weighted calculation, then the areas and U-factors shall be included in the plans submitted with a building permit application.
Single glazing for ornamental, security, or architectural purposes and double glazed garden windows with
a wood or vinyl frame shall be exempt from the U-factor calculations but shall have its area tripled and
shall be included in the percentage of the total glazing area as allowed for in Table 6-1 or 6-2. The
maximum area (before tripling) allowed for the total of all single glazing and garden windows is one
percent of the floor area.
602.8 Air Leakage For Group R Occupancy: The minimum air leakage control measures shall be as specified in section 502.4 as applicable.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, § 51-11-0602, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 98-03-003, § 51-11-0602, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, § 51-11-0602, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0602, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY
CLIMATE ZONE 1
|Ceiling2||Vaulted Ceiling3||Wall12 Above Grade||Wall• int4 Below Grade||Wall• ext4 Below Grade||Floor5||Slab6
|III.||25% Group R-1 Occupancy only||0.40||0.58||0.20||R-38/
||Unlimited Group R-3 Occupancy only||0.40||0.58||0.20||R-38||R-30||R-21||R-21||R-10||R-30||R-10|
|V.||Unlimited Group R-1 Occupancy only||0.35||0.58||0.20||R-38/
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCY
CLIMATE ZONE 2
|Ceiling2||Vaulted Ceiling3||Wall12 Above Grade||Wall• int4 Below Grade||Wall• ext4 Below Grade||Floor5||Slab6
|IV.||25% Group R-1 Occupancy only||0.35||0.58||0.20||R-38/
||Unlimited Group R-3 Occupancy only||0.35||0.58||0.20||R-38||R-30||R-21 Int7||R-21||R-12||R-30||R-10|
|VI.||Unlimited Group R-1 Occupancy only||0.32||0.58||0.20||R-38/
|0.||Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.|
|1.||Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.|
|2.||Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.|
|3.||Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.|
|4.||Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, or on the interior to the same level as walls above grade. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.|
|5.||Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.|
|6.||Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4.|
|7.||Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-5 insulation.|
|8.||This wall insulation requirement denotes R-19 wall cavity insulation plus R-5 foam sheathing.|
|9.||Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.|
|10.||Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U=0.40 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.|
|11.||Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.|
|12.||Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.|
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, § 51-11-0625, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, § 51-11-0625, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, § 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, § 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, § 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, § 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]
|CALPAS 3||BSG Software
40 Lincoln Street
Lexington, MA 02173
|DOE 2||ACROSOFT/CAER Engineers
1204-1/2 Washington Avenue
Golden, CO 80401
4406 Fox Bluff Rd.
Middleton, WI 53562
1721 Arroyo Drive
Auburn, CA 95603
2812 East Madison St.
Seattle, WA 98112
925 Plum Street
Olympia, WA 98504-3165
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, § 51-11-0800, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, § 51-11-0800, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]