LABOR AND INDUSTRIES
Title of Rule: Miscellaneous changes to chapters 296-24, 296-32, 296-52, 296-62, 296-155, and 296-301 WAC.
Purpose: On June 18, 1998, OSHA adopted miscellaneous changes to a number of federal rules within 29 C.F.R. 1910 and 1926 (General Industry and Construction Standards). WISHA is proposing amendments to standards related to these chapters to be at least as effective as OSHA, assure appropriate worker protection throughout the state, and improve the clarity of these rules. Washington Administrative Codes that are affected include: Chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards; chapter 296-32 WAC, Safety standards for telecommunications; chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards; chapter 296-52 WAC, Safety standards for possession and handling of explosives; chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work; and chapter 296-301 WAC, Safety standards for the textile industry.
Amendments proposed incorporate those changes from the Federal Register Notice, Volume 63, Number 117, published on June 18, 1998 (Standards Improvement (Miscellaneous Changes) for General Industry and Construction Standards; Paperwork Collection for Coke Oven Emissions and Inorganic Arsenic, Final Rule). These proposed amendments clarify rules, eliminate duplications, and delete current WISHA requirements under the jurisdiction of the federal Department of Transportation.
In addition, WISHA proposes changes to chapter 296-52 WAC, which will reduce fees to 1995 levels due to requirements of chapter 43.135 RCW and includes the requirement of a Social Security number from RCW 26.23.150 when requesting licenses. Proposed WISHA changes to chapter 296-62 WAC, Parts G and I remove references to Appendices, which were repealed in the respiratory protection project, also within Part R, a reference was corrected. Also being proposed are clarifications to requirements for crane operators in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D, and illustrations in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part N due to stakeholder request.
Changes to chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards:
Amended section WAC 296-24-47505 Basic rules. Proposal eliminates the requirements in subsection (15)(f), (g), and (h), this subsection relates to tank car or transport truck loading or unloading points. These changes are proposed to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.110 (b)(15). The requirements pertain to the design of transportation vehicles and the safe location of such vehicles during loading and unloading operations, which fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation.
Amended section WAC 296-24-47507 (2)(b), (c) and (d) cylinder systems. Proposal eliminates specifications for marking LPG cylinders, to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.110 (c)(2), which were a duplication of the Department of Transportation requirements.
Amended section WAC 296-24-47511(10) Liquefied petroleum gas as a motor fuel. Proposal eliminates requirements in WAC 296-24-47511(10), pertaining to passenger carrying vehicles, to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.110(e), which fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation.
Amended section WAC 296-24-47515 LP gas system installations on commercial vehicles. Proposal eliminates requirements pertaining to installing LPgas systems on commercial vehicles, to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.110(g), which fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation.
Amended section WAC 296-24-51017 Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia,
systems mounted on trucks, semi-trailers, and trailers for transportation of ammonia. Proposal
eliminates requirements in subsections (8) and (10) regarding safety requirements to protect full
trailers and semi-trailers that transport ammonia, from collision, to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R.
1910.111(f), which fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation.
Changes to chapter 296-32 WAC, Safety standards for telecommunications:
Changes to chapter 296-52 WAC, Safety standards for possession and handling of
Amended section WAC 296-52-489 Transportation. Proposal changes subsection (7)(a), to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.109 (d)(1)(iv). This will allow for transportation of blasting caps on a vehicle that is carrying other explosives when doing so in accordance with methods specified in the Department of Transportation regulations of 49 C.F.R. 177.835 (g)(3)(I).
Amended section WAC 296-52-493 Use of explosives and blasting agents. Proposal
changes subsection (2)(a), to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.109 (e)(2)(i), which allows for
the reuse of uncontaminated containers and packaging materials if such reuse is accomplished in
accordance with the Department of Transportation criteria contained in 49 C.F.R. 173.28.
Proposal makes a WISHA change to the following WACs, which will decrease license fees to 1995 levels, to comply with chapter 43.135 RCW, requirements. Amended section WAC 296-52-425 Dealer’s license, subsection (2), 296-52-429 License for manufacturing, subsection (2), 296-52-433 Purchaser’s license, subsection (3), 296-52-437 User’s (blaster’s) license, subsection (2)(h), and 296-52-449 Storage magazine license fees, changes to fee schedule for operating each magazine.
Changes to chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards:
Amended section WAC 296-62-07354 Appendices--Inorganic arsenic. Proposal decreases the requirements in Appendix C--Medical surveillance guidelines (3)(a)(iii) to update medical history and make sputum cytology testing optional. In subsection (3)(a)(iv) requirements have been minimized to tests required in the initial exam, and updated medical history, to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.1018, Appendix A and C.
Amended section WAC 296-62-20017 Medical surveillance. Proposal decreases the requirements for x-rays from semi-annually to annually in subsection (3), Periodic examinations to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.1029 (j)(3).
Amended section WAC 296-62-20027 Appendix A--Coke oven emissions substance information sheet. Proposal decreases requirements for x-rays from semi-annually to annually in subsection VI, Medical examinations and clarifies the need for the examination to be like federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.1029, Appendix A.
Amended section WAC 296-62-20029 Appendix B--Industrial hygiene and medical
surveillance guidelines. Proposal decreases the minimum requirements in subsection II, Medical
surveillance guidelines by requiring the examinations only for workers who work at least thirty
days in the regulated area, deleting the requirement for sputum cytology exams and changing
x-ray requirements from semi-annual to annual. These changes are being proposed to be like
federal rule 29 C.F.R. 1910.1029, Appendix B.
Amended section WAC 296-62-07542 Appendix A--Substances technical guideline for formalin. Proposal makes a WISHA change to subsection (l)(i) by deleting (B), the fit testing requirements, contained in Appendix E of WAC 296-62-07550, which was repealed as part of the respiratory protection project.
Amended section WAC 296-62-41025 Refresher training. Proposal makes a WISHA change to subsection (1) to include a corrected reference.
Changes to chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work:
Changes to chapter 296-301 WAC, Safety standards for the textile industry:
Amended section WAC 296-301-170 Clothing folding machine. Proposal makes a change by referencing requirements found in WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19513 to eliminate duplication.
Amended section WAC 296-301-195 Open tanks and vats for mixing and storage of hot or corrosive liquids. Proposal eliminates duplication of requirements to WAC 296-24-750 through 296-24-75011 in subsection (1).
Amended section WAC 296-301-220 Personal protective equipment. Within subsection (1), proposal removes outdated references to WAC 296-24-081 through 296-24-08113, and eliminates duplication of requirements found in WAC 296-24-07501 and 296-24-07801. Also, within subsection (2), referenced requirements to WAC 296-24-081 through 296-24-08113 are corrected to identify appropriate references to chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E, Respiratory protection.
Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050.
Statute Being Implemented: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
Summary: See Purpose above.
Reasons Supporting Proposal: See Purpose above.
Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Tracy Spencer, Tumwater, (360) 902-5530; Implementation and Enforcement: Michael A. Silverstein, Tumwater, (360) 902-5495.
Name of Proponent: Department of Labor and Industries, governmental.
Rule is necessary because of federal law, Federal Register notice, Volume 63, Number 117, published on June 18, 1998.
Explanation of Rule, its Purpose, and Anticipated Effects: See Purpose above.
Proposal Changes the Following Existing Rules: See Purpose above.
THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED TO BE ADOPTED USING AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS RULE BEING ADOPTED USING THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Selwyn Walters, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44001, Olympia, WA 98504-4001 , AND RECEIVED BY August 2, 1999.
June 1, 1999
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-10-073 and 98-24-120, filed 5/4/98 and 12/2/98, effective 10/1/99)
General safety requirements.
(1) Means of stopping machines. Every textile machine shall be provided with individual mechanical or electrical means for stopping such machines. On machines driven by belts and shafting a locking-type shifter or an equivalent positive device shall be used. On operations where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.
(2) Handles. Stopping and starting handles shall be designed to the proper length to prevent the worker's hand or fingers from striking against any revolving part, gear guard, or any other part of the machine.
(3) Machine guarding. An employer must ensure that power transmission parts are
guarded according to the requirements of WAC 296-24-205 through 296-24-20527 ((
general safety and health standards)). (( Exception: Only the side and face sections of a nip-point belt and pulley guard are required so that the guard extends at least: (a) Six inches beyond the rim of the pulley on the in-running and off-running sides of the belt; and (b) Two inches away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.))
(4) Housekeeping. Aisles and working spaces shall be kept in good order((
, clean and
free of obstructions)) in accordance with requirements of WAC (( 296-24-120 through
296-24-12015, of the general safety and health standards)) 296-24-735 through 296-24-73505.
(5) Inspection and maintenance. All guards and other safety devices, including starting and stopping devices, shall be properly maintained.
(6) Lighting and illumination. Lighting and illumination shall conform to the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC.
(7) Identification of piping systems. Identification of piping systems shall conform to American National Standard A13.1-1956.
(8) Identification of physical hazards. Identification of physical hazards shall be in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-135 through 296-24-13503, of the general safety and health standards.
(9) Steam pipes. All pipes carrying steam or hot water for process or servicing machinery, when exposed to contact and located within seven feet of the floor or working platform shall be covered with a heat-insulating material, or guarded with equivalent protection.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17.]040 and [49.17.]050. 98-10-073 and 98-24-120, § 296-301-020, filed 5/4/98 and 12/2/98, effective 10/1/99; Order 74-19, § 296-301-020, filed 5/6/74.]
The crank arm and blade guide rods
on both sides of the cloth-folding machines shall be protected from contact by barrier guards
constructed to conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19513, of the
general safety and health standards.)) Cloth-folding machines shall meet the requirements of
WAC 296-24-195 through 296-24-19513.
[Order 74-19, § 296-301-170, filed 5/6/74.]
Protection against falls. Open tanks and vats containing hot or corrosive liquids
shall be provided with guardrails to)) Guardrails shall be provided for open tanks and vats which
conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-750 through 296-24-75011(( , of the general safety
and health standards)).
(2) Shutoff valves. Boiling tanks, caustic tanks, and hot liquid containers, so located that the operator cannot see the contents from the floor or working area, shall have emergency shutoff valves controlled from a point not subject to danger of splash. Valves shall conform to the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1968.
[Order 74-19, § 296-301-195, filed 5/6/74.]
(1) Personal protective
equipment. Workers engaged in handling acids or caustics in bulk, repairing pipe lines
containing acids or caustics, etc., shall be provided with personal protective ((
(safety))) equipment to conform to the requirements of WAC 296-24-07501(( ,)) and
296-24-07801(( , and 296-24-081 through 296-24-08113, of the general safety and health
Respirators, gas masks, and such appliances, for emergency use only, shall be of a
type required by WAC 296-24-081 through 296-24-08113, of the general safety and health
standards.)) Respiratory protection. Employers must provide respiratory protection as required
in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part E.
[Order 74-19, § 296-301-220, filed 5/6/74.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 92-06, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92)
Appendix B--Sloping and benching.
(1) Scope and application. This appendix contains specifications for sloping and benching when used as methods of protecting employees working in excavations from cave-ins. The requirements of this appendix apply when the design of sloping and benching protective systems is to be performed in accordance with the requirements set forth in WAC 296-155-657 (2)(b).
(a) Actual slope. The slope to which an excavation face is excavated.
(b) Distress. Soil that is in a condition where a cave-in is imminent or is likely to occur. Distress is evidenced by such phenomena as the development of fissures in the face of or adjacent to an open excavation; the subsidence of the edge of an excavation; the slumping of material from the face or the bulging or heaving of material from the bottom of an excavation; the spalling of material from the face of an excavation; and ravelling, i.e., small amounts of material such as pebbles or little clumps of material suddenly separating from the face of an excavation and trickling or rolling down into the excavation.
(c) Maximum allowable slope. The steepest incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable site conditions as protection against cave-ins, and is expressed as the ratio of horizontal distance to vertical rise (H:V).
(a) Soil classification. Soil and rock deposits shall be classified in accordance with appendix A of this Part.
(b) Maximum allowable slope. The maximum allowable slope for a soil or rock deposit shall be determined from Table N-1 of this appendix.
(c) Actual slope.
(i) The actual slope shall not be steeper than the maximum allowable slope.
(ii) The actual slope shall be less steep than the maximum allowable slope, when there are signs of distress. If that situation occurs, the slope shall be cut back to an actual slope which is at least 1/2 horizontal to one vertical (1/2H:1V) less steep than the maximum allowable slope.
(iii) When surcharge loads from stored material or equipment, operating equipment, or traffic are present, a competent person shall determine the degree to which the actual slope must be reduced below the maximum allowable slope, and shall assure that such reduction is achieved. Surcharge loads from adjacent structures shall be evaluated in accordance with WAC 296-155-655(9).
(d) Configurations. Configurations of sloping and benching systems shall be in accordance with Figures N-1 through N-18.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES
|SOIL OR ROCK TYPE||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES|
(H1V) (1) FOR EXCAVATION LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP (2)
3/4 : 1 (53°)
1 : 1 (45°)
1 1/2 : 1 (34°)
|(1)||Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off.|
|(2)||Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.|
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[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-66403, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 88-25, filed 11/14/88)
Flammable and combustible liquids.
(1) General requirements.
(a) Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used for storage and handling of
flammable and combustible liquids. Approved metal safety cans, or department of
transportation approved containers shall be used for the handling and use of flammable liquids in
greater than one gallon)) five gallons or less, except that this shall not apply to those
flammable liquid materials which are highly viscid (( highly)) (extremely hard to pour), which
may be used and handled in original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less,
only the original container (( or approved metal safety cans shall)) may be used for storage, use,
and handling of flammable liquids.
(b) Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be stored in areas used for exits, stairways, or normally used for the safe passage of people.
(c) Flammable and combustible liquid containers shall be legibly marked to indicate their contents. Each storage container for flammable or combustible liquids, with a capacity of 50 gallons or more, shall have the contents of the container identified by a sign of clearly visible contrasting colors with letters at least 3 inches high, painted on the container at the discharge valve and at the fill point.
(d) Gasoline shall not be used as a solvent or a cleaning agent.
(2) Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids.
(a) No more than 25 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquid petroleum gas, see WAC 296-155-275.
(b) Quantities of flammable and combustible liquid in excess of 25 gallons shall be stored in an acceptable or approved cabinet meeting the following requirements:
(i) Acceptable wooden storage cabinets shall be constructed in the following manner, or equivalent: The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an exterior grade of plywood at least 1 inch in thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under standard fire test conditions. All joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead wood screws, when more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbeted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Steel hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to fire. Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant paint.
(ii) Approved metal storage cabinets will be acceptable.
(iii) Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, "Flammable--Keep fire away."
(c) Not more than 60 gallons of flammable or 120 gallons of combustible liquids shall be stored in any one storage cabinet. Not more than three such cabinets may be located in a single storage area. Quantities in excess of this shall be stored in an inside storage room.
(d)(i) Inside storage room shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Material, NFPA 251-1972.
(ii) Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an approved manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the room, which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other buildings are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1983, for Class E or F openings. Wood of at least 1-inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations.
(iii) Materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids.
(iv) Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table D-2 following:
|Fire resistance||Maximum size||Total
|Yes||2 hrs.||500 sq. ft.||10|
|No||2 hrs.||500 sq. ft.||4|
|Yes||1 hr.||150 sq. ft.||5|
|No||1 hr.||150 sq. ft.||2|
|Note:||Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for this purpose.|
(vi) Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. Such system shall commence not more than 12 inches above the floor and be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least 6 times per hour. If a mechanical exhausting system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. An electric pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if flammable liquids are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.
(vii) In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other.
(viii) Flammable and combustible liquids in excess of that permitted in inside storage rooms shall be stored outside of buildings in accordance with subsection (3) of this section.
(3) Storage outside buildings.
(a) Storage of containers (not more than 60 gallons each) shall not exceed 1,100 gallons in any one pile or area. Piles or groups of containers shall be separated by a 5-foot clearance. Piles or groups of containers shall not be nearer than 20 feet to a building.
(b) Within 200 feet of each pile of containers, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(c) The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures, or shall be surrounded by a curb or earth dike at least 12 inches high. When curbs or dikes are used, provisions shall be made for draining off accumulations of ground or rain water, or spills of flammable or combustible liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions.
(d) Outdoor portable tank storage.
(i) Portable tanks shall not be nearer than 20 feet from any building. Two or more portable tanks, grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of 2,200 gallons, shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area. Individual portable tanks exceeding 1,100 gallons shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area.
(ii) Within 200 feet of each portable tank, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(e) Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.
(f) Portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, shall be provided with emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters III and IV of NFPA 30-1972, The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
(g) Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, shall have emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters II and III of the Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 30-1972.
(4) Fire control for flammable or combustible liquid storage.
(a) At least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 20-B units, shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage of more than 60 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids.
(b) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B units shall be located not less than 25 feet, nor more than 75 feet, from any flammable liquid storage area located outside.
(c) When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13-1972.
(d) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C units shall be provided on all tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing flammable or combustible liquids.
(5) Dispensing liquids.
(a) Areas in which flammable or combustible liquids are transferred at the same time, in quantities greater than 5 gallons from one tank or container to another tank or container, shall be separated from other operations by 25-feet distance or by construction having a fire-resistance of at least 1 hour. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided to maintain the concentration of flammable vapor at or below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit.
(b) Transfer flammable liquids from one container to another shall be done only when containers are electrically interconnected (bonded).
(c) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or tanks within a building or outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable tanks, by gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tank is prohibited.
(d) The dispensing units shall be protected against collision damage.
(e) Dispensing devices and nozzles for flammable liquids shall be of an approved type, as required by WAC 296-24-33015.
(6) Handling liquids at point of final use.
(a) Flammable liquids shall be kept in closed containers when not actually in use.
(b) Leakage or spillage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be disposed of promptly and safely.
(c) Flammable liquids shall be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within 50 feet of the operation, unless conditions warrant greater clearance.
(7) Service and refueling areas.
(a) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers, in tanks located underground, or in aboveground portable tanks.
(b) The tank trucks shall comply with the requirements covered in the Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 385-1977.
(c) The dispensing hose shall be an approved type.
(d) The dispensing nozzle shall be an approved automatic-closing type.
(e) Underground tanks shall not be abandoned.
(f) Clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.
(g)(i) Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the lubrication or service area where there is no dispensing or transferring of flammable liquids, provided the bottom of the heating unit is at least 18 inches above the floor and is protected from physical damage.
(ii) Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, where flammable liquids are dispensed, shall be of an approved type for garages, and shall be installed at least 8 feet above the floor.
(h) There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids.
(i) Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted.
(j) The motor of any equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.
(k) Each service or fueling area shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20BC located so that an extinguisher will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-155-270, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-270, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-270, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]
(1) Surface encumbrances. All surface encumbrances that are located so as to create a hazard to employees shall be removed or supported, as necessary, to safeguard employees.
(2) Underground installations.
(a) The location of utility installations, such as sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water lines, or any other underground installations that reasonably may be expected to be encountered during excavation work, shall be located prior to opening an excavation.
(b) Utility companies or owners shall be contacted within established or customary local response times, advised of the proposed work, and asked to locate the underground utility installation prior to the start of actual excavation.
(c) When excavation operations approach the location of underground installations, the exact location of the installations shall be determined by safe and acceptable means.
(d) While the excavation is open, underground installations shall be protected, supported, or removed as necessary to safeguard employees.
(3) Access and egress.
(a) Structural ramps.
(i) Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access or egress from excavations shall be designed by a competent person. Structural ramps used for access or egress of equipment shall be designed by a competent person qualified in structural design, and shall be constructed in accordance with the design.
(ii) Ramps and runways constructed of two or more structural members shall have the structural members connected together to prevent displacement.
(iii) Structural members used for ramps and runways shall be of uniform thickness.
(iv) Cleats or other appropriate means used to connect runway structural members shall be attached to the bottom of the runway or shall be attached in a manner to prevent tripping.
(v) Structural ramps used in lieu of steps shall be provided with cleats or other surface treatments on the top surface to prevent slipping.
(b) Means of egress from trench excavations. A stairway, ladder, ramp or other safe means of egress shall be located in trench excavations that are 4 feet (1.22 m) or more in depth so as to require no more than 25 feet (7.62 m) of lateral travel for employees.
(4) Exposure to vehicular traffic. Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with, and shall wear, warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or high-visibility material.
(5) Exposure to falling loads. No employee shall be permitted underneath loads handled by lifting or digging equipment. Employees shall be required to stand away from any vehicle being loaded or unloaded to avoid being struck by any spillage or falling materials. Operators may remain in the cabs of vehicles being loaded or unloaded when the vehicles are equipped, in accordance with WAC 296-155-610 (2)(g), to provide adequate protection for the operator during loading and unloading operations.
(6) Warning system for mobile equipment. When mobile equipment is operated adjacent to an excavation, or when such equipment is required to approach the edge of an excavation, and the operator does not have a clear and direct view of the edge of the excavation, a warning system shall be utilized such as barricades, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation.
(7) Hazardous atmospheres.
(a) Testing and controls. In addition to the requirements set forth in parts B-1, C, and C-1 of this chapter (296-155 WAC) to prevent exposure to harmful levels of atmospheric contaminants and to assure acceptable atmospheric conditions, the following requirements shall apply:
(i) Where oxygen deficiency (atmospheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen) or a hazardous atmosphere exists or could reasonably be expected to exist, such as in excavations in landfill areas or excavations in areas where hazardous substances are stored nearby, the atmospheres in the excavation shall be tested before employees enter excavations greater than 4 feet (1.22 m) in depth.
(ii) Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent employee exposure to atmospheres containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen and other hazardous atmospheres. These precautions include providing proper respiratory protection or ventilation in accordance with parts B-1 and C of this chapter respectively.
(iii) Adequate precaution shall be taken such as providing ventilation, to prevent
employee exposure to an atmosphere containing a concentration of a flammable gas in excess of
20)) 10 percent of the lower flammable limit of the gas.
(iv) When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels, testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe.
(b) Emergency rescue equipment.
(i) Emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a safety harness and line, or a basket stretcher, shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheric conditions exist or may reasonably be expected to develop during work in an excavation. This equipment shall be attended when in use.
(ii) Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes, or other similar deep and confined footing excavations, shall wear a harness with a lifeline securely attached to it. The lifeline shall be separate from any line used to handle materials, and shall be individually attended at all times while the employee wearing the lifeline is in the excavation.
|Note:||See chapter 296-62 WAC, Part M for additional requirements applicable to confined space operations.|
(a) Employees shall not work in excavations in which there is accumulated water, or in excavations in which water is accumulating, unless adequate precautions have been taken to protect employees against the hazards posed by water accumulation. The precautions necessary to protect employees adequately vary with each situation, but could include special support or shield systems to protect from cave-ins, water removal to control the level of accumulating water, or use of a safety harness and lifeline.
(b) If water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by the use of water removal equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by a competent person to ensure proper operation.
(c) If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. Excavations subject to runoff from heavy rains will require an inspection by a competent person and compliance with subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection.
(9) Stability of adjacent structures.
(a) Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation operations, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure the stability of such structures for the protection of employees.
(b) Excavation below the level of the base or footing of any foundation or retaining wall that could be reasonably expected to pose a hazard to employees shall not be permitted except when:
(i) A support system, such as underpinning, is provided to ensure the safety of employees and the stability of the structure; or
(ii) The excavation is in stable rock; or
(iii) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the structure is sufficiently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the excavation activity; or
(iv) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that such excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees.
(c) Sidewalks, pavements, and appurtenant structure shall not be undermined unless a support system or another method of protection is provided to protect employees from the possible collapse of such structures.
(10) Protection of employees from loose rock or soil.
(a) Adequate protection shall be provided to protect employees from loose rock or soil that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling from an excavation face. Such protection shall consist of scaling to remove loose material; installation of protective barricades at intervals as necessary on the face to stop and contain falling material; or other means that provide equivalent protection.
(b) Employees shall be protected from excavated or other materials or equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations. Protection shall be provided by placing and keeping such materials or equipment at least 2 feet (.61 m) from the edge of excavations, or by the use of retaining devices that are sufficient to prevent materials or equipment from falling or rolling into excavations, or by a combination of both if necessary.
(a) Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be made by a competent person for evidence of a situation that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. An inspection shall be conducted by the competent person prior to the start of work and as needed throughout the shift. Inspections shall also be made after every rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence. These inspections are only required when employee exposure can be reasonably anticipated.
(b) Where the competent person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the hazardous area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety.
(12) Fall protection.
(a) Walkways shall be provided where employees or equipment are required or permitted to cross over excavations. Guardrails which comply with chapter 296-155 WAC, Part K shall be provided where walkways are 4 feet or more above lower levels.
(b) Adequate barrier physical protection shall be provided at all remotely located excavations. All wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be barricaded or covered. Upon completion of exploration and similar operations, temporary wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be backfilled.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-24-051, § 296-155-655, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-10-016, § 296-155-655, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-655, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-655, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-655, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-655, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, § 296-155-655, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-655, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 98-02-030, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98)
(1) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.
(a) "Action level" - a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3) averaged over any eight-hour period.
(b) "Authorized person" - any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (5) of this section.
(c) "Director" - the director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her designated representative.
(d) "Inorganic arsenic" - copper aceto-arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).
(3) Permissible exposure limit. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 µg/m3), averaged over any eight-hour period.
(4) Notification of use.
(a) By October 1, 1978, or within sixty days after the introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer who is required to establish a regulated area in his/her workplaces shall report in writing to the department of labor and industries for each such workplace:
(i) The address of each such workplace;
(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulated areas; and
(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and the actions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.
(b) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required by subsection (4)(a) of this section, the employer shall report the changes in writing within sixty days to the department of labor and industries.
(5) Exposure monitoring.
(i) Determinations of airborne exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight-hour period.
(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least seven continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area.
(b) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic arsenic to which employees may be exposed.
(i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subsection (5)(d) of this section.
(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.
(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below the permissible exposure limit the employee shall repeat monitoring at least every six months.
(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in subsection (5)(d) of this section occur.
(d) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic, additional monitoring which complies with subsection (5) of this section shall be conducted.
(e) Employee notification.
(i) Within five working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposures.
(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.
(f) Accuracy of measurement.
(i) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 µg/m3.
(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5 µg/m3 but less than 10 µg/m3.
(6) Regulated area.
(a) Establishment. The employer shall establish regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.
(b) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.
(c) Access. Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto to enter such areas.
(d) Provision of respirators. All persons entering a regulated area shall be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (8)(b) of this section.
(e) Prohibited activities. The employer shall assure that in regulated areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under subsection (12) of this section. Drinking water may be consumed in the regulated area.
(7) Methods of compliance.
(i) The employer shall institute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979, engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible.
(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in accordance with subsection (8) of this section and other necessary personal protective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy before respiratory protection is instituted.
(b) Compliance program.
(i) The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.
(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:
(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted; e.g., machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size, operating procedures and maintenance practices;
(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;
(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;
(D) Monitoring data;
(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary to meet the permissible exposure limit;
(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit with engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, the employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and
(G) Other relevant information.
(iii) Written plans for such a program shall be submitted upon request to the director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director, any affected employee or authorized employee representatives.
(iv) The plans required by this subsection shall be revised and updated at least every six months to reflect the current status of the program.
(8) Respiratory protection.
(a) General. The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee exposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:
(i) During the time period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work practice controls;
(ii) In work operations such as maintenance and repair activities in which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;
(iii) In work situations in which engineering controls and supplemental work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; or
(iv) In emergencies.
(b) Respirator selection.
(i) Where respirators are required under this section the employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, or Table II for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vapor pressure.
(ii) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gasses such as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employee as permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filter with an appropriate gas sorbent. (See footnote in Table I)
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC
PARTICULATE EXCEPT FOR THOSE WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR
|Concentration of Inorganic|
Arsenic (as As) or Condition
|(i) Unknown or greater or lesser|
than 20,000 µg/m3 (20 mg/m3)
|(A)||Any full facepiece self-contained or breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.|
|(ii) Not greater than 20,000|
µg/m3 (20 mg/m3)
|(A)||Supplied air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.|
|(iii) Not greater than 10,000|
µg/m3 (10 mg/m3)
|(A)||Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high-efficiency filters.1|
|(B)||Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode.|
|(iv) Not greater than 500 µg/m3||(A)||Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1|
|(B)||Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.|
|(C)||Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.|
|(v) Not greater than 100 µg/m3||(A)||Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.1|
|1High-efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.|
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENICALS
(SUCH AS ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE2 AND ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE)
WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
|Concentration of Inorganic|
Arsenic (as As) or Condition
|(i) Unknown or greater or lesser|
than 20,000 µg/m3(20 mg/m3)
|(A)||Any full facepiece|
apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
|(ii) Not greater than 20,000 |
|(A)||Supplied air respirator with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.|
|(iii) Not greater than 10,000|
|(A)||Half-mask2 supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.|
|(iv) Not greater than 500 µg/m3||(A)||Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas canister.|
|(B)||Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.|
|(C)||Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.|
|(v) Not greater than 100 µg/m3||(A)||Half-mask2 air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter1 and acid gas cartridge.|
|1High efficiency filter-99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3 micrometer
monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.|
|2Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.|
(c) Respirator usage.
(i) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.
(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.
(iii) Employers with more than twenty employees wearing respirators shall perform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I or II.
(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.
(d) Respirator program.
(i) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with WAC 296-62-071.
(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.
(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.
(e) Commencement of respirator use.
(i) The employer's obligation to provide respirators commences on August 1, 1978, for employees exposed over 500 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later than October 1, 1978, for employees exposed to over 50 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978, for employees exposed between 10 and 50 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic.
(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic may choose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.
(iii) After December 1, 1978, any employee required to wear air purifying respirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if it will give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and in addition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for times where exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.
(10) Protective work clothing and equipment.
(a) Provision and use. Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:
(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;
(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye irritation, which comply with the requirements of WAC 296-24-07801 (1) - (6).
(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic trichloride.
(b) Cleaning and replacement.
(i) The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in subsection (10)(a) of this section in a freshly laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works in areas where exposures are over 100 µg/m3 of inorganic arsenic or in areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.
(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by subsection (10)(a) of this section.
(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in subsection (13)(a) of this section.
(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container.
(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful affects including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.
(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed from the workplace are labeled as follows:
Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.
(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.
(a) Surfaces. All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.
(b) Cleaning floors. Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant methods have been tried and found not to be effective.
(c) Vacuuming. Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic into the workplace.
(d) Housekeeping plan. A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection equipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the director.
(e) Maintenance of equipment. Periodic cleaning of dust collection and ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.
(13) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(a) Change rooms. The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-24-12011.
(i) The employer shall assure that employees working in regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.
(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with WAC 296-24-12009(3).
(i) The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in regulated areas.
(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.
(d) Lavatories. The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which comply with WAC 296-24-12009 (1) and (2).
(e) Vacuuming clothes. The employer shall provide facilities for employees working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds 100 µg/m3 to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower rooms required by subsection (10) of this section and shall assure that such employees use such facilities.
(f) Avoidance of skin irritation. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is likely to cause skin or eye irritation.
(14) Medical surveillance.
(i) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the following employees:
(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without regard to the use of respirators, at least thirty days per year; and
(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without regard to respirator use, for thirty days or more per year for a total of ten years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. The determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls utilized and materials used by that employer.
(ii) Examination by physician. The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.
(b) Initial examinations. By December 1, 1978, for employees initially covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed over the action level at least thirty days per year, the employer shall provide each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at least the following elements:
(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.
(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:
(A) A 14" by 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;
(B) A nasal and skin examination; and
(C) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.
(c) Periodic examinations.
(i) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsection((
and (( (14)(b)))(ii)(A), (B) and (C) of this section at least annually for covered employees who
are under forty-five years of age with fewer than ten years of exposure over the action level
without regard to respirator use.
(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsection((
and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section at least semi-annually, and the x-ray requirements specified in
subsection (14)(b)(ii)(A) of this section at least annually, for other covered employees.
(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified in subsection (14)(b)(i) and (ii)(B) and (C) of this section within six months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.
(d) Additional examinations. If the employee for any reason develops signs or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical treatment.
(e) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;
(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.
(f) Physician's written opinion.
(i) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:
(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;
(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic arsenic;
(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and
(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further examination or treatment.
(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.
(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.
(15) Employee information and training.
(a) Training program.
(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that those employees participate in the training program.
(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978 for employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least quarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at least annually for other covered employees thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) The information contained in Appendix A;
(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;
(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;
(D) The purpose and a description of medical surveillance program as required by subsection (14) of this section;
(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment; and
(F) A review of this standard.
(b) Access to training materials.
(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.
(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.
(16) Signs and labels.
(i) The employer may use labels or signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs and labels required by this subsection.
(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign or label required by this subsection which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign or label.
(i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas bearing the legend:
|AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY|
|NO SMOKING OR EATING|
(c) Labels. The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shipping and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing inorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure to inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass.) The label shall bear the following legend:
|CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC|
|HARMFUL IF INHALED OR|
USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE
OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
(a) Exposure monitoring.
(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by subsection (5) of this section.
(ii) This record shall include:
(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;
(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;
(D) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and
(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the employee's exposure.
(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least forty years or for the duration of employment plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(b) Medical surveillance.
(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by subsection (14) of this section.
(ii) This record shall include:
(A) The name, Social Security number, and description of duties of the employee;
(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;
(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and the representative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and
(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.
(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:
(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required under subsection (14) of this section;
(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;
(C) The initial x-ray;
(D) The x-rays for the most recent five years; and
(E) Any x-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent x-rays((
(F) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if such atypia persists for three years, and all subsequent slides and written descriptions)).
(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintains those medical records for at least forty years, or for the duration of employment, plus twenty years, whichever is longer.
(i) The employer shall make available upon request all records required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the director for examination and copying.
(ii) Records required by this subsection shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the assistant director in accordance with WAC 296-62-05201 through 296-62-05209 and 296-62-05213 through 296-62-05217.
(iii) The employer shall make available upon request an employee's medical records and exposure records representative of that employee's exposure required to be maintained by subsection (17) of this section to the affected employee or former employee or to a physician designated by the affected employee or former employee.
(d) Transfer of records.
(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to be maintained by this section.
(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by this section for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to the director.
(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required to be maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the director at least three months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit those records to the director if he requests them within that period.
(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements involving transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-62-05215.
(18) Observation of monitoring.
(a) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic conducted pursuant to subsection (5) of this section.
(b) Observation procedures.
(i) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;
(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenic performed at the place of exposure; and
(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.
(19) Effective date. This standard shall become effective thirty days after filing with the code reviser.
(20) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices to this section is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.
(21) Startup dates.
(a) General. The startup dates of requirements of this standard shall be the effective date of this standard unless another startup date is provided for, either in other subsections of this section or in this subsection.
(b) Monitoring. Initial monitoring shall be commenced by August 1, 1978, and shall be completed by September 15, 1978.
(c) Regulated areas. Regulated areas required to be established as a result of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after the results of that monitoring is known and no later than October 1, 1978.
(d) Compliance program. The written program required by subsection (7)(b) as a result of initial monitoring shall be made available for inspection and copying as soon as possible and no later than December 1, 1978.
(e) Hygiene and lunchroom facilities. Construction plans for change-rooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed no later than December 1, 1978, and these facilities shall be constructed and in use no later than July 1, 1979. However, if as part of the compliance plan it is predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls and work practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit by December 31, 1979, for affected employees, then such facilities need not be completed until one year after the engineering controls are completed or December 31, 1980, whichever is earlier, if such controls have not in fact succeeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.
(f) Summary of startup dates set forth elsewhere in this standard.
October 1, 1978 - Complete establishment of regulated areas. Respirator use for employees exposed above 50 µg/m3. Completion of initial training. Notification of use.
December 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 10 µg/m3. Completion of initial medical. Completion of compliance plan. Optional use of powered air-purifying respirators.
July 1, 1979 - Completion of lunch rooms and hygiene facilities.
December 31, 1979 - Completion of engineering controls.
All other requirements of the standard have as their startup date August 1, 1978.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 98-02-030, § 296-62-07347, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-62-07347, filed 8/27/81; 81-16-015 (Order 81-20), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/27/81; 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), § 296-62-07347, filed 7/31/79; 79-02-037 (Order 79-1), § 296-62-07347, filed 1/23/79.]
The information in Appendices A, B, and C is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by WAC 296-62-07347 nor detract from existing obligation.
(1) Appendix A--Inorganic arsenic substance information sheet.
(a) Substance identification.
(i) Substance. Inorganic arsenic.
(ii) Definition. Copper acetoarsenite, arsenic and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).
(iii) Permissible exposure limit. Ten micrograms per cubic meter of air as determined as an average over an 8 hour period. No employee may be exposed to any skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride or to skin or eye contact likely to cause skin or eye irritation.
(iv) Regulated areas. Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area.
(b) Health hazard data.
(i) Comments. The health hazard of inorganic arsenic is high.
(ii) Ways in which the chemical affects your body. Exposure to airborne concentrations of inorganic arsenic may cause lung cancer, and can be a skin irritant. Inorganic arsenic may also affect your body if swallowed. One compound in particular, arsenic trichloride, is especially dangerous because it can be absorbed readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly prior to eating or smoking.
(c) Personal protective equipment and clothing.
(i) Respirators. Respirators will be provided by the employer at no cost to employees for routine use if the employer is in the process of implementing engineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or insufficient. Respirators must be worn for nonroutine activities or in emergency situations where there is likely to be exposure to levels of inorganic arsenic in excess of the permissible exposure limit. Since how well the respirator fits is very important, the employer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator seals properly when worn. These tests are simple and rapid and will be explained during training sessions.
(ii) Protective clothing. If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide at no cost to employees, and it must be worn, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment. The purpose of this equipment is to prevent the employee from taking home arsenic-contaminated dust and to protect the body from repeated skin contact with inorganic arsenic likely to cause skin irritation. This clothing shall include such items as coveralls or similar full-body clothing, gloves, shoes or coverlets, and aprons. Protective equipment should include face shields or vented goggles, where eye irritation may occur.
(d) Hygiene facilities and practices.
(i) The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide lunchrooms or other areas for these purposes.
(ii) If work is in a regulated area, the employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. The employer shall ensure that employees wash faces and hands before eating and shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of change rooms without the employer's permission. The employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of the protective clothing.
(e) Signs and labels. The employer is required to post warning signs and labels for employee protection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn that a cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter the area, and that no smoking or eating is allowed, and that respirators must be worn.
(f) Medical examinations. If exposure to arsenic is over the action level (5 µg/m3) (including all persons working in regulated areas) at least 30 days per year, or employees have been exposed to arsenic for more than 10 years over the action level, the employer is required to provide employees with a medical examination. The examination shall be every 6 months for employees over 45 years old or with more than 10 years exposure over the action level and annually for other covered employees. The medical examination must include a medical history; a chest x-ray (annual requirement only); skin examination; and nasal examination. The examining physician will provide a written opinion to the employer containing the results of the medical exams. Employees should also receive a copy of this opinion. The physician must not tell the employer any conditions he detects unrelated to occupational exposure to arsenic but must tell employees those conditions.
(g) Observation of monitoring. The employer is required to monitor employee exposure to arsenic and employees or their representatives are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. Employees are entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, employees must also be provided with and must wear the protective clothing and equipment.
(h) Access to records. Employees or their representatives are entitled to records of employee exposure to inorganic arsenic upon request to the employer. Employee medical examination records can be furnished to employees' physician if employees request the employer to provide them.
(i) Training and notification. Additional information on all of these items plus training as to hazards of exposure to inorganic arsenic and the engineering and work practice controls associated with employees' jobs will also be provided by the employer. If employees are exposed over the permissible exposure limit, the employer must inform employees of that fact and the actions to be taken to reduce employee exposure.
(2) Appendix B--Substance technical guidelines. Arsenic, arsenic trioxide, arsenic trichloride (3 examples)
(a) Physical and chemical properties
(i) Arsenic (metal)
(A) Formula: As
(B) Appearance: Gray metal
(C) Melting point: Sublimes without melting at 613C
(D) Specific gravity: (H20=1):5.73.
(E) Solubility in water: Insoluble
(ii) Arsenic trioxide
(A) Formula: As203, (As406).
(B) Appearance: White powder
(C) Melting point: 315C
(D) Specific gravity: (H20=1):3.74
(E) Solubility in water: 3.7 grams in 100cc of water at 20C
(iii) Arsenic trichloride (liquid)(Trichloride)
(A) Formula: AsCL3
(B) Appearance: Colorless or pale yellow liquid
(C) Melting point: -8.5C
(D) Boiling point: 130.2C
(E) Specific gravity (1120=1)2:16 at 20C
(F) Vapor Pressure: 10mm Hg at 23.5C.
(G) Solubility in water: Decomposes in water.
(b) Fire, explosion, and reactivity data.
(i) Fire: Arsenic trioxide and arsenic trichloride are nonflammable.
(A) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat.
(B) Incompatibility: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.
(c) Monitoring and measurement procedures.
(i) Samples collected should be full shift (at least 7 hours) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size membrane filter (37mm diameter). Volatile arsenicals such as arsenic trichloride can be most easily collected in a midget bubbler filled with 15 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH.
(ii) The method of sampling and analysis should have an accuracy of not less than ħ 25 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air (10 µg/m3) and ħ 35 percent (with a confidence limit of 95 percent) for concentrations of inorganic arsenic between 5 and 10 µg/m3.
(3) Appendix C--Medical surveillance guidelines.
(i) Medical examinations are to be provided for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic arsenic above the action level (5 µg/m3) for at least 30 days per year (which would include among others, all employees, who work in regulated areas). Examinations are also to be provided to all employees who have had 10 years or more exposure above the action level for more than 30 days per year while working for the present or predecessor employer though they may no longer be exposed above the level.
(ii) An initial medical examination is to be provided to all such employees by December 1, 1978. In addition, an initial medical examination is to be provided to all employees who are first assigned to areas in which worker exposure will probably exceed 5 µg/m3 (after the effective date of this standard) at the time of initial assignment. In addition to its immediate diagnostic usefulness the initial examination will provide a baseline for comparing future test results. The initial examination must include as a minimum the following elements:
(A) A work and medical history, including a smoking history, and presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;
(B) A 14-inch by 17-inch posterior-anterior chest x-ray and an International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;
(C) A nasal and skin examination; and
(D) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of the employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator use.
(iii) Periodic examinations are also to be provided to the employees listed above. The
periodic examinations shall be given annually for those covered employees 45 years of age or
less with fewer than 10 years employment in areas where employee exposure exceeds the action
level (5 µg/m3). Periodic examinations need ((
to include an updated work history and medical
history; chest x-ray; nasal and skin examinations; and other examinations which the physician
believes appropriate)) not include sputum cytology and only an updated medical history is
(iv) Periodic examinations for other covered employees, shall be provided every 6
months. These examinations shall include ((
an updated work history and medical history; nasal
and skin examinations; and other examinations which the physician believes appropriate)) all
tests required in the initial examination, except that the medical history need only be updated.
(v) The examination contents are minimum requirements. Additional tests such as lateral and oblique x-rays or pulmonary function tests may be useful. For workers exposed to 3 arsenicals, copper acetoarsenite, potassium arsenite, or sodium arsenite, which are associated with lymphatic cancer, the examination should also include palpation of superficial lymph nodes and complete blood count.
(b) Noncarcinogenic effects.
(i) The WISHA standard is based on minimizing risk of exposed workers dying of lung cancer from exposure to inorganic arsenic. It will also minimize skin cancer from such exposures.
(ii) The following three sections quoted from "Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition," Revised Edition, June 1977, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is included to provide information on the nonneoplastic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Such effects should not occur if the WISHA standards are followed.
(A) Local--Trivalent arsenic compounds are corrosive to the skin. Brief contact has no effect but prolonged contact results in a local hyperemia and later vesicular or pustular eruption. The moist mucous membranes are most sensitive to the irritant action. Conjunctiva, moist and macerated areas of skin, the eyelids, the angles of the ears, nose, mouth, and respiratory mucosa are also vulnerable to the irritant effects. The wrists are common sites of dermatitis, as are the genitalia if personal hygiene is poor. Perforations of the nasal septum may occur. Arsenic trioxide and pentoxide are capable of producing skin sensitization and contact dermatitis. Arsenic is also capable of producing keratoses, especially of the palms and soles.
(I) The acute toxic effects of arsenic are generally seen following ingestion of inorganic
arsenial)) arsenical compounds. This rarely occurs in an industrial setting. Symptoms develop
within 1/2 to 4 hours following ingestion and are usually characterized by constriction of the
throat followed by dysphagia, epigastric pain, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. Blood may appear
in vomitus and stools. If the amount ingested is sufficiently high, shock may develop due to
severe fluid loss, and death may ensue in 24 hours. If the acute effects are survived, exfoliative
dermatitis and peripheral neuritis may develop.
(II) Cases of acute arsenical poisoning due to inhalation are exceedingly rare in industry. When it does occur, respiratory tract symptoms - cough, chest pain, dyspnea - giddiness, headache, and extreme general weakness precede gastrointestinal symptoms. The acute toxic symptoms of trivalent arsenical poisoning are due to severe inflammation of the mucous membranes and greatly increased permeability of the blood capillaries.
(III) Chronic arsenical poisoning due to ingestion is rare and generally confined to patients taking prescribed medications. However, it can be a concomitant of inhaled inorganic arsenic from swallowed sputum and improper eating habits. Symptoms are weight loss, nausea and diarrhea alternating with constipation, pigmentation and eruption of the skin, loss of hair, and peripheral neuritis. Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis have been described. Polyneuritis may be the salient feature, but more frequently there are numbness and parasthenias of "glove and stocking" distribution. The skin lesions are usually melanotic and keratotic and may occasionally take the form of an intradermal cancer of the squamous cell type, but without infiltrative properties. Horizontal white lines (striations) on the fingernails and toenails are commonly seen in chronic arsenical poisoning and are considered to be a diagnostic accompaniment of arsenical polyneuritis.
(IV) Inhalation of inorganic arsenic compounds is the most common cause of chronic poisoning in the industrial situation. This condition is divided into three phases based on signs and symptoms.
(V) First phase: The worker complains of weakness, loss of appetite, some nausea, occasional vomiting, a sense of heaviness in the stomach, and some diarrhea.
(VI) Second phase: The worker complains of conjunctivitis, a catarrhal state of the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, and respiratory passage. Coryza, hoarseness, and mild tracheobronchitis may occur. Perforation of the nasal septum is common, and is probably the most typical lesion of the upper respiratory tract in occupational exposure to arsenical dust. Skin lesions, eczematoid and allergic in type, are common.
(VII) Third phase: The worker complains of symptoms of peripheral neuritis, initially of hands and feet, which is essentially sensory. In more severe cases, motor paralyses occur; the first muscles affected are usually the toe extensors and the peronei. In only the most severe cases will paralysis of flexor muscles of the feet or of the extensor muscles of hands occur.
(VIII) Liver damage from chronic arsenical poisoning is still debated, and as yet the question is unanswered. In cases of chronic and acute arsenical poisoning, toxic effects to the myocardium have been reported based on EKG changes. These findings, however, are now largely discounted and the EKG changes are ascribed to electrolyte disturbances concomitant with arsenicalism. Inhalation of arsenic trioxide and other inorganic arsenical dusts does not give rise to radiological evidence or pneumoconiosis. Arsenic does have a depressant effect upon the bone marrow, with disturbances of both erythropoiesis and myclopoiesis.
Dinman, B. D. 1960. Arsenic; Chronic Human Intoxication. Journal Occupational Medicine 2:137.
Elkins, H.B. 1959. The Chemistry of Industrial Toxicology, Second Edition. John Wiley and sons, New York.
Holquist, L. 1951. Occupational Arsenical Dermatitis; A Study Among Employees at a Copper-Ore Smelting Works Including Investigations of Skin Reactions to Contact with Arsenic Compounds. Acta. Derm. Venereol. (Supplement 26) 31:1.
Pinto, S. S., and C. M. McGill. 1953. Arsenic Trioxide Exposure in Industry. Ind. Med. Surg. 22:281.
Pinto, S. S., and K. W. Nelson. 1976. Arsenic Toxicology and Industrial Exposure, Annu. Rev. Paramacol. Toxicol. 16:95.
Vallee, B. L., Ulmer, D. D., and W. E. C. Wacker. 1960. Arsenic Toxicology and Biochemistry. AMA Arch. Indust. Health 21:132.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 98-02-030, § 296-62-07354, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 90-20-091 (Order 90-14), § 296-62-07354, filed 10/1/90, effective 11/15/90.]
(1) WAC 296-62-07445, Appendix C is
incorporated as part of this section, and compliance with its contents is mandatory.
(2) Except where portions of)) WAC 296-62-07441, appendix A; WAC 296-62-07443,
appendix B; WAC 296-62-07447, appendix D; WAC 296-62-07449, appendix E; and WAC 296-62-07451, appendix F are ((
expressly incorporated in requirements of WAC 296-62-07433,
these appendices are purely informational)) nonmandatory appendices and are not intended to
create any additional obligations (( not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-62-07433, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]
(1) The following substance technical guideline for formalin provides information on uninhibited formalin solution (thirty-seven percent formaldehyde, no methanol stabilizer). It is designed to inform employees at the production level of their rights and duties under the formaldehyde standard whether their job title defines them as workers or supervisors. Much of the information provided is general; however, some information is specific for formalin. When employee exposure to formaldehyde is from resins capable of releasing formaldehyde, the resin itself and other impurities or decomposition products may also be toxic, and employers should include this information as well when informing employees of the hazards associated with the materials they handle. The precise hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde depend both on the form (solid, liquid, or gas) of the material and the concentration of formaldehyde present. For example, thirty-seven to fifty percent solutions of formaldehyde present a much greater hazard to the skin and eyes from spills or splashes than solutions containing less than one percent formaldehyde. Individual substance technical guidelines used by the employer for training employees should be modified to properly give information on the material actually being used.
(a) Substance identification.
(i) Chemical name: Formaldehyde.
(ii) Chemical family: Aldehyde.
(iii) Chemical formula: HCHO.
(iv) Molecular weight: 30.03.
(v) Chemical abstracts service number (CAS number): 50-00-0.
Synonyms: Formalin; Formic Aldehyde; Paraform; Formol; Formalin (Methanol-free); Fyde; Formalith; Methanal; Methyl Aldehyde; Methylene Glycol; Methylene Oxide; Tetraoxymethalene; Oxomethane; Oxymethylene.
(b) Components and contaminants.
(i) Percent: 37.0 Formaldehyde.
(ii) Percent: 63.0 water.
|Note:||Inhibited solutions contain methanol.|
(A) WISHA TWA-0.75 ppm.
(B) WISHA STEL-2 ppm.
(c) Physical data.
(i) Description: Colorless liquid, pungent odor.
(ii) Boiling point: 214°F (101°C).
(iii) Specific gravity: 1.08 (H2O=1 @ 20 C).
(iv) pH: 2.8-4.0.
(v) Solubility in water: Miscible.
(vi) Solvent solubility: Soluble in alcohol and acetone.
(vii) Vapor density: 1.04 (Air=1 @ 20 C).
(viii) Odor threshold: 0.8-1 ppm.
(d) Fire and explosion hazard.
(i) Moderate fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
(ii) The flash point of thirty-seven percent formaldehyde solutions is above normal room temperature, but the explosion range is very wide, from seven to seventy-three percent by volume in air.
(iii) Reaction of formaldehyde with nitrogen dioxide, nitromethane, perchloric acid and aniline, or peroxyformic acid yields explosive compounds.
(iv) Flash point: 185°F (85°C) closed cup.
(v) Lower explosion limit: Seven percent.
(vi) Upper explosion limit: Seventy-three percent.
(vii) Autoignition temperature: 806°F (430°C).
(viii) Flammable class (WISHA): III A.
(I) Use dry chemical, "alcohol foam," carbon dioxide, or water in flooding amounts as fog. Solid streams may not be effective. Cool fire-exposed containers with water from side until well after fire is out.
(II) Use of water spray to flush spills can also dilute the spill to produce nonflammable mixtures. Water runoff, however, should be contained for treatment.
(ix) National Fire Protection Association Section 325M Designation:
(A) Health: 2-Materials hazardous to health, but areas may be entered with full-faced mask self-contained breathing apparatus which provides eye protection.
(B) Flammability: 2-Materials which must be moderately heated before ignition will occur. Water spray may be used to extinguish the fire because the material can be cooled below its flash point.
(C) Reactivity: D-Materials which (in themselves) are normally stable even under fire exposure conditions and which are not reactive with water. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used.
(i) Stability: Formaldehyde solutions may self-polymerize to form paraformaldehyde which precipitates.
(ii) Incompatibility (materials to avoid):
(A) Strong oxidizing agents, caustics, strong alkalies, isocyanates, anhydrides, oxides, and inorganic acids.
(B) Formaldehyde reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the potent carcinogen, bis-chloromethyl ether. Formaldehyde reacts with nitrogen dioxide, nitromethane, perchloric acid and aniline, or peroxyformic acid to yield explosive compounds. A violent reaction occurs when formaldehyde is mixed with strong oxidizers.
(C) Hazardous combustion or decomposition products: Oxygen from the air can oxidize formaldehyde to formic acid, especially when heated. Formic acid is corrosive.
(f) Health hazard data.
(i) Acute effects of exposure.
(A) Ingestion (swallowing): Liquids containing ten to forty percent formaldehyde cause severe irritation and inflammation of the mouth, throat, and stomach. Severe stomach pains will follow ingestion with possible loss of consciousness and death. Ingestion of dilute formaldehyde solutions (0.03-0.04%) may cause discomfort in the stomach and pharynx.
(B) Inhalation (breathing):
(I) Formaldehyde is highly irritating to the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Concentrations of 0.5 to 2.0 ppm may irritate the eyes, nose, and throat of some individuals.
(II) Concentrations of 3 to 5 ppm also cause tearing of the eyes and are intolerable to some persons.
(III) Concentrations of 10 to 20 ppm cause difficulty in breathing, burning of the nose and throat, coughing, and heavy tearing of the eyes, and 25 to 30 ppm causes severe respiratory tract injury leading to pulmonary edema and pneumonitis. A concentration of 100 ppm is immediately dangerous to life and health. Deaths from accidental exposure to high concentrations of formaldehyde have been reported.
(C) Skin (dermal): Formalin is a severe skin irritant and a sensitizer. Contact with formalin causes white discoloration, smarting, drying, cracking, and scaling. Prolonged and repeated contact can cause numbness and a hardening or tanning of the skin. Previously exposed persons may react to future exposure with an allergic eczematous dermatitis or hives.
(D) Eye contact: Formaldehyde solutions splashed in the eye can cause injuries ranging from transient discomfort to severe, permanent corneal clouding and loss of vision. The severity of the effect depends on the concentration of formaldehyde in the solution and whether or not the eyes are flushed with water immediately after the accident.
|Note:||The perception of formaldehyde by odor and eye irritation becomes less sensitive with time as one adapts to formaldehyde. This can lead to overexposure if a worker is relying on formaldehyde's warning properties to alert him or her to the potential for exposure.|
(I) Oral, rats: LD50=800 mg/kg.
(II) Oral, mouse: LD50=42 mg/kg.
(III) Inhalation, rats: LC50=250 mg/kg.
(IV) Inhalation, mouse: LC50=900 mg/kg.
(V) Inhalation, rats: LC50=590 mg/kg.
(g) Chronic effects of exposure.
(i) Carcinogenicity: Formaldehyde has the potential to cause cancer in humans. Repeated and prolonged exposure increases the risk. Various animal experiments have conclusively shown formaldehyde to be a carcinogen in rats. In humans, formaldehyde exposure has been associated with cancers of the lung, nasopharynx and oropharynx, and nasal passages.
(ii) Mutagenicity: Formaldehyde is genotoxic in several in vitro test systems showing properties of both an initiator and a promoter.
(iii) Toxicity: Prolonged or repeated exposure to formaldehyde may result in respiratory impairment. Rats exposed to formaldehyde at 2 ppm developed benign nasal tumors and changes of the cell structure in the nose as well as inflamed mucous membranes of the nose. Structural changes in the epithelial cells in the human nose have also been observed. Some persons have developed asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde, most often as the result of an accidental spill involving a single exposure to a high concentration of formaldehyde.
(h) Emergency and first-aid procedures.
(i) Ingestion (swallowing): If the victim is conscious, dilute, inactivate, or absorb the ingested formaldehyde by giving milk, activated charcoal, or water. Any organic material will inactivate formaldehyde. Keep affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately. If vomiting occurs, keep head lower than hips.
(ii) Inhalation (breathing): Remove the victim from the exposure area to fresh air immediately. Where the formaldehyde concentration may be very high, each rescuer must put on a self-contained breathing apparatus before attempting to remove the victim, and medical personnel should be informed of the formaldehyde exposure immediately. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Qualified first-aid or medical personnel should administer oxygen, if available, and maintain the patient's airways and blood pressure until the victim can be transported to a medical facility. If exposure results in a highly irritated upper respiratory tract and coughing continues for more than ten minutes, the worker should be hospitalized for observation and treatment.
(iii) Skin contact: Remove contaminated clothing (including shoes) immediately. Wash the affected area of your body with soap or mild detergent and large amounts of water until no evidence of the chemical remains (at least fifteen to twenty minutes). If there are chemical burns, get first aid to cover the area with sterile, dry dressing, and bandages. Get medical attention if you experience appreciable eye or respiratory irritation.
(iv) Eye contact: Wash the eyes immediately with large amounts of water occasionally lifting lower and upper lids, until no evidence of chemical remains (at least fifteen to twenty minutes). In case of burns, apply sterile bandages loosely without medication. Get medical attention immediately. If you have experienced appreciable eye irritation from a splash or excessive exposure, you should be referred promptly to an ophthalmologist for evaluation.
(i) Emergency procedures.
(A) If you work in an area where a large amount of formaldehyde could be released in an accident or from equipment failure, your employer must develop procedures to be followed in event of an emergency. You should be trained in your specific duties in the event of an emergency, and it is important that you clearly understand these duties. Emergency equipment must be accessible and you should be trained to use any equipment that you might need. Formaldehyde contaminated equipment must be cleaned before reuse.
(B) If a spill of appreciable quantity occurs, leave the area quickly unless you have specific emergency duties. Do not touch spilled material. Designated persons may stop the leak and shut off ignition sources if these procedures can be done without risk. Designated persons should isolate the hazard area and deny entry except for necessary people protected by suitable protective clothing and respirators adequate for the exposure. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Do not smoke, and prohibit all flames or flares in the hazard area.
(ii) Special fire fighting procedures:
(A) Learn procedures and responsibilities in the event of a fire in your workplace.
(B) Become familiar with the appropriate equipment and supplies and their location.
(C) In fire fighting, withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discoloration of storage tank due to fire.
(j) Spill, leak, and disposal procedures.
(i) Occupational spill: For small containers, place the leaking container in a well ventilated area. Take up small spills with absorbent material and place the waste into properly labeled containers for later disposal. For larger spills, dike the spill to minimize contamination and facilitate salvage or disposal. You may be able to neutralize the spill with sodium hydroxide or sodium sulfite. Your employer must comply with EPA rules regarding the clean-up of toxic waste and notify state and local authorities, if required. If the spill is greater than 1,000 lb/day, it is reportable under EPA's superfund legislation.
(ii) Waste disposal: Your employer must dispose of waste containing formaldehyde in accordance with applicable local, state, and federal law and in a manner that minimizes exposure of employees at the site and of the clean-up crew.
(k) Monitoring and measurement procedures.
(i) Monitoring requirements: If your exposure to formaldehyde exceeds the 0.5 ppm action level or the 2 ppm STEL, your employer must monitor your exposure. Your employer need not measure every exposure if a "high exposure" employee can be identified. This person usually spends the greatest amount of time nearest the process equipment. If you are a "representative employee," you will be asked to wear a sampling device to collect formaldehyde. This device may be a passive badge, a sorbent tube attached to a pump, or an impinger containing liquid. You should perform your work as usual, but inform the person who is conducting the monitoring of any difficulties you are having wearing the device.
(ii) Evaluation of 8-hour exposure: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining time-weighted average (TWA) exposures are best taken with samples covering the full shift. Samples collected must be taken from the employee's breathing zone air.
(iii) Short-term exposure evaluation: If there are tasks that involve brief but intense exposure to formaldehyde, employee exposure must be measured to assure compliance with the STEL. Sample collections are for brief periods, only fifteen minutes, but several samples may be needed to identify the peak exposure.
(iv) Monitoring techniques: WISHA's only requirement for selecting a method for sampling and analysis is that the methods used accurately evaluate the concentration of formaldehyde in employees' breathing zones. Sampling and analysis may be performed by collection of formaldehyde on liquid or solid sorbents with subsequent chemical analysis. Sampling and analysis may also be performed by passive diffusion monitors and short-term exposure may be measured by instruments such as real-time continuous monitoring systems and portable direct reading instruments.
(v) Notification of results: Your employer must inform you of the results of exposure monitoring representative of your job. You may be informed in writing, but posting the results where you have ready access to them constitutes compliance with the standard.
(l) Protective equipment and clothing.
(Material impervious to formaldehyde is needed if the employee handles formaldehyde solutions of one percent or more. Other employees may also require protective clothing or equipment to prevent dermatitis.)
(i) Respiratory protection((
(A))). Use NIOSH-approved full facepiece negative pressure respirators equipped with approved cartridges or canisters within the use limitations of these devices. (Present restrictions on cartridges and canisters do not permit them to be used for a full workshift.) In all other situations, use positive pressure respirators such as the positive-pressure air purifying respirator or the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).
(B) If you use a negative pressure respirator, your employer must provide you with fit
testing of the respirator at least once a year in accordance with the procedures outlined in WAC 296-62-07550 Appendix E.))
(ii) Protective gloves:
(A) Wear protective (impervious) gloves provided by your employer, at no cost, to prevent contact with formalin.
(B) Your employer should select these gloves based on the results of permeation testing and in accordance with the ACGIH guidelines for selection of chemical protective clothing.
(iii) Eye protection:
(A) If you might be splashed in the eyes with formalin, it is essential that you wear goggles or some other type of complete protection for the eye.
(B) You may also need a face shield if your face is likely to be splashed with formalin, but you must not substitute face shields for eye protection. (This section pertains to formaldehyde solutions of one percent or more.)
(iv) Other protective equipment:
(A) You must wear protective (impervious) clothing and equipment provided by your employer at no cost to prevent repeated or prolonged contact with formaldehyde liquids.
(B) If you are required to change into whole-body chemical protective clothing, your employer must provide a change room for your privacy and for storage of your normal clothing.
(C) If you are splashed with formaldehyde, use the emergency showers and eyewash fountains provided by your employer immediately to prevent serious injury. Report the incident to your supervisor and obtain necessary medical support.
(2) Entry into an IDLH atmosphere. Enter areas where the formaldehyde concentration might be 100 ppm or more only with complete body protection including a self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in a positive pressure mode or a supplied-air respirator with full facepiece and operated in a positive pressure mode. This equipment is essential to protect your life and health under such extreme conditions.
(a) Engineering controls.
(i) Ventilation is the most widely applied engineering control method for reducing the concentration of airborne substances in the breathing zones of workers. There are two distinct types of ventilation.
(ii) Local exhaust: Local exhaust ventilation is designed to capture airborne contaminants as near to the point of generation as possible. To protect you, the direction of contaminant flow must always be toward the local exhaust system inlet and away from you.
(iii) General (mechanical):
(A) General dilution ventilation involves continuous introduction of fresh air into the workroom to mix with the contaminated air and lower your breathing zone concentration of formaldehyde. Effectiveness depends on the number of air changes per hour.
(B) Where devices emitting formaldehyde are spread out over a large area, general dilution ventilation may be the only practical method of control.
(iv) Work practices: Work practices and administrative procedures are an important part of a control system. If you are asked to perform a task in a certain manner to limit your exposure to formaldehyde, it is extremely important that you follow these procedures.
(b) Medical surveillance.
(i) Medical surveillance helps to protect employees' health. You are encouraged strongly to participate in the medical surveillance program.
(ii) Your employer must make a medical surveillance program available at no expense to you and at a reasonable time and place if you are exposed to formaldehyde at concentrations above 0.5 ppm as an 8-hour average or 2 ppm over any fifteen-minute period.
(A) You will be offered medical surveillance at the time of your initial assignment and once a year afterward as long as your exposure is at least 0.5 ppm (action level) or 2 ppm (STEL).
(B) Even if your exposure is below these levels, you should inform your employer if you have signs and symptoms that you suspect, through your training, are related to your formaldehyde exposure because you may need medical surveillance to determine if your health is being impaired by your exposure.
(iii) The surveillance plan includes:
(A) A medical disease questionnaire.
(B) A physical examination if the physician determines this is necessary.
(iv) If you are required to wear a respirator, your employer must offer you a physical examination and a pulmonary function test every year.
(v) The physician must collect all information needed to determine if you are at increased risk from your exposure to formaldehyde. At the physician's discretion, the medical examination may include other tests, such as a chest x-ray, to make this determination.
(vi) After a medical examination the physician will provide your employer with a written opinion which includes any special protective measures recommended and any restrictions on your exposure. The physician must inform you of any medical conditions you have which would be aggravated by exposure to formaldehyde. All records from your medical examinations, including disease surveys, must be retained at your employer's expense.
(i) If you are exposed to formaldehyde in an emergency and develop signs or symptoms associated with acute toxicity from formaldehyde exposure, your employer must provide you with a medical examination as soon as possible.
(ii) This medical examination will include all steps necessary to stabilize your health.
(iii) You may be kept in the hospital for observation if your symptoms are severe to ensure that any delayed effects are recognized and treated.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-62-07542, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 92-23-017 (Order 92-13), § 296-62-07542, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/18/92; 88-21-002 (Order 88-23), § 296-62-07542, filed 10/6/88, effective 11/7/88.]
(1) General requirements.
(a) Each employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are employed in the regulated areas at least 30 days per year.
(b) This program shall provide each employee covered under subsection (1)(a) of this section with an opportunity for medical examinations in accordance with this section.
(c) The employer shall inform any employee who refuses any required medical examination of the possible health consequences of such refusal and shall obtain a signed statement from the employee indicating that the employee understands the risk involved in the refusal to be examined.
(d) The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and are provided without cost to the employee.
(2) Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment to a regulated area or upon the institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide a medical examination including at least the following elements:
(a) A work history and medical history which shall include smoking history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms, such as breathlessness, cough, sputum production, and wheezing;
(b) A 14" x 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and International Labour Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;
(c) Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV 1.0) with recording of type of equipment used;
(e) A skin examination;
(f) Urinalysis for sugar, albumin, and hematuria; and
(g) A urinary cytology examination.
(3) Periodic examinations.
(a) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsections (2)(a)-(f) of this section at least annually for employees covered under subsection (1)(a) of this section.
(b) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in subsection (2)(a) and (c)-(g) of this section at least semi-annually for employees 45 years of age or older or with five or more years employment in the regulated area.
(c) Whenever an employee who is 45 years of age or older or with five or more years employment in the regulated area transfers or is transferred from employment in a regulated area, the employer shall continue to provide the examinations specified in subsections (2)(a) and (c)-(g) of this section semi-annually, as long as that employee is employed by the same employer or a successor employer.
(d) The employer shall provide the x-ray specified in subsection (2)(b) of this section at least annually for employees covered under this subsection.
(e) Whenever an employee has not taken the examination specified in subsections (3)(a)-(c) of this section within the six months preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.
(4) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
(a) A copy of this regulation and its Appendixes;
(b) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(c) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level;
(d) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
(e) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee which is not readily available to the examining physician.
(5) Physician's written opinion.
(a) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician which shall include:
(i) The results of the medical examinations;
(ii) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to coke oven emissions;
(iii) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to coke oven emissions or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators; and
(iv) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require further explanation or treatment.
(b) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.
(c) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the affected employee.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 98-02-030, § 296-62-20017, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98; Order 77-14, § 296-62-20017, filed 7/25/77.]
COKE OVEN EMISSIONS
SUBSTANCE INFORMATION SHEET
(2)Definition: The benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter present during the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal for the production of coke.
(3)Permissible exposure limit: 150 micrograms per cubic meter of air determined as an average over an 8-hour period.
(4)Regulated areas: Only employees authorized by your employer should enter a regulated area. The employer is required to designate the following areas as regulated areas: the coke oven battery, including topside and its machinery, pushside and its machinery, and the screening station; and the wharf, the beehive ovens and machinery.
(2)Protective clothing: Your employer is required to provide, and you must wear, appropriate, clean, protective clothing and equipment to protect your body from repeated skin contact with coke oven emissions and from the heat generated during the coking process. This clothing should include such items as jacket and pants and flame resistant gloves. Protective equipment should include face shield or vented goggles, protective helmets and safety shoes, insulated from hot surfaces where appropriate.
Your employer is required to provide showers, washing facilities, and change rooms. If you work in a regulated area, you must wash your face, and hands before eating. You must shower at the end of the work shift. Do not take used protective clothing out of the change rooms without your employer's permission. Your employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaning of your protective clothing.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 98-02-030, § 296-62-20027, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98; Order 77-14, Appendix A (codified as WAC 296-62-20027), filed 7/25/77.]
Samples collected should be full shift (8-hour) samples. Sampling should be done using a personal sampling pump with pulsation damper at a flow rate of 2 liters per minute. Samples should be collected on 0.8 micrometer pore size silver membrane filters (37 mm diameter) preceded by Gelman glass fiber type A filters encased in three-piece plastic (polystyrene) field monitor cassettes. The cassette face cap should be on and the plug removed. The rotameter should be checked every hour to ensure that proper flow rates are maintained.
A minimum of three full-shift samples should be collected for each job classification on each battery, at least one ((
during and the night)) from each shift. If disparate results are
obtained for particular job classification, sampling should be repeated. It is advisable to
sample each shift on more than one day to account for environmental variables (wind,
precipitation, etc.) which may affect sampling. Differences in exposures among different
work shifts may indicate a need to improve work practices on a particular shift. Sampling results from different shifts for each job classification should not be averaged. Multiple samples from same shift may be used to calculate an average exposure for a
particular job classification.
(a) All extraction glassware is cleaned with dichromic acid cleaning solution, rinsed with
tap water, then ((
dionized)) deionized water, acetone, and allowed to dry completely. The
glassware is rinsed with nanograde benzene before use. The Teflon cups are cleaned
with benzene then with acetone.
(b) Pre-weigh the 2 ml Perkin-Elmer Teflon cups to one hundredth of a milligram on a Perkin-Elmer autobalance AD 2 Tare weight of the cups is about 50 mg.
(c) Place the silver membrane filter and glass fiber filter into a 15 ml test tube.
(d) Extract with 5 ml of benzene for five minutes in an ultrasonic cleaner.
(e) Filter the extract in 15 ml medium glass fritted funnels.
(f) Rinse test tube and filters with two 1.5 ml aliquots of benzene and filter through the fritted glass funnel.
(g) Collect the extract and two rinses in a 10 ml Kontes graduated evaporative concentrator.
(h) Evaporate down to a 1 ml while rinsing the sides with benzene.
(i) Pipet 0.5 ml into the Teflon cup and evaporate to dryness in a vacuum oven at 40°C for 3 hours.
(j) Weight the Teflon cup and the weight gain is due to the benzene soluble residue in half the sample.
The minimum requirements for the medical examination for coke oven workers are given in WAC 296-62-20017.
The initial examination is to be provided to all coke oven workers ((
at the time of the
initial assignment to a job in the regulated area)) who work at least thirty days in the
regulated area. The examination includes a 14" x 17" posterior-anterior chest x-ray and a
ILO/UC rating to assure some standardization of x-ray reading, pulmonary function tests
(FVC and FEV 1.0), weight, urinalysis, skin examination (( and a sputum)) and a urinary
cytologic examination. These tests are to serve as the baseline for comparing the
employee's future test results. Periodic exams (( are to be performed semiannually only
on those employees who are 45)) include all the elements of the initial exams, except that
the urine cytologic test is to be performed only on those employees who are forty-five
years of age or older or who have worked for (( 5)) five or more years in the regulated
area (( and include an updated work history; an updated medical history; pulmonary
function test; weight comparison; skin examination; a urinalysis; and a urine cytology
exam)); periodic exams, with the exception of x-rays, are to be performed semiannually
for this group instead of annually; for this group, x-rays will continue to be given at least
annually. The examination contents are minimum requirements, additional tests such as
lateral and oblique x-rays or additional pulmonary function tests may be performed if
(2) Pulmonary function tests.
Pulmonary function tests should be performed in a manner which minimizes subject and operator bias. There has been shown to be learning effects with regard to the results obtained from certain tests, such as FEV 1.0. Best results can be obtained by multiple trials for each subject. The best of three trials or the average of the last three of five trials may be used in obtaining reliable results. The type of equipment used (manufacturer, model, etc.) should be recorded with the results as reliability and accuracy varies and such information may be important in the evaluation of test results. Care should be exercised to obtain the best possible testing equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. 98-02-030, § 296-62-20029, filed 12/31/97, effective 1/31/98; Order 77-14, Appendix B (codified as WAC 296-62-20029), filed 7/25/77.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 99-07-097, filed 3/23/99, effective 6/23/99)
(1) Those employees who are trained in
accordance with WAC ((
296-62- )) 296-62-41020 must receive annual refresher training of
sufficient content and duration to maintain their competencies, or must demonstrate competency
in those areas at least yearly.
(2) A statement must be made of the training or competency, and if a statement of competency is made, the employer must keep a record of the methodology used to demonstrate competency.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 99-07-097, § 296-62-41025, filed 3/23/99, effective 6/23/99.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 95-07-014, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95)
(1) Any information request by the department, in order to verify statements in an application or in order to facilitate a department inquiry, shall be supplied prior to the issuance or renewal of a license. A Social Security number is required at the time of application (RCW 26.23.150).
(2) The director of labor and industries shall require, as a condition precedent to the original issuance or renewal of any explosive license, fingerprinting and criminal history record information checks of every applicant.
(a) In the case of a corporation, fingerprinting and criminal history record information checks shall be required for the management officials directly responsible for the operations where the explosives are used if such persons have not previously had their fingerprints recorded with the department of labor and industries.
(b) In the case of a partnership, fingerprinting and criminal history record information checks shall be required of all general partners.
(c) Such fingerprints as are required by the department of labor and industries shall be submitted on forms provided by the department to the identification section of the Washington state patrol and to the identification division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in order that these agencies may search their records for prior convictions of the individuals fingerprinted.
(d) The Washington state patrol shall provide to the director of labor and industries such criminal record information as the director may request.
(e) The applicant shall give full cooperation to the department of labor and industries and shall assist the department of labor and industries in all aspects of fingerprinting and criminal history record information check.
(f) The applicant may be required to pay a fee not to exceed twenty dollars to the agency that performs the fingerprinting and criminal history process.
(3) The director of labor and industries shall not issue a license to manufacture, purchase, store, use, or deal with explosives to:
(a) Any persons under twenty-one years of age;
(b) Any person whose license is suspended or whose license has been revoked, except as provided in WAC 296-52-423;
(c) Any person who has been convicted in this state or elsewhere of a violent offense as
defined in RCW 9.94A.030, perjury, false swearing, or bomb threats or a crime involving a
schedule I or II controlled substance, or any other drug or alcohol related offenses, unless such
other drug or alcohol related offense does not reflect a drug or alcohol dependency.
Exception: The director of labor and industries may issue a license if the person suffering a drug or alcohol related
dependency is participating in or has completed an alcohol or drug recovery program acceptable to the
department of labor and industries and has established control of their alcohol or drug dependency. The
director of labor and industries shall require the applicant to provide proof of such participation and control.
(d) Any person who has previously been adjudged to be mentally ill or insane, or to be incompetent due to any mental disability or disease and who has not at the time of application been restored to competency.
(e) The department shall not issue or reissue an explosives license to any individual who is physically handicapped or diseased to an extent that he or she cannot safely pursue or continue all normal aspects of an explosives occupation. Disqualifying physical imparities may include but are not limited to examples such as blindness, deafness, or subject to epileptic or diabetic seizures or coma.
(f) A license holder of any unexpired license(s) shall surrender such license(s) to the department upon request for identified cause. Such surrender is subject to appeal to refute the contention of cause with verification of physical ability by a qualified physician.
|Note:||See also WAC 296-52-425 and 296-52-433.|
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-421, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-421, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-421, filed 5/6/86.]
(RCW 70.74.130 and 70.74.230, apply.)
(1) The application for a dealer's license to buy explosives for the sole purpose of resale shall be made to Department of Labor and Industries, Olympia.
(2) Original license applications and/or application for renewal shall be completed on
forms available from the department and shall comply with all requirements of WAC 296-52-421. The license fee shall be ((
thirty-seven)) twenty-five dollars (( and shall increase to
fifty dollars two years after the effective date of this section)).
(3) The license shall be renewed annually, no later than the expiration date.
(4) When an order for explosives is placed in person, by telephone, or in writing by a purchaser, the seller shall request proper authorization and identification from the purchaser and shall record the purchaser's license number.
(5) A dealer shall not distribute explosive materials to a company or individual on the order of a person who does not appear on the up to date list of representatives or agents and if the person does appear on the list, the dealer shall verify the identity of such person.
Exception: The above regulation(s) shall not apply to licensed common carrier companies when said common carrier is not
purchasing the explosives but is merely transferring the materials from the seller to the purchaser and the
transfer practices comply with current state and federal DOT regulations.
(6) Dealers records.
(a) A dealer's record of all explosives purchased and sold as defined in RCW 70.74.010, shall be kept on file and a copy transmitted not later than the tenth of every month to the department.
(b) The purchaser's name and license number shall be stated on dealer's record, and the name of the person authorized by the purchaser to physically receive the explosives.
(c) The dealer shall ascertain the identity of the individual who receives the explosives from a picture-type identification card, such as a driver's license. The recipient shall sign a receipt, documenting the explosives received and said receipt shall be retained by the dealer for not less than one year from the date of purchase.
(7) Any package, cask, or can containing any explosive, nitroglycerin, dynamite, or powder that is put up for sale, or is delivered to any warehouseman, dock, depot, or common carrier shall be properly labeled thereon to indicate its explosive classification.
(8) If the explosives are delivered by the dealer or dealer's authorized agent to an explosives magazine, the license number of said magazine and the legal signature of the recipient, properly authorized and identified, shall be obtained.
(9) No person shall sell, display, or expose for sale any explosive, improvised device or blasting agent on any highway, street, sidewalk, public way, or public place.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-425, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-425, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-425, filed 5/6/86.]
RCW 70.74.110 and 70.74.144, apply.
(1) No person, partnership, firm, company or corporation shall manufacture explosives or blasting agents or use any process involving explosives as a component part in the manufacture of any device, article or product without first obtaining a manufacturer's license from the department of labor and industries.
(2) The application for license for manufacturing explosives and/or blasting agents shall
be made to Department of Labor and Industries, Division of Consultation and Compliance,
Olympia. The license fee for either an original license or a renewal shall be ((
twenty-five dollars (( and shall increase to fifty dollars two years after the effective date of this
(3) The application for original license or renewal shall be completed on forms available from the department and shall provide the following information:
(a) Location of place of manufacture or processing;
(b) Kind of explosives manufactured, processed, or used;
(c) The distance that such explosives manufacturing building is located or intended to be located from the other factory buildings, magazines, inhabited buildings, railroads, highways, and public utility transmission systems;
(d) The name and address of the applicant;
(e) The reason for desiring to manufacture explosives;
(f) The applicant's citizenship, if the applicant is an individual;
(g) If the applicant is a partnership, the names and addresses of the partners and their citizenship;
(h) If the applicant is an association or corporation, the names and addresses of the officers and directors thereof, and their citizenship; and
(i) Such other pertinent information as the director of labor and industries shall require to effectuate the purpose of this chapter.
(4) Each application for license shall be accompanied by a site plan of the proposed or existing manufacturing facilities. The plan shall show:
(a) The distance each manufacturing building is located from other buildings on the premises where people are employed, from other occupied buildings on adjoining property, from buildings where customers are served, from public highways and utility transmission systems.
(b) The site plan shall demonstrate compliance with all applicable requirements of chapter 70.74 RCW, the State Explosives Act as it exists at the time of this adoption or is hereafter amended; with applicable requirements of chapter 296-50 WAC, Safety standards--Manufacture of explosives; with the separation/location requirements of this chapter.
(c) The site plan shall identify and describe all natural or artificial barricades which are utilized to influence minimum permissible separation distances.
(d) The site plan shall identify the nature of and kind of work carried on in each building.
(e) The site plan shall specify the maximum amount and kind of explosives or blasting agents which will be permitted in each building or magazine at any one time.
(5) The application for license shall comply with all requirements of WAC 296-52-421.
(6) Upon receipt of a completed application meeting all requirements of this section, the department will schedule an inspection of the premises at the earliest time possible.
(7) The department will issue a license to the applicant(s) provided that:
(a) The required inspection confirms that the site plan is accurate and the facilities comply with applicable regulations of the department;
(b) The applicant(s) or operating superintendent and employees are sufficiently trained and experienced in the manufacture of explosives.
(8) A license to manufacture explosives and/or blasting agents shall be valid for not more than one year from the date of issue unless suspended or revoked by the department.
(9) A copy of the site plan and manufacturer's license shall be posted in the main office of each manufacturing plant.
(a) The site plan shall be maintained to reflect current status of manufacturing facilities, occupancy changes, etc.
(b) The department shall be notified when significant change occurs in the site plan. If the change is of such nature or magnitude as to make compliance with all requirements of this chapter questionable, the license holder shall consult with the department before changing the operations.
(10) Specific applicable requirements for the manufacture of explosives and blasting agents are codified and distributed in chapter 296-50 WAC, Safety standards--Manufacture of explosives.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-429, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-429, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-429, filed 5/6/86.]
RCW 70.74.135 and 70.74.137, apply.
(1) No person, firm, partnership, or corporation and including public agencies, shall be permitted to purchase explosives or blasting agents without a valid license as issued by the department of labor and industries.
(2) Applicants desiring to purchase explosives or blasting agents, except hand loader components as defined in this chapter, shall make application for license to the department of labor and industries. Application forms may be obtained at all department district offices, and from explosives dealers.
(3) Applicants shall comply with all requirements of WAC 296-52-421 and shall have a
current user (blaster) license issued by the department. The purchaser's license fee shall be
ten)) five dollars (( and shall increase to fifteen dollars two years after the effective date of this
(4) Applicants shall be required to furnish at least the following information:
(a) The location where explosives are to be used;
(b) The kind and amount of explosives to be used;
(c) The name and address of the applicant;
(d) The reason for desiring to use explosives;
(e) The citizenship of the applicant, if the applicant is an individual;
(f) If the applicant is a partnership, the names and addresses of the partners and their citizenship;
(g) If the applicant is an association or corporation, the names and addresses of the officers and directors thereof and their citizenship;
(h) Documented proof of ownership of a licensed storage magazine or a signed authorization to use another person's licensed magazine; or the purchaser shall sign a statement certifying that the explosives will not be stored.
(i) Such other pertinent information as the director of the department of labor and industries shall require to effectuate the purposes of this chapter.
(5) The department will grant a purchaser's license after all legal requirements have been fulfilled.
(6) The license is valid for one year from date of issuance.
(7) Purchaser shall, prior to ordering explosive materials, furnish the dealer a current list of the representatives or agents authorized to order explosive materials on their behalf showing the name, address, drivers license number or valid identification and date and place of birth. A copy of the list shall be submitted with the purchaser's application. The dealer and the department lists shall be updated as changes occur.
(8) The individual who physically receives the purchased explosives shall prove to the satisfaction of the dealer that he, personally, is the purchaser, or the person authorized by the purchaser to receive said purchased explosives. Such authorization procedure shall be approved by the department. Said receiver of explosives shall identify himself properly and shall sign the dealer's record with his legal signature.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-433, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-433, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-433, filed 5/6/86.]
RCW 70.74.020 and 70.74.142, apply.
(1) No person, firm, partnership, or corporation shall use, blast, or dispose of explosives and/or blasting agents unless in possession of a valid user's (blaster's) license issued by the department of labor and industries.
(2) The application for a user's (blaster's) license to use, blast or dispose explosives and blasting agents shall be made to Department of Labor and Industries, Division of Consultation and Compliance, Olympia.
(a) Application forms may be obtained at all department district offices, and from explosives dealers.
(b) The license is valid for one year from date of issuance. The license fee shall be
ten)) five dollars (( and shall increase to fifteen dollars two years after the effective date of this
(c) Applicants shall comply with all requirements of WAC 296-52-421.
(d) User (blaster) may be required to verify name of licensed purchaser, which will be confirmed and approved by the department.
(3) In addition to the submission of the application form, all new applicants, all applicants requesting change in classification of their license, and all applicants who have not renewed their user (blaster) license within sixty days of expiration will be required to submit a resume of successful blasting experience, properly witnessed, and to pass a written examination prepared and administered by the department.
(4) User (blaster) qualifications:
(a) A user (blaster) shall be able to understand and give written and oral orders.
(b) A user (blaster) shall be in good physical condition and not be addicted to narcotics, intoxicants, or similar types of drugs. This rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the worker or others.
(c) A user (blaster) shall be qualified by reason of training, knowledge, and experience, in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives, and have a working knowledge of state and local laws and regulations which pertain to explosives.
(d) User (blaster) shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives and performing in a safe manner the type of blasting that will be required.
(e) The user (blaster) shall be knowledgeable and competent in the use of each type of blasting method used.
(5) The department will issue a user's license card which shall state the limitations imposed on the licensee and shall be presented by the user to authorized persons, upon request, together with valid personal identification.
(6) A "hand loader" as defined in this chapter, does not require a user's license.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-437, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-437, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-437, filed 5/6/86.]
RCW 70.74.140, applies.
The annual license fee for operating each magazine has been established by the department and shall be as shown in the following table:
Maximum weight (pounds) of
of blasting caps
|Max. 300,000||Max. 200,000,000||((|
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-449, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-449, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-449, filed 5/6/86.]
Magazines containing blasting caps and electric blasting caps shall be separated from other magazines containing like contents, or from magazines containing explosives by distances in the following table.
Distance in Feet
|275,000||300,000||770||385|Note 1. The term "natural barricade" is defined in WAC 296-52-417. Note 2. Efficient artificial barricade is defined in WAC 296-52-417. Note 3. "Barricaded" means that a building containing explosives is
effectually screened from a magazine, building, railway, or
highway, either by a natural barricade, or by an artificial
barricade of such height that a straight line from the top of
any sidewall of the building containing explosives to the
eave line of any magazine, or building, or to a point 12 feet
above the center of a railway or highway, will pass through
such intervening natural or artificial barricade. Note 4. This table applies only to the (( manufacture and))
permanent storage of commercial explosives. It is not
applicable to transportation of explosives, or any handling
or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not
intended to apply to bombs, projectiles, or other heavily
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-477, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), § 296-52-477, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-477, filed 5/6/86.]
(1) Regulations governing the transportation of explosives on public highways are adopted by the United States Department of Transportation (see 49 CFR Parts 100 through 199) and the Washington utilities and transportation commission and administered by the Washington state patrol.
(2) The regulations of this section shall be applicable in-and-on job sites and off-highway roads. The department of labor and industries shall administer these regulations in locations such as but not limited to: Construction or mining access roads and blast sites; off-highway forest roads including both publicly and privately owned logging roads, haul roads or general access roads.
|Note:||Examples of publicly owned off-highway roads where these regulations are applicable shall include, but are not limited to: U.S. Forest Service roads, Bureau of Land Management roads, state department of natural resources roads, but specifically not including the state or interstate highway system.|
(a) No person shall be allowed to smoke, carry matches or any other flame-producing device, except guards or commissioned law enforcement officers, to carry any firearms or loaded cartridges while in or near a motor vehicle transporting explosives; or drive, load, or unload such vehicle in a careless or reckless manner.
(b) Explosives shall not be carried on any vehicle while vehicle is being used to transport workers other than driver and two persons.
(c) Explosives shall be transferred from a disabled vehicle to another, only when proper and qualified supervision is provided. Local fire and police departments shall be promptly notified in congested areas. In remote areas they shall be notified if appropriate.
(d) Other materials or supplies shall not be placed on or in the cargo space of a conveyance containing explosives, detonating cord or detonators, except carrying safety fuse, and properly secured, nonsparking equipment used expressly in the handling of such explosives will be permissible.
(3) Transportation vehicles.
(a) All vehicles used for transporting explosives shall be strong enough to carry the load without difficulty and be in good mechanical condition. The cargo compartment(s) shall have a tight floor and must not have any exposed spark producing metal on the inside which could come into contact with explosives cargo.
(b) Explosives vehicles used on any roadway which is open to public travel shall comply with WAC 296-52-550, Appendix II.
(c) Open top explosives transportation vehicles may only be used on the jobsite or on roads which are not open to public travel (while laden with explosives). In open top vehicles or trailers, explosives may only be transported in the original DOT approved shipping container(s)/box(es) or a daybox or portable magazine which complies with the requirements of this chapter. In all instances the explosive container(s), box(es), daybox or portable magazine shall be secured to the bed of the vehicle or trailer.
(i) If an explosives transportation vehicle or trailer does not have a fully enclosed cargo area with nonsparking interior, the cargo bed and all explosive cargo shall be covered with a flameproof and moisture-proof tarpaulin or other effective protection against moisture and sparks. Whenever tarpaulins are used for covering explosives, both the tarpaulin and the explosives container shall be secured to the body of the truck bed by means of rope, wire, or other equally efficient tie downs.
(ii) Packages of explosives shall not be loaded above the sides on open-sided vehicles.
(4) Vehicles shall be placarded and displayed as specified by the United States Department of Transportation, CFR 49-1981, Parts 100 through 199. Placards shall remain on the vehicle until all explosives have been removed from the vehicle.
(5)(a) Each motor vehicle used for transporting explosives shall be equipped with a minimum of two extinguishers, each having a rating of at least 2A 10BC. The driver shall be trained in the use of the extinguishers on the vehicle.
(i) Only extinguishers listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory shall be deemed suitable for use on explosives-carrying vehicles. Refer to WAC 296-24-58501(19) for definition of listed, and federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.7 for nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(ii) Extinguishers shall be filled and ready for immediate use and readily available. Extinguishers shall be examined periodically by a competent person.
(b) A motor vehicle used for transporting explosives shall be given the following inspection to determine that it is in proper condition for safe transportation of explosives:
(i) Fire extinguishers shall be filled and in working order.
(ii) All electrical wiring shall be completely protected and securely fastened to prevent short-circuiting.
(iii) Chassis, motor, pan, and underside of body shall be reasonably clean and free of excess oil and grease.
(iv) Fuel tank and feedline shall be secure and have no leaks.
(v) Brakes, lights, horn, windshield wipers, and steering apparatus shall function properly.
(vi) Tires shall be checked for proper inflation and defects.
(vii) The vehicle shall be in proper condition in every other respect and acceptable for handling explosives.
(c) Motor vehicles or conveyances carrying explosives, blasting agents, or blasting supplies, shall not be taken inside a garage or shop for repairs or servicing.
(6) Operation of transportation vehicles.
(a) Vehicles transporting explosives shall only be driven by and be in the charge of a licensed driver who is not less than twenty-one years of age, physically fit, careful, capable, reliable, able to read and write the English language, and not addicted to the use, or under the influence of intoxicants, narcotics, or other dangerous drugs. This rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the worker or others. They shall be familiar with the traffic regulations, state laws, and the provisions of this section.
(i) Explosives may only be transported by a licensed manufacturer, blaster, purchaser or seller, or the designated agent or representative thereof, or a contract carrier for hire who complies with all requirements for transportation of hazardous materials.
(ii) The person in control of the explosive laden vehicle shall be made aware of the nature of the cargo and pertinent safety precautions relating to the particular explosive(s) being transported.
(b) Parking. A motor vehicle which contains Class A or Class B explosives must not be parked under any of the following circumstances:
(i) On or within 5 feet of the traveled portion of a public street or highway;
(ii) On private property (including premises of a fueling or eating facility) without the knowledge and consent of the person who is in charge of the property and who is aware of the nature of the hazardous materials the vehicle contains; or
(iii) Within 300 feet of a bridge, tunnel, dwelling, building, or place where people work, congregate, or assemble, except for brief periods when the necessities of operation require the vehicle to be parked and make it impracticable to park the vehicle in any other place.
(c) Every motor vehicle transporting any quantity of Class A or Class B explosives shall, at all times, be attended by a driver or other attendant of the motor carrier. This attendant shall have been made aware of the class of the explosive material in the vehicle and of its inherent dangers, and shall have been instructed in the measures and procedures to be followed in order to protect the public from those dangers. The attendant shall have been made familiar with the vehicle to which assigned, and shall be trained, supplied with the necessary means, and authorized to move the vehicle when required.
(i) For the purpose of this subdivision, a motor vehicle shall be deemed "attended" only when the driver or other attendant is physically on or in the vehicle, or has the vehicle within the driver or attendants field of vision and can reach it quickly and without any kind of interference; "attended" also means that the driver or attendant is awake, alert, and not engaged in other duties or activities which may divert their attention from the vehicle.
(ii) An explosive laden vehicle may be left unattended for a period not to exceed 48 hours provided that:
(A) The vehicle is parked in a designated parking lot which complies with NFPA Std. 498 and with the appropriate clearance table of this chapter for the type and quantity of explosives carried;
(B) The designated parking lot is correctly bermed and walled or fenced and gated to prevent unauthorized entry;
(C) The designated lot is inspected and approved by the department of labor and industries and is provided with a full-time security patrol at all times when explosives are present;
(D) Trucks used for explosives delivery which contain only blasting agents (International Class 1.5 D) and no high explosives need not be attended provided the vehicle is locked to prevent movement of the vehicle, the cargo compartments are locked to prevent theft, the vehicle is parked according to all applicable storage distance requirements, and the vehicle is located in a secured area which restricts entry to the area by unauthorized personnel.
(d) No spark-producing metal, spark-producing tools, oils, matches, firearms, electric storage batteries, flammable substances, acids, oxidizing materials, or corrosive compounds shall be carried in the body of any motor truck and/or vehicle transporting explosives, unless the loading of such dangerous articles and the explosives comply with U.S. Department of Transportation regulations.
(e) Vehicles transporting explosives shall avoid congested areas and heavy traffic.
(f) Delivery and issue of explosives shall only be made by and to authorized persons and into authorized magazines or authorized temporary storage or handling area.
(7) Transporting blasting caps and explosives in the same vehicle.
(a) Fuse type blasting caps, blasting caps with safety fuse and/or blasting caps with metal
clad mild detonating fuse shall not be transported ((
in)) over the highways on the same vehicle
or trailer with other explosives, unless packaged, segregated, and transported in accordance with
the department of transportation's hazardous materials regulations.
(b) Blasting caps rated by U.S. DOT as nonmass detonating may be transported in the same vehicle or trailer with other explosives when:
(i) The caps are carried in DOT approved shipping containers:
(ii) The truck or trailer complies with Appendix 1, WAC 296-52-550.
(8) When primers are made up at a central primer house for use in high speed tunneling, the following shall apply:
(a) Only enough primers shall be made up for each round of blasting.
(b) The primers shall be placed in separate containers or bins, categorized by degree of delay in such a manner so as to prevent them from physical impact.
(c) Explosives carried in the same magazine shall be separated by 1/4-inch steel, covered on each side by four inches of hardwood planking, or equivalent.
(d) Hoist operators shall be notified before explosives or blasting agents are transported in a shaft conveyance.
(e) Explosives and blasting agents shall be hoisted, lowered, or conveyed in a powder car. No other materials, supplies, or equipment shall be transported in the same conveyance at the same time.
(f) Only a state approved powder car or conveyance shall be used underground.
(g) All explosives or blasting agents in transit underground shall be taken to the place of use or storage without delay.
(h) The quantity of explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to be necessary for the blast.
(i) The number of primers for one round will be removed from the state approved car or vehicle at the face or heading after the drilling has been completed and the holes readied for loading. After loading the charge, the powder car or vehicle will be withdrawn from the tunnel.
(j) Wires on electric caps shall be kept shunted until wired to the bus wires.
(k) The powder car or conveyance shall be inspected daily for lights, brakes and external damage to electrical circuitry. The electrical system shall be checked weekly to detect any failures that may constitute an electrical hazard and a written certification record of such inspection shall be kept on file for the duration of the job. The certification record shall contain the date of inspection, the serial number or other positive identification of the unit being inspected and the signature of the person performing the inspection.
(l) The installation of auxiliary lights on truck beds, which are powered by the truck's electrical system, shall be prohibited.
(m) No one, except the operator, the helper, and/or the powderperson, shall be permitted to ride on a conveyance transporting explosives and blasting agents.
(n) No person shall ride in any shaft conveyance transporting explosives and blasting agents.
(o) No explosives or blasting agents shall be transported on a crew-haul trip.
(p) The car or conveyance containing explosives or blasting agents shall be pulled, not pushed, whenever possible.
(q) The powder car or conveyance especially built for the purpose of transporting explosives or blasting agents shall bear a reflectorized sign on each side with the word "explosives" in letters not less than 4 inches in height; upon a background of sharply contrasting color.
(r) Compartments for transporting detonators and explosives in the same car or conveyance shall be physically separated by a distance of 24 inches or by a solid partition at least 6 inches thick.
(s) Detonators and other explosives shall not be transported at the same time in any shaft conveyance.
(t) Explosives and/or blasting agents, not in original containers, shall be placed in a suitable container when transported manually.
(u) No explosives or blasting agents shall be transported on any locomotive. At least two car lengths shall separate the locomotive from the powder car.
(9) When explosives are carried to the blasting site from the main storage magazines by the blaster or helper:
(a) Special insulated containers or original DOT shipping containers shall be used for this purpose, either boxes or bags, one container for explosives and one for detonators.
(b) Detonators or explosives shall never be carried in pockets of clothing.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. 98-19-056, § 296-52-489, filed 9/15/98, effective 11/8/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-489, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 92-17-022 (Order 92-06), § 296-52-489, filed 8/10/92, effective 9/10/92; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-52-489, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-52-489, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-489, filed 5/6/86.]
(1) General provisions.
(a) While explosives are being handled or used, smoking, matches, or any other source of fire or flame shall not be allowed within 100 feet of the blast site. No person shall be allowed to handle explosives while under the influence of intoxicating liquors, narcotics, or other dangerous drugs. This rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs and/or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the worker or others.
(b) Original containers or day box magazines shall be used for taking detonators and other explosives from storage magazines to the blast site.
(c) When blasting is done in congested areas or in close proximity to a structure, railway, or highway or any other installation that may be damaged, the blast shall be covered before firing with a mat or other suitable protective material that is capable of preventing fragments from being thrown.
(d) Persons authorized to prepare explosive charges or conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution, including but not limited to warning signals, flags and barricades or blasting mats to insure the safety of the general public and workers.
(e) Blasting operations shall be conducted during daylight hours whenever possible.
(f) Whenever blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of gas, electric, water, fire alarm, telephone, telegraph, and steam utilities, the user (blaster) shall notify the appropriate representatives of such utilities at least twenty-four hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notice shall be confirmed with written notice. The blaster shall ensure that appropriate measures for safe control have been taken.
(g) Due precaution shall be taken to prevent unintended discharge of blasting caps from extraneous electric current or from transmitted radio frequency (RF) energy. Examples:
Common sources of extraneous electricity include but are not limited to adjacent powerlines, dust storms and lightening storms.
Common sources of hazardous RF transmissions include but are not limited to: (MOBILE) citizen band (CB) or side band radio transmitters, VHF (FM) radio transmitters, UHF cellular telephones and radar transmitters. (FIXED LOCATION TRANSMITTERS) base stations for CB, side band or FM radio communications, UHF cellular telephone transmitters and service extension repeater systems, AM and FM (commercial) radio broadcast transmitters, TV broadcast transmitters and repeater system transmitters, surface scan and radio navigation beacons.
(h) Low flying aircraft and in particular military aircraft create the most common serious RF exposures. These highly unpredictable mobile transmitters are very powerful and transmit on a broad spectrum of frequencies including radar, laser and all common communications bands. Probably the two most dangerous examples are low flying automatic terrain following guidance systems and airplanes which are equipped to jam all common radar and communications frequencies for a distance of several miles around the airborne transmitters.
(i) Precautions to prevent unintended discharge of electric blasting caps from extraneous electric currents or RF transmission shall include:
(i) Positive identification of voltages in electrical transmission and distribution lines and specific required clearance for each specific system; and
(ii) Complete suspension of all blasting operations and removal of all personnel from the blast site during the approach and progress of heavy dust storms which may create static lightening or conventional thunder and lightening storms; and
(iii) The posting of signs warning against the use of radio frequency transmitters including CBs, mobile phones and two-way radios. The required signs shall be placed in a manner to adequately warn transmitter users, including all routes into the required clearance zone around where electric blasting caps are used.
(A) The required clearance zone for construction and/or demolition operations shall be 1000 feet;
(B) The required clearance zone for general industry operations which are not subject to construction requirements shall be 350 feet.
|Note:||See Appendix II, WAC 296-52-552 for illustrations and specific posting requirements.|
(v) Fixed location RF transmitters represent a higher level of hazard to both storage and/or blasting operations involving electric caps because the transmitters are more powerful and transmit dangerous levels of RF exposure over much greater distances. Storage or blasting operations with electric caps shall only be carried out in full compliance with the appropriate recommended distance tables published in INSTITUTE OF MAKERS OF EXPLOSIVES (I.M.E.) Publication No. 20, 1988, "SAFETY GUIDE FOR THE PREVENTION OF RADIO FREQUENCY HAZARDS IN THE USE OF COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC DETONATORS (Blasting Caps)"; and
(vi) When necessary to conduct blasting operations within the required separation distances specified in I.M.E. Pamphlet 20-1988, the storage and use of electric blasting caps shall be prohibited on the site and only detonating cord, safety fuse, shock tube or other approved nonelectric systems may be used.
(j) No fire shall be fought where the fire is in imminent danger of contact with explosives. All employees shall be removed to a safe area and the fire area guarded against intruders.
(k) Electric detonators shall be shunted until wired into the blasting circuit.
(l) Explosives shall not be handled near open flames, uncontrolled sparks or energized electric circuits.
(m) Delivery and issue of explosives shall only be made by and to authorized persons and into authorized magazines or approved temporary storage or handling area.
(n) Blaster in charge.
(i) The blast site shall be under the control of a fully qualified and currently licensed "blaster in charge" throughout the course of every blasting operation. That obligation shall commence with a site survey to determine potential safety conflicts with: Public utility transmission systems, dwellings or other occupied buildings, roads or railroads, radio frequency transmitters, preexisting explosives storage magazines.
(ii) Whenever the site survey identifies conditions which conflict with safe blasting operations, the blaster in charge shall prepare a written site blasting plan before beginning blasting operations. The written plan shall identify the methods, materials, procedures and/or engineering calculations which will be used to address each identified conflicting condition.
|Note 1.||When the site survey identifies that no conflicting conditions exist, a written blasting plan is not required.|
|Note 2.||Written blasting plans may be discarded at the end of a job provided that no blasting incident has occurred which resulted in bodily injury or property damage.|
(iv) The site blasting plan shall include designated safe location(s) for personnel during actual blasting and a method for determining when all personnel are accounted for in the designated safe location(s).
|Note:||It is desirable that all potential means of egress into the blast site should be under observation immediately prior to each blast. The observer(s) should be provided with a means of communication with the blaster in charge.|
(p) No explosive shall be loaded or used underground in the presence of combustible gases or combustible dusts unless approved as permissible by MSHA.
(q) In either electric or nonelectric blasting, the firing line(s) shall not be connected to the blast initiating device until all personnel have been accounted for and removed from the blast danger area or are in a blast shelter or other location which affords adequate protection.
(2) Storage at use sites.
(a) Empty boxes and paper and fiber packing materials which have previously contained
high)) explosive(( s)) materials shall (( not be used again for any purpose, but shall be destroyed
by burning at the blast site or at an approved isolated location out of doors, and no person shall
be nearer than 100 feet after the burning has started)) be disposed of in a safe manner, or reused
in accordance with the department of transportation's hazardous materials regulations.
(b) When opening kegs or wooden cases, no sparking metal tools shall be used; wooden wedges and either wood, fiber or rubber mallets shall be used. Nonsparking metallic slitters may be used for opening fiberboard cases.
(c) Should cartridges or packages of explosives show signs of deterioration, the manufacturer or the department shall be notified. Such explosives must be carefully set aside and properly disposed of.
(3) Loading of explosives or blasting agents in blast holes.
(a) Procedures that permit safe and efficient loading shall be established before loading is started.
(b) All drill holes shall be sufficiently large to admit freely the insertion of the cartridges of explosives. Holes shall be checked prior to loading to determine depth and conditions.
(c) Tamping shall be done only with wood rods or with approved plastic tamping poles without exposed metal parts, but nonsparking metal connectors may be used for jointed poles. Violent tamping shall be avoided. The primer shall never be tamped.
(d) No holes shall be loaded except those to be fired in the next round of blasting. After loading, all remaining explosives and detonators shall be immediately returned to an authorized magazine or day box.
(e) Drilling shall not be started until all remaining butts of old holes are examined for unexploded charges, and if any are found, they shall be refired before work proceeds.
(f) When a charge of explosives has been exploded in a bore hole to enlarge or "spring" it, an interval of at least two hours must be allowed to pass before an additional charge of explosives can be loaded into the hole.
|Note:||There may be an exception made to this rule provided the sprung hole is thoroughly wet down with water before it is loaded.|
(h) No explosives or blasting agents shall be left unattended at blast sites unless stored in a licensed magazine.
(i) Users (blasters) shall not load, store or use explosives closer than the length of the steel being used for drilling and in no event nearer than fifty feet of drilling operations.
(j) Machines and all tools not used for loading explosives into bore holes shall be removed from the immediate location of holes being loaded with explosives. Equipment shall not be operated within 50 feet of loaded holes except when equipment is needed to add burden, mats or tracking of drills out of the loading area.
(k) Powerlines and portable electric cables for equipment being used shall be kept a safe distance from explosives or blasting agents being loaded into drill holes. Cables in the proximity of the blast area shall be deenergized and locked out by the blaster.
(l) Holes shall not be drilled where there is danger of intersecting a charged or misfired hole.
(m) All blast holes in open work shall be stemmed to the collar or to a point which will confine the charge.
(n) No explosives for underground operations other than those in Fume Class 1, as set forth by the Institute of Makers of Explosives, shall be used; however, explosives complying with the requirements of Fume Class 2 and Fume Class 3 may be used if adequate ventilation has been provided.
(o) Warning signs, indicating a blast area, shall be maintained at all approaches to the blast area. The warning sign lettering shall not be less that 4 inches in height on a contrasting background. All loaded stumps must be marked for identification on logging sites.
(p) A bore hole shall never be sprung when it is adjacent to or near a hole which has been loaded. Flashlight batteries shall not be used as a power source (blasting machine) for springing holes.
(q) No loaded holes shall be left unattended or unprotected.
(r) The user (blaster) shall keep an accurate, up-to-date record of explosives, blasting agents, and blasting supplies used in a blast and shall keep an accurate running inventory of all explosives and blasting agents stored on the operation.
(s) When loading blasting agents pneumatically over primed boosters, semiconductive delivery hose shall be used and the equipment shall be bonded and grounded.
(4) Initiation of explosive charges - electric blasting.
(a) Blasting cap leg wires shall be kept short-circuited (shunted) until they are connected into the circuit for firing.
(b) Before adopting any system of electrical firing, the user (blaster) shall conduct a thorough survey for extraneous currents, and all dangerous currents shall be eliminated before any holes are loaded.
(c) In any single blast using electric blasting caps, all caps shall be of the same style or function and be of the same manufacture and compatible with each other.
(d) Electric blasting shall be carried out by using blasting circuits or power circuits in accordance with the electric blasting cap manufacturer's recommendations.
(e) The firing line shall be checked with an approved testing device at the terminals before being connected to the blasting machine or other power source.
(f) The circuit including all caps shall be tested with an approved testing device before being connected to the firing line.
(g) When firing a circuit of electric blasting caps, care shall be exercised to ensure that an adequate quantity of delivered current is available, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(h) Connecting wires and lead wires shall be insulated single solid wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity, and shall not be less than twenty gauge (American wire gauge) solid core insulated wire.
(i) Firing line or lead wires shall be solid single wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity, and shall be not less than fourteen gauge (American wire gauge) solid core insulated wire. Bus wires - depends on the size of the blast, fourteen gauge (American wire gauge) copper is recommended.
(j) The ends of lead wires which are to be connected to a firing device shall be shorted by twisting them together or otherwise shunting them before they are connected to the leg wires or connecting wires, and they shall be kept in the control of the person who is doing the loading until loading is completed and the leg wires attached. Lead wires shall not be attached to the firing device until the blaster is ready to fire the shot and must be attached by the user (blaster) themselves.
(k) The ends of the leg wires on electric detonators shall be shorted in a similar manner and not separated other than for testing until all holes are loaded and the loader is ready to connect the leg wires to the connecting wires or lead wires.
(l) When firing electrically, the insulation on all firing lines shall be adequate and in good condition.
(m) A power circuit used for firing electric blasting caps shall not be grounded.
(n) In underground operations when firing from a power circuit, a safety switch shall be placed at intervals in the permanent firing line. This switch shall be made so it can be locked only in the "off" position and shall be provided with a short-circuiting arrangement of the firing lines to the cap circuit.
(o) In underground operations there shall be a "lightning" gap of at least 5 feet in the firing system ahead of the main firing switch; that is, between this switch and the source of power. This gap shall be bridged by a flexible jumper cord just before firing the blast.
(p) When firing from a power circuit, the firing switch shall be locked in the open or "off" position at all times, except when firing. It shall be so designed that the firing lines to the cap circuit are automatically short-circuited when the switch is in the "off" position. Keys to this switch shall be entrusted only to the user (blaster).
(q) Blasting machines shall be in good condition and the efficiency of the machine shall be tested periodically to make certain that it can deliver power at its rated capacity.
(r) When firing with blasting machines, the connections shall be made as recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps used.
(s) The number of electric blasting caps connected to a blasting machine shall not be in excess of its rated capacity. Furthermore, in primary blasting, a series circuit shall contain no more caps than the limits recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps in use.
(t) The blaster in charge shall be in charge of the blasting machines, and no other person shall connect the lead wires to the machine.
(u) Users (blasters), when testing circuits to charged holes, shall use only blasting testers especially designed for this purpose.
(v) Whenever the possibility exists that a lead line or blasting wire might be thrown over live overhead powerlines, communication lines, utility services, or other services or structures by the force of an explosion, care shall be taken to see that the total length of wires are kept too short to hit the lines, that the wires are securely anchored to the ground and owners or operators are notified. If those requirements can not be satisfied, a nonelectric system shall be used.
(w) In electrical firing, only the person making lead wire connections shall fire the shot. All connections shall be made from the bore hole back to the source of firing current, and the lead wires shall remain shorted and not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the charge is to be fired.
(x) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately disconnected from the machine and short-circuited.
(y) When electric blasting caps have been used, workers shall not return to misfired holes for at least thirty minutes.
(5) Use of safety fuse.
(a) A fuse that is deteriorated or damaged in any way shall not be used.
(b) The hanging of fuse on nails or other projections which will cause a sharp bend to be formed in the fuse is prohibited.
(c) Before capping safety fuse, a short length shall be cut from the end of the supply reel so as to assure a fresh cut end in each blasting cap.
(d) Only a cap crimper of approved design shall be used for attaching blasting caps to safety fuse. Crimpers shall be kept in good repair and accessible for use.
(e) No unused cap or short capped fuse shall be placed in any hole to be blasted; such unused detonators shall be removed from the working place and disposed of or stored in licensed magazine.
(f) No fuse shall be capped, or primers made up, in any magazine or near any possible source of ignition.
(g) Capping of fuse and making of primers shall only be done in a place selected for this purpose and at least one hundred feet distant from any storage magazine.
(h) Fuse must be cut long enough to reach beyond the collar of the bore hole and in no case less than three feet. When shooting choker holes, not less than three feet of fuse shall be used.
(i) At least two persons shall be present when multiple cap and fuse blasting is done by hand lighting methods.
(j) Not more than 12 fuses shall be lighted by each blaster when hand lighting devices are used. However, when two or more safety fuses in a group are lighted as one by means of igniter cord, or other similar fuse-lighting devices, they may be considered as one fuse.
(k) The so-called "drop fuse" method of dropping or pushing a primer or any explosive with a lighted fuse attached is prohibited.
(l) Cap and fuse shall not be used for firing mudcap charges unless charges are separated sufficiently to prevent one charge from dislodging other shots in the blast.
(m) When blasting with safety fuses, consideration shall be given to the length and burning rate of the fuse. Sufficient time, with a margin of safety, shall always be provided for the blaster to reach a place of safety.
(n) The burning rate of the safety fuse in use at any time shall be measured, posted in conspicuous locations, and brought to the attention of all workers concerned with blasting. No fuse shall be used that burns faster than one foot in forty seconds or slower than one foot in fifty-five seconds.
(o) For use in wet places the joint between the cap and fuse shall be waterproofed with a compound prepared for this purpose.
(p) In making up primers only nonsparking skewers shall be used for punching the hole in the cartridge to insert the capped fuse. No blasting cap shall be inserted in the explosives without first making a hole in the cartridge of proper size or using a standard cap crimper.
(q) Only sufficient primers for one day's use shall be made up at one time. They shall be stored in a box type magazine in which no other explosives are stored.
(r) Any loose cartridges of explosives, detonators, primers and capped fuse unused at the end of the shift shall be returned to their respective magazines and locked up.
(s) Safety fuse and caps shall only be used for conventional blasting where:
(i) Extraneous electricity or radio frequency transmissions make the use of electric cap and wire systems dangerous;
(ii) Overhead electric transmission lines cannot be deenergized and there is danger that blasting wires may be thrown into the overhead lines during a blast;
(iii) For avalanche control hand charges;
(iv) For specialized applications where cap and fuse is more suitable than electric or other nonelectric initiation systems.
(6) Use of detonating cord.
(a) Care shall be taken to select a detonating cord consistent with the type and physical condition of the bore hole and stemming and the type of explosives used.
(b) Detonating cord shall be handled and used with the same respect and care given other explosives.
(c) For quantity and distance purposes detonating fuse up to 60 grains per foot should be calculated as equivalent to 9 lbs. of high explosives per 1,000 feet. Heavier cord loads should be rated proportionately.
(d) Trunk lines in multiple-row blasts shall make one or more complete loops, with crossties between loops at intervals of not over two hundred feet.
(e) All detonating cord knots shall be tight and all connections shall be kept at right angles to the trunk lines.
(f) The line of detonating cord extending out of a bore hole or from a charge shall be cut from the supply spool before loading the remainder of the bore hole or placing additional charges.
(g) Detonating cord shall be handled and used with care to avoid damaging or severing the cord during and after loading and hooking-up.
(h) Detonating cord connections shall be competent and positive in accordance with approved and recommended methods. Knot-type or other cord-to-cord connections shall be made only with detonating cord in which the explosive core is dry.
(i) All detonating cord trunklines and branchlines shall be free of loops, sharp kinks, or angles that direct the cord back toward the oncoming line of detonation.
(j) All detonating cord connections shall be inspected before firing the blast.
(k) When detonating cord millisecond-delay connectors or short-interval-delay electric blasting caps are used with detonating cord, the practice shall conform strictly to the manufacturer's recommendations.
(l) When connecting a blasting cap or an electric blasting cap to detonating cord, the cap shall be taped or otherwise attached securely along the side or the end of the detonating cord, with the end of the cap containing the explosive charge pointed in the direction in which the detonation is to proceed.
(m) Detonators for firing the trunkline shall not be brought to the loading area nor attached to the detonating cord until everything else is in readiness for the blast.
(7) Initiation of explosive charges - nonelectric blasting.
(a) All nonelectric initiation systems and components of these systems shall be used in accordance with their manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions.
(b) All members of the blasting crew shall be instructed in the safe use of the initiation system and its components. It shall be the duty of the blaster in charge to provide adequate on-the-job training and supervision in the safe use of such systems.
(c) When a nonelectric shock tube initiation system is used, the tubing shall be free of all knots and tight kinks. The shock tube shall be free of cuts or abrasions that could expose the core to moisture.
(d) All blasting operations shall cease during the approach and progress of a thunderstorm, regardless of the type of initiation system used, and all personnel shall withdraw to a place of safety.
(e) When an explosive bulk truck or other vehicle is operated on a blast site, care shall be taken to ensure that the vehicle does not tread on the tubing, connectors, or any surface delay component. If a vehicle operated on a blast site must pass over loaded blastholes, precautions shall be made to consolidate these elements at the collar of the hole to prevent vehicle contact.
(f) Before firing the shot, the blaster in charge shall make a visual inspection to ensure that the initiation system is hooked up in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
(8) Firing the blast.
(a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table T-1 shall be posted on one or more conspicuous places at the operation, and all employees shall be required to familiarize themselves with the code and conform to it. Warning signs shall be placed at suitable locations.
(b) All charges shall be covered with blasting mats or other protective material before firing, where blasting may cause injury or damage by flying rock or debris.
(c) Before a blast is fired, a loud warning signal shall be given by the blaster in charge, who has made certain that all surplus explosives are in a safe place and all employees, vehicles, and equipment are at a safe distance, or under sufficient cover.
(d) Flaggers shall be safely stationed on highways which pass through the danger zone so as to stop traffic during blasting operations.
(e) It shall be the duty of the blaster to fix the time of blasting. The blaster shall conduct all blasting operations and no shot shall be fired without the blaster’s approval.
(f) Before firing an underground blast, warning shall be given, and all possible entries into the blasting area, and any entrances to any working place where a drift, raise, or other opening is about to hole through, shall be carefully guarded. The blaster shall make sure that all employees are out of the blast area before firing a blast.
A 1-minute series of long blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal.
|BLAST SIGNAL||||A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot.|
|ALL CLEAR SIGNAL||||A prolonged blast following
the inspection of blast area.|
(a) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall be disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the off position.
(b) Sufficient time shall be allowed, not less than fifteen minutes in tunnels, for the smoke and fumes to leave the blasted area before returning to the shot. An inspection of the area and the surrounding rubble shall be made by the user (blaster) to determine if all charges have been exploded before employees are allowed to return to the operation, and in tunnels, after the muck pile has been wetted down.
(a) If a misfire is found, the user (blaster) shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all employees or other personnel from the danger zone.
(b) No other work shall be done except that necessary to remove the hazard of the misfire and only those employees necessary to do the work shall remain in the danger zone.
(c) No attempt shall be made to extract explosives from any charged or misfired hole; a new primer shall be put in and the hole reblasted. If refiring of the misfired hole presents a hazard, the explosives may be removed by washing out with water or, where the misfire is under water, blown out with air.
(d) If there are any misfires while using cap and fuse, all employees shall remain away from the charge for at least one hour. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting.
(e) When electric blasting caps have been used, workers shall not return to misfired holes for at least thirty minutes. All wires shall be carefully traced and a search made for unexploded charges.
(f) If explosives are suspected of burning in a hole, all persons in the endangered area shall move to a safe location and no one shall return to the hole until the danger has passed, but in no case within one hour.
(g) No drilling, digging, or picking shall be permitted until all missed holes have been detonated or the authorized representative has approved that work can proceed.
(11) Underwater blasting.
(a) A user (blaster) shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without the blaster’s approval.
(b) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water.
(c) Only water-resistant initiation systems shall be used for underwater blasting. Loading shall be done through a nonsparking loading tube when tube is necessary.
(d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way is closer than 1,500 feet to the blasting area. Those on board vessels or craft moored or anchored within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired.
(e) No blast shall be fired while any swimming or diving operations are in progress in the vicinity of the blasting area. If such operations are in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be fired while any persons are in the water.
(f) Blasting flags shall be displayed.
(g) The storage and handling of explosives aboard vessels used in underwater blasting operations shall be according to provisions outlined herein on handling and storing explosives.
(h) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by the firing. Misfires shall be handled in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-52-493(10).
(12) Blasting in excavation work in pressurized air locks.
(a) Detonators and explosives shall not be stored or kept in tunnels, shafts, or caissons. Detonators and explosives for each round shall be taken directly from the magazines to the blasting zone and immediately loaded. Detonators and explosives left over after loading a round shall be removed from the working chamber before the connecting wires are connected up. Explosives in transit shall not be left unattended.
(b) When detonators or explosives are brought into an air lock, no employee except the powderperson, user (blaster), lock tender and the employees necessary for carrying, shall be permitted to enter the air lock. No material, supplies, or equipment shall be brought through with the explosives.
(c) Primers, detonators and explosives shall be taken separately into pressure working chambers.
(d) The user (blaster) or powderperson shall be responsible for the receipt, unloading, storage, and on-site transportation of explosives and detonators.
(e) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall be electrically bonded together and grounded at or near the portal or shaft, and such pipes and rails shall be cross-bonded together at not less than 1,000-foot intervals throughout the length of the tunnel. In addition, each air supply pipe shall be grounded at its delivery end.
(f) The explosives suitable for use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1, or other approved explosives.
(g) When tunnel excavation in rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of rock cover and the remaining distance ahead to soft ground as excavation advances.
(13) Vibration and damage control. Blasting operations in or adjacent to cofferdams, piers, underwater structures, buildings, structures, or other facilities shall be carefully planned with full consideration for all forces and conditions involved.
(14) Black blasting powder shall not be used for blasting.
(15) No person shall store, handle, or transport explosives or blasting agents when such storage, handling, and transportation of explosives or blasting agents constitutes an undue hazard to life.
(16) It shall be unlawful for any person to abandon explosives or explosive substances.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 95-07-014, § 296-52-493, filed 3/6/95, effective 4/20/95; 92-17-022 (Order 92-06), § 296-52-493, filed 8/10/92, effective 9/10/92; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-52-493, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 86-10-044 (Order 86-24), § 296-52-493, filed 5/6/86.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76)
Rubber insulating equipment.
(1) Rubber insulating equipment
designed for the voltage levels to be encountered shall be provided and the employer shall ensure
that they are used by employees as required by this section. ((
This equipment shall meet the
electrical and physical requirements contained in ANSI J6.6-1971 "Standard Specifications for
Rubber Insulating Gloves," and ANSI J6.4-1971 "Standard Specifications for Rubber Insulating
Blankets," with the exception that the maximum proof test current for a 14-inch Class I glove
shall be no more than 14mA, and with the further exception that existing 14-inch Class I rubber
gloves that meet a maximum proof test current of 14 mA and a minimum breakdown voltage of
10,000 volts (RMS) acquired prior to January 1, 1976, may be used as long as these gloves
comply with the retest requirements of subsection (2) of this section.)) The requirements of
WAC 296-24-092, Electrical protective equipment, shall be followed except for Table A-6.
(2) The employer is responsible for periodic retesting of all insulating gloves, blankets, and other rubber insulating equipment. This retesting shall be electrical, visual and mechanical. The following maximum retesting intervals shall apply:
|Gloves, Blankets, and|
Protective equipment fabricated of material other than rubber shall provide
electrical and mechanical protection at least equal to that of the rubber equipment.
(5)(a))) Gloves and blankets shall be marked to indicate compliance with the retest schedule and shall be marked with the date the next test date is due.
(b))) Any rubber gloves found to be defective shall be removed from service and
marked as being defective.
(6) Insulating gloves and blankets shall be stored away from direct sunlight,
steampipes, radiators and other sources of excessive heat.
(7) Gloves and blankets shall not be folded while in storage. A separate container shall be provided for rubber blankets and blankets shall be wiped clean and rolled before placing in container.
(8) Inspect rubber goods. Before using a pair of rubber gloves or rubber blankets, workers shall personally inspect each glove for defects and give an air test, and the blanket shall be visually inspected for cracks or cuts before using.
Note: Grasp the cuff at opposite sides and twirl the gloves so as to roll it up the cuff and produce air pressure within the
glove, then look for leaks and thin places in the rubber.
(9))) (5) Patching rubber goods is prohibited; rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(10))) (6) Rubber gloves for workers. (( (a))) A pair of rubber gloves, specifically
designed for the protection of workers, shall be assigned each worker when required to work on
or be exposed to energized parts.
(b) Rubber gloves when not in use shall be carried in a bag provided and designed for
[Order 76-38, § 296-32-260, filed 12/30/76; Order 75-41, § 296-32-260, filed 12/19/75.]
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 91-01, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91)
The following definitions are applicable to all sections of this chapter which include WAC 296-24-120 in the section number.
"Lavatory" means a basin or similar vessel used exclusively for washing of the
hands, arms, face and head.
(2))) "Nonwater carriage toilet facility" means a toilet facility not connected to a sewer.
(3))) (2) "Number of employees" means, unless otherwise specified, the maximum
number of employees present at any one time on a regular shift.
(4))) (3) "Personal service room" means a room used for activities not directly
connected with the production or service function performed by the establishment. Such
activities include but are not limited to, first aid, medical services, dressing, showering, toilet
use, washing, and eating.
(5))) (4) "Potable water" means water which meets the quality standards for drinking
purposes of state or local authority having jurisdiction or water that meets the quality standards
prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Interim Primary
Drinking Water Regulations, published in 40 CFR Part 141, and 40 CFR 147.2400.
(6))) (5) "Toilet facility" means a fixture maintained within a toilet room for the
purpose of defecation or urination, or both.
(7))) (6) "Toilet room" means a room maintained within or on the premises of any
place of employment, containing toilet facilities for use by employees.
(8))) (7) "Toxic material" means a material in concentration or amount which exceeds
the applicable limit established by a standard, such as chapter 296-62 WAC or, in the absence of
an applicable standard, which is of such toxicity so as to constitute a recognized hazard that is
causing or is likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
(9))) (8) "Urinal" means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the sole
purpose of urination.
(10))) (9) "Water closet" means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the
purpose of both defecation and urination and which is flushed with water.
(11))) (10) "Wet process" means any process or operation in a workroom which
normally results in surfaces upon which employees may walk or stand becoming wet.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), § 296-24-12002, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91; Order 74-27, § 296-24-12002, filed 5/7/74.]
(1) Odorizing gases.
(a) All liquefied petroleum gases shall be effectively odorized by an approved agent of such character as to indicate positively, by distinct odor, the presence of gas down to concentration in air of not over one-fifth the lower limit of flammability. Odorization, however, is not required if harmful in the use of further processing of the liquefied petroleum gas, or if odorization will serve no useful purpose as a warning agent in such use or further processing.
(b) The odorization requirement of (a) of this subsection shall be considered to be met by the use of 1.0 pounds of ethyl mercaptan, 1.0 pounds of thiophane or 1.4 pounds of amyl mercaptan per ten thousand gallons of LP-gas. However, this listing of odorants and quantities shall not exclude the use of other odorants that meet the odorization requirements of (a) of this subsection.
(2) Approval of equipment and systems.
(a) Each system utilizing DOT containers in accordance with 49 CFR Part 178 shall have its container valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and regulators approved.
(b) Each system for domestic or commercial use utilizing containers of two thousand gallons or less water capacity, other than those constructed in accordance with 49 CFR Part 178, shall consist of a container assembly and one or more regulators, and may include other parts. The system as a unit or the container assembly as a unit, and the regulator or regulators, shall be individually listed.
(c) In systems utilizing containers of over two thousand gallons water capacity, each regulator, container, valve, excess flow valve, gaging device, and relief valve installed on or at the container, shall have its correctness as to design, construction, and performance determined by listing by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(d) The provisions of subsection (3)(a) of this section shall not be construed as prohibiting the continued use or reinstallation of containers constructed and maintained in accordance with the standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases NFPA No. 58 in effect at the time of fabrication.
(e) Containers used with systems embodied in this section and WAC 296-24-47509 (3)(c) and 296-24-47513, shall be constructed, tested, and stamped in accordance with DOT specifications effective at the date of their manufacture.
(3) Requirements for construction and original test of containers.
(a) Containers used with systems embodied in WAC 296-24-47509, 296-24-47513 through 296-24-47517, except as provided in WAC 296-24-47511 (3)(c) and 296-24-47515 (2)(a), shall be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels, section VIII, Division 1, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1968 edition.
(b) Containers constructed according to the 1949 and earlier editions of the ASME Code do not have to comply with U-2 through U-10 and U-19 thereof. Containers constructed according to U-70 in the 1949 and earlier editions do not meet the requirements of this section.
(c) Containers designed, constructed, and tested prior to July 1, 1961, according to the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases, 1951 edition with 1954 Addenda, of the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers shall be considered in conformance. Containers constructed according to API-ASME Code do not have to comply with section I or with appendix to section I. W-601 to W-606 inclusive in the 1943 and earlier editions do not apply.
(4) Welding of containers.
(a) Welding to the shell, head, or any other part of the container subject to internal pressure, shall be done in compliance with the code under which the tank was fabricated. Other welding is permitted only on saddle plates, lugs, or brackets attached to the container by the tank manufacturer.
(b) Where repair or modification involving welding of DOT containers is required, the container shall be returned to a qualified manufacturer making containers of the same type, and the repair or modification made in compliance with DOT regulations.
(5) Markings on container.
(a) Each container covered in subsection (3)(a) of this section except as provided in subsection (2)(d) of this section shall be marked as specified in the following:
(i) With a marking identifying compliance with, and other markings required by, the rules of the reference under which the container is constructed; or with the stamp and other markings required by the laws, rules or regulations as administered by the state of Washington, department of labor and industries pertaining to such containers.
(ii) With notation as to whether the container is designed for underground or aboveground installation or both. If intended for both and different style hoods are provided, the marking shall indicate the proper hood for each type of installation.
(iii) With the name and address of the supplier of the container, or with the trade name of the container.
(iv) With the water capacity of the container in pounds or gallons, United States standard.
(v) With the pressure in p.s.i.g., for which the container is designed.
(vi) With the wording "This container shall not contain a product having a vapor pressure in excess of--p.s.i.g. at 100°F," see WAC 296-24-47509, Table H-31.
(vii) With the tare weight in pounds or other identified unit of weight for containers with a water capacity of three hundred pounds or less.
(viii) With marking indicating the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid at temperatures between 20°F and 130°F, except on containers provided with fixed maximum level indicators or which are filled by weighing. Markings shall be increments of not more than 20°F. This marking may be located on the liquid level gaging device.
(ix) With the outside surface area in square feet.
(b) Markings specified shall be on a metal nameplate attached to the container and located in such a manner as to remain visible after the container is installed.
(c) When LP-gas and one or more other gases are stored or used in the same area, the containers shall be marked to identify their content. Marking shall be in compliance with American National Standard Z48.1-1954, "Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained."
(6) Location of containers and regulating equipment.
(a) Containers, and first stage regulating equipment if used, shall be located outside of buildings, except under one or more of the following:
(i) In buildings used exclusively for container charging, vaporization pressure reduction, gas mixing, gas manufacturing, or distribution.
(ii) When portable use is necessary and in accordance with WAC 296-24-47507(5).
(iii) LP-gas fueled stationary or portable engines in accordance with WAC 296-24-47511 (11) or (12).
(iv) LP-gas fueled industrial trucks used in accordance with WAC 296-24-47511(13).
(v) LP-gas fueled vehicles garaged in accordance with WAC 296-24-47511(14).
(vi) Containers awaiting use or resale when stored in accordance with WAC 296-24-47513.
(b) Each individual container shall be located with respect to the nearest important
building or group of buildings or line of adjoining property which may be built on in accordance
with Table H-23.
|Less than 125 gals1|
|125 to 250 gallons|
|251 to 500 gallons|
|501 to 2,000 gallons|
|2,001 to 30,000 gallons|
|30,001 to 70,000 gallons|
meters of adjacent contain-
|70,001 to 90,000 gallons|
|2Note:||The above distance requirements may be reduced to not less than ten feet for a single container of one thousand two hundred gallons water capacity or less, providing such a container is at least twenty-five feet from any other LP-gas container of more than one hundred twenty-five gallons water capacity.|
(d) In industrial installations involving containers of one hundred eighty thousand gallons aggregate water capacity or more, where serious mutual exposures between the container and adjacent properties prevail, firewalls or other means of special protection designed and constructed in accordance with good engineering practices are required.
(e) In the case of buildings devoted exclusively to gas manufacturing and distributing operations, the distances required by Table H-23 may be reduced provided that in no case shall containers of water capacity exceeding five hundred gallons be located closer than ten feet to such gas manufacturing and distributing buildings.
(f) Readily ignitible material such as weeds and long dry grass shall be removed within ten feet of any container.
(g) The minimum separation between liquefied petroleum gas containers and flammable liquid tanks shall be twenty feet, and the minimum separation between a container and the centerline of the dike shall be ten feet. The foregoing provision shall not apply when LP-gas containers of one hundred twenty-five gallons or less capacity are installed adjacent to Class III flammable liquid tanks of two hundred seventy-five gallons or less capacity.
(h) Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers, such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading.
(i) When dikes are used with flammable liquid tanks, no liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be located within the diked area.
(7) Container valves and container accessories.
(a) Valves, fittings, and accessories connected directly to the container including primary shutoff valves, shall have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. and shall be of material and design suitable for LP-gas service. Cast iron shall not be used for container valves, fittings, and accessories. This does not prohibit the use of container valves made of malleable or nodular iron.
(b) Connections to containers, except safety relief connections, liquid level gaging devices, and plugged openings, shall have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable.
(c) Excess flow valves, where required shall close automatically at the rated flows of vapor or liquid as specified by the manufacturer. The connections or line including valves, fittings, etc., being protected by an excess flow valve shall have a greater capacity than the rated flow of the excess flow valve.
(d) Liquid level gaging devices which are so constructed that outward flow of container contents shall not exceed that passed by a No. 54 drill size opening, need not be equipped with excess flow valves.
(e) Openings from container or through fittings attached directly on container to which pressure gage connection is made, need not be equipped with shutoff or excess flow valves if such openings are restricted to not larger than No. 54 drill size opening.
(f) Except as provided in WAC 296-24-47507 (5)(a)(ii), excess flow and back pressure check valves where required by this section shall be located inside of the container or at a point outside where the line enters the container; in the latter case, installation shall be made in such manner that any undue strain beyond the excess flow or back pressure check valve will not cause breakage between the container and such valve.
(g) Excess flow valves shall be designed with a bypass, not to exceed a No. 60 drill size opening to allow equalization of pressures.
(h) Containers of more than thirty gallons water capacity and less than two thousand gallons water capacity, filled on a volumetric basis, and manufactured after December 1, 1963, shall be equipped for filling into the vapor space.
(8) Piping--Including pipe, tubing, and fittings.
(a) Pipe, except as provided in WAC 296-24-47511 (6)(a) and 296-24-47515 (10)(c) shall be wrought iron or steel (black or galvanized), brass, copper, or aluminum alloy. Aluminum alloy pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 in accordance with the specifications for Aluminum Alloy Pipe, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) H38.7-1969 (ASTM, B241-1969), except that the use of alloy 5456 is prohibited and shall be suitably marked at each end of each length indicating compliance with American National Standard Institute specifications. Aluminum alloy pipe shall be protected against external corrosion when it is in contact with dissimilar metals other than galvanized steel, or its location is subject to repeated wetting by such liquids as water (except rain water), detergents, sewage, or leaking from other piping, or it passes through flooring, plaster, masonry, or insulation. Galvanized sheet steel or pipe, galvanized inside and out, may be considered suitable protection. The maximum nominal pipe size for aluminum pipe shall be three-fourths inch and shall not be used for pressures exceeding 20 p.s.i.g. Aluminum alloy pipe shall not be installed within six inches of the ground.
(i) Vapor piping with operating pressures not exceeding 125 p.s.i.g. shall be suitable for a working pressure of at least 125 p.s.i.g. Pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 ASTM A-53-69, Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe or equal.
(ii) Vapor piping with operating pressures over 125 p.s.i.g. and all liquid piping shall be suitable for a working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. Pipe shall be at least Schedule 80 if joints are threaded or threaded and back welded. At least Schedule 40 (ASTM A-53-1969 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe or equal) shall be used if joints are welded, or welded and flanged.
(b) Tubing shall be seamless and of copper, brass, steel, or aluminum alloy. Copper tubing shall be of Type K or L or equivalent as covered in the Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ANSI H23.1-1970 (ASTM B88-1969). Aluminum alloy tubing shall be of Type A or B or equivalent as covered in Specification ASTM B210-1968 and shall be suitably marked every eighteen inches indicating compliance with ASTM specifications. The minimum nominal wall thickness of copper tubing and aluminum alloy tubing shall be as specified in Table H-24 and Table H-25.
WALL THICKNESS OF COPPER TUBING1
|Note:||The standard size by which tube is designated is one-eighth-inch smaller than its nominal outside diameter.|
|Type K||Type L|
WALL THICKNESS OF ALUMINUM ALLOY TUBING1
|Nominal wall thickness|
|Type A||Type B|
Aluminum alloy tubing shall be protected against external corrosion when it is in contact with dissimilar metals other than galvanized steel, or its location is subject to repeated wetting by liquids such as water (except rainwater), detergents, sewage, or leakage from other piping, or it passes through flooring, plaster, masonry, or insulation. Galvanized sheet steel or pipe, galvanized inside and out, may be considered suitable protection. The maximum outside diameter for aluminum alloy tubing shall be three-fourths inch and shall not be used for pressures exceeding 20 p.s.i.g. Aluminum alloy tubing shall not be installed within six inches of the ground.
(c) In systems where the gas in liquid form without pressure reduction enters the building, only heavy walled seamless brass or copper tubing with an internal diameter not greater than three thirty-seconds inch, and a wall thickness of not less than three sixty-fourths inch shall be used. This requirement shall not apply to research and experimental laboratories, buildings, or separate fire divisions of buildings used exclusively for housing internal combustion engines, and to commercial gas plants or bulk stations where containers are charged, nor to industrial vaporizer buildings, nor to buildings, structures, or equipment under construction or undergoing major renovation.
(d) Pipe joints may be screwed, flanged, welded, soldered, or brazed with a material having a melting point exceeding 1,000°F. Joints on seamless copper, brass, steel, or aluminum alloy gas tubing shall be made by means of approved gas tubing fittings, or soldered or brazed with a material having a melting point exceeding 1,000°F.
(e) For operating pressures of 125 p.s.i.g. or less, fittings shall be designed for a pressure of at least 125 p.s.i.g. For operating pressures above 125 p.s.i.g., fittings shall be designed for a minimum of 250 p.s.i.g.
(f) The use of threaded cast iron pipe fittings such as ells, tees, crosses, couplings, and unions is prohibited. Aluminum alloy fittings shall be used with aluminum alloy pipe and tubing. Insulated fittings shall be used where aluminum alloy pipe or tubing connects with a dissimilar metal.
(g) Strainers, regulators, meters, compressors, pumps, etc., are not to be considered as pipe fittings. This does not prohibit the use of malleable, nodular, or higher strength gray iron for such equipment.
(h) All materials such as valve seats, packing, gaskets, diaphragms, etc., shall be of such quality as to be resistant to the action of liquefied petroleum gas under the service conditions to which they are subjected.
(i) All piping, tubing, or hose shall be tested after assembly and proved free from leaks at not less than normal operating pressures. After installation, piping and tubing of all domestic and commercial systems shall be tested and proved free of leaks using a manometer or equivalent device that will indicate a drop in pressure. Test shall not be made with a flame.
(j) Provision shall be made to compensate for expansion, contraction, jarring, and vibration, and for settling. This may be accomplished by flexible connections.
(k) Piping outside buildings may be buried, above ground, or both, but shall be well supported and protected against physical damage. Where soil conditions warrant, all piping shall be protected against corrosion. Where condensation may occur, the piping shall be pitched back to the container, or suitable means shall be provided for revaporization of the condensate.
(9) Hose specifications.
(a) Hose shall be fabricated of materials that are resistant to the action of LP-gas in the liquid and vapor phases. If wire braid is used for reinforcing the hose, it shall be of corrosion-resistant material such as stainless steel.
(b) Hose subject to container pressure shall be marked "LP-gas" or "LPG" at not greater than ten-foot intervals.
(c) Hose subject to container pressure shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than 1,250 p.s.i.g.
(d) Hose subject to container pressure shall have its correctness as to design construction and performance determined by being listed (see WAC 296-24-47501(15)).
(e) Hose connections subject to container pressure shall be capable of withstanding, without leakage, a test pressure of not less than 500 p.s.i.g.
(f) Hose and hose connections on the low-pressure side of the regulator or reducing valve shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than 125 p.s.i.g. or five times the set pressure of the relief devices protecting that portion of the system, whichever is higher.
(g) Hose may be used on the low-pressure side of regulators to connect to other than domestic and commercial gas appliances under the following conditions:
(i) The appliances connected with hose shall be portable and need a flexible connection.
(ii) For use inside buildings the hose shall be of minimum practical length, but shall not exceed six feet except as provided in WAC 296-24-47507 (5)(a)(vii) and shall not extend from one room to another, nor pass through any walls, partitions, ceilings, or floors. Such hose shall not be concealed from view or used in a concealed location. For use outside of buildings, the hose may exceed this length but shall be kept as short as practical.
(iii) The hose shall be approved and shall not be used where it is likely to be subjected to temperatures above 125°F. The hose shall be securely connected to the appliance and the use of rubber slip ends shall not be permitted.
(iv) The shutoff valve for an appliance connected by hose shall be in the metal pipe or tubing and not at the appliance end of the hose. When shutoff valves are installed close to each other, precautions shall be taken to prevent operation of the wrong valve.
(v) Hose used for connecting to wall outlets shall be protected from physical damage.
(10) Safety devices.
(a) Every container except those constructed in accordance with DOT specifications and every vaporizer (except motor fuel vaporizers and except vaporizers described in subsection (11)(b)(iii) of this section and WAC 296-24-47509 (4)(e)(i)) whether heated by artificial means or not, shall be provided with one or more safety relief valves of spring-loaded or equivalent type. These valves shall be arranged to afford free vent to the outer air with discharge not less than five feet horizontally away from any opening into the building which is below such discharge. The rate of discharge shall be in accordance with the requirements of (b) or (d) of this subsection in the case of vaporizers.
(b) Minimum required rate of discharge in cubic feet per minute of air at one hundred twenty percent of the maximum permitted start to discharge pressure for safety relief valves to be used on containers other than those constructed in accordance with DOT specification shall be as follows:
|20||or less . . . . . . . . . . . .||626|
|25||. . . . . . . . . . . .||751|
|30||. . . . . . . . . . . .||872|
|35||. . . . . . . . . . . .||990|
|40||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,100|
|45||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,220|
|50||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,330|
|55||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,430|
|60||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,540|
|65||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,640|
|70||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,750|
|75||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,850|
|80||. . . . . . . . . . . .||1,950|
|85||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,050|
|90||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,150|
|95||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,240|
|100||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,340|
|105||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,440|
|110||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,530|
|115||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,630|
|120||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,720|
|125||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,810|
|130||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,900|
|135||. . . . . . . . . . . .||2,990|
|140||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,080|
|145||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,170|
|150||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,260|
|155||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,350|
|160||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,440|
|165||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,530|
|170||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,620|
|175||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,700|
|180||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,790|
|185||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,880|
|190||. . . . . . . . . . . .||3,960|
|195||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,050|
|200||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,130|
|210||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,300|
|220||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,470|
|230||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,630|
|240||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,800|
|250||. . . . . . . . . . . .||4,960|
|260||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,130|
|270||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,290|
|280||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,450|
|290||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,610|
|300||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,760|
|310||. . . . . . . . . . . .||5,920|
|320||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,080|
|330||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,230|
|340||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,390|
|350||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,540|
|360||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,690|
|370||. . . . . . . . . . . .||6,840|
|380||. . . . . . . . . . . .||7,000|
|390||. . . . . . . . . . . .||7,150|
|400||. . . . . . . . . . . .||7,300|
|450||. . . . . . . . . . . .||8,040|
|500||. . . . . . . . . . . .||8,760|
|550||. . . . . . . . . . . .||9,470|
|600||. . . . . . . . . . . .||10,170|
|650||. . . . . . . . . . . .||10,860|
|700||. . . . . . . . . . . .||11,550|
|750||. . . . . . . . . . . .||12,220|
|800||. . . . . . . . . . . .||12,880|
|850||. . . . . . . . . . . .||13,540|
|900||. . . . . . . . . . . .||14,190|
|950||. . . . . . . . . . . .||14,830|
|1,000||. . . . . . . . . . . .||15,470|
|1,050||. . . . . . . . . . . .||16,100|
|1,100||. . . . . . . . . . . .||16,720|
|1,150||. . . . . . . . . . . .||17,350|
|1,200||. . . . . . . . . . . .||17,960|
|1,250||. . . . . . . . . . . .||18,570|
|1,300||. . . . . . . . . . . .||19,180|
|1,350||. . . . . . . . . . . .||19,780|
|1,400||. . . . . . . . . . . .||20,380|
|1,450||. . . . . . . . . . . .||20,980|
|1,500||. . . . . . . . . . . .||21,570|
|1,550||. . . . . . . . . . . .||22,160|
|1,600||. . . . . . . . . . . .||22,740|
|1,650||. . . . . . . . . . . .||23,320|
|1,700||. . . . . . . . . . . .||23,900|
|1,750||. . . . . . . . . . . .||24,470|
|1,800||. . . . . . . . . . . .||25,050|
|1,850||. . . . . . . . . . . .||25,620|
|1,900||. . . . . . . . . . . .||26,180|
|1,950||. . . . . . . . . . . .||26,750|
|2,000||. . . . . . . . . . . .||27,310|
(c) When the surface area is not stamped on the nameplate or when the marking is not legible, the area can be calculated by using one of the following formulas:
(i) Cylindrical container with hemispherical heads:
Area= Overall length x outside diameter x 3.1416.
(ii) Cylindrical container with other than hemispherical heads:
Area= (Overall length+ 0.3 outside diameter) x outside diameter x 3.1416.
|Note:||This formula is not exact, but will give results within the limits of practical accuracy for the sole purpose of sizing relief valves.|
Area= Outside diameter squared x 3.1416.
Flow rate-CFM air= Required flow capacity in cubic feet per minute of air at standard conditions, 60°F and atmospheric pressure (14.7 p.s.i.a.).
The rate of discharge may be interpolated for intermediate values of surface area. For containers with total outside surface area greater than two thousand square feet, the required flow rate can be calculated using the formula, flow rate-CFM air =53.632 A0.82.
A= Total outside surface area of the container in square feet.
Valves not marked "air" have flow rate marking in cubic feet per minute of liquefied petroleum gas. These can be converted to ratings in cubic feet per minute of air by multiplying the liquefied petroleum gas ratings by factors listed below. Air flow ratings can be converted to ratings in cubic feet per minute of liquefied petroleum gas by dividing the air ratings by the factors listed below.
AIR CONVERSION FACTORS
|type . . . . . . . . . . . .||100||125||150||175||200|
|factor . . . . . . . . . . . .||1.162||1.142||1.113||1.078||1.010|
The minimum required rate of discharge for safety relief valves shall be determined as follows:
(i) Obtain the total surface area by adding the surface area of vaporizer shell in square feet directly in contact with LP-gas and the heat exchanged surface area in square feet directly in contact with LP-gas.
(ii) Obtain the minimum required rate of discharge in cubic feet of air per minute, at 60°F and 14.7 p.s.i.a. from (b) of this subsection, for this total surface area.
(e) Container and vaporizer safety relief valves shall be set to start-to-discharge, with
relation to the design pressure of the container, in accordance with Table H-26.
|ASME Code; Par. |
1949 and earlier
editions . . . . . . . .
|ASME Code; Par.|
1949 edition . . . . . . . .
1952, 1956, 1959,
1962, 1965 and
1968 (Division I)
editions . . . . . . . .
all editions . . . . . . . .
| DOT--As prescribed|
in 49 CFR
(f) Safety relief devices used with systems employing containers other than those constructed according to DOT specifications shall be so constructed as to discharge at not less than the rates shown in (b) of this subsection, before the pressure is in excess of one hundred twenty percent of the maximum (not including the ten percent referred to in (e) of this subsection) permitted start to discharge pressure setting of the device.
(g) In certain locations sufficiently sustained high temperatures prevail which require the use of a lower vapor pressure product to be stored or the use of a higher designed pressure vessel in order to prevent the safety valves opening as the result of these temperatures. As an alternative the tanks may be protected by cooling devices such as by spraying, by shading, or other effective means.
(h) Safety relief valves shall be arranged so that the possibility of tampering will be minimized. If pressure setting or adjustment is external, the relief valves shall be provided with approved means for sealing adjustment.
(i) Shutoff valves shall not be installed between the safety relief devices and the container, or the equipment or piping to which the safety relief device is connected except that a shutoff valve may be used where the arrangement of this valve is such that full required capacity flow through the safety relief device is always afforded.
(j) Safety relief valves shall have direct communication with the vapor space of the container at all times.
(k) Each container safety relief valve used with systems covered by WAC 296-24-47509, 296-24-47511, 296-24-47515 and 296-24-47517, except as provided in WAC 296-24-47511 (3)(c) shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following: "Container type" of the pressure vessel on which the valve is designed to be installed; the pressure in p.s.i.g. at which the valve is set to discharge; the actual rate of discharge of the valve in cubic feet per minute of air at 60°F and 14.7 p.s.i.a.; and the manufacturer's name and catalog number, for example: T200-250-4050 AIR--indicating that the valve is suitable for use on a Type 200 container, that it is set to start to discharge at 250 p.s.i.g.; and that its rate of discharge is four thousand fifty cubic feet per minute of air as determined in (b) of this subsection.
(l) Safety relief valve assemblies, including their connections, shall be of sufficient size so as to provide the rate of flow required for the container on which they are installed.
(m) A hydrostatic relief valve shall be installed between each pair of shutoff valves on liquefied petroleum gas liquid piping so as to relieve into a safe atmosphere. The start-to-discharge pressure setting of such relief valves shall not be in excess of 500 p.s.i.g. The minimum setting on relief valves installed in piping connected to other than DOT containers shall not be lower than one hundred forty percent of the container relief valve setting and in piping connected to DOT containers not lower than 400 p.s.i.g. Such a relief valve should not be installed in the pump discharge piping if the same protection can be provided by installing the relief valve in the suction piping. The start-to-discharge pressure setting of such a relief valve, if installed on the discharge side of a pump, shall be greater than the maximum pressure permitted by the recirculation device in the system.
(n) The discharge from any safety relief device shall not terminate in or beneath any building, except relief devices covered by subsection (6)(a)(i) through (vi) of this section, or WAC 296-24-47507 (4)(a) or (5).
(o) Container safety relief devices and regulator relief vents shall be located not less than five feet in any direction from air openings into sealed combustion system appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
(11) Vaporizer and housing.
(a) Indirect fired vaporizers utilizing steam, water, or other heating medium shall be constructed and installed as follows:
(i) Vaporizers shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of subsection (3)(a) through (c) of this section and shall be permanently marked as follows:
(A) With the code marking signifying the specifications to which the vaporizer is constructed.
(B) With the allowable working pressure and temperature for which the vaporizer is designed.
(C) With the sum of the outside surface area and the inside heat exchange surface area expressed in square feet.
(D) With the name or symbol of the manufacturer.
(ii) Vaporizers having an inside diameter of six inches or less exempted by the ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code--1968 shall have a design pressure not less than 250 p.s.i.g. and need not be permanently marked.
(iii) Heating or cooling coils shall not be installed inside a storage container.
(iv) Vaporizers may be installed in buildings, rooms, sheds, or lean-tos used exclusively for gas manufacturing or distribution, or in other structures of light, noncombustible construction or equivalent, well ventilated near the floor line and roof.
When vaporizing and/or mixing equipment is located in a structure or building not used exclusively for gas manufacturing or distribution, either attached to or within such a building, such structure or room shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a wall designed to withstand a static pressure of at least one hundred pounds per square foot. This wall shall have no openings or pipe or conduit passing through it. Such structure or room shall be provided with adequate ventilation and shall have a roof or at least one exterior wall of lightweight construction.
(v) Vaporizers shall have, at or near the discharge, a safety relief valve providing an effective rate of discharge in accordance with subsection (10)(d) of this section, except as provided in WAC 296-24-47509 (4)(e)(i).
(vi) The heating medium lines into and leaving the vaporizer shall be provided with suitable means for preventing the flow of gas into the heat systems in the event of tube rupture in the vaporizer. Vaporizers shall be provided with suitable automatic means to prevent liquid passing through the vaporizers to the gas discharge piping.
(vii) The device that supplies the necessary heat for producing steam, hot water, or other heating medium may be installed in a building, compartment, room, or lean-to which shall be ventilated near the floorline and roof to the outside. The device location shall be separated from all compartments or rooms containing liquefied petroleum gas vaporizers, pumps, and central gas mixing devices by a wall designed to withstand a static pressure of at least one hundred pounds per square foot. This wall shall have no openings or pipes or conduit passing through it. This requirement does not apply to the domestic water heaters which may supply heat for a vaporizer in a domestic system.
(viii) Gas-fired heating systems supplying heat exclusively for vaporization purposes shall be equipped with automatic safety devices to shut off the flow of gas to main burners, if the pilot light should fail.
(ix) Vaporizers may be an integral part of a fuel storage container directly connected to the liquid section or gas section or both.
(x) Vaporizers shall not be equipped with fusible plugs.
(xi) Vaporizer houses shall not have unprotected drains to sewers or sump pits.
(b) Atmospheric vaporizers employing heat from the ground or surrounding air shall be installed as follows:
(i) Buried underground, or
(ii) Located inside the building close to a point at which pipe enters the building provided the capacity of the unit does not exceed one quart.
(iii) Vaporizers of less than one quart capacity heated by the ground or surrounding air, need not be equipped with safety relief valves provided that adequate tests demonstrate that the assembly is safe without safety relief valves.
(c) Direct gas-fired vaporizers shall be constructed, marked, and installed as follows:
(i) In accordance with the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code--1968 that are applicable to the maximum working conditions for which the vaporizer is designed.
(ii) With the name of the manufacturer; rated BTU input to the burner; the area of the heat exchange surface in square feet; the outside surface of the vaporizer in square feet; and the maximum vaporizing capacity in gallons per hour.
(iii) Vaporizers may be connected to the liquid section or the gas section of the storage container, or both; but in any case there shall be at the container a manually operated valve in each connection to permit completely shutting off when desired, of all flow of gas or liquid from container to vaporizer.
(iv) Vaporizers with capacity not exceeding thirty-five gallons per hour shall be located at least five feet from container shutoff valves. Vaporizers having capacity of more than thirty-five gallons but not exceeding one hundred gallons per hour shall be located at least ten feet from the container shutoff valves. Vaporizers having a capacity greater than one hundred gallons per hour shall be located at least fifteen feet from container shutoff valves.
(v) Vaporizers may be installed in buildings, rooms, housings, sheds, or lean-tos used exclusively for vaporizing or mixing of liquefied petroleum gas. Vaporizing housing structures shall be of noncombustible construction, well ventilated near the floorline and the highest point of the roof. When vaporizer and/or mixing equipment is located in a structure or room attached to or within a building, such structure or room shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a wall designed to withstand a static pressure of at least one hundred pounds per square foot. This wall shall have no openings or pipes or conduit passing through it. Such structure or room shall be provided with adequate ventilation, and shall have a roof or at least one exterior wall of lightweight construction.
(vi) Vaporizers shall have at or near the discharge, a safety relief valve providing an effective rate of discharge in accordance with subsection (10)(d) of this section. The relief valve shall be so located as not to be subjected to temperatures in excess of 140°F.
(vii) Vaporizers shall be provided with suitable automatic means to prevent liquid passing from the vaporizer to the gas discharge piping of the vaporizer.
(viii) Vaporizers shall be provided with means for manually turning off the gas to the main burner and pilot.
(ix) Vaporizers shall be equipped with automatic safety devices to shut off the flow of gas to main burners if the pilot light should fail. When the flow through the pilot exceeds 2,000 B.T.U. per hour, the pilot also shall be equipped with an automatic safety device to shut off the flow of gas to the pilot should the pilot flame be extinguished.
(x) Pressure regulating and pressure reducing equipment if located within ten feet of a direct fired vaporizer shall be separated from the open flame by a substantially airtight noncombustible partition or partitions.
(xi) Except as provided in (c)(v) of this subsection, the following minimum distances shall be maintained between direct fired vaporizers and the nearest important building or group of buildings or line of adjoining property which may be built upon:
(A) Ten feet for vaporizers having a capacity of fifteen gallons per hour or less vaporizing capacity.
(B) Twenty-five feet for vaporizers having a vaporizing capacity of sixteen to one hundred gallons per hour.
(C) Fifty feet for vaporizers having a vaporizing capacity exceeding one hundred gallons per hour.
(xii) Direct fired vaporizers shall not raise the product pressure above the design pressure of the vaporizer equipment nor shall they raise the product pressure within the storage container above the pressure shown in the second column of Table H-31.(See WAC 296-24-47509.)
(xiii) Vaporizers shall not be provided with fusible plugs.
(xiv) Vaporizers shall not have unprotected drains to sewers or sump pits.
(d) Direct gas-fired tank heaters, shall be constructed and installed as follows:
(i) Direct gas-fired tank heaters, and tanks to which they are applied, shall only be installed above ground.
(ii) Tank heaters shall be permanently marked with the name of the manufacturer, the rated B.T.U. input to the burner, and the maximum vaporizing capacity in gallons per hour.
|Note:||Tank heaters may be an integral part of a fuel storage container directly connected to the container liquid section, or vapor section, or both.|
(iv) Tank heaters shall be equipped with an automatic safety device to shut off the flow of gas to main burners, if the pilot light should fail. When flow through pilot exceeds 2,000 B.T.U. per hour, the pilot also shall be equipped with an automatic safety device to shut off the flow of gas to the pilot should the pilot flame be extinguished.
(v) Pressure regulating and pressure reducing equipment if located within ten feet of a direct fired tank heater shall be separated from the open flame by a substantially airtight noncombustible partition.
(vi) The following minimum distances shall be maintained between a storage tank heated by a direct fired tank heater and the nearest important building or group of buildings or line of adjoining property which may be built upon:
(A) Ten feet for storage containers of less than five hundred gallons water capacity.
(B) Twenty-five feet for storage containers of five hundred to one thousand two hundred gallons water capacity.
(C) Fifty feet for storage containers of over one thousand two hundred gallons water capacity.
(vii) No direct fired tank heater shall raise the product pressure within the storage container over seventy-five percent of the pressure set out in the second column of Table H-31.(See WAC 296-24-47509.)
(e) The vaporizer section of vaporizer-burners used for dehydrators or dryers shall be located outside of buildings; they shall be constructed and installed as follows:
(i) Vaporizer-burners shall have a minimum design pressure of 250 p.s.i.g. with a factor of safety of five.
(ii) Manually operated positive shutoff valves shall be located at the containers to shut off all flow to the vaporizer-burners.
(iii) Minimum distances between storage containers and vaporizer-burners shall be as follows:
|Less than 501 . . . . . . . . . . . .||10|
|501 to 2,000 . . . . . . . . . . . .||25|
|Over 2,000 . . . . . . . . . . . .||50|
(v) Vaporizer-burners shall be provided with means for manually turning off the gas to the main burner and pilot.
(vi) Vaporizer-burners shall be equipped with automatic safety devices to shut off the flow of gas to the main burner and pilot in the event the pilot is extinguished.
(vii) Pressure regulating and control equipment shall be located or protected so that the temperatures surrounding this equipment shall not exceed 140°F except that equipment components may be used at higher temperatures if designed to withstand such temperatures.
(viii) Pressure regulating and control equipment when located downstream of the vaporizer shall be designed to withstand the maximum discharge temperature of the vapor.
(ix) The vaporizer section of vaporizer-burners shall not be provided with fusible plugs.
(x) Vaporizer coils or jackets shall be made of ferrous metal or high temperature alloys.
(xi) Equipment utilizing vaporizer-burners shall be equipped with automatic shutoff devices upstream and downstream of the vaporizer section connected so as to operate in the event of excessive temperature, flame failure, and, if applicable, insufficient airflow.
(12) Filling densities.
(a) The "filling density" is defined as the percent ratio of the weight of the gas in a
container to the weight of water the container will hold at 60°F. All containers shall be filled
according to the filling densities shown in Table H-27.
MAXIMUM PERMITTED FILLING DENSITY
(c) Portable containers not subject to DOT jurisdiction (such as, but not limited to, motor fuel containers on industrial and lift trucks, and farm tractors covered in subsection (5) of this section, or containers recharged at the installation) may be filled either by weight, or by volume using a fixed length dip tube gaging device.
(13) LP-gas in buildings.
(a) Vapor shall be piped into buildings at pressures in excess of 20 p.s.i.g. only if the buildings or separate areas thereof,
(i) Are constructed in accordance with this section;
(ii) Are used exclusively to house equipment for vaporization, pressure reduction, gas mixing, gas manufacturing, or distribution, or to house internal combustion engines, industrial processes, research and experimental laboratories, or equipment and processes using such gas and having similar hazard;
(iii) Buildings, structures, or equipment under construction or undergoing major renovation.
(b) Liquid may be permitted in buildings as follows:
(i) Buildings, or separate areas of buildings, used exclusively to house equipment for vaporization, pressure reduction, gas mixing, gas manufacturing, or distribution, or to house internal combustion engines, industrial processes, research and experimental laboratories, or equipment and processes using such gas and having similar hazard; and when such buildings, or separate areas thereof are constructed in accordance with this section.
(ii) Buildings, structures, or equipment under construction or undergoing major renovation provided the temporary piping meets the following conditions:
(A) Liquid piping inside the building shall conform to the requirements of subsection (8) of this section, and shall not exceed three-fourths iron pipe size. Copper tubing with an outside diameter of three-fourths inch or less may be used provided it conforms to Type K of Specifications for Seamless Water Tube, ANSI H23.1-1970 (ASTM B88-1969) (see WAC 296-24-47505 Table H-24). All such piping shall be protected against construction hazards. Liquid piping inside buildings shall be kept to a minimum. Such piping shall be securely fastened to walls or other surfaces so as to provide adequate protection from breakage and so located as to subject the liquid line to lowest ambient temperatures.
(B) A shutoff valve shall be installed in each intermediate branch line where it takes off the main line and shall be readily accessible. A shutoff valve shall also be placed at the appliance end of the intermediate branch line. Such shutoff valve shall be upstream of any flexible connector used with the appliance.
(C) Suitable excess flow valves shall be installed in the container outlet line supplying liquid LP-gas to the building. A suitable excess flow valve shall be installed immediately downstream of each shutoff valve. Suitable excess flow valves shall be installed where piping size is reduced and shall be sized for the reduced size piping.
(D) Hydrostatic relief valves shall be installed in accordance with subsection (10)(m) of this section.
(E) The use of hose to carry liquid between the container and the building or at any point in the liquid line, except at the appliance connector, shall be prohibited.
(F) Where flexible connectors are necessary for appliance installation, such connectors shall be as short as practicable and shall comply with subsection (8)(b) or (9) of this section.
(G) Release of fuel when any section of piping or appliances is disconnected shall be minimized by either of the following methods:
(I) Using an approved automatic quick-closing coupling (a type closing in both directions when coupled in the fuel line), or
(II) Closing the valve nearest to the appliance and allowing the appliance to operate until the fuel in the line is consumed.
(III) Portable containers shall not be taken into buildings except as provided in subsection (6)(a) of this section.
(14) Transfer of liquids. The employer shall assure that:
(a) At least one attendant shall remain close to the transfer connection from the time the connections are first made until they are finally disconnected, during the transfer of the product.
(b) Containers shall be filled or used only upon authorization of the owner.
(c) Containers manufactured in accordance with specifications of 49 CFR Part 178 and authorized by 49 CFR Chapter 1 as a "single trip" or "nonrefillable container" shall not be refilled or reused in LP-gas service.
(d) Gas or liquid shall not be vented to the atmosphere to assist in transferring contents of one container to another, except as provided in WAC 296-24-47511 (5)(d) and except that this shall not preclude the use of listed pump utilizing LP-gas in the vapor phase as a source of energy and venting such gas to the atmosphere at a rate not to exceed that from a No. 31 drill size opening and provided that such venting and liquid transfer shall be located not less than fifty feet from the nearest important building.
(e) Filling of fuel containers for industrial trucks or motor vehicles from industrial bulk storage containers shall be performed not less than ten feet from the nearest important masonry-walled building or not less than twenty-five feet from the nearest important building or other construction and, in any event, not less than twenty-five feet from any building opening.
(f) Filling of portable containers, containers mounted on skids, fuel containers on farm tractors, or similar applications, from storage containers used in domestic or commercial service, shall be performed not less than fifty feet from the nearest important building.
(g) The filling connection and the vent from the liquid level gages in containers, filled at point of installation, shall not be less than ten feet in any direction from air openings into sealed combustion system appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
(h) Fuel supply containers shall be gaged and charged only in the open air or in buildings especially provided for that purpose.
(i) The maximum vapor pressure of the product at 100°F which may be transferred into a container shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-47509(2) and 296-24-47511(3). (For DOT containers use DOT requirements.)
(j) Marketers and users shall exercise precaution to assure that only those gases for which the system is designed, examined, and listed, are employed in its operation, particularly with regard to pressures.
(k) Pumps or compressors shall be designed for use with LP-gas. When compressors are used they shall normally take suction from the vapor space of the container being filled and discharge to the vapor space of the container being emptied.
(l) Pumping systems, when equipped with a positive displacement pump, shall include a recirculating device which shall limit the differential pressure on the pump under normal operating conditions to the maximum differential pressure rating of the pump. The discharge of the pumping system shall be protected so that pressure does not exceed 350 p.s.i.g. If a recirculation system discharges into the supply tank and contains a manual shutoff valve, an adequate secondary safety recirculation system shall be incorporated which shall have no means of rendering it inoperative. Manual shutoff valves in recirculation systems shall be kept open except during an emergency or when repairs are being made to the system.
(m) When necessary, unloading piping or hoses shall be provided with suitable bleeder valves for relieving pressure before disconnection.
(n) Agricultural air moving equipment, including crop dryers, shall be shut down when supply containers are being filled unless the air intakes and sources of ignition on the equipment are located fifty feet or more from the container.
(o) Agricultural equipment employing open flames or equipment with integral containers, such as flame cultivators, weed burners, and, in addition, tractors, shall be shut down during refueling.
(15) Tank car or transport truck loading or unloading points and operations.
(a) The track of tank car siding shall be relatively level.
(b) A "tank car connected" sign, as covered by DOT rules, shall be installed at the active end or ends of the siding while the tank car is connected.
(c) While cars are on side track for loading or unloading, the wheels at both ends shall be blocked on the rails.
(d) The employer shall insure that an employee is in attendance at all times while the tank car, cars, or trucks are being loaded or unloaded.
(e) A backflow check valve, excess-flow valve, or a shutoff valve with means of remote closing, to protect against uncontrolled discharge of LP-gas from storage tank piping shall be installed close to the point where the liquid piping and hose or swing joint pipe is connected.
Except as provided in (g) of this subsection, when the size (diameter) of the loading
or unloading hoses and/or piping is reduced below the size of the tank car or transport truck
loading or unloading connections, the adaptors to which lines are attached shall be equipped with
either a backflow check valve, a properly sized excess flow valve, or shutoff valve with means
of remote closing, to protect against uncontrolled discharge from the tank car or transport truck.
(g) The requirement of (f) of this subsection shall not apply if the tank car or transport is equipped with a quick-closing internal valve that can be remotely closed.
(h) The tank car or transport truck loading or unloading point shall be located with due consideration to the following:
(i) Proximity to railroads and highway traffic.
(ii) The distance of such unloading or loading point from adjacent property.
(iii) With respect to buildings on installer's property.
(iv) Nature of occupancy.
(vi) Type of construction of buildings.
(vii) Number of tank cars or transport trucks that may be safely loaded or unloaded at one time.
(viii) Frequency of loading or unloading.
(i))) Where practical, the distance of the unloading or loading point shall conform to the distances in subsection (6)(b) of this section.
(16) Instructions. Personnel performing installation, removal, operation, and maintenance work shall be properly trained in such function.
(17) Electrical equipment and other sources of ignition.
(a) Electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L, for ordinary locations except that fixed electrical equipment in classified areas shall comply with subsection (18) of this section.
(b) Open flames or other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in vaporizer rooms (except those housing direct-fired vaporizers), pumphouses, container charging rooms or other similar locations. Direct-fired vaporizers shall not be permitted in pumphouses or container charging rooms.
|Note:||Liquefied petroleum gas storage containers do not require lightning protection. Since liquefied petroleum gas is contained in a closed system of piping and equipment, the system need not be electrically conductive or electrically bonded for protection against static electricity (see NFPA No. 77-1972-1973, Recommended Practice for Static Electricity).|
(18) Fixed electrical equipment in classified areas. Fixed electrical equipment and wiring installed within classified areas shall comply with Table H-28 of this section and shall be installed according to chapter 296-24 WAC Part L. This provision does not apply to fixed electrical equipment at residential or commercial installations of LP-gas systems or to systems covered by WAC 296-24-47511 or 296-24-47515.
(19) Liquid-level gaging device.
(a) Each container manufactured after December 31, 1965, and filled on a volumetric basis shall be equipped with a fixed liquid-level gage to indicate the maximum permitted filling level as provided in (e) of this subsection. Each container manufactured after December 31, 1969, shall have permanently attached to the container adjacent to the fixed level gage a marking showing the percentage full that will be shown by that gage. When a variable liquid-level gage is also provided, the fixed liquid-level gage will also serve as a means for checking the variable gage. These gages shall be used in charging containers as required in subsection (12) of this section.
(b) All variable gaging devices shall be arranged so that the maximum liquid level for butane, for a fifty-fifty mixture of butane and propane, and for propane, to which the container may be charged is readily determinable. The markings indicating the various liquid levels from empty to full shall be on the system nameplate or gaging device or part may be on the system nameplate and part on the gaging device. Dials of magnetic or rotary gages shall show whether they are for cylindrical or spherical containers and whether for aboveground or underground service. The dials of gages intended for use only on aboveground containers of over one thousand two hundred gallons water capacity shall be so marked.
(c) Gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere, such as the rotary tube, fixed tube, and slip tube, shall be designed so that the bleed valve maximum opening is not larger than a No. 54 drill size, unless provided with excess flow valve.
(d) Gaging devices shall have a design working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g.
(e) Length of tube or position of fixed liquid-level gage shall be designed to indicate the
maximum level to which the container may be filled for the product contained. This level shall
be based on the volume of the product at 40°F at its maximum permitted filling density for
aboveground containers and at 50°F for underground containers. The employer shall calculate
the filling point for which the fixed liquid level gage shall be designed according to the method
in this subsection.
be suitable for
|A||Storage containers other than DOT cylinders.||Within 15 feet in all directions from connections, except connections otherwise covered in Table H-28.||Division 2.|
|B||Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading.3||Within 5 feet in all directions from connections regularly made or disconnected for product transfer.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 feet but within 15 feet in all directions from a point where connections are regularly made or disconnected and within the cylindrical volume between the horizontal equator of the sphere and grade. (See Figure H-1.)||Division 2.|
|C||Gage vent openings other than those on DOT cylinders.||Within 5 feet in all directions from point of discharge.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 feet but within 15 feet in all directions from point of discharge.||Division 2.|
|D||Relief valve discharge other than those on DOT cylinders.||Within direct path of discharge.||Division 1.|
NOTE--Fixed electrical equipment should preferably not be installed.
|Within 5 feet in all directions from point of discharge.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 feet but within 15 feet in all directions from point of discharge except within the direct path of discharge.||Division 2.|
|E||Pumps, compressors, gas-air mixers and vaporizers other than direct fired.|
|Indoors without ventilation|
Entire room and any adjacent room not separated by a gastight partition.
|Within 15 feet of
the exterior side of
any exterior wall or
roof that is not
or within 15 feet of any exterior opening.
|Entire room and any adjacent room not separated by a gastight partition.||Division 2.|
|Outdoors in open air at or abovegrade.||Within 15 feet in all
directions from this
between the horizontal equator of the sphere and grade. See Figure H-1.
|F||Service station dispensing units.||Entire space within dispenser enclosure, and 18 inches horizontally from enclosure exterior up to an elevation 4 ft. above dispenser base. Entire pit or open space beneath dispenser.||Division 1.|
|Up to 18 inches abovegrade within 20 ft. horizontally from any edge of enclosure.||Division 2.|
|NOTE: For pits within this area, see Part F of this table.|
|G||Pits or trenches containing or located beneath LP-gas valves, pumps, compressors, regulators, and similar equipment.|
|Without mechanical ventilation.||Entire pit or trench||Division 1.|
|Entire room and any adjacent room not separated by a gastight partition.||Division 2.|
|Within 15 feet in all directions from pit or trench when located outdoors.||Division 2.|
|With adequate mechanical ventilation.||Entire pit or trench||Division 2|
|Entire room and any adjacent room not separated by a gastight partition.||Division 2.|
|Within 15 feet in all directions from pit or trench when located outdoors.||Division 2.|
|H||Special buildings or rooms for storage of portable containers.||Entire room||Division 2.|
|I||Pipelines and connections containing operational bleeds, drips, vents or drains.||Within 5 ft. in all directions from point of discharge.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 ft. from point of discharge, same as Part E of this table.|
|J||Container filling: Indoors without ventilation.|
|Indoors with adequate ventilation.4||Within 5 feet in all directions from connections regularly made or disconnected for product transfer.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 feet and entire room||Division 2.|
|Outdoors in open air||Within 5 feet in all directions from connections regularly made or disconnected for product transfer.||Division 1.|
|Beyond 5 feet but
within 15 feet in all
directions from a
regularly made or disconnected and within the cylindrical volume between the
of the sphere and
grade (See Fig.
1The classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or solid vaportight partition.
2See chapter 296-46 WAC, and chapter 296-24 WAC Part L.
3When classifying extent of hazardous area, consideration shall be given to possible variations in the spotting of tank cars and tank vehicles at the unloading points and the effect these variations of actual spotting point may have on the point of connection.
4Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, is considered adequate when the concentration of the gas in a gas-air mixture does not exceed twenty-five percent of the lower flammable limit under normal operating conditions.
|Place illustration here.|
|Note:||It is impossible to set out in a table the length of a fixed dip tube for various capacity tanks because of the varying tank diameters and lengths and because the tank may be installed either in a vertical or horizontal position. Knowing the maximum permitted filling volume in gallons, however, the length of the fixed tube can be determined by the use of a strapping table obtained from the container manufacturer. The length of the fixed tube should be such that when its lower end touches the surface of the liquid in the container, the contents of the container will be the maximum permitted volume as determined by the following formula:|
|Water capacity (gals.) of
container* x filling
Specific gravity of
LP-gas* x volume
correction factor*** x 100
|*||Measure at 60°F.|
|**||From subsection (12)(a) of this section "filling densities."|
|***||For aboveground containers the liquid temperature is assumed to be 40°F and for underground containers the liquid temperature is assumed to be 50°F. To correct the liquid volumes at these temperatures to 60°F the following factors shall be used.|
VOLUME CORRECTION FACTORS
(iii) The maximum weight of LP-gas which may be placed in a container for determining the length of a fixed dip tube is determined by multiplying the maximum volume of liquefied petroleum gas obtained by the formula in (e)(i) of this subsection by the pounds of liquefied petroleum gas in a gallon at 40°F for aboveground and at 50°F for underground containers. For example, typical pounds per gallon are specified below:
Example: Assume a one hundred-gallon total water capacity tank for aboveground storage of propane having a specific gravity of 0.510 of 60°F.
|100 (gals.) x 42 (filling density
from (12)(a) of this subsection)|
0.510 x 1.031 (correction factor from Table H-29) x 100
|79.8 gallons propane, the maximum|
amount permitted to be placed in
a 100-gallon total water capacity
aboveground container equipped
with a fixed dip tube.
|Maximum volume of|
LP-gas (from formula
in (e)(i) of
this subsection) x 100
Total water content
of container in
|Propane . . . . . . . . . . . .||4.37||4.31|
|N Butane . . . . . . . . . . . .||4.97||4.92|
(g) Gage glasses of the columnar type shall be restricted to charging plants where the fuel is withdrawn in the liquid phase only. They shall be equipped with valves having metallic handwheels, with excess flow valves, and with extra-heavy glass adequately protected with a metal housing applied by the gage manufacturer. They shall be shielded against the direct rays of the sun. Gage glasses of the columnar type are prohibited on tank trucks, and on motor fuel tanks, and on containers used in domestic, commercial, and industrial installations.
(h) Gaging devices of the float, or equivalent type which do not require flow for their operation and having connections extending to a point outside the container do not have to be equipped with excess flow valves provided the piping and fittings are adequately designed to withstand the container pressure and are properly protected against physical damage and breakage.
(20) Requirements for appliances.
(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, new commercial and industrial gas consuming appliances shall be approved.
(b) Any appliance that was originally manufactured for operation with a gaseous fuel other than LP-gas and is in good condition may be used with LP-gas only after it is properly converted, adapted, and tested for performance with LP-gas before the appliance is placed in use.
(c) Unattended heaters used inside buildings for the purpose of animal or poultry production or care shall be equipped with an approved automatic device designed to shut off the flow of gas to the main burners, and pilot if used, in the event of flame extinguishment.
(d) All commercial, industrial, and agricultural appliances or equipment shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of these standards and in accordance with the following:
(i) Domestic and commercial appliances--NFPA 54-1969, Standard for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping.
(ii) Industrial appliances--NFPA 54A-1969, Standard for the Installation of Gas Piping and Gas Equipment on Industrial Premises and Certain Other Premises.
(iii) Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines--NFPA 37-1970.
(iv) Standard for the Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease-Laden Vapors from Commercial Cooking Equipment, NFPA 96-1970.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-24-47505, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-24-47505, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-24-47505, filed 4/19/85; Order 76-6, § 296-24-47505, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, § 296-24-47505, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-47505, filed 5/7/73.]
(1) Application. This section applies specifically to systems utilizing containers constructed in accordance with DOT specifications. All requirements of WAC 296-24-47505 apply to this section unless otherwise noted in WAC 296-24-47505.
(2) Marking of containers. ((
(a))) Containers shall be marked in accordance with DOT
regulations. Additional markings not in conflict with DOT regulations may be used.
(b) Except as provided in (c) of this subsection each container shall be marked with its
water capacity in pounds or other identified unit of weight.
(c) If a container is filled and maintained only by the owner or the owners representative and if the water capacity of each container is identified by a code, compliance with (b) of this subsection is not required.
(d) Each container shall be marked with its tare weight in pounds or other identified unit of weight including all permanently attached fittings but not the cap.))
(3) Description of a system. A system shall include the container base or bracket, containers, container valves, connectors, manifold valve assembly, regulators, and relief valves.
(4) Containers and regulating equipment installed outside of buildings or structures.
(a) Containers shall not be buried below ground. However, this shall not prohibit the installation in a compartment or recess below grade level, such as a niche in a slope or terrace wall which is used for no other purpose, providing that the container and regulating equipment are not in contact with the ground and the compartment or recess is drained and ventilated horizontally to the outside air from its lowest level, with the outlet at least three feet away from any building opening which is below the level of such outlet.
Except as provided in WAC 296-24-47505 (10)(n), the discharge from safety relief devices shall be located not less than three feet horizontally away from any building opening which is below the level of such discharge and shall not terminate beneath any building unless such space is well ventilated to the outside and is not enclosed on more than two sides.
(b) Containers shall be set upon firm foundation or otherwise firmly secured; the possible effect on the outlet piping of settling shall be guarded against by a flexible connection or special fitting.
(5) Containers and equipment used inside of buildings or structures.
(a) When operational requirements make portable use of containers necessary and their location outside of buildings or structures is impracticable, containers and equipment are permitted to be used inside of buildings or structures in accordance with (a)(i) through (xii) of this subsection, and, in addition, such other provisions of this section as are applicable to the particular use or occupancy.
(i) Containers in use shall mean connected for use.
(ii) Systems utilizing containers having a water capacity greater than two and one-half pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) shall be equipped with excess flow valves. Such excess flow valves shall be either integral with the container valves or in the connections to the container valve outlets. In either case, an excess flow valve shall be installed in such a manner that any undue strain beyond the excess flow valve will not cause breakage between the container and the excess flow valve. The installation of excess flow valves shall take into account the type of valve protection provided.
(iii) Regulators, if used, shall be either directly connected to the container valves or to manifolds connected to the container valves. The regulator shall be suitable for use with LP-gas. Manifolds and fittings connecting containers to pressure regulator inlets shall be designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. service pressure.
(iv) Valves on containers having a water capacity greater than fifty pounds (nominal twenty pounds LP-gas capacity) shall be protected while in use.
(v) Containers shall be marked in accordance with WAC 296-24-47505 (5)(c) and subsection (2) of this section.
(vi) Pipe or tubing shall conform to WAC 296-24-47505(8) except that aluminum pipe or tubing shall not be used.
(vii) Hose shall be designed for a working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. Hose and hose connections shall have their correctness as to design, construction and performance determined by listing by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(A) The hose length may exceed the length specified in WAC 296-24-47505 (9)(g)(ii), but shall be as short as practicable. Refer to federal regulation 29 CFR 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(B) Hose shall be long enough to permit compliance with spacing provisions of this section without kinking or straining or causing hose to be so close to a burner as to be damaged by heat.
(viii) Portable heaters, including salamanders, shall be equipped with an approved automatic device to shut off the flow of gas to the main burner, and pilot if used, in the event of flame extinguishment. Such heaters having inputs above 50,000 B.t.u. manufactured on or after May 17, 1967, and such heaters having inputs above 100,000 B.t.u. manufactured before May 17, 1967, shall be equipped with either:
(A) A pilot which must be lighted and proved before the main burner can be turned on; or
(B) An electric ignition system. The provisions of (a)(viii) of this subsection do not apply to tar kettle burners, torches, melting pots, nor do they apply to portable heaters under 7,500 B.t.u.h. input when used with containers having a maximum water capacity of two and one-half pounds. Container valves, connectors, regulators, manifolds, piping, and tubing shall not be used as structural supports for heaters.
(ix) Containers, regulating equipment, manifolds, pipe, tubing, and hose shall be located so as to minimize exposure to abnormally high temperatures (such as may result from exposure to convection or radiation from heating equipment or installation in confined spaces), physical damage, or tampering by unauthorized persons.
(x) Heat producing equipment shall be located and used so as to minimize the possibility of ignition of combustibles.
(xi) Containers having water capacity greater than two and one-half pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) connected for use, shall stand on a firm and substantially level surface and, when necessary, shall be secured in an upright position.
(xii) Containers, including the valve protective devices, shall be installed so as to minimize the probability of impingement of discharge of safety relief devices upon containers.
(b) Containers having a maximum water capacity of two and one-half pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) are permitted to be used inside of buildings as part of approved self-contained hand torch assemblies or similar appliances.
(c) Containers having a maximum water capacity of twelve pounds (nominal five pounds LP-gas capacity) are permitted to be used temporarily inside of buildings for public exhibition or demonstration purposes, including use for classroom demonstrations.
(d) When buildings frequented by the public are open to the public, containers are permitted to be used for repair or minor renovation as follows:
(i) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be fifty pounds (nominal twenty pounds LP-gas capacity).
(ii) The number of LP-gas containers shall not exceed the number of workers assigned to using the LP-gas.
(iii) Containers having a water capacity of greater than two and one-half pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity[)] shall not be left unattended in such buildings.
(e) When buildings frequented by the public are not open to the public, containers are permitted to be used for repair or minor renovations, as follows:
The provisions of (f) of this subsection shall apply except that containers having a water capacity greater than two and one-half pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) shall not be left unattended in such buildings.
(f) Containers are permitted to be used in buildings or structures under construction or undergoing major renovation when such buildings or structures are not occupied by the public, as follows:
(i) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be two hundred forty-five pounds (nominal one hundred pounds LP-gas capacity).
(ii) For temporary heating such as curing concrete, drying plaster and similar applications, heaters (other than integral heater-container units) shall be located at least six feet from any LP-gas container. This shall not prohibit the use of heaters specifically designed for attachment to the container or to a supporting standard, provided they are designed and installed so as to prevent direct or radiant heat application from the heater onto the container. Blower and radiant type heater shall not be directed toward any LP-gas container within twenty feet.
(iii) If two or more heater-container units, of either the integral or nonintegral type, are located in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, the container or containers of each unit shall be separated from the container or containers of any other unit by at least twenty feet.
(iv) When heaters are connected to containers for use in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, the total water capacity of containers manifolded together for connection to a heater or heaters shall not be greater than seven hundred thirty-five pounds (nominal three hundred pounds LP-gas capacity). Such manifolds shall be separated by at least twenty feet.
(v) On floors on which heaters are not connected for use, containers are permitted to be manifolded together for connection to a heater or heaters on another floor, provided:
(A) The total water capacity of containers connected to any one manifold is not greater than two thousand four hundred fifty pounds (nominal one thousand pounds LP-gas capacity) and;
(B) Where more than one manifold having a total water capacity greater than seven hundred thirty-five pounds (nominal three hundred pounds LP-gas capacity) are located in the same unpartitioned area, they shall be separated by at least fifty feet.
(vi) Storage of containers awaiting use shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-47513.
(g) Containers are permitted to be used in industrial occupancies for processing, research, or experimental purposes as follows:
(i) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be two hundred forty-five pounds (nominal one hundred pounds LP-gas capacity).
(ii) Containers connected to a manifold shall have a total water capacity not greater than seven hundred thirty-five pounds (nominal three hundred pounds LP-gas capacity) and not more than one such manifold may be located in the same room unless separated at least twenty feet from a similar unit.
(iii) The amount of LP-gas in containers for research and experimental use shall be limited to the smallest practical quantity.
(h) Containers are permitted to be used in industrial occupancies with essentially noncombustible contents where portable equipment for space heating is essential and where a permanent heating installation is not practical, as follows: Containers and heaters shall comply with and be used in accordance with (f) of this subsection.
(i) Containers are permitted to be used in buildings for temporary emergency heating purposes, if necessary to prevent damage to the buildings or contents, when the permanent heating system is temporarily out of service, as follows:
(i) Containers and heaters shall comply with and be used in accordance with (f) of this subsection.
(ii) The temporary heating equipment shall not be left unattended.
(j) Containers are permitted to be used temporarily in buildings for training purposes related in installation and use of LP-gas systems, as follows:
(i) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be two hundred forty-five pounds (nominal one hundred pounds LP-gas capacity), but the maximum quantity of LP-gas that may be placed in each container shall be twenty pounds.
(ii) If more than one such container is located in the same room, the containers shall be separated by at least twenty feet.
(iii) Containers shall be removed from the building when the training class has terminated.
(6) Container valves and accessories.
(a) Valves in the assembly of multiple container systems shall be arranged so that replacement of containers can be made without shutting off the flow of gas in the system.
|Note:||This provision is not to be construed as requiring an automatic changeover device.|
(c) Valves and connections to the containers shall be protected while in transit, in storage, and while being moved into final utilization, as follows:
(i) By setting into the recess of the container to prevent the possibility of their being struck if the container is dropped upon a flat surface, or
(ii) By ventilated cap or collar, fastened to the container capable of withstanding a blow from any direction equivalent to that of a thirty-pound weight dropped four feet. Construction must be such that a blow will not be transmitted to the valve or other connection.
(d) When containers are not connected to the system, the outlet valves shall be kept tightly closed or plugged, even though containers are considered empty.
(e) Containers having a water capacity in excess of fifty pounds (approximately twenty-one pounds LP-gas capacity), recharged at the installation, shall be provided with excess flow or backflow check valves to prevent the discharge of container contents in case of failure of the filling or equalizing connection.
(7) Safety devices.
(a) Containers shall be provided with safety devices as required by DOT regulations.
(b) A final stage regulator of an LP-gas system (excluding any appliance regulator) shall
be equipped on the low-pressure side with a relief valve which is set to start to discharge within
the limits specified in Table H-30.
|Regulatory delivery pressure|
Relief valve start
1 p.s.i.g. or less
|Above 1 p.s.i.g. but not|
|over 3 p.s.i.g. ||140||200|
|Above 3 p.s.i.g. ||125||200|
(8) Reinstallation of containers. Containers shall not be reinstalled unless they are requalified in accordance with DOT regulations.
Permissible product. A product shall not be placed in a container marked with a service pressure less than four-fifths of the maximum vapor pressure of product at 130°F.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-47507, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-24-47507, filed 11/14/88; Order 73-5, § 296-24-47507, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-47507, filed 5/7/73.]
(a) This section applies to internal combustion engines, fuel containers, and pertinent equipment for the use of liquefied petroleum gases as a motor fuel on easily movable, readily portable units including self-propelled vehicles.
(b) Fuel containers and pertinent equipment for internal combustion engines using liquefied petroleum gas where installation is of the stationary type are covered by WAC 296-24-47509. This section does not apply to containers for transportation of liquefied petroleum gases nor to marine fuel use. All requirements of WAC 296-24-47505 apply to this section, unless otherwise noted in WAC 296-24-47505.
(a) Fuel may be used from the cargo tank of a truck while in transit, but not from cargo tanks on trailers or semitrailers. The use of fuel from the cargo tanks to operate stationary engines is permitted providing wheels are securely blocked.
(b) Passenger-carrying vehicles shall not be fueled while passengers are on board.
(c) Industrial trucks (including lift trucks) equipped with permanently mounted fuel containers shall be charged outdoors. Charging equipment shall comply with the provisions of WAC 296-24-47517.
(d) LP-gas fueled industrial trucks shall comply with the Standard for Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks, NFPA 505-1969.
(e) Engines on vehicles shall be shut down while fueling if the fueling operation involves venting to the atmosphere.
(3) Design pressure and classification of fuel containers.
(a) Except as covered in (3)(b) and (c) of this section, containers shall be in accordance with Table H-32.
(b) Fuel containers for use in industrial trucks (including lift trucks) shall be either DOT containers authorized for LP-gas service having a minimum service pressure of 240 p.s.i.g or minimum Container Type 250. Under 1950 and later ASME Codes, this means a 312.5-p.s.i.g design pressure container.
Minimum design pressure
of container lb. per sq.
For gases with vapor press. Not to exceed lb. per sq. in. gage at 100°F. (37.8°C.)
1949 and earlier editions of ASME Code (Par. U-68, U-69)
1949 edition of ASME Code (Par. U-200, 1U-201); 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division I) editions of ASME Code; All editions of API-ASME Code2
|1 Container type may be increased by increments of 25. The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 100% of the container type designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the ASME Code (Par. U-68 and U-69). The minimum design pressure of containers shall be 125% of the container type designation when constructed under: (1) The 1949 ASME Code (Par. U-200 and U-201), (2) 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division I) editions of the ASME Code, and (3) all editions of the API-ASME Code.|
|2 Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is not authorized after July 1, 1961.|
(d) All container inlets and outlets except safety relief valves and gaging devices shall be labeled to designate whether they communicate with vapor or liquid space. (Labels may be on valves.)
(4) Installation of fuel containers.
(a) Containers shall be located in a place and in a manner to minimize the possibility of damage to the container. Containers located in the rear of trucks and buses, when protected by substantial bumpers, will be considered in conformance with this requirement. Fuel containers on passenger-carrying vehicles shall be installed as far from the engine as is practicable, and the passenger space and any space containing radio equipment shall be sealed from the container space to prevent direct seepage of gas to these spaces. The container compartment shall be vented to the outside. In case the fuel container is mounted near the engine or the exhaust system, the container shall be shielded against direct heat radiation.
(b) Containers shall be installed with as much clearance as practicable but never less than the minimum road clearance of the vehicle under maximum spring deflection. This minimum clearance shall be to the bottom of the container or to the lowest fitting on the container or housing, whichever is lower.
(c) Permanent and removable fuel containers shall be securely mounted to prevent jarring loose, slipping, or rotating, and the fastenings shall be designed and constructed to withstand static loading in any direction equal to twice the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with fuel using a safety factor of not less than four based on the ultimate strength of the material to be used. Field welding, when necessary, shall be made only on saddle plates, lugs or brackets, originally attached to the container by the tank manufacturer.
(d) Fuel containers on buses shall be permanently installed.
(e) Containers from which vapor only is to be withdrawn shall be installed and equipped with suitable connections to minimize the accidental withdrawal of liquid.
(5) Valves and accessories.
(a) Container valves and accessories shall have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g., and shall be of a type suitable for liquefied petroleum gas service.
(b) The filling connection shall be fitted with an approved double back-pressure check valve, or a positive shutoff in conjunction with an internal back-pressure check valve. On a removable container the filler valve may be a hand operated shutoff valve with an internal excess flow valve. Main shutoff valves on the container on liquid and vapor must be readily accessible.
(c) With the exceptions of (5)(d)(iii) of this section, filling connections equipped with approved automatic back-pressure check valves, and safety relief valves, all connections to the containers having openings for the flow of gas in excess of a No. 54 drill size shall be equipped with approved automatic excess flow valves to prevent discharge of content in case connections are broken.
(d) Liquid-level gaging devices:
(i) Variable liquid-level gages which require the venting of fuel to the atmosphere shall not be used on fuel containers of industrial trucks (including lift trucks).
(ii) On portable containers that may be filled in the vertical and/or horizontal position, the fixed liquid-level gage shall indicate maximum permitted filling level for both vertical and horizontal filling with the container oriented to place the safety relief valve in communication with the vapor space.
(iii) In the case of containers used solely in farm tractor service and charged at a point at least 50 feet from any important building, the fixed liquid-level gaging device may be so constructed that the outward flow of container content exceeds that passed by a No. 54 drill size opening, but in no case shall the flow exceed that passed by a No. 31 drill-size opening. An excess flow valve is not required. Fittings equipped with such restricted drill size opening and container on which they are used shall be marked to indicate the size of the opening.
(iv) All valves and connections on containers shall be adequately protected to prevent damage due to accidental contact with stationary objects or from loose objects thrown up from the road, and all valves shall be safeguarded against damage due to collision, overturning or other accident. For farm tractors where parts of the vehicle provide such protection to valves and fittings, the foregoing requirements shall be considered fulfilled. However, on removable type containers the protection for the fittings shall be permanently attached to the container.
(v) (Exchange of removable fuel containers preferably should be done outdoors but may be done indoors.) When removable fuel containers are used, means shall be provided in the fuel system to minimize the escape of fuel when the containers are exchanged. This shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:
(A) Using an approved automatic quick-closing coupling (a type closing in both directions when uncoupled) in the fuel line, or
(B) Closing the valve at the fuel container and allowing the engine to run until the fuel in the line is consumed.
(6) Piping--Including pipe, tubing, and fittings.
(a) Pipe from fuel container to first-stage regulator shall be not less than schedule 80 wrought iron or steel (black or galvanized), brass or copper; or seamless copper, brass, or steel tubing. Steel tubing shall have a minimum wall thickness of 0.049 inch. Steel pipe or tubing shall be adequately protected against exterior corrosion. Copper tubing shall be types K or L or equivalent having a minimum wall thickness of 0.032 inch. Approved flexible connections may be used between container and regulator or between regulator and gas-air mixer within the limits of approval. The use of aluminum pipe or tubing is prohibited. In the case of removable containers an approved flexible connection shall be used between the container and the fuel line.
(b) All piping shall be installed, braced, and supported so as to reduce to a minimum the possibility of vibration strains or wear.
(7) Safety devices.
(a) Spring-loaded internal type safety relief valves shall be used on all motor fuel containers.
(b) The discharge outlet from safety relief valves shall be located on the outside of enclosed spaces and as far as practicable from possible sources of ignition, and vented upward within 45 degrees of the vertical in such a manner as to prevent impingement of escaping gas upon containers, or parts of vehicles, or on vehicles in adjacent lines of traffic. A rain cap or other protector shall be used to keep water and dirt from collecting in the valve.
(c) When a discharge line from the container safety relief valve is used, the line shall be metallic, other than aluminum, and shall be sized, located, and maintained so as not to restrict the required flow of gas from the safety relief valve. Such discharge line shall be able to withstand the pressure resulting from the discharge of vapor when the safety relief valve is in the full open position. When flexibility is necessary, flexible metal hose or tubing shall be used.
(d) Portable containers equipped for volumetric filling may be filled in either the vertical or horizontal position only when oriented to place the safety relief valve in communication with the vapor space.
(e) WAC 296-24-47505 (10)(1) for hydrostatic relief valves shall apply.
(a) Vaporizers and any part thereof and other devices that may be subjected to container pressure shall have a design pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g.
(b) Each vaporizer shall have a valve or suitable plug which will permit substantially complete draining of the vaporizer. It shall be located at or near the lowest portion of the section occupied by the water or other heating medium.
(c) Vaporizers shall be securely fastened so as to minimize the possibility of becoming loosened.
(d) Each vaporizer shall be permanently marked at a visible point as follows:
(i) With the design pressure of the fuel-containing portion in p.s.i.g.
(ii) With the water capacity of the fuel-containing portion of the vaporizer in pounds.
(e) Devices to supply heat directly to a fuel container shall be equipped with an automatic device to cut off the supply of heat before the pressure inside the fuel container reaches 80 percent of the start to discharge pressure setting of the safety relief device on the fuel container.
(f) Engine exhaust gases may be used as a direct source of heat supply for the vaporization of fuel if the materials of construction of those parts of the vaporizer in contact with exhaust gases are resistant to the corrosive action of exhaust gases and the vaporizer system is designed to prevent excessive pressures.
(g) Vaporizers shall not be equipped with fusible plugs.
(9) Gas regulating and mixing equipment.
(a) Approved automatic pressure reducing equipment shall be installed in a secure manner between the fuel supply container and gas-air mixer for the purpose of reducing the pressure of the fuel delivered to the gas-air mixer.
(b) An approved automatic shutoff valve shall be provided in the fuel system at some point ahead of the inlet of the gas-air mixer, designed to prevent flow of fuel to the mixer when the ignition is off and the engine is not running. In the case of industrial trucks and engines operating in buildings other than those used exclusively to house engines, the automatic shutoff valve shall be designed to operate if the engine should stop. Atmospheric type regulators (zero governors) shall be considered adequate as an automatic shutoff valve only in cases of outdoor operation such as farm tractors, construction equipment, irrigation pump engines, and other outdoor stationary engine installations.
(c) The source of the air for combustion shall be completely isolated from the passenger compartment, ventilating system, or air-conditioning system.
Capacity of containers. No single fuel container used on passenger carrying
vehicles shall exceed 200 gallons water capacity. No single fuel container on other vehicles
normally operating on the highway shall exceed 300 gallons water capacity except as provided
in (2)(a) of this section.
(11))) Stationary engines in buildings. Stationary engines and gas turbines installed in buildings, including portable engines used instead of or to supplement stationary engines, shall comply with the Standard for the Institution and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA 37-1970, and the appropriate provisions of WAC 296-24-47505 through 296-24-47509.
(12))) (11) Portable engines in buildings.
(a) Portable engines may be used in buildings only for emergency use, except as provided by (11) of this section.
(b) Exhaust gases shall be discharged to outside the building or to an area where they will not constitute a hazard.
(c) Provision shall be made to supply sufficient air for combustion and cooling.
(d) An approved automatic shutoff valve shall be provided in the fuel system ahead of the engine, designed to prevent flow of fuel to the engine when the ignition is off or if the engine should stop.
(e) The capacity of LP-gas containers used with such engines shall comply with the applicable occupancy provision of WAC 296-24-47507(5).
(13))) (12) Industrial trucks inside buildings.
(a) LP-gas-fueled industrial trucks are permitted to be used in buildings and structures.
(b) No more than two LP-gas containers shall be used on an industrial truck for motor fuel purposes.
(c) LP-gas-fueled industrial trucks are permitted to be used in buildings frequented by the public, when occupied by the public. The total water capacity of containers on each industrial truck shall not exceed 105 pounds (nominal 45 pounds LP-gas).
(d) Trucks shall not be left unattended in areas occupied by the public.
(e) Industrial trucks shall not be parked and left unattended in areas of possible excessive heat or sources of ignition.
(14))) (13) Garaging LP-gas-fueled vehicles.
(a) LP-gas-fueled vehicles may be stored or serviced inside garages provided there are no leaks in the fuel system and the fuel tanks are not filled beyond the maximum filling capacity specified in WAC 296-24-47505 (12)(a).
(b) LP-gas-fueled vehicles being repaired in garages shall have the container shutoff valve closed except when fuel is required for engine operation.
(c) Such vehicles shall not be parked near sources of heat, open flames, or similar sources of ignition or near open pits unless such pits are adequately ventilated.
[Order 73-5, § 296-24-47511, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-47511, filed 5/7/73.]
This section applies specifically to systems mounted on trucks, semi-trailers and trailers (other than those covered under WAC 296-24-51019 and 296-24-51021) used for the transportation of ammonia. All basic rules of WAC 296-24-51009 apply to this section unless otherwise noted. Systems for trucks and trailers for transportation of anhydrous ammonia, in addition to complying with the requirements of these standards, shall also comply where required, with the requirements of the department of transportation and those of any other regulatory body which may apply.
(1) Design pressure of containers.
(a) Containers used in intrastate commerce shall be constructed in accordance with WAC 296-24-51009(2) with a minimum design pressure of 250 psig. Containers used in interstate commerce shall meet DOT regulations.
(b) The shell or head thickness of any container shall not be less than 3/16 inch.
(c) All container openings, except safety relief valves, liquid level gaging devices and pressure gages, shall be labeled to designate whether they communicate with liquid or vapor space. Labels may be on valves.
(d) Baffles are not required for cargo tanks.
(2) Mounting containers on truck.
(a) The means of attachment of any container to the cradle, frame or chassis of a vehicle shall be designed on a basis of two "g" loading in either direction, using a safety factor of not less than 4, based on the ultimate strength of the material used. For purposes of this requirement, two "g" of load support is equivalent to three times the static weight of the articles supported; two "g" of loading and bending, acceleration, and torsion is equivalent to twice the static weight support applied horizontally at the road surface.
(b) "Hold-down" devices, when used, shall anchor the container to the cradle, frame or chassis in a suitable and safe manner that will not introduce undue concentration of stresses. These devices shall incorporate positive means for drawing the container down tight, and suitable stops or anchors shall be provided to prevent relative movement between container and framing due to stopping, starting or changes in direction.
(c) Vehicles designed and constructed so that the cargo tanks constitute in whole or in part the stress member used in lieu of the frame shall be supported by external cradles suspending at least 120° of the shell circumference. The design calculation shall include beam stress, shear stress, torsion stress, bending moment and acceleration stress, in addition to those covered by the code under which the cargo tank was designed.
(d) If a liquid withdrawal line is installed in the bottom of a container, the connections thereto, including hose, shall not be lower than the lowest horizontal edge of the trailer axle.
(e) Provisions shall be made to secure both ends of the hose while in transit.
(f) When the cradle and the container are not welded together, suitable material shall be used between them to eliminate metal-to-metal friction.
(3) Container appurtenances.
(a) Nonrecessed container fittings and appurtenances shall be protected against physical damage by either: (i) A protected location, (ii) the vehicle frame or bumper, or (iii) a protective housing. The protective housing, if used, shall comply with the requirements under which the containers are fabricated with respect to design and construction, and shall be designed to withstand static loadings in any direction equal to twice the weight of the container and attachments when filled with the lading using a safety factor of not less than 4, based on the ultimate strength of the material to be used. The protective housing if used shall be protected with a weather cover, if necessary, to insure proper operation of valves and safety relief devices.
(b) All connections to containers, except filling connections (see WAC 296-24-51017 (3)(c)), safety relief devices, and liquid level and pressure gage connections, shall be provided with suitable automatic excess flow valves, or in lieu thereof, may be fitted with quick-closing internal valves, which shall remain closed except during delivery operations. The control mechanism for such valves may be provided with a secondary control remote from the delivery connections and such control mechanism shall be provided with a fusible section (melting point 208F to 220F) which will permit the internal valve to close automatically in case of fire.
(c) Filling connections shall be provided with automatic back-pressure check valves, excess-flow check valves, or quick-closing internal valves, to prevent back-flow in case the filling connection is broken. Where the filling and discharge connect to a common opening in the container shell and that opening is fitted with a quick-closing internal valve as specified in WAC 296-24-51017 (3)(b), the automatic valve shall not be required.
(d) All containers shall be equipped for spray loading (filling in the vapor space) or with an approved vapor return valve of adequate capacity.
(e) All containers shall be equipped with a fixed maximum liquid level gage.
(f) All containers shall be equipped with a pressure-indicating gage having a dial graduated from 0-400 psig.
(4) Piping and fittings.
(a) All piping, tubing and fittings shall be securely mounted and protected against physical damage.
(b) Piping used on nonrefrigerated systems shall be at least ASTM A-53 Grade B electric resistance welded and electric flash welded pipe or equal. Such pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 when joints are welded, or welded and flanged. Such pipe shall be at least Schedule 80 when joints are threaded. Brass, copper, or galvanized steel pipe or tubing shall not be used.
(c) The truck unloading line shall be provided with an excess flow valve at the hose connection unless an approved quick closing internal valve is provided in the container unloading connection. (See WAC 296-24-51017 (3)(b).)
(5) Safety relief devices. The discharge from container safety relief valves shall be vented away from the container upward and unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container; loose fitting rain caps shall be used. Size of discharge lines from safety relief valves shall not be smaller than the nominal size of the safety relief valve outlet connection. Suitable provision shall be made for draining condensate which may accumulate in the discharge pipe.
(6) Marking of container. Every container, whether loaded or empty, shall be conspicuously and legibly marked on each side and rear thereof on a background of sharply contrasting color with the words "COMPRESSED GAS" in letters at least four inches high; or with the words "ANHYDROUS AMMONIA" in letters at least four inches high; or in compliance with department of transportation regulations.
(7) Transfer of liquids.
(a) The content of tank motor vehicle containers shall be determined by weight, by suitable liquid level gaging devices, meters, or other approved methods.
|Note:||If the content of a container is to be determined by liquid level measurement, the container shall have a thermometer well so that the internal liquid temperature can be easily determined. This volume when converted to weight shall not exceed the filling density specified by the department of transportation regulations.|
(c) Tank motor vehicles of greater than 3500 water gallons capacity shall be unloaded only at approved locations meeting the requirements of WAC 296-24-51009 (10)(c) and (12)(h).
Trailers and semi-trailers.
(a) Trailers shall be firmly and securely attached to the vehicle drawing them by means of suitable drawbars, supplemented by suitable safety chain (or chains) or safety cables.
(b) Every trailer and semi-trailer shall be equipped with an emergency braking system to be activated in the event of hitch failure.
(c) Trailers shall be of a type of construction which will prevent the towed vehicle from whipping or swerving dangerously from side to side and which will cause it to follow substantially in the path of the towing vehicle.
(d) Where a fifth wheel is employed on a semi-trailer, it shall be ruggedly designed, securely fastened to both units, and equipped with a positive locking mechanism which will prevent separation of the two units except by manual release.
(e) Every trailer or semi-trailer shall be provided with side lights and a tail light.
(9))) Electrical equipment and lighting. Tank trucks, tank trailers, and tank semi-trailers, may not be equipped with any artificial light other than electric light. Electric lighting circuits shall have suitable overcurrent protection (fuses or automatic circuit breakers). The wiring shall have sufficient carrying capacity and mechanical strength, and shall be suitably secured, insulated and protected against physical damage.
(10) Protection against collision. Each tank motor vehicle shall be provided with
properly attached bumpers or chassis extensions arranged to protect the tank, piping, valves and
fittings from physical damage in case of collision.
(11))) (9) Chock blocks. At least two chock blocks shall be provided. These blocks shall be placed to prevent rolling of the vehicle whenever it is parked during loading and unloading operations.
(12))) (10) Portable tanks (including skid tanks). When portable tanks are used in lieu
of cargo tanks and are permanently mounted on tank motor vehicles for the transportation of
ammonia, they shall comply with the requirements of WAC 296-24-51017. Where portable
tanks, including those built to DOT Specification 51, 106A or 110A, are used for farm storage
they shall comply with WAC 296-24-51011. When portable tanks are used as shipping
containers in interstate commerce they shall comply with WAC 296-24-51015.
(13))) (11) Safety equipment.
(a) All tank trucks, trailers, and semi-trailers should be equipped with the following for emergency and rescue purposes:
(i) One full face gas mask with anhydrous ammonia refill canisters.
(ii) One pair of protective gloves made of rubber or other material impervious to ammonia.
(iii) Tight-fitting goggles or one full face shield.
(iv) A container of not less than five gallons of readily available clean water.
|*An ammonia canister is effective for short periods of time in light concentrations of ammonia vapor, generally 15 minutes in concentrations of 3% and will not protect breathing in heavier concentrations. If ammonia vapors are detected when mask is applied the concentration is too high for safety. The life of a canister in service is controlled by the percentage of vapors to which it is exposed. Canisters must not be opened until ready for use and should be discarded after use. Unopened canisters may be guaranteed for as long as three years. All should be dated when received because of this limited life. In addition to this protection, an independently supplied air mask of the type used by fire departments may be used for severe emergencies.|
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW. 80-17-015 (Order 80-21), § 296-24-51017, filed 11/13/80; Order 76-6, § 296-24-51017, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, § 296-24-51017, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-51017, filed 5/7/73.]
The following section of the Washington Administrative Code is repealed:
|WAC 296-24-47515||LP-gas system installations on commercial vehicles.|
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending Order 94-07, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94)
(1) Cranes shall be operated only ((
be)) by regular
crane operators, authorized substitutes who have had adequate experience and training under the
supervision of a competent operator, or by crane repairmen or inspectors.
No person should be permitted to operate a crane who cannot speak and read the
English language, or who is under eighteen years of age.)) Crane operators must be able to
communicate with others at the worksite sufficiently to understand the signs, notices, operation
instructions, and the signal code in use to ensure safe operation of the crane.
(3) No minor under eighteen years of age shall be employed in occupations involving the operation of any power-driven hoisting apparatus or assisting in such operations by work such as hooking on, loading slings, rigging gear, etc.
(4) No person shall be permitted to operate a crane whose hearing or eye-sight is impaired, or who may be suffering from heart disease or similar ailments. The following physical qualifications shall be minimum requirements for overhead and gantry crane operators and trainees:
(a) They shall have vision of at least 20/30 in one eye, and 20/50 in the other, with or without corrective lenses.
(b) They shall be able to distinguish colors, regardless of position of colors, if color differential is required for operation.
(c) Their hearing, with or without hearing aid, must be adequate for a specific operation.
(d) They shall have sufficient strength, endurance, agility, coordination, and speed of reaction to meet the demands of equipment operation.
(e) They shall have normal depth perception, field of vision, reaction time, manual dexterity, coordination and no tendencies to dizziness or similar undesirable characteristics.
(f) Evidence of physical defects, or emotional instability which could render the operator or trainee a hazard to their self or others, or could interfere with their safe performance may be sufficient cause for disqualification. In such cases, specialized clinical or medical judgments or tests shall be required (which include annual medical certification for recovered heart attack patients).
(g) Evidence that an operator or trainee is subject to seizures or loss of physical control shall be sufficient reason for disqualification. Specialized medical tests shall be required to substantiate these conditions.
(4))) (5) Persons who have recovered from a heart attack shall be exempted from the
provisions of subsection (( (3))) (4) of this section, as it pertains to their heart condition,
(a) A medical release is obtained from their attending medical doctor.
(b) The release shall state that the operation of a crane will not present a hazard to their self or others.
(c) An examination by a medical doctor, and renewal of the work release certification is required annually.
(5))) (6) The operator shall be fully familiar with all crane rules and with the crane
mechanism and its proper care. Needed adjustments or repairs shall be reported at once to the
(6))) (7) The operator shall not eat, smoke or read while actually engaged in the
operation of the crane, or operate the crane when physically unfit.
(7))) (8) The operator or someone especially designated shall properly lubricate all
working parts of the crane.
(8))) (9) Cranes shall be kept clean.
(9))) (10) Whenever the operator finds the main or emergency switch open, it shall not
be closed, even when starting on regular duty, until it is determined that no one is on or about
the crane. The crane shall not be oiled or repaired unless the main switch is open.
(10))) (11) If the power goes off, the operator shall immediately throw all controllers to
"off" position until the power is again available.
(11))) (12) Before closing the main switch the operator shall make sure that all
controllers are in "off" position until the power is again available.
(12))) (13) The operator shall recognize signals only from the employee who is
supervising the lift. Operating signals shall follow an established standard. Whistle signals may
be used where one crane only is in operation.
(13))) (14) Bumping into runway stops or other cranes shall be avoided. When the
operator is ordered to engage with or push other cranes, it shall be done with special care for the
safety of persons on or below cranes.
(14))) (15) When lowering a load, the operator shall proceed carefully and make sure
the load is under safe control.
(15))) (16) When leaving the cage the operator shall throw all controllers to "off"
position and open the main switch.
(16))) (17) If the crane is located out-of-doors the operator shall lock the crane in a
secure position to prevent it from being blown along or off the track by a severe wind.
(17))) (18) Operators shall not permit anyone to ride on the load or hooks, unless using
a lifeline or safety device approved by the department.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-23529, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-24-23529, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 73-5, § 296-24-23529, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-23529, filed 5/7/73.]